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Graduiertenkolleg 1095/1: Aero - thermodynamische Auslegung eines Scramjet - Antriebssystems

Technische Universitt Mnchen


Universitt Stuttgart
1
Projekt C7:
Probabilisitsche Auslegung
von Scramjet Kombinationsantrieben

G. Schtte, S. Staudacher
Institue of Aircraft Propulsion Systems (ILA)
Stuttgart University
Doktoranden-Kolloquium Stuttgart, 27./28.3. 2008
Graduiertenkolleg 1095/1: Aero - thermodynamische Auslegung eines Scramjet - Antriebssystems
Technische Universitt Mnchen
Universitt Stuttgart
2
Outline
1. Einleitung
- Rekapitulation und Status
2. Parametrisierung und Modell
3. Design und Unsicherheit
- Deterministische Schubvorhersage
- Identifikation und Quantifizierung von bestehenden
Unsicherheiten
- Probabilisitsche Schubvorhersage
4. Ausblick
Graduiertenkolleg 1095/1: Aero - thermodynamische Auslegung eines Scramjet - Antriebssystems
Technische Universitt Mnchen
Universitt Stuttgart
3
Motivation: Robust Design
Design parameter a
i

T
a
r
g
e
t

v
a
l
u
e

. opt , N
F
A
opt , i
a
opt
N
F A
A
robust , i
a
robust
N
F A
0
Deterministisch
- Globales Optimum
- Vernachlssigung von
Unsicherheit
- Kenntnis des Design-Raumes
erforderlich
Probabilistisch
- Bercksichtigt Unsicherheit
in Parameter und Modell
- Robuste Konfiguration
=> Design, welches gewisse
Unsicherheiten ohne
berproportionale
Schwankungen der Zielgre
toleriert.

Graduiertenkolleg 1095/1: Aero - thermodynamische Auslegung eines Scramjet - Antriebssystems
Technische Universitt Mnchen
Universitt Stuttgart
4
System: Nomenklatur und Modell
G
F
3
n
2
n
1
n
0
m

F
m

compression shocks
G
F
n
0 31
4,7 9
G
F
3
n
2
n
1
n
0
m

F
m

compression shocks
G
F
n
0 31
4,7 9
System Setup: Phnomenologischer Ansatz:
- Einlauf: Kompression (aerodynamisch)
- Brennkammer: Zndung und Verbrennung (chemisch)
- Dse: Expansion (aerodynamisch)
Modellierung:
- Einlauf/Dse: 2D Euler mit Verdrngungsdicke der turbulenten kompressiblen
Grenzschicht (Stratford/Beaver)
- Brennkammer: 2 Stufen:
1. Zndung im Strutnachlauf
2. Verbrennung in der Brennkammer
Inlet Combustor
0
~
X
Inlet
G
31
X
31
E
Nozzle
Combustor
G
Fuel
S
~
7 , 4
X
7 , 4
E
Nozzle
G
9
X
9
E
9
~
X Inlet Combustor
0
~
X
Inlet
G
31
X
31
E
Nozzle
Combustor
G
Fuel
S
~
7 , 4
X
7 , 4
E
Nozzle
G
9
X
9
E
9
~
X
Graduiertenkolleg 1095/1: Aero - thermodynamische Auslegung eines Scramjet - Antriebssystems
Technische Universitt Mnchen
Universitt Stuttgart
5
System: Parameterisierung
Parameter propagation:
31
31 0
2
1
2 ,
1 ,
0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0
0
0 ,
0 ,
0
) sin(
) cos( ~
X
A A
L
L
L
G
T
AoA Ma
AoA Ma
E X X
I
ramp
ramp
T
Ma
Ma
y
x

|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= .
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|

= =
o
o
c
c
c
c


h
31
=0.038m
l
3
,
3
l
2
,
2
l
1
,
1

L
ramp,1
L
ramp,2
L
I

1
o
2
o
( )
( )
( )
7 , 4 31
3
2
1
3
2
1
31
31
31
31 ,
31 31 31
,
,
,
~ ~
31
31
31
X
v
T
ER
S
l
l
l
G
m
Ma
T
E X X
B
B
m
Ma
T stat

|
|
.
|

\
|
= .
|
|
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= .
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
o
o
o
o
o
o
c
c
c

System Konfiguration
- Geometrie exakt
- runde Vorderkanten
(R=0.5mm)
- Strut-Nachlauf Teil der
Einlaufberechnung
(Zndmodell)
x
y
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
Graduiertenkolleg 1095/1: Aero - thermodynamische Auslegung eines Scramjet - Antriebssystems
Technische Universitt Mnchen
Universitt Stuttgart
6
Benchmark CFX, kalt durchstrmt

Gesamtwiderstand der inneren Stromrhre:
CFX: F
x
= -175.5 N, F
y
= 336.2 N
Euler: F
x
= -126.7 N, F
y
= 311.2 N

Vergleich der massengemittelten Einlaufaustrittsgren:
CFX Euler
Massenstrom [kg/sec] 0.5674 0.58123433
Temperatur [K] 1056 1071.580677
Machzahl [-] 3.234 3.07216518
Druck [bar] 0.4172 0.436913708
Widerstand [N] 196.9 180.65
Graduiertenkolleg 1095/1: Aero - thermodynamische Auslegung eines Scramjet - Antriebssystems
Technische Universitt Mnchen
Universitt Stuttgart
7
Deterministische Nettoschubvorhersage
Equivalence Ratio
F
n
e
t
,
x
[
N
]
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
0
100
200
300
400
L
1
, L
2
= 0.1m, L
3
= 0.3m, o
2
= 2
L
2
, L
3
= 0.1m, L
1
= 0.3m, o
2
= 2
L
1
, L
2
= 0.1m, L
3
= 0.3m, o
2
= 3
L
2
, L
3
= 0.1m, L
1
= 0.3m, o
2
= 3
Equivalence Ratio
F
n
e
t
,
x
[
N
]
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
0
100
200
300
400
L
1
, L
2
= 0.1m, L
3
= 0.3m, o
2
= 2
L
2
, L
3
= 0.1m, L
1
= 0.3m, o
2
= 2
L
1
, L
2
= 0.1m, L
3
= 0.3m, o
2
= 3
L
2
, L
3
= 0.1m, L
1
= 0.3m, o
2
= 3
Optimierte Einlaufgeometrie:

1
= 6.25,
2
= 7.75, A
0
/ A
31
= 5
- Zunehmend nicht-lineares Verhalten
- Abhngig von Brennkammergeometrie hhere
quivalenzverhltnisse realisierbar

=> Brennkammergeometrie an Zndverzug
anpassen!
GRK Einlaufgeometrie:

1
= 7.5,
2
= 11.5, A
0
/ A
31
= 6
- Nahezu lineare Abhngigkeit des Nettoschubes
vom quivalenzverhltnis
- Kritisches quivalenzverhltnis abhngig von
Brennkammergeometrie
Graduiertenkolleg 1095/1: Aero - thermodynamische Auslegung eines Scramjet - Antriebssystems
Technische Universitt Mnchen
Universitt Stuttgart
8
Verlsslichkeit der Vorhersage: Uncertainty Quantification I
1.Schritt: Kalibrierung des HFM
(FLOWER, Fluent) mit
Experiment:
- Bekannt: Bayesian-Update-Verfahren.
- Problem: geringe Datenbasis
- Lsung: Nutzung der physikalischen
hnlichkeit.

Systematischer Fehler des Modells
lsst sich herauskalibrieren, ein
stochastischer Restfehler bedingt
durch Messfehler bleibt.
Operating Range
P
a
r
a
m
e
t
e
r
physical model
"real" characteristics
x
Experiment
Graduiertenkolleg 1095/1: Aero - thermodynamische Auslegung eines Scramjet - Antriebssystems
Technische Universitt Mnchen
Universitt Stuttgart
9
Verlsslichkeit der Vorhersage: Uncertainty Quantification II
2. Schritt: Bestimmung der
Modellunsicherheit des LFM
- HFM Daten sind zahlreicher
- Massenmittelung mglich

Bootstrap Methode:
Schtzung der Lageparameter des
Modellfehlers (,) mittels Schtzung
der Student-t-Verteilung:







Da n<<30 erhlt man durch diese
Schtzung eine untere Schranke fr den
minimalen Modellfehler.
Operating Range
P
a
r
a
m
e
t
e
r
calibrated HFM
LFM
1
A
n
A
x
Experiment
2
A
LFM

Operating Range
P
a
r
a
m
e
t
e
r
calibrated HFM
LFM
1
A
n
A
x
Experiment
2
A
LFM

( ) | |
2
1
1

=
=
n
j
LFM j LFM HFM LFM
x x
n
o
( )
n
x x
n
j
j LFM HFM
LFM

=

=
1

Graduiertenkolleg 1095/1: Aero - thermodynamische Auslegung eines Scramjet - Antriebssystems


Technische Universitt Mnchen
Universitt Stuttgart
10
Probabilistische Vorhersage fr alte Einlaufgeometrie
- Verlauf der Mittelwerte
folgt qualitativ der
deterministischen
Vorhersage
- Mittelwerte fr den
Nettoschub liegen ber
der deterministischen
Vorhersage
- Risiko eines negativen
Schubes bei kleinen
quivalenzverhltnissen
- Risiko des thermischen
Sperrens bei hheren
quivalenzverhltnissen
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Equivalence Ratio
F
n
e
t
,
x
[
N
]
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
-1500
-1000
-500
0
500
1000
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Equivalence Ratio
F
n
e
t
,
x
[
N
]
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
-1500
-1000
-500
0
500
1000
Graduiertenkolleg 1095/1: Aero - thermodynamische Auslegung eines Scramjet - Antriebssystems
Technische Universitt Mnchen
Universitt Stuttgart
11
Probabilistische Vorhersage fr modifizierte Einlaufgeometrie
- Bei kleinen
quivalenzverhltnissen
positiver Trend der
Schubmittelwerte
- Negativer Trend fr
steigende
quivalenzverhltnisse
- Grere Chance fr
positiven Schub bei
kleinen
quivalenzverhltnissen
- Strkere Streuung und
insgesamt verringertes
Risiko thermischen
Sperrens aufgrund der
hheren Machzahl im
Brennkamereintritt.
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Equivalence Ratio
F
n
e
t
,
x
[
N
]
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
-1500
-1000
-500
0
500
1000
x
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Equivalence Ratio
F
n
e
t
,
x
[
N
]
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2
-1500
-1000
-500
0
500
1000
Graduiertenkolleg 1095/1: Aero - thermodynamische Auslegung eines Scramjet - Antriebssystems
Technische Universitt Mnchen
Universitt Stuttgart
12
Pareto Analyse
- Unsicherheiten in Anstrmdaten haben geringen Einfluss (<2%)
- Einlauf-Unsicherheit ist fr beide Designs dominant
- Empfindlichkeit gegenber der Machzahl reduziert
- Empfindlichkeit gegenber Temperatur und Massenstrom erhht
- Ma
31
, T
31
, m
31
wiederum hauptschlich vom Anstellwinkel beeinflusst
- Ma
31
, T
31
, m
31
streuen strker fr modifizierten Einlauf => hhere
Sensitivitt gegenber Variationen im Anstellwinkel

2.58%
2.90%
8.32%
17.49%
21.73%
43.02%
( )
31
Ma c
( )
31
T c
( )
31
m c
( )
x net
F
,
c
( )
7 , 4
T c
( )
7 , 4
Ma c
Modified inlet design
2.58%
2.90%
8.32%
17.49%
21.73%
43.02%
( )
31
Ma c
( )
31
T c
( )
31
m c
( )
x net
F
,
c
( )
7 , 4
T c
( )
7 , 4
Ma c 2.58%
2.90%
8.32%
17.49%
21.73%
43.02%
( )
31
Ma c
( )
31
T c
( )
31
m c
( )
x net
F
,
c
( )
7 , 4
T c
( )
7 , 4
Ma c
( )
31
Ma c
( )
31
T c
( )
31
m c
( )
x net
F
,
c
( )
7 , 4
T c
( )
7 , 4
Ma c
Modified inlet design
( )
31
Ma c
( )
31
T c
( )
31
m c
( )
x net
F
,
c
( )
7 , 4
T c
( )
y net
F
,
c
0.82%
2.36%
9.64%
9.87%
17.24%
58.71%
Initial inlet design
( )
31
Ma c
( )
31
T c
( )
31
m c
( )
x net
F
,
c
( )
7 , 4
T c
( )
y net
F
,
c
( )
31
Ma c
( )
31
T c
( )
31
m c
( )
x net
F
,
c
( )
7 , 4
T c
( )
y net
F
,
c
0.82%
2.36%
9.64%
9.87%
17.24%
58.71%
Initial inlet design
Graduiertenkolleg 1095/1: Aero - thermodynamische Auslegung eines Scramjet - Antriebssystems
Technische Universitt Mnchen
Universitt Stuttgart
13
Ausblick
1. Modell
- Grenzschicht (Wrmebergang, Ablsung)
- Geometrie (automatisierte Netzgenerierung)
- Erweiterung der Quantifizierungsdaten
2. Methode
- Analyse:
- Grenzen des Designraums (constraints)
- Exploration des Designraumes, Beschreibung
der feasible regions
- Optimierung:
- Hybrides RSM Verfahren
Graduiertenkolleg 1095/1: Aero - thermodynamische Auslegung eines Scramjet - Antriebssystems
Technische Universitt Mnchen
Universitt Stuttgart
14


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