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Jean Baylon.

Science Chemical Constituents, Organic And Inorganic compounds of Human cell Elements Quantity (%)-Hydrogen, Oxygen , Carbon ,Nitrogen ,Calcium ,Phosphorus, Chlorine ,Potassium , Sulfur ,Sodium,Magnesium Figures for the human body are presented as percentages of the total number of atoms; Trace elements found in the human body serving essential biological functions include Manganese, Iron, Cobalt, Copper, Zinc, Molybdenum, Iodine, Nickel, and Selenium. Inorganic compound-Among the various inorganic compounds present in the human body, water is found in profusion because it is the main element in many lubricating fluids in the body and because it is an excellent solvent, although molecules containing mainly non-polar covalent bonds are hydrophobic or they can easily mix with water. Organic Compounds-On the other hand, organic compounds always contain carbon and habitually hydrogen in addition to being strictly held together by covalent bonds. Organic compounds in the body encompass carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and adenosine triphosphate. Among the various inorganic compounds present in the human body, water is found in profusion because it is the main element in many lubricating fluids in the body and because it is an excellent solvent, although molecules containing mainly non-polar covalent bonds are hydrophobic or they can easily mix with water. Moreover, water contributes to decomposition reactions (hydrolysis). Finally, its capacity to release and, above all, absorb a large amount of heat without changing its own temperature too much, turns water into an efficient cooling system, which is extremely useful in the of the body temperature.

is the process by which a eukaryotic cell

separates the chromosomes in its cell nucleus into two identical sets, in two separate nuclei. It is generally followed immediately by cytokinesis, which divides the nuclei, cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane into two cells containing roughly equal shares of these cellular components. Phases of cell cycle and mitosis - Interphase ,Prophase-Metaphase-Anaphase-TelophaseCytokinesis Interphase-DNA has replicated, but has not formed the condensed structure of chromosome. They remain as loosely coiled chromatin. -The nuclear membrane is still intact to protect the DNA molecules from undergoing mutation. Prophase-The DNA molecules progressively shortenand condense by coiling, to form chromosomes. The nuclear membrane andnucleolus are no longer visible. -The spindle apparatus has migrate to opposite poles of the cell. Metaphase-The spindle fibres attach themselves to thecentromeres of the chromosomes and align the the chromosomes at the equatorial plate. Anaphase-The spindle fibres shorten and the centromere splits, separated sister chromatids are pulled along behind the centromeres. Telophase-The chromosomes reach the poles of their respective spindles. Nuclear envelope reform before the chromosomes uncoil. The spindle fibres disintegrate. Cytokinesis-This is the last stage of mitosis. It is the process of splitting the daughter cells apart. A furrow forms and the cell is pinched in two. Each daughter cell contains the same number and same quality of chromosomes. Meiosis Meiosis is a special type of cell division necessary for sexual reproduction The cells produced by meiosis are gametes or spores. The animals' gametes are called sperm and egg cells. Differences of meiosis from mitosis the chromosomes in meiosis undergo a recombination which shuffles the genes


producing a different genetic combination in each gamete.

the outcome of meiosis is four (genetically unique) haploid cells, compared with the two (genetically identical) diploid cells produced from mitosis.

exist in during the cell's period of growth and gene expression, and condense into visible strands within the nucleus *Zygotene- occurs as the chromosomes approximately line up with each other into homologous chromosome pairs. *Pachytene- is the stage when chromosomal crossover (crossing over) occurs. *Diplotene- the synaptonemal complex degrades and homologous chromosomes separate from one another a little. *Diakinesis- This is the first point in meiosis where the four parts of the tetrads are actually visible. Sites of crossing over entangle together, effectively overlapping, making chiasmata clearly visible. *Telophase 1- chromatids arrive at opposite poles of cell, and new membranes form around the daughter nuclei. The chromosomes disperse and are no longer visible under the light of microscope. (Meiosis 2) *Prophase 2- we see the disappearance of the nucleoli and the nuclear envelope again as well as the shortening and thickening of the chromatids. Centrioles move to the polar regions and arrange spindle fibers for the second meiotic division *Metaphase 2- the centromeres contain two kinetochores that attach to spindle fibers from the centrosomes (centrioles) at each pole.

Meiosis occurs in eukaryotic life cycles involving sexual reproduction, consisting of the constant cyclical process of meiosis and fertilization. In multicellular organisms, there is an intermediary step between the diploid and haploid transition where the organism grows.

Stages of Meiosis Interphase- the cell is engaged in metabolic activity and performing its prepare for mitosis. Chromosomes are not clearly discerned in the nucleus, although a dark spot called the nucleolus may be visible. (Meiosis 1) *Prophase 1- During prophase I, DNA is exchanged between homologous chromosomes in a process called homologous recombination. This often results in chromosomal crossover. *Leptotene- In this stage of prophase I, individual chromosomeseach consisting of two sister chromatidschange from the diffuse state they

*Anaphase 2- the centromeres are cleaved, allowing microtubules attached to the kinetochores to pull the sister chromatids apart. The sister chromatids by convention are now called sister chromosomes as they move toward opposing poles *Telophase 2- which is similar to Telophase I, and is marked by uncoiling and lengthening of the chromosomes and the disappearance of the spindle. Nuclear envelopes reform and cleavage or cell wall formation eventually produces a total of four daughter cells, each with a haploid set of chromosome.

Meiosis is now complete and ends up with four new daughter cell.

Personal Services- those that provide service to the person. Repair Services- those that provide repair services to owners of various machinery and appliances. Entertainment and Recreation- include movie houses, resorts, billiard pool centers, etc. Education Services- include schools for children, high school, etc. Wholesaling- refers to the activities of those persons or establishments which sell to retailers and other merchants and or/to industrial, institutional, and commercial users, but who do not sell in large amounts to final consumers. Retailing- covers all of the activities involved in the sale of goods and/or services to the final consumers. General Construction Firms- are those engaged in the construction of buildings whether for private individuals or for the government. Many of them perform subcontracting jobs for the bigger contractors such as installing electrical facilities and sewerage. Characteristics of Small Business Small Business have their own distinctive Characteristics Independent Management- The owner is also the manager. Small Capital Requirements- Small Businesses require only small capital and this can be supplied by a single or a few individuals. Mostly local operation- small business usually operates in a certain locality

Jean F. BAylon. MARKETING1 CHAPTER 1 The Nature of Small Business Small Business Small Business is one which is independently owned and operated and which is not dominant in its field of operation is a business that is privately owned and operated with a small number of employees and relatively low volume of sales

Types of Small Business Small Manufacturing Business- is one involved in converting raw materials into products needed by society. Small Service Business- service business that provide services in one way or another.

Classification of Small Service Business Business Services- those that provide service to other business.

although there are cases when the market is not confined to a local area Economic importance of small business Small businesses play an important role in the development of our economy. The following functions; Provider of economic opportunities for entrepreneurs Provider of products and services to consumers Suppliers of products and services to other businesses Distributors of products and services of other businesses. -Supporters of government -Providers of employment Advantages of operating a small business Has a various options to improve his economic

The Entrepreneurial Personality Personality Defined According to Mitchell Individuals internal organization of psychological and behavioral tendencies. According to Hersey and Blanchard The sum of habit patterns or conditional response to various stimuli an individual develops as he matures and as perceived by others. According to Bootzin and others Refers to the differences among people plus the stability of any individuals behavior over long periods. According to Schultz Personality is the unique and relatively enduring internal and external aspects of an individuals character that influence behavior in different situation. --The definitions insinuate that personality cannot be changed overnight to fit a certain situation. This is because of the requirement of stability of behavior over long periods.. This conclusion is important because it guides us in making the necessary adjustments in training future entrepreneurs. and the Manager

lot be an employee be a professional be a small business owner a small business operator keeps long working The Entrepreneur hours and absorbs whatever damages that happen as a result of his faulty decision making. Distinguished He is afforded the following benefits, however.

=the opportunity to gain control over his own destiny =the opportunity to reach his full potential =the opportunity to reap unlimited profits =the opportunity to make contribution to society and =receive recognition for his efforts.

Empha sis full

Factors Business idea none none Business idea limited limited Business idea escalating escalating

Stage Prestart-up human resource capital Start-up human resource capital Early growth human resource capital

Disadvantages of operating a small business Potential drawbacks for small business: uncertainty of income risk of losing your entire invested capital lower quality of life until the business gets established complete responsibility Additional disadvantages having a serve undesirable customers paper work and other chores long hours and demanding work conditions MARKETING1-Chapter4



Entrepreneur and the Manager Distinguished A major distinction between an entrepreneur and a manager is about orientation. The entrepreneur (also alternatively called promoter) feels confident of his or her ability to seize a business opportunity regardless of the resources under current control. Characteristics of Entrepreneurs: The manager (also alternatively called the trustee) emphasizes the efficient utilization of They must have the drive. resources. -Those people who are willing to accept responsibility, possesses vigor, initiative, Environment and how it affects the future persistence and health. Entrepreneur They must possess sufficient thinking Eminent psychologists indicate that apart from ability. heredity, environment plays a very significant -Problems in entrepreneurship are often influence in the personality of an individual. He is apparent. So, skills in abstract thinking and affected by family, his neighborhood, school, the use of creative means to handle community and nation. difficulties are very important traits of entrepreneur. It is not uncommon for a family engaged in business to produce children who will later become entrepreneurs. They must be reasonable risk takers. As education begins at home, business-oriented family -They accept risk but only after they are has a definite advantage in educating their children to convinced that they have the skills to become entrepreneurs. A farmer does not have such overcome the difficulties inherent in a advantage. venture. They must be self-confident. The farming family, however, can make remedies to -Confidence is ones ability to achieve can achieve the same end as the business-oriented family. The chance of success, however, gets smaller as the do a lot wonders to person. individual grows older. They must be goal setters. -Goal setting provides direction to the The Entrepreneurial Personality and entrepreneur. One who is a goal setter Characteristics of Entrepreneurs provides a glimpse of the orderliness of that persons thinking process. The entrepreneurial personality may be They must be accountable defined as the sum of habit patterns or -An entrepreneur must be willing to take conditioned responses to various stimuli the blame or accept honor for whatever required for a successful career in happens to his venture. entrepreneurship. They must be innovative.

-When competition becomes to tough, innovation will save the entrepreneur. How Filipino Culture and Entrepreneurship fit. Presented by: Kimo L. Ramos
A requisite for personality is that certain traits or reactions to events must be conditioned by long periods of exposure. It is, therefore, very difficult for a person lacking the personality requirements for entrepreneurship to have it at short notice. If a future entrepreneur develops the required personality traits before adulthood, so much the better. Otherwise, he will have to be exposed to a rigorous behavior modification scheme to catch up with lost time. Different cultures heavily affect the personality traits of individuals. Among these cultures, there must be one that will fit the right background for developing entrepreneurial personalities. Studies indicate that over seas Chinese, in general, provide a family orientation conducive to developing entrepreneurship traits among children. This is bolstered by the presence of many successful Chinese entrepreneurs in the commercial centers throughout the country.

An article attributed to the University of the Philippines Institute for Small Scale Industries says that there are certain cultural values of the Filipinos favorable to entrepreneurship. These are as follows: Human Relations

There are reports that people varied

nationalities when pressured to leave their homelands, succeed in various entrepreneurial undertakings.

Loss of Face Togetherness Adapting to other people Concern Gratitude Self-esteem Cooperative Spirit Industriousness Honesty Summary: An entrepreneur to be successful, must posses the right personality required for successful entrepreneurship. Personality refers to the expectation that an individual will respond to a situation not much different from what has done for a long period. Entrepreneurial personality refers to that type of personality necessary for a successful career in entrepreneurship.