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CHAPTER 6: MATHEMATICAL REASONING

6.1: STATEMENTS - is a sentence which is either true or false but not both 6.1.1 : Determine whether each of the following is a statement ( ) or not a statement ( ) . Example Answer Exercise 1 18 is an odd number 4 x 1 x = 4 x 2 2 8 2 X+4 642000 = 6.42 10 3 3 21 + 4 = 25 (2.56 10 4) 2 4 I good in mathematics 23 > 34 5 43 + 25 68 3.46 is an integer 6 All octagons have 3 edges 7 + 91 7 What is the price of the dictionary? Please try again 8 89 is a perfect square A parallelogram is a circle 9 Some even numbers can be divided by 5 1,3,4 { 0,1,2,3,4,5,} 10 Finish your mathematics` exercise 5 x 2 +3 x 4 Answer

6.1.2 : Determine whether each of the following is true or false. Example 1 > 31 81 is a perfect square 0.0002450 = 2.45 103
2 +3 = 4 5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

41 is a prime number All hexagons have 6 sides 13 is a factor of 69 12 is multiple of 4 All sets have as its subset { 0} =

Answer False True False False True True False True True False

Exercise The root of x2 32 is x = 13 + 6 > 10 3 Zero is smaller than 1 {2,4,6,8} Ice melts at 10oC

Answer

2 x 2 +2 x =( 2 x +2) ( x)

8 4 = 5 2 =1 +1 0 5

{ 10 ,11 6,7,8,9,10 ,}

(5 3) 2 = 2 6 x = 4 is a root of x2 5x + 4 = 0

6.2 QUANTIFIER ALL AND SOME 6.2.1 Based on the information given, construct a true statement using the quantifier

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all or some 6.2.1 a) Exercise: Object and property 1 Acute angle ; less than 90o 2 Negative number; smaller than zero 3 Triangle ; right-angled triangles 4 Sets; as its subset Answer (true statement) All acute angles are less than 90o All negative numbers are smaller than zero Some triangles are right-angled triangles All sets have as its subset

6.2.1 b) Exercise: 1 2 3 4 5 Object and property Rhombuses ; four equal sides Odd number ; prime number Factor of 6 ; factor of 3 Isosceles triangle ; two equal sides Even number ; divisible by 10 Answer (true statement)

6.2.2 Based on the information given, construct a false statement using the quantifier all or some 6.2.2 a) Example: Object and property 1 Null sets ; no elements 2 Parallel line ; the same length 3 Quadrilaterals ; two parallel sides 4 Odd number ; perfect square 6.2.2 b) Exercise: 6.3 : Operations on statement Object and property 1 Multiple of 2 ; multiple of 4 2 3 4 5 Orchid flower ; yellow in colour Animal ; can swim Human being ; heart Multiples of 8 ; can be exactly divided by 2 Answer (false statement) Some null sets have no elements All parallel lines have the same length Some quadrilaterals have two parallel sides All odd number are perfect squares

Answer (false statement)

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6.3.1 : Change the truth of each of the following statements by using the word not or no 6.3.1 a) Example: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Statement 4 is a factor of 32 4 is not a factor of 32 Human being have legs Human being have no legs All triangles have a sum of interior angles of 180o Not all triangles have a sum of interior angles of 180o Rambutan has thorns Rambutan has no thorns 12 + 32 is more than 32 12 + 32 is not more than 32 Fish has fins Fish has no fins Mammal is warm blooded Mammal is not warm blooded All perfect squares are integers Not all perfect squares are integers 56 can be exactly divided by 6 56 can not be exactly divided by 6 122 is equal to 144 122 is not equal to 144 Truth True False True False True False False True True False True False True False True False False True True False

6.3.1 b) Exercise: Change the truth of each of the following statements by using the word not or no 1 2 3 4 5 Statement Some even numbers are divisible by 10 All factors of 7 are factors of 14 All trapeziums have a pair of parallel lines 44 is a multiple of 11 Truth

100

3 2

is equal to 102

Nucleus is an organelle

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7 8 9 10

Plants have hair roots to absorb water and minerals 10 and 120 are multiples of 10 20 is equal to 2 All prime numbers are not divisible by 2

6.3.2 : Forming a compound statement by combining two given statements using the word and or or Concept : The truth table for p and q p true true false false Q True False True False p and q true false false false

Concept : The truth table for p or q p true true false false Q True false true false p or q true true true false

6.3.2 a) Example: Form a true statement for each of the two given statements. Statements p q Compound statement (true statement) 3 1 25 = 5 ; 125 = 5 25 = 5 and 3 125 = 5 @ 2 3
a 1 = a ; a +1 = a

25 = 5 or 3 125 = 5 a 1 = a or a + 1 = a

100 is an even number ; 2 is a prime number

100 is an even number and 2 is a prime number @ 100 is an even number or 2 is a prime number

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4 5 6 7 8 9

a {a, b} ; {a} {a, b}

a {a, b} or

{a}

{a, b}

6 is a factor of 12 ; 6 is a factor of 18 3 5 > 12 ; 24 2 = 8 2 m = 200 cm ; 1 m = 100 cm A triangle has 3 sides A hexagon has 5 sides 4 < 2 ; 8 0 = 1

6 is a factor of 12 and 6 is a factor of 18 6 is a factor of 12 or 6 is a factor of 18 3 5 > 12 or 24 2 = 8 2 m = 200 cm and 1 m = 100 cm

A triangle has 3 sides or a hexagon has 5 sides 4 < 2 and 8 0 = 1 4 + 9 = 5 or 2 > 32

10 4 + 9 = 5 ; 2 > 32

6.3.2 b) Exercise: Determine the truth of each of the following compound statement. Statements 5 < 1 1 a 5 5 nd 8 8 =1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

True / False False

35

or 45 is a multiple of 10

4 is a factor of 24 or 30 A rectangle has 4 sides and a pentagon has 6 sides is a factor of 49 and a prime number 12 + 22 = 32 and 32 + 42 = 52 2 is equal to 20 or (2 1) 1 Some even numbers are divisible by 2 or all odd numbers are divisible by 3 36 is a perfect square and a multiple of 4 80 is a perfect square or an even number 17 is a prime number and a factor of 34 1 m2 = 10 000 cm2 or 1 cm3 = 1000 mm2 Ant is an insect and has 4 legs The symbols and { } denote a null set 5%=

1 1 1 and % = 20 5 200 6.4 : Implication

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Implication If p, then q where p is the antecedent and q is the consequent . If a compound statement consisting of if and only if , we can write its two implications as If p, then q and If q, then p (known as converse of an implication) 6.4.a) Example: Write two implications from each of the following compound statements. Compound Statement Implications a) 5 + x = 5 if and only if x = 0 Implication 1 : If 5 + x = 5, then x = 0 Implication 2 : If x = 0, then 5 + x = 5
Q b) P =P if and only if
Q P

Q Implication 1 : If P =P , then Q P Q Implication 2 : If Q P , then P =P

c) x is a multiple of 4 if and only if x is divisible by 4 d) y 3 = 3 if and only if y = 27


1

Implication 1 : If x is a multiple of 4, then x is divisible by 4 Implication 2 : If x is divisible by 4, then x is a multiple of 4 Implication 1 : If y 3 = 3 , then y = 27 Implication 2 :If y = 27, then y 3 = 3
1 1

e) x2 = 9 if and only if x = 3

Implication 1 : If x2 = 9, then x = 3 Implication 2 : If x = 3, then x2 = 9

6.4. b) Exercise Write two implications from each of the following compound statements.

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Compound Statement a) 10 = 1 if and only if a = 0


a

Answer Implication 1 : Implication 2 :

b) x3 = 64 if and only if x = 4

Implication 1 : Implication 2 :

c) Abu will be punished if and only if he is late to school d) x + 3 = 7 if and only if x 8 = 18

Implication 1 : Implication 2 : Implication 1 : Implication 2 :

B e) A

A =A B

if and only if

Implication 1 : Implication 2 :

f) y2 4y = 4 if and only if y=2 g) k is a perfect square if and only if k is an integer h) m is a negative number if and only if m3 is a negative number

Implication 1 : Implication 2 : Implication 1 : Implication 2 : Implication 1 : Implication 2 :

i) 10 1 =

1 if and only if z =10 z

Implication 1 : If 10 1 = Implication 2 :

1 , then z =10 z

j)

m= 5

if and only if 52 = m

Implication 1 : Implication 2 :

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6.5 : Argument Argument : is the process in making a conclusion based on the premise. Premise is a given statement 6.5 a) Complete each of the following arguments. 1 Example Premise 1 : If m < n, then m n < 0. Premise 2 : m < n Conclusion : m n < 0. Exercise Premise 1 : If m < n, then m n < 0. Premise 2 :.. Conclusion : 5 12 < 0. 2 Premise 1 : All rectangles have four right angles i.) Premise 1:.. Premise 2 : ABCD is a rectangle Premise 2 : 20 is a negative number Conclusion : ABCD has four right angles Conclusion : 20 is smaller than zero ii.) Premise 1 : All numbers with a last digit 0 is a multiple of 10. Premise 2 :.. Conclusion : 2340 is a number with a last digit 0 3 Premise 1 : All odd numbers are not divisible by 2 Premise 2 : 23 is an odd number Premise 2 :.. Conclusion : 23 is not divisible by 2 Conclusion: MNOPQ has the sum of the interior angles is 540o 4 Premise 1 : If set B = , then n(B) = 0 Premise 2 : n(B) Premise 1 : If x + 5 = 10, then x = 5 Premise 2 : x Premise 1: All pentagons have the sum of the interior angles are 540o

Conclusion : set B 5

Conclusion:. Premise 1: If 90o < < 180o, then is an obtuse angle Premise 2:...

Premise 1 : All factors of 4 are factors of 12 Premise 2 : 4 is a factor of 12

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Conclusion : 4 is a factor of 4 Conclusion : 100o is an obtuse angle 6 Premise 1 : If x = 3, then x2 = 9 Premise 2 : x Premise 1 :If x {2,4,6,8} , then x is an even number Premise 2 : x is not an even number

3 9

Conclusion : x2

Conclusion:.

Premise 1: If x and y are odd numbers, then the product of x and y is an odd number Premise 2 : 3 and 5 are odd numbers Conclusion : The product of 3 and 5 is an odd number Premise 1 : If p > 3 , then 6p > 18 Premise 2 : p < 3 Conclusion : 6p < 18

Premise 1 : If KLM is an equilateral triangle, then KL = LM = KM Premise 2:... Conclusion: KLM is an equilateral triangle Premise 1 : If C is a subset of D, then n(C) n(D) Premise 2 : n(C) > n(D) Conclusion:.

6.6 : Deduction and Induction 6.6.1 Deduction : is making conclusion for a specific case based on a given general statement. 6.6.1 a) Example : Make a conclusion by deduction for each of the following cases. 1 All perfect squares can be written in the form of x2. 36 is a perfect square Conclusion : 36 = 62. 2 The sum of the interior angles of a polygon is (n 2) Hexagon is a polygon

180o.

Conclusion : The sum of the interior angles of a hexagon is (6 2) 3 All sets have an empty set, as subset

180

= 720o

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Set N = {5, 6} Conclusion : Set N has an empty set, as subset 4 The radius of a circle is 3 cm The circumference of the circle with a radius of r cm is 2 h r Conclusion : The circumference of the circle with a radius of 3 cm is 2 h (3) = 6h cm 5 All parallelograms have two pairs of parallel lines. ABCD is a parallelogram Conclusion : ABCD has two pairs of parallel lines 6.6 b) Exercise Make a conclusion by deduction for each of the following cases. 1 It is compulsory for all form 5 students to sit for the SPM examination. Ali sat for the SPM examination. Conclusion : . 2 All herbivores eat grass Goats are herbivores Conclusion : . 3 All cuboids have 12 edges. Object D is a cuboid Conclusion : .. 4 All quadratic equations have 2 as the highest power of the unknown. x2 + 2x 14 = 0 is a quadratic equation. Conclusion : 5 All those who are wearing school uniforms are students. Abu was not wearing the school uniform. Conclusion : .

6.6.2 Induction: is making generalization based on the pattern of a numerical sequence, or specific cases.

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6.6.2 a) Example: Make a conclusion by induction for each of the following cases. 1 Given 1, 7, 17, 31 and 1 = 2(12) 1 7 = 2(22) 1 17 = 2(32) 1 31 = 2(42) 1, ... General conclusion: 2n2 1 where n = 1, 2, 3, 4 2 Given 5, 11, 17, 23 and 5 = 6(0) + 5 11 = 6(1) + 5 17 = 6(2) + 5 23 = 6(3) + 5 .. General conclusion: 6(n) + 5 , where n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . 3 Given 5, 11, 21, 35 and 5 = 2(1)2 + 3 11 = 2(2)2 + 3 21 = 2(3)2 + 3 35 = 2(4)2 + 3 , .. make a general conclusion and find the 9th number

General conclusion: 2(n)2 + 3 where n = 1, 2, 3, 4,. Hence, the 9th number is 2(9)2 + 3 = 165 6.6.2 b.) Make a conclusion by induction for each of the following cases. 1 Given 5, 14, 29, 50 2. The numerical sequence 88, 82, 72, 58, . can be written as and 5 = 2 + 3(1)2 14 = 2 + 3(2)2 88 = 90 2 1 29 = 2 + 3(3)2 82 = 90 2 4 50 = 2 + 3(4)2 72 = 90 2 9 58 = 90 2 16 .. General conclusion General conclusion 3 Given 2, 9, 16, 23, And 2 = 2 + 7(0) 4. Given 3, 24, 81, 192, and 3 = 3(1)3

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9 = 2 + 7(1) 16 = 2 + 7(2) 23 = 2 + 7(3) .. General conclusion :.. 5 Given 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, and 1 = 3 1 2 4 = 3 2 2 7 = 3 3 2 10 = 3 4 2 13 = 3 5 2

24 = 3(2)3 81 = 3(3)3 192 = 3(4)3

General conclusion :..

General conclusion : Questions According to Examination Format 1) i: State whether the following statement is true or false.

9 > 6 and 42 = 8
ii : Complete the premise in the following argument. Premise 1 : If JKL is an equilateral triangle, then the value of its interior angle is 60o Premise 2 : ______________________________________________________ Conclusion : The value of the interior angle of JKL is 60o. iii : Write down two implications based on the following sentence.

x > y if and only if x y > 0

Answer: i. ii. iii. . Premise 2: . Implication 1 : . Implication II : .

2) i : Is the sentence below a statement or a non-statement ?

5 is an even number

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ii : Write down two implications based on the following sentence.

PQR is a right-angled triangle if and only if PR2 = PQ2 + QR2


iii : Based on the information below, make a general conclusion by induction regarding the sum of the interior angles of a triangle.

The sum of the interior angles of triangle ABC = 180o The sum of the interior angles of triangle JKL = 180o The sum of the interior angles of triangle PQR = 180o

Answer: i. ii. . Implication 1 : . Implication II : iii. General conclusion : 3. a) Determine whether the following statement is true or false.

34 = 12 or

5 = 1.25 4

b) Write two implications from the statement given below.

x = 4 if and only if x3 = 64

c) Complete the premise in the following argument. Premise 1 : If 2y = 10, then y = 5. Premise 2 : .. Conclusion : 2y 10. Answer: a) b) Implication I: Implication II:

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c) Premise 2: ..

4. a) Complete the conclusion in the following argument. Premise 1 : All regular hexagons have 6 equal sides. Premise 2 : ABCDEF is a regular hexagon. Conclusion : . b) Make a conclusion by induction for a list of numbers 9,29, 57, 93,that follow the patterns below : 9 = 4(2)2 7 29 = 4(3)2 7 57 = 4(4)2 7 93 = 4(5)2 7 c) Combine the two statements given below to form a true statement. i) 15 ( 5) = 5 ii) 32 is a multiple of 8. Answer: a.) Conclusion: b.) . c.) ..

5. a) Below are three statements : 42 = 8 3 = 0.75 : 4 : 5 < 2

Combine any of the two statements to form a false statement.

b) Complete the following argument. Premise 1 : If a = 6, then 5a = 30 . Premise 2 : 5a 30 Conclusion : .. . c) Write down two implications based on the following;

3r > 6 if and only if r > 2

Answer: a.)

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b.) Conclusion: c.). Implication 1 : . Implication 2 : ....

SPM PAST YEAR QUESTIONS Year 2003 (Nov) a) Is the sentence below a statement or non-statement? 4 is a prime number b) Write down two implications based on the following sentence;
P R if and only if R ' P '

The number of subsets in a set with 2 elements is 22. The number of subsets in a set with 3 elements is 23. The number of subsets in a set with 4 elements is 24.
c) Based on the information above, make a general conclusion by induction regarding the number of subsets in a set with k elements. (5 marks) Answer : a) Statement Implication 2 : If R ' P ' , then P R

b) Implication 1 : If P R , then R ' P'


c) The number of subsets in a set with k elements is 2 k Year 2004 (July) a) State whether the following sentence is a statement or a non-statement. All multiples of 2 are divisible by 4. b.) Write down a true statement using both of the following statements:

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Statement 1: Statement 2:

5 2 = 10 10 10 = 100

c.) Write down two implications based on the following sentence: y < x if and only if y > -x (4 marks) Answer : a) Statement b) 52 = 10 or 10 x 10 = 100 c) Implication 1 : If y < x then -y > -x Implication 2 : If -y > -x then y < x

Year 2004 (Nov) a) State whether the following statement is true or false.

8 > 7 or 32 = 6
b) Write down two implications based on the following sentence

m3 = 1000 if and only if m = 10


c) Complete the premise in the following argument : Premise 1 : All hexagons have six sides. Premise 2 : . Conclusion : PQRSTU has six sides. Answer : a) True b) Implication 1 : If m3 = 1000 then m = 10 Implication 2 : If m = 10 then m3 = 1000 c) PQRSTU is a hexagon Year 2005 (July) a) Determine whether the following sentence is a statement or non-statement.

(5 marks)

2 m 2 + 5m 3 = 0
b) Write down the converse of the following implication, hence state whether the converse is true or false. If x is an odd number then 2x is an even number.

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a) Make a general conclusion by induction for a list of number 3, 17, 55, 129, which follows the following pattern:
3 = 2(1) 3 +1 17 = 2( 2) 3 +1 55 = 2(3) 3 +1 129 = 2( 4) 3 +1

(5 marks)

Year 2005 (Nov) a) State whether each of the following statement is true or false. i) 8 2 = 4 and 82 = 16. 1 5 8 ii) The elements of set A = { 2 ,1 ,1 } are divisible by 3 or the elements of set B = are multiples of 4. b) Write down premise 2 to complete the following argument . Premise 1 :If x is greater than zero, then x is a positive number.. Premise 2 : . Conclusion : 6 is a positive number. c) Write down 2 implications based on the following sentence. 3m > 15 if and only if m > 5 Implication 1 : Implication 2 : (5 marks)

{4, 6, 8}

Year 2006 (July)

a.) State whether each of the following statements is true or false.


(i)
3

64 = 4

(ii.) -5 > - 8 and 0.03 = 3

10 1
ABC is 60 0 .

b) Write down two implications based on the following sentence. ABC is an equilateral triangle if and only if each of the interior angle of

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c.) Complete the premise in the following argument: Premise 1 Premise 2 Conclusion : . : 90 0 x 180 0. : sin x 0 is positive. (5 marks)

Year 2006 (Nov) (a) Complete each of the following statements with the quantifier all or some so that it will become a true statement (i) (ii) of the prime numbers are odd numbers. ... pentagons have five sides.

(b) State the converse of the following statement and hence determine whether its converse is true or false.

If x > 9 , then x > 5


(c) Complete the premise in the following argument: Premise 1 : If set K is a subset of set L, then K L = L Premise 2 : Conclusion: Set K is not a subset of set L Year 2007 (June) a) State whether the following statement is true or false. b) Write down Premise 2 to complete the following argument: Some even numbers are multiples of 3 Premise 1 : If a quadrilateral is a trapezium, then it has two parallel sides. Premise 2 : .. Conclusion: ABCD is not a trapezium. c) Based on the information below, make a general conclusion by induction regarding the sum of interior angles of a polygon with n sides.

Sum of interior angles of a polygon with 3 sides is ( 3 2 ) x 1800 Sum of interior angles of a polygon with 4 sides is (4 2 ) x 1800
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73 Sum of interior angles of a polygon with 5 sides is (5 2 ) x 1800

c) Write down two implications based on the following statement:


a Matrix c b has an inverse if and only if ad bc 0 d

[6 marks]

Year 2007 (Nov) a) Complete the following statement using quantifier all or some, to make it a true statement.

................................quadratic equations have two equal roots.


b) Write down Premise 2 to complete the following argument: Premise 1 : If M is a multiple of 6, then M is a multiple of 3. Premise 2 : .. Conclusion : 23 is not a multiple of 6. c) Make a general conclusion by induction for the sequence of numbers 7, 14, 27, which follows the following pattern. 7 = 3(2)1 + 1 14 = 3(2)2 + 2 27 = 3(2)3 + 3 = d) Write down two implications based on the following statement: p q > 0 if and only if p > q Implication 1 : Implication 2 : ... [6 marks]

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Year 2008 (June) a) State whether the following compound statement is true or false. 7 x 7 = 49 and (-7)2 = 49

b) Write down two implications based on the following compound statement: KLM is an isosceles triangle if and only if two angles in c) Write down Premise 2 to complete the following argument: Premise 1: If PQRS is a cyclic quadrilateral, then the sum of the interior opposite angles of PQRS is 1800 . Premise 2: Conclusion: PQRS is not a cyclic quadrilateral. [5 marks] KLM are equal.

Year 2008 (Nov) a) State whether the following compound statement is true or false: 53 = 125 and -6 < -7
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b) Write down two implications based on the following compound statement: x3 = -64 if and only if x = -4.
2 n

c) It is given that the interior angle of a regular polygon of n sides is 1 x 1800 . Make one conclusion by deduction on the size of the interior angle of a regular hexagon. [5 marks]
Answer Chapter 6: Mathematical Reasoning 1. 2. 3. 4. 3. True 5. 4. False 6. 7. 5. True 8. 6. True 9. 10. 7. False 6.1.1 8. True 9. False 10. True

1.True 2. True 6.1.2 6.2. b

1. All rhombuses have four equal sides 2. Some odd numbers are prime number 3. All factors of 6 are factor of 3 4. All isosceles triangles have two equal sides 5. Some even numbers are divisible by 10 1. Some multiples of 2 are multiples of 4 2. All orchid flowers are yellow in colour 3. All animals can swim 4. Some human beings have hearts 5. Some multiples of 8 can be exactly divided by 2

6.2.2 b

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1 2 3 4 5

Statement Some even numbers are divisible by 10 Some even numbers are not divisible by 10 All factors of 7 are factors of 14 Not all factors of 7 are factors of 14 All trapeziums have a pair of parallel lines Not all trapeziums have a pair of parallel lines 44 is a multiple of 11 44 is not a multiple of 11

100 100

3 2 3 2

is equal to 102 is not equal to 102

Truth True False True False True False True False False True True False True False True False False True False True

6 7 8 9 10 6.3.1 b)

Nucleus is an organelle Nucleus is not an organelle Plants have hair roots to absorb water and minerals Plants have no hair roots to absorb water and minerals 10 and 120 are multiples of 10 10 and 120 are not multiples of 10 20 is equal to 2 20 is not equal to 2 All prime numbers are not divisible by 2 Not all prime numbers are not divisible by 2

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6.3.2 b p 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 6.4. b a b c d e f g h i Implication 1 : If 10 a = 1, then a = 0 Implication 2 : If a = 0, then 10 a = 1 Implication 1 : If x3 = 64, then x = 4 Implication 2 : If x = 4, then x3 = 64 Implication 1 : If Abu is punished, then he was late to school Implication 2 : If Abu is late to school, then he will be punished Implication 1 : If x + 3 = 7, then x 8 = 18 Implication 2 : If x 8 = 18, then x + 3 = 7 B B Implication 1 : If A , then A =A B B Implication 2 : If A =A , then A Implication 1 : If y2 4y = 4 then y = 2 Implication 2 : If y = 2, then y2 4y = 4 Implication 1 : If k is a perfect square, then k is an integer Implication 2 : If k is an integer, then k is a perfect square Implication 1 : If m is a negative number, then m3 is a negative number Implication 2 : If m3 is a negative number, then m is a negative number 1 Implication 1 : If 10 1 = , then z =10 z 1 Implication 2 : If z =10, then 10 1 = z 2 m = , then 5 = m 5 Implication 1 : If 5 Implication 2 : If 52 = m, then m = q True / False False False True False True False True False True True True True False True False

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6.5 b 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Premise 2 : 5 < 12 i.)Premise 1 : All negative numbers are smaller than zero ii.)Premise 2 : 2340 is a multiple of 10 Premise 2 : MNOPQ is a pentagon Conclusion : x + 5 10 Premise 2 : 90o < 100 0 < 180o Conclusion : x {2,4,6,8} Premise 2 : KL = LM = KM Conclusion : C is not a subset of D

1 2 3 4 5 6.6.1 b

Conclusion : Ali is a form 5 student. Conclusion : Goats eat grass Conclusion : Object D has 12 edges Conclusion : x2 + 2x 14 = 0 has 2 as the highest power of its unknown Conclusion : Abu is not a student.

6.6.2 b 1 2 3 4 5 General conclusion : General conclusion : General conclusion : General conclusion : General conclusion : 2 + 3(n)2 where n = 1,2,3,4,.. 90 2(n)2 where n = 1,2,3,4,.. 2 + 7(n), where n = 0,1,2,3,.. 3(n)3 where n = 1,2,3,4,.. 3 n 2, or 3(n) 2 , where n = 1,2,3,4,5,..

Questions According to Examination Format 1. i: False ii : JKL is an equilateral triangle. iii : If x > y, then x y > 0 . If x y > 0, then x > y. 2. i : Statement

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ii : 1 : If PQR is a right-angled triangle, then PR2 = PQ2 + QR2 2: If PR2 = PQ2 + QR2, then PQR is a right-angled triangle iii : The sum of the interior angles of all triangles = 180o
3. a) True

b) If x = 4, then x3 = 64 If x3 = 64, then x = 4 c) y 5


4. a) ABCDEF has 6 equal sides.

b) 4(n)2 7 where n = 2, 3, 4, 5, c) 15 ( 5) = 5 or 32 is a multiple of 8.


5. a)

b) a 6 c) If 3r > 6, then r > 2. If r > 2 , then 3r > 6.

3 3 = 0.75 and 5 < 2 @ 42 = 8 or 5 < 2 @ 42 = 8 or = 0.75 4 4

PAST YEARS SPM QUESTIONS June 2004 1. a) Statement b) 5 2 = 10 or 10 10 = 100 c ) If y < x , then y > x If y > x , then y < x Nov 2004 2. a) True b) If m3 = 1000 , then m = 10 If m = 10, then m3 = 1000 c) PQRSTU is a hexagon. June 2005 3. a) Statement b) If 2x is an even number, the x is an odd number. (True) c) 2n 3 +1, where n = 1, 2, 3

Nov 2005 4. a) i: False ii: True b) 6 is greater than zero. c) If 3m > 15, then m > 5. If m > 5, then m > 5.

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June 2006 5. a) (i) True (ii) False b) If ABC is an equilateral triangle, then each of the interior angle of ABC is 60 0 , then ABC is 60 0 .

If each of the interior angle of

ABC is an equilateral triangle.

c) If 90 0 x 180 0 , then sin x 0 is positive. 7. Nov 2006 a) (i) Some (ii) All b) If x > 5 , then x > 9 , False

c) K L L 8. June 2007

a) True b) ABCD has no two parallel sides c) (n 2 ) x 1800 d) Implication 1 : If matrix


a c b has an inverse then ad bc 0 d a b has an inverse d

Implication 2 : If ad bc 0 then c
9. Nov 2007

a) Some b) 23 is not a multiple of 3 c) 3(2)n + n , n = 1, 2, 3, d) Implication 1 : If p q > 0 then p > q Implication 2 : If p > q then p q > 0
10. June 2008

a) True b) Implication 1 : If KLM is an isosceles triangle, then two angles in KLM are equals. Implication 2 : If two angles in KLM are equals, then KLM is an isosceles triangle. c) The sum of the interior opposite angles of PQRS is not equal to 1800.
11. Nov 2008

a) False b) Implication 1 : If x3 = -64 then x = -4

Mathematical Reasoning

81

Implication 2 : If x = -4 then x3 = -64

Mathematical Reasoning

82