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Introduction The Bandra Worli Sea Link is an 8-lane, cable-stayed bridge with pre-stressed concrete viaduct approaches, which

links Bandra and the western suburbs of Mumbai with Worli and central Mumbai,.It is the first phase of the proposed West Island Freeway system. The Rs. 1600 crore project of Maharashtra State Road Development Corporation (MSRDC) is being executed by Hindustan Construction Company. Designs and Project management is by M/s DAR Consultants. The bridge was inaugurated on 30 June 2009 by Congress Chairperson Sonia Gandhi. The Sea Link is likely to reduce travel time between Bandra and Worli from 4560 minutes to 7 minutes The project is planned with a view to provide an additional corridor for the free flow of traffic from Bandra to Worli in the first phase and Worli to Nariman Point in the second phase. Before the completion of this project, Mahim Causeway is the only link connecting the western suburbs with the island city of Mumbai. Therefore this existing North - South traffic corridor is very congested and during the peak hours results in a bottleneck at Mahim Causeway. Construction of this link provides an additional fast moving outlet from the island city to the western suburbs & vice versa thereby providing much needed relief to the congested Mahim Causeway. The project starts from the interchange at Mahim Intersection, i.e. intersection of Western Express Highway and Swami Vivekanand Road, at the Bandra end and connects to Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan road at the Worli end. The project has been commissioned to divert traffic that presently is 1,25,000 cars a day in each direction and is expected to grow at the rate of 250 cars per day4. The History of the Project 1983:Central Road Research Institute proposes Four major roads as an integrated solution to decongest of this is the West Island Freeway linking the Bandra-Nariman Point road of which the BandraWorli Sea Link forms an integral part. October 1992:BMRDA prepares a new plan and prepares a feasibility report for the sea route link between Bandra and Worli. June 1993:Maharashtra Government, through its public works department, approached the Centre for Environmental clearance of the project. The Union Government declines to sanction the project. 7 January 1999:The Central government grants Environmental Clearance of the said project subject to strict compliance of its terms and conditions. 11 January 1999:Mr. Suresh Prabhu announced the sanctioning of the project in Mumbai June 1999:The foundation stone was laid in 1999, by Shiv Sena supremo Balasaheb Thackeray. .Project location The project is located in the western part of Mumbai.The project connects bandra to worli via seaThe project starts from the Interchange at Mahim (i.e. intersection of Western Express Highway and Swami Vivekanand road at Bandra) and connects to Worli at Worli end with overall length of 5.6 km for the entire project.A cloverleaf interchange at Mahim intersection and a flyover at the Lovegrove intersection have been proposed as part of this project to enhance the faster and safe traffic dispersal DESIGN The BWSL is intended to be an eight-lane highway (two, four-lane roads) over a cable-stayed bridge with prestressed concrete viaduct approaches (and two dedicated bus lanes). The bridge structure and surrounding infrastructure will consist of:

A 449m-long embankment with 16-lane toll plaza on the Bandra side A 800m-long precast segmental approach bridge on the Bandra side A 600m-long cable-stayed bridge with 125m-high towers (cable-stay system has 2,250km of highstrength galvanised steel wires which support the 20,000t structure) A 200m-long precast segmental bridge between the cable-stayed bridges A 350m-long cable-stayed bridge with tower heights of 54.779m and 52.829m on the Worli side

A 811m-long link bridge to Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (KAGK) Road at the Worli Sea Face end

tTe inspiration for the shape of the pylon was the traditional Indian greeting, or namaste, where hands are put together with forearms forming an inverted V. He adds that the shape also provides stability. The 129-m-tall towers have a curving profile, which makes them even more human-like. The bridges have two four-legged pylons. The legs are inclined toward one another above the bridge deck until they merge into a single tower head at 98 m.The Bandra-Worli Sea Link Bridge will be an intelligent bridge i.e. a bridge where an electronic system will transmit news of vehicle breakdown and accidents. It is hoped that this system will eliminate traffic jams on the bridge. The toll bridge is also supposed to be a look outpoint for visitors to the city of view the sea Bridge contractors The design of the bridge was by Dar Al-Handasah Consultants and the Jacobs Engineering Group Inc. The geotechnical engineering was carried out by Lachel Felice & Associates Inc. The main contractors are Hindustan Construction Company and their foreign partner China Harbour Engineering Corporation.Form work ha sbeen done by the Austrian firm Doka.The expansion joints were supplied by Mageba SA, the launching of pre-cast segments was carried out by Freight Wings Pvt Ltd and the stay cables were sourced from Shanghai Pujyang Cable Company. M/s Dar Consultants were asked to design, proof check and supervise the various aspects of the project. INITIAL HICUPS AND CHANGE IN DESIGN An original 1998 design by Jacobs Sverdrup called for the original cable-stayed spans twin decks to share pylons. This design was modified in 2003 by Dar al-Handasah Shair and Partners,so that one of the twin decks could be constructed ahead of the other, hoping for an earlier start for toll revenue.The new design allowed each deck to be independently supported by its own pylon.The Bandra cable-stayed section was planned so that fishing boats from the Mahim fishing village could pass below the bridge without getting shattered by monsoon waves. The original design had only one 500-meter-long cable-stayed section, with 50m transition spans on both sides.. Environmental objections to the project resulted in moving the alignment 200 m farther away from shore.An additional cable stay bridge was introduced at the Worli side to increase the height of the bridge to accommodate the demands of local fishermen of Worli Koliwada to ease the vessel movement under the bridge closer to their habitat. Due to the change in the scope of work, the project was delayed in the initial stages, which resulted in increased project cost STRUCTURE Pylons The TWO pylons of the main Bandra bridge is an engineering marvel.Each pylon has 4 legs each. The pylons soars up 130 m from sea level and rests on a huge pile cap, 57 m x 37 m; almost half the size of a football field. The whole structure is supported on 52 piles 2 m in diameter drilled about 30 m below sea bed level. The bridge involved the erection of a 20,000 mt precast concrete deck supported on stay cables. the Worli cable-stayed bridge has 4 pylons of 54 m height and supports a span of 350 each pylon has only 2 legs each. The towers were cast - in - situ reinforced concrete using the climbing form method of construction. The overall tower configuration of the bandra bridge is an inverted "Y" shape with the inclined legs oriented along the axis of the bridge.The overall tower configuration of the worli bridge is "I" shape with the inclined legs Cables

The arrangement of the cables is 4 planes of a semi-fan arrangement. The Cable Stay system comprises 2,250 km of high strength galvanized steel wires which support the Cable Stay Bridge weighing 20,000 tonsCable spacing is 6.0 meters along the bridge deckThe picture shows a cross sectional view of the cablesused.The stay cable anchors were covered with cap for protection.also special grease was applied for protection against rust. DECKThe deck comprises of precast hollow concrete box girders with a fish belly cross sectional shape. This design of the segment was done in germany and tested in a wind tunnel.The fish belly shape reduces drag by 25% & allows air to flow in a streamline manner under the bridge.The fish belly shape along with the curved shape of the bridge enables it to withstand winds of upto 125kmphr.The pre-cast segments vary in length from 1.5m to 3.1m.The segments are stitched together by 28 cables made of high tensile steel as they interlock into each other. Each section of bridge deck will be post tensioned following installation. The idea behind having a very slender and lightweight deck is to reduce the longitudinal stiffness, it is therefore advantageous to provide a very flexible deck. Foundation Foundations included more than 600 large-diameter piles, with a rock-socketed length up to 34 m.The foundations for the main tower are comprised of 2 meters drilled shafts with estimated length of 25 meters..The foundations were designed by Lachel Felice. The shafts vary considerably in size, depending on the bedrock .Foundations for the bandra towers comprised of 52 2m diameter piles arranged in a H shape to capably support the legs of the pylon. The loads on different parts of the structure vary considerably and this was reflected in the variability of the shaft sizes to accommodate loads.Piling was done with RCD equipment mounted on jack up barge.Sheet piles or circular liners were drived into the sea bed to make cofferdams.Fully circular type cofferdams were used in rocky areas. SCOPE OF WORK The entire project was originally conceived as a single large project with different components combined together.But to accelerate the construction schedule the project has been divided into five construction packages Package I : Construction of flyover over Love Grove junction at Worli Package II : Construction of cloverleaf interchange at Mahim intersection Package III : Construction of solid approach road from the Mahim intersection up to the start of the Toll Plaza on the Bandra side and a public promenade Package IV : Construction of Cable Stayed Bridges together with viaduct approaches extending from Worli up to the Toll Plaza, Intelligent Bridge System.package V : Improvement to KAGK Road ,the work on which is still in progress.Out of this Package 4 is the main and the largest phase of the sea link project. Package I of the Rajiv Gandhi Sea Link Project consists of the Love Grove Junction flyover at Worli. This flyover is necessary for dispersal of traffic coming from Rajiv Gandhi Sea Link on to Annie Besant Road. This flyover will eliminate the conflict between north bound traffic on Annie Besant Road and traffic coming from Sea Link.I is a 2 lane single way that takes traffic in the northward direction Interchange at Mahim Intersection is the busiest intersection in the city handling about 1,30,000 vehicles per day .it is an 8 lane carriage way with 4 lanes dedicated for traffic in each direction .the Special Features of this interchange are1) Easy traffic dispersal 2) Beautiful Greenery / Landscaping along Clover leaves 3) Metallic anticrash barrier 4) Reinforced Retaining Earth Structures 5) Fusion Bonded Epoxy Coating to MS Reinforcement

Construction of Solid approach road from end of improved Mahim flyover upto start of Toll plaza area on Bandra side Was done as part of the package 3.the Solid approach road was made of Concrete Pavement about 1 Km length and of 8 lanes on embankment with 5 meter wide central median. Promenade: 20 metre wide Promenade on sea side with high level pathway of width 5 meter and a jogging track of width 2 meter was also constructed as part of this package Package4 the main featrures of the 4th phase are.Cable stayed bridges with viaduct approaches extending from worli to upto the toll plaza.Modern toll plaza.Intelligent bridge system MAIN BRIDGE STRUCTURE The Link Bridge consists of twin continuous concrete box girder bridge sections for traffic in each direction. Each bridge section except at the cable - stayed portion is supported on piers typically spaced at 50 meters. Each section is meant for four lanes of traffic complete with concrete barriers and service side walks on one side. The Link Bridge layout is categorized into three different parts :

Part 1 - The north end approach structure .i.e. the Bandra approach structure made mainly with precast (PC) segmental construction Part 2 - The Cable Stayed Bridge at Bandra channel is with 50m - 250m - 250m - 50m span arrangement and the Cable Stayed Bridge at Worli channel is with 50m - 50m - 150m - 50m - 50m span arrangement Part 3 - The south end approach structure from worli which is again constructed mainly with precast segmental construction

PART - I BANDRA APPROACH STRUCTURE The bridge is arranged in units of typically six continuous spans of 50 meters each. Expansion joints are provided at ends of each unit.The sub - structure consists of 1.5 meters diameter drilled piles with pile caps & some of the piers near Worli end will be directly socketed into the rock.Bridge Was built utilizing the concept of precast, post - tensioned, twin segmented concrete box girder sections. An overhead gantry truss crane with self - launching capability was used. The PC segments can be epoxied together with nominal prestressing. The end segments adjacent to the pier would be short segments "cast - in - situ".. PART- II CABLE STAYED BRIDGE The cable - stayed portion of the Bandra channel is 600 meters in overall length between expansion joints and consists of two 250 meters cable supported main spans flanked by 50 meters conventional approach spans. A centre tower with an overall height of 128 meters above pile cap level supports the superstructure by means of four planes of stay cables in a semi - fan arrangement. Cable spacing is 6.0 meters along the bridge deck. The cable - stayed portion of the Worli channel is 350 meters in overall length between expansion joints and consists of two 150 meters cable supported main spans flanked by 50 meters conventional approach spans. A centre tower with an overall height of 55 meters above pile cap level supports the superstructure by means of four planes of stay cables in a semi - fan arrangement. Cable spacing is 6.0 meters along the bridge deck. A total of about 264 stay cables will be required for the cable - stayed spans at Bandra channel with cable lengths varying from approximately 85 meters minimum to nearly 250 meters maximum .A total of about 160 stay cables will be required for the cable - stayed spans at Worli channel with cable lengths varying from approximately 30 meters minimum to nearly 80 meters maximum. PART - III SOUTH END APPROACH STRUCTURE

This portion of the bridge is similar to the North end approach structure in construction methodology with span by span match cast concrete box girder sections. Similar to the north end approach detailed, access ramps shall be provided for connection to the western freeway i.e. extension upto Nariman Point. INTELLIGENT BRIDGE SYSTEM The bridge incorporates a 16-lane toll plaza. Out of these, four lanes will be dedicated for an electronic toll collection system wherein a vehicle with an outboard unit mounted on it can zip past the toll without halting.Semi - automatic system: Electronic payment through a smart card, which allows payment without having to pay cash, but requires stopping. Manual toll collection: Payment of toll by cash, requiring to make cash payment to a toll attendant, and stopping cash exchange. CCTV cameras will monitor traffic movement. State-of-the-art variable message signs will flash suitable messages giving prevailing traffic conditions on the bridge. The bridge will also be supported by an emergency telephone system and remote weather monitoring system. The control tower will be the nerve centre for traffic monitoring. The toll plaza will be designed to permit toll operations. The toll plaza will also be designed to act as a control centre for toll plaza area and the traffic surveillance, monitoring and control system for the intelligent bridge. The control centre at the toll plaza will house control facilities for electronic tolling, CCTV, traffic counting and classifying variable message signs, remote weather information station, and emergency telephones.The communications system will be comprised of fiber - optic cable housed in PVC running parallel to the Bandra Worli corridor. In addition, facilities to assist enforcement will be provided in the form of pollute locations, which will allow drivers and enforcement officers to safely pullout of traffic. POWER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION AND ROAD LIGHTING SYSTEM For the entire project, a reliable and dependable power supply has been arranged. Diesel generator sets and auto mains failure panels have been installed to cater to critical load e.g. monitoring, surveillance, communication equipment emergency services like aviation obstruction lights.A built - in feature of providing reliability and available of equipment is achieved through providing duplicate cables for such equipment.For the improvement of the bridge view at night,focus lamps have been installed at the base of each stay cable 1.The bridges lighting is done at a cost of about Rs 9-crore (Rs 90 million) by Bajaj Electricals 2. Bandra-Worli sea link is likely to consume 1,000 KW power a day and this would be supplied by Reliance Power and the Brihanmumbai Electric Supply and Transport. Special construction methods TRUSSES Bridge piles are dipped 30m below the bottom onto the rock bed.A total of180 piers were constructed which are 50m apart.The piers sit on top of the piles.Each pier is connected by 17 concrete segments.15 of These segments are placed in the centre and 1 on each side atop the piers.. The approach viaducts are erected span by span using overhead gantries. These gantries allow segments to be delivered either from below by barge or from behind, by trailer along the previously-erected section of the viaduct.The precast concrete sections of the deck were launched incrementally between the pillars using a truss system.The launching truss girder ,spans between two piers with the girder being supported on the outside pier by a temporary support. This allows the central carriage to move between the two piers to install the precast deck sections by picking them up and winching them into the appropriate position. The precast sections were then epoxied together and given a certain degree of pre-stress to hold them in place. Once each span had been completed and geometrical adjustments made the 28 primary continuous cables made of high tensile steel were stressed to the required level. Relocating a giant Once the bandra approach was completed the launching truss girders had to be shifted to the worli side.A dramatic operation was performed to relocate the two 1,200t overhead gantries used for approach span erection. This was done with the Asian Hercules, one of the biggest floating sheerleg cranes in the world,. The

main challenges for this operation, whose engineering HCC entrusted to VSL, were the shallow water depth and the rough sea conditions around the Bandra bridges.The operations were carried out during high tide. FORMWORK The geometry & exact surface quality requirement of the pylons made them a formwork technology challenge.To cast the inclined upper tower legs, HCC worked with automatic climbing formwork experts from an Austrian firm called Doka to customize a system for the job that could be adapted to the varying cross sections and angles of inclination.Doka devised a customised solution based on its SKE-100 automatic climbing shutter system. It has several automatic climbers that can be combined in a flexible way, allowing rebar to be placed on a casting section ahead of the pouring operation. The forms also had to produce the pylons fluted architectural finish and be stripped without damaging it. Anchorage boxes were fabricated onsite in halves & The assembled units were transported and installed atop the towers.This method enabled the concreting of each 3m high section in 3 days each CONCRETE High performance concrete ,grade M60 with micro silica slurry),was used for the structure.The micro silica slurry helps to plug cavities and fill the pores.Moreover to protect steel bars in concrete from salt corrosion ,fly ash was mixed in it.Also anti rust epoxy is coated on steel bars to seal the oxygen and prevent rusting.Coal tar epoxy painting will be provided below the high tide level splash zone for the sub - structure. Benefits Savings in vehicle operating cost to the tune of Rs.100 crores per annum due to reduction in congestion in the existing roads and lower vehicle operating cost on the bridge. Considerable savings in travel time due to increased speed and reduced delays at intersections as it avoids 23 signals on the existing roads. Ease in driving with reduced mental tension and overall improvement in the quality of life. Improvement in environment especially in terms of reduction in carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and reduction in noise pollution in areas of Mahim, Dadar, Prabhadevi and Worli. Project to have no adverse effect on fisheries, marine life and livelihood of fisherman. Reduced accidents. Proper landscaping measures along the approaches and promenade along waterfront to enhance environment of the area Reduction in traffic on existing roads because of traffic diversion to the Sea Link. Reduced noise pollution in Mahim, Dadar, Prabhadevi and Worli along existing roads Mumbai gets a new landmark BottlenecksNo effective traffic management system after the end of the bridge .The amount of time taken from Mahim to Worli is usually 25 mins. The time taken to enter the BWSL and get out at worli seaface will be 15- 20 mins As a result of constant change of plans and other delays the cost of the bridge has risen 6 fold from Rs.300 Crore to Rs.1800 Crore. Mumbai is geographically positioned in a way that requires creeks and shallow waters opposite headlands, to arrest the forward progress of waves. In most areas, these creekshave been reclaimed or blocked. Mahim Creek is one of the few places left where the waves can partially enter. This vital opening should not be further narrowed.With the base of the Mahim creek getting shallower because of siltation, there is a greater trust on other parts of the coastline like the Versova beach. The erosion here has become a geological hazard, and has assumed alarming proportions. Interesting facts about the sea link:Length of bridge (4.7km).Weight of bridge (6.7L tonnes):Length of steel wire used (37,680km): Nearly the earth's circumference Concrete used: 2.3 lakh cubic metres Height of main towers (126m): 43-storey building Pile caps: Bridge rests on 135 pile caps, the largest being 55 m in length and 55 m in breadth (half a football field)12 cameras will be monitored by MSRDC, traffic police and city police Shoulders along bridge will allow traffic police to pull over errant drivers.