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CHAPTER 5: CHEMICAL BONDS

CHAPTER 5: CHEMICAL BONDS


A FORMATION OF COMPOUNDS

Activity 1: Formation of chemical bonds Choose the correct answer from the table. Sharing monoatomic ionic stable chemical bonds arrangement inert covalent duplet

Noble gases are gases. They exist as.. gases and are chemically unreactive . They have ... octet or .. electron

2 3

.. Other atoms besides noble gases tend to achieve the stable electron through the formation of . Two types of chemical bonds : (i) (ii) ... bond - formed when atoms join together by transferring of electrons ... bond - formed when atoms join together by ..of electrons

arrangement

Form 4^^Modul Bimbingan SPM 5

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CHAPTER 5: CHEMICAL BONDS


B Ionic Bonds

Activity 2 : Formation of ions 1 Underline the correct answer. To achieve a stable electron arrangement : (i) A metal atom (donates / accepts) electrons, forming a (positive / negative) ion (ii) 2 (a) called cation. A (non-metal / metal) atom accepts electrons, forming a (positive / negative)

ion called anion. Complete the diagram below.

(b)

(Refer to page 84 85 - F4 Chemistry text book)

Activity 3 : Formation of ionic bonds

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CHAPTER 5: CHEMICAL BONDS


Fill in the blanks with the correct words. 1 Formation of ionic compound, sodium chloride ( )

NaCl
Electron arrangement of sodium atom is ............................................................. A sodium atom ..one electron to achieve the electron

arrangement which is 2.8.

Sodium ion, .......... is formed Electron arrangement of chlorine atom is.. Electron from sodium atom is transferred to a .atom A chlorine atom electron from sodium atom to .. the stable electronwhich is 2.8.8

Chloride ion, .. is formed The sodium ion, and chloride ion, formed are ..to one another
+

Na

Cl

to form an ionic compound ..,

NaCl
The strong .forces between the opposite-charged ions is called .bond.

(Refer to page 86 - F4 Chemistry text book)


2 Complete the diagram below.

2.8.1 Sodium atom,Na

2.8.7 Chlorine atom,Cl

............. Sodium ion,

............... Chloride ion, ..

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CHAPTER 5: CHEMICAL BONDS

3 (a)

Fill in the blanks with the correct answers. Formation of ionic compound magnesium chloride, MgCl2 . Electron arrangement of magnesium atom is ..................................................

A magnesium atom .two electrons to achieve the electron arrangement which is, 2.8.

Magnesium ion, .......... is formed Electron arrangement of chlorine atom is Electrons from magnesium atom is transferred to two .atoms A chlorine atom electron from magnesium atom to .. the stable electron which is 2.8.8.

Chloride ion,.. is formed The magnesium ion,Mg2+ and two chloride ions, formed are to one

Cl

another to form an ionic compound ., MgCl2 The strong .forces between the opposite-charged ions is

called ..bond

(Refer to page 86 - F4 Chemistry text book)


(b) Complete the diagram below.

(Refer to page 86 - F4 Chemistry text book)

Form 4^^Modul Bimbingan SPM 5

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CHAPTER 5: CHEMICAL BONDS

C Covalent Bonds Activity 4 : Formation of covalent bonds Fill in the blanks with the correct words. 1 Covalent bonds are formed when .. atoms .. electrons to achieve 2 . electron arrangements . Types of covalent bonds:(i) (ii) (iii) A single bond is formed when of electrons is shared between two atoms. A double bond is formed when ..of electrons is shared between two atoms. A triple bond is formed when .of electrons is shared between two atoms. Formation of hydrogen molecules, H2 :-

A hydrogen atom has valence electron, with an electron arrangement of... It needs .. more electron to achieve the .. electron arrangement ..hydrogen atoms one electron each for Shared-paired electrons forms a .. bond in the hydrogen molecule, H2 Single bond holds the two hydrogen atoms together because the shared-pair of

5 (a)

electrons is attracted to the.. of both atoms Complete the diagram below.

(b) A covalent bond can be illustrated by using.

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CHAPTER 5: CHEMICAL BONDS

Activity 5 : Formation of covalent bonds 1 Formation of oxygen molecules, O2 : An oxygen atom has valence electron, with an electron arrangement of..

It needs .more electrons to achieve the .. electron arrangement

.....oxygen atoms sharepairs of electrons forming a..bond 2 Draw the electron arrangement for the formation of oxygen molecule. (a) [Proton number : O, 8 ;]

(b) Illustrate the formation of oxygen molecule using the Lewis structure.

Formation of a nitrogen molecule, N2 : A nitrogen atom has valence electron, with an electron arrangement .....

It needs more electrons to achieve the .. electron arrangement ..nitrogen atoms sharepairs of electrons forming a covalent

bond Draw the electron arrangement for the formation of nitrogen molecule. [Proton number : N, 7]

(b) Illustrate the formation for nitrogen molecule using the Lewis structure.

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CHAPTER 5: CHEMICAL BONDS


Activity 6 1 Draw the electron arrangements for the formation of the following ionic compounds: [Proton number : Li, 3 ; Ca, 20 ; O, 8 ; Cl, 17 ] (a) Lithium oxide,

Li2 O

(b)

Calcium chloride,

CaCl2

Draw the electron arrangements for the formation of the following covalent compounds [Proton number : C, 6 ; Cl, 17, : O, 8] (a) Tetrachloromethane, CCl4

(b)

Carbon dioxide molecule, CO2

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CHAPTER 5: CHEMICAL BONDS

Complete the table below to compare the characteristics for the formation of ionic and covalent bonds. Ionic bond Valence electrons Characteristic Electrons involved Elements Electron transfer to achieve stable electron arrangement Bond formation Particles Non-metals atom and non metal atoms Covalent bond

D PROPERTIES OF IONIC AND COVALENT BONDING Activity 7 : Physical properties of ionic and covalent compounds 1. Complete the table of the properties of ionic and covalent compounds, using the words given in the box : conduct electricity in aqueous solution or molten state all state low solid high solid, liquid, gas Ionic compound Properties Physical states at room temperature Melting points Boiling points Electrical Conductivity Solubility in water Solubility in organic solvent 2 Explain why ionic compounds are able to conduct electricity in aqueous solution or in molten state but not in solid state. ... 3 Explain why covalent compound do not conduct electricity in all states. . 4 Explain why ionic compounds have higher melting points than covalent compounds.
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do not conduct electricity at insoluble soluble

Covalent compound

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CHAPTER 5: CHEMICAL BONDS


. 5 .. Example of covalent compounds ;-............................................................................................................................................ Uses of covalent compounds as solvent in our daily lives: .................................................................................................................................... (Refer to page 90 - 91 - F4 Chemistry text book) Activity 8 1

Atom A (a)

Atom B

Write the electron arrangement for atom A. ..

(b) A and B can form a compound (i) What type of bond holds atom A and B together? .. (ii) What will happen to atom A during the formation of the compound with atom B? .. (iii) Draw the electron arrangement of the compound formed in (b)(ii).

(iv) (c)

State one physical property of the compound formed. .. Carbon atom, C, with an electron arrangement of 2.4 can combine with atom B to form a compound. (i) What is the molecular formula of the compound formed? . If the relative atomic masses of carbon is 12 and B is 32, what is the relative molecular mass of the compound in c(i).

(ii)

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CHAPTER 5: CHEMICAL BONDS


.. Activity 9 1 The diagram below shows the proton number and the nucleon number for three atoms of elements, E, G and W. The letters used do not represent the actual symbols of the elements.

12 6
(a)

23

35

11

17

The reaction between atoms of element G and W forms an ionic compound whereas the reaction between atoms of element E and W forms a covalent compound. Explain how these ionic and covalent compounds are formed.

Ionic compound

Electron arrangement of an atom of element G is ................................................... Atom G .one electron to achieve the electron arrangement which is 2.8 G ion, .......... is formed Electron arrangement of atom W is.. Electron from atom G is transferred to an atom of Atom W receives .electron from atom G to achieve the .. electron arrangement which is 2.8.8 W ion,.. is formed The G ion, .. and W ion, ..formed are ..to one another to form an .compound, . The strong .forces between the opposite-charged ions is called .. bond.

Covalent bond

Atom E has ... valence electrons, with an electron arrangement of..... It needs .. more electrons to achieve the .. electron arrangement One atom of E contributes four electrons for Atom W has valence electrons, with an electron arrangement of. It needs .more electron to achieve the.electron arrangement One atom of E share a pair of electrons with .atoms of W Covalent compound of is formed
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Form 4^^Modul Bimbingan SPM 5

CHAPTER 5: CHEMICAL BONDS

Form 4^^Modul Bimbingan SPM 5

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