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Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the Requirement for the award of the degree

Bachelor of Technology (B. Tech) In Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering


Project Incharge: Mr. Anil Kumar Singh

Project Guides: Signature of Guide Guide 1: Mr. Rakesh Kumar Maurya Guide 2: Mr. Yatendra Kumar
Name:Pradeep kumar Roll No.08EI34 Name:Vikram Virendra singh Roll No.08EI56

Name:Saurabh singh Roll No.08EI47


Microstrip antennas are compatible with MMIC designs to manufacture using modern printedcircuit technology. Different types of radiating patches of Microstrip antenna and its simplest configuration consist of a radiating patch on one side of a dielectric substrate and a ground plane on the other side. A rectangular microstrip antenna is a sandwich, in which one side is metal patch and the ground plane on the other side separated by a dielectric substrate. The dielectric constants of dielectric substrates are usually in the range of 1r 30. The most desirable for antenna performance are thick substrates whose dielectric constant is in the lower end of the range because they provide better efficiency, larger bandwidth, loosely bound fields for radiation into space but at the expense of larger element size. Thin substrates with higher dielectric constants are desirable for microwave circuitry because they require tightly bound fields to minimize undesired radiation and coupling. Different types of radiating patches are shown in figure. Easy to handle, low cost, easy to fabricate, small in size etc. are the main advantages of the microstrip antenna. The applications of microstrip antenna are in satellite communication, missile, and high performance aircraft; spacecraft now days is used in mobile radio and wireless-communication.

fig.Simplest form of microstrip antenna

Easy to handle, low cost, easy to fabricate, small in size etc. are the main advantages of the microstrip antenna. The applications of microstrip antenna are in satellite communication, missile, and high performance aircraft; spacecraft now days is used in mobile radio and wireless communications.


Artificial neural network

An artificial neural network (ANN), usually called neural network (NN), is a mathematical model or computational model that is inspired by the structure and/or functional aspects of bioloagical neural networks. A neural network consists of an interconnected group of artificial neurons, and it processes information using a connectionist approach to computation. In most cases, an ANN is an adaptive system that changes its structure based on external or internal information that flows through the network during the learning phase. Modern neural networks are non-linear statistical data modeling tools. They are usually used to model complex relationships between inputs and outputs or to find patterns in data.

Fig. An artificial neural network is an interconnected group of nodes


Either humans or other computer techniques can use neural networks, with their remarkable ability to derive meaning from complicated or imprecise data, to extract patterns and detect trends that are too complex to be noticed. A trained neural network can be thought of as an "expert" in the category of information it has been given to analyze. This expert can then be used to provide projections given new situations of interest and answer what if questions. Other advantages include: Adaptive learning: An ability to learn how to do tasks based on the data given for training or initial experience. Self-Organisation: An ANN can create its own organization or representation of the information it receives during learning time. Real Time Operation: ANN computations may be carried out in parallel, and special hardware devices are being designed and manufactured which take advantage of this capability. Fault Tolerance via Redundant Information Coding: Partial destruction of a network leads to the corresponding degradation of performance. However, some network capabilities may be retained even with major network damage

2.3 SCOPE OF THE PRESENTATION: The research will be helpful on real networks
i. e. mobile communication, satellite communication, radar, wireless LAN, etc.The research will give the high bandwidth & efficient microstrip antenna. For practical antenna.


The adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is a very powerful approach for building complex and nonlinear relationship between a set of input and output data. The high-speed real-time computation feature of the ANFIS recommends its use in antenna computer aided design (CAD) programs the Multiple adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) (MANFIS) is an extension of the adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for producing multiple outputs. In previous that is successfully used ANFIS for calculating accurately the various parameters of the rectangular, triangular, and circular MSAs, and for tracking multiple targets and estimating the phase inductance of the switched reluctance motors. In the majority of these works, only the hybrid learning (HL) algorithm was used to train the ANFIS, and only one parameter was computed by using ANFIS. However, from MANFIS different optimization algorithms such as least-squares (LSQ) algorithm, neldermead train the MANFIS. (NM) algorithm, genetic algorithm (GA), HL algorithm, differential evolution algorithm (DEA), and particle swarm optimization (PSO), are used to


Fig. fuzzy inference system

3.2 Description of Block Diagram:

Fuzzy inference systems are also known as fuzzy-rule-based systems, fuzzy models, fuzzy associative memories (FAM), or fuzzy controllers when used as controllers. Basically a fuzzy inference system is composed of five functional blocks. 1. 2. 3. 4.

a rule base containing a number of fuzzy if-then rules; a database which defines the membership functions of the fuzzy sets used in the fuzzy rules; a decision-making unit which performs the inference operations on the rules; a fuzzification interface which transforms the crisp inputs into degrees of match with linguistic values; a defuzzification interface which transform the fuzzy results of the inference into a crisp output.

Usually, the rule base and the database are jointly referred to as the knowledge base. STEPS OF FUZZY REASONING The steps of fuzzy reasoning (inference operations upon fuzzy if-then rules) performed by fuzzy inference systems are: 1. Compare the input variables with the membership functions on the premise part to

obtain the membership values (or compatibility measures) of each linguistic label. (This step is often called fuzzification).

Combine (through a specific T-norm operator, usually multiplication or min.) the Generate the qualified consequent (either fuzzy or crisp) of each rule depending on the Aggregate the qualified consequents to produce a crisp output. (This step is called

membership values on the premise part to get firing strength (weight) of each rule. 3. 4. firing strength. defuzzification.) Several types of fuzzy reasoning have been proposed in the literature. Depending on the types of fuzzy reasoning and fuzzy if-then rules, employed most fuzzy in-ference systems can be classified into three types: Type 1: The overall output is the weighted average of each rule's crisp output induced by the rule's firing strength (the product or minimum of the degrees of match with the premise part) and output membership functions. The output membership functions used in this scheme must be monotonic functions.

Type 2: The overall fuzzy output is derived by applying "max" operation to the qualified fuzzy outputs (each of which is equal to the minimum of firing strength and the output membership function of each rule). Various schemes have been proposed to choose the if nal crisp output based on the overall fuzzy output; some of them are centroid of area, bisector of area, mean of maxima, maximum criterion, etc. Type 3: Takagi and Sugeno's fuzzy if-then rules are used. The output of each rule is a linear combination of input variable plus a constant term, and the final output is the weighted average of each rule output. Fig. utilizes a two-rule two-input fuzzy inference system to show different types of fuzzy rules and fuzzy reasoning mentioned above. Be aware that most of the differences come from the specification of the consequent part (monotonically non-decreasing or bell-shaped membership functions, or crisp function) and thus the defuzzification schemes (weighted average, centroid of area, etc) are different.


There are situations, which are beyond the range of robust control techniques. For example, control of uncertain nonlinear dynamic system or control of uncertain linear system wherein uncertainty model is not available. Intelligent control techniques do not rely on a model and therefore have a great potential to solving these problem. A further established area in control science with great relevance here is adaptive system theory. This area has produced many fruitful theoretical results in the past fifteen years. Although the established adaptive theory is founded upon the assumption of linear timeinvariant system, the concept and theoretical challenges addressed are likely to find strong parallels in the intelligent control field. However, the nonlinear nature of the subsystems involved means that the problem encountered are likely fundamental theoretical questions will need to be addressed. Matlab Toolbox for ANN and ANFIS A tutorial introduction to knowledge-based tools-neural networks, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms, for control system design. The Neural Network Toolbox is contained in a directory called nnet. Types help nnet for a listing of help topics. The Neural Network Toolbox is collection of function built on the MATLAB numeric computing environment. It provides tools to create and edit neural network models, within the framework of METLAB; or if we prefer, we can integrate our network models into simulations with SIMULINK. This toolbox relies heavily on graphical user interface (GUI) tools to help us accomplish our work, although we can work entirely from the command line if we prefer. to be more complex and many

The toolbox provides three categories of tools: 1. Command line function 2. Graphical interactive tools

3. Simulink blocks The first category of tools is made up of functions (M-files) that we can call from the command line. These function are used to create, initialize, train and simulate neural networks. We can also extend the toolbox by adding our own M-files. The function newff creates a feed forward back propagation network. It require four input and return the network object net. The first input is an n*2 matrix of maximum and minimum value of each of the n element of the input vector. The second input is an array containing the size of each layer. The third input is a cell array containing the names of the transfer functions to be used in each layer, e.g., logsig, tansig, purelin, .. The final input contains the name of the training function to be used, e.g., Traingd : Gradient descent back propagation

Traingda : Gradient descent with adaptive learning rate back propagation Traingdm : Gradient descent with momentum back propagation Traingdx : Gradient descent with momentum and adaptive learning rate back propagation

Expected Outcome
Neural networks have broad applicability to real world business problems. In fact, they have already been successfully applied in many industries.

Since neural networks are best at identifying patterns or trends in data, they are well suited for prediction or forecasting needs including: 1. sales forecasting 2. industrial process control 3. customer research 4. data validation 5. risk management 6. target marketing

References and Bibliograph

1. Guney, K. (2009) Comparison of adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system models for resonant frequency computation of circular microstrip antennas. Journal of Communications Technology and Electronics 54(4)

2. Guney, Kerim (2008) Concurrent Neuro-Fuzzy Systems For Resonant Frequency Computation Of Rectangular, Circular, And Triangular Microstrip Antennas. Progress In Electromagnetics Research Pier-84 3. Guney, Kerim (2008) Multiple adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system for the synthesis of rectangular microstrip antennas with thin and thick substrates. International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering. 4. Guney, K. (2008) Adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system models for input resistance computation of circular microstrip antennas. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters 50(5). 5. Gultekin S, Guney K, Sagiroglu S (2003) Neural networks for the calculation of bandwidth of rectangular microstrip antennas. Apple Computer Electromagnetic Soc J 18:4656. 6. Kaplan A, Guney K, Ozer S (2001) Fuzzy associative memories for the computation of the bandwidth of rectangular microstrip antennas with thin and thick substrates. Int J Electron 88:189195. 7. Guney K, Sarikaya N (2004) Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for the input resistance computation of rectangular microstrip antennas with thin and thick substrates. J Electromagn Waves Appl 18:2339. 8. Guney K, Sarikaya N (2004) Computation of resonant frequency for equilateral triangular microstrip antennas with the use of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system. Int J Microw Comput Aided Eng (in press). 9. Guney K, Sarikaya N (2004) Input resistance calculation for circular microstrip antennas using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system. Int J Infrared Millimeter Waves (in press). 10. Ozer S, Guney K, Kaplan A (2000) Computation of the resonant frequency of electrically thin and thick rectangular microstrip antennas with the use of fuzzy inference systems. Int J Microw Comput Aided Eng 10:108119. 11. Sagiroglu S, Guney K (1997) Calculation of resonant frequency for an equilateral triangular microstrip antenna with the use of artificial neural networks. Microw Opt Technol Lett 14:8993.

12. Yildiz C, Gultekin SS, Guney K, Sagiroglu S (2002) Neural models for the resonant frequency of electrically thin and thick circular microstrip antennas and the characteristic parameters of asymmetric coplanar waveguides backed with a conductor. AEU Int J Electron Commun 56:396406. 13. Guney K, Sarikaya N (2003) Artificial neural networks for calculating the input resistance of circular microstrip antennas. Microw Opt Technol Lett 37:107111. 14. Guney K, Sarikaya N (2004) Artificial neural networks for the narrow aperture dimension calculation of optimum gain pyramidal horns. Electr Eng 86:157163.