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CHAPTER 7: THE STRAIGHT LINE

Y2 Y1
X 2 X1

Example

Exercises

4 2
2
m=
=
=1
3 1
2

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2) (-1,2) and (3,4)

2) (- 2,1) and (4,3)
4 2
2
1
m=
=
=
3 ( 1)
4
2
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3) (1,-2) and (3, 4)

8.) (-2,-1) and (-4,-3)

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
3
1 3
1 1
9) (0, ) and ( ,0 )
10) (- , ) and ( ,- )
2
2
2 2
2 2
INTERCEPT
y-intercept (x = 0)
The Straight Line

72

x-intercept (y = 0)
X-intercept

y=0

Example

Exercise

1) y = 2 x + 4

1) y = 3 x + 6

y = 0 0 = 2x + 4
4 = 2x

2 x = 4
4
x=
= 2
2

x- intercept = -2
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2) y = 5 x 2
2) y = 2 x + 5
y = 0 0 = 5x 2
2 = 5x

5x = 2
x=

2
5

5
2
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3) y = 4 x + 5
4.) y = 3 x +1

x-intercept =

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5) 2 y = 3 x 6
6) 2 y = 2 x + 5

7) y =

2
x +6
3

The Straight Line

8) y =

73

2
x 4
5

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3
1
9) 2 y = x + 12
10) 3 y = x 3
5
9

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------11) 2 y = x +12
12) 3 y = 3 x 2

y intercept

x=0

Example

Exersice

1) y = 2 x + 6
x = 0 , y = 2(0) + 6
y=6
y- intercept = 6

1) y = 3 x + 8

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2) y = 2 x 7
3.) y = 3 x 9

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2
1
4) y = x + 6
5) y = x 6
3
2

The Straight Line

74

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2
2
6) y = x + 7
7) y = x 10
3
5

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Example
3
1
8) 2 y = x + 12
9) 3 y = x 21
5
9
3
X = 0, 2y = (0) + 12
5
2y = 12
y=6
y intercept = 6
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10) 2 y = x +12
11) 3 y = 3 x 2

..

EQUATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE : y = mx + c

THE EQUATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE PASSING THROUGH THE POINTS AND
The Straight Line

75

Example
1) (2,7) and m = 3
y = mx + c
7 = 3(2) + c
7=6+c
76=c
c=1

Exercise A
1) (4,9) and m= -2

Equation of a straight line , y = 3x + 1

.
2) (-3,5) and m = 4
y = mx + c
5 = 4(-3) + c
5 = -12 + c
C= 5 + 12
=17

2) (-1,7) and m = 5

Equation of a straight line, y = 4x +17

.
1
3) (4,-9) and m =
3) (-5,11) and m = -2
2
y = mx + c
1
-9 =
(4) + c
2
-9 = 2 + c
-9 2 = c
c = -11
1
equation of a straight line, y =
x - 11
2
.
2
3
4) ( -3,-5) and m =
5) (3,-7) and m = 3
4

6) (-1,-4) and m =

2
5

7) (-10,10) and m = -

4
5

The Straight Line

76

8) (0,-3) and m =

1
2

9) (-6,-2) and m =

4
3

The straight line can also be obtained by using the formula

y k = m (x h)
Example

Exercise B

1) (2,7) and m = 3

1) (4,9) and m= -2

y 7 = 3( x 2)
y 7 = 3x 6
y = 3x 6 + 7
y = 3 x +1

.
2) (-3,-5) and m = 4

3) (-1,7) and m = 5

.
4) (4,-9) and m =

1
2

5) (5,-11) and m = -2

The Straight Line

77

6) ( -4,-5) and m =
y ( 5) =

2
3

7) (4,-7) and m = -

3
4

2
( x ( 4))
3

2
( x + 4)
3
3( y +5) = 2( x + 4)
3 y +15 = 2 x +8
3 y = 2 x +8 15
3 y = 2 x 7
y +5 =

.
2
4
8 (-1,-4) and m =
9) (10,10) and m = 5
5

.
1
4
10) (0,-3) and m =
11) (-5,-2) and m =
2
3

EQUATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE THROUGH TWO POINTS

Step 1 : Find the gradient
Step 2: Find the y- intercept
Step 3 : Write down the equation in a form of y = mx + c
Example
(-1,2) and (3,4)
4 2
2
1
m=
=
=
3 ( 1)
4
2
y = mx + c
1
4=
(3) + c
2

The Straight Line

Exercise
1. (2,1) and (4,3)

78

3
+c
2
3
C= 4 2
1
=2
2
4=

1
5
x+
2
2
Or 2y = x + 5
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2) (-1,2) and (3,4)
3) (-2,1) and (4,3)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4) (3,-5) and (-2,5)

5) (3,-7) and (-1,3)

7) (-1,5) and (-3,-7)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1
1
1
8) ( ,4 ) and (3,-6)
9) ( ,5 ) and ( ,3 )
2
3
3

79

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------EQUATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE PASSING THROUGH PARALLEL LINES

Lines which are parallel have the same gradient and vice versa.
Example
1) (1,2) and y = 3x 4
m=3

Exercise
1) (0,-3) and y = -2x + 5

y 2 = 3( x 1)
y 2 = 3 x 3
y = 3 x 3 +2
y = 3 x 1

2) (2,4) and y + x = 5
2) (0,6) and y = 5x -1
y = -x + 5
m = 1
y 4 =1( x 2)
y 4 =x +2
y =x +2 +4
y =x +6

.............................................................................................................................................................
3) (8,-5) and 5y + 20x = -2
3) (2,3) and 2x -5y = 12
5y = -20x -2
20 x 2
y=
5
2
y = - 4x 5
m = 4
y (5) = 4( x 8)
y +5 = 4 x 32
y = 4 x 32 5
y = 4 x 37

4) (5,2) and y = x -3

The Straight Line

5) (1,8) and 3x + y =4

80

6) (3,4) and y = 2x -2
7) (0,-3) and 2x + y -5 = 0

8) (-1,3) and y = 3x + 1
9) (4,0) and y = 3x - 11

10) (4,-5) and y = -2x + 3

11) (3,4) and 4y 2x = 3

EXAMINATION FORMAT QUESTION

EXAMPLE 1

(i)
(ii)

y 4 = 1( x 0)
y 4 = x
0 4 = x
x =4

B(2,2)

x-intercept = 4

(iii)

the equation of AC
2 0
M AC = M OB =
=1
2 0
y 4 =1( x 0)
y 4 = x
y = x +4

Diagram 1

The Straight Line

y =0

the equation of AB

A(0,4)

4 2
2
=
= 1
0 2 2
x-intercept for AB

81

EXERCISE
1.Base on diagram 2

P(0,6)

Q(3,5)

(ii)

x-intercept for PQ

Diagram 2

(iii)

the equation of PR

A(2,6)

C(5,4)

B(-3,3)

Diagram 3

82

Q(7,8)

(i) find the gradient of PR

P
(ii) find the y-intercept of PQ

Diagram 4

The diagram 5, AB is a straight

line.
(i) state the y-intercept of AB

-6
A

Diagram 5

83

5.

P(0,6)

In diagram 6, the gradient of PQ

is. Line
RS is parallel to the line PQ and
passes through a point (-5,3). Find
(i)

the coordinate of Q.

Q
Diagram 6

6.

D(-4,6)
G(h,4)

x
E

(a)
(b)
( c)
7.

Diagram 7

Given the equation of straight line DG is x + 3y = 14 and the gradient of GF is -2,

Find
the value of h,
the coordinate F
the equation of straight line DE
[ 5 marks]
2
In diagram 8, the gradient of the straight line MN is
3
3

The Straight Line

N(6, p)

84
-5

Diagram 8

L
Find
(a) the value of p
(b) the equation of straight line LN
8.

In diagram 9, JKLM is a trapezium and JK is parallel to ML

K (2,5)
y
L(4,3)

J(-4,2)
M

Diagram 9

Find
(i)
the x-intercept for the straight line JK
(ii)
the equation of the straight line ML
(iii)
the coordinate M
SPM PAST YEAR QUESTIONS (PAPER 2)
1. SPM 2003
In Diagram 2, the graph shows that PQ, QR, and RS are straight lines. P is on the y-axis. OP is
Parallel to QR and PQ is parallel to RS.

R
P

x
(8, -7)

Diagram 2
The equation of PQ is 2x + y = 5
(a)
State the equation of the straight line QR

The Straight Line

85

(b)

Find the equation of the straight line RS and hence, state its y-intercept.
[ 5 marks ]

2. SPM 2004
In Diagram 3, OPQR is parallelogram and O is the origin.

y
R(4,12)
Q
0

x
P(3, -6)

Find
(a)
(b)

Diagram 3

the equation of the straight line PQ,

the y-intercept of the straight line QR
[ 5 marks ]

3. SPM 2005
In Diagram 2, O is the origin, point R lies on the x-axis and point P pies on the y-axis.
Straight line PU is parallel to the x-axis and straight line PR is parallel to straight line ST. The
equation of straight line PR is x + 2y = 14.

y
P

U
x + 2y -14

O
T(2, -5)
Diagram 2

86

(a)

State the equation of the straight line PU

(b)

Find the equation of the straight line ST and hence , state its x-intercept
[ 5 marks]

4. SPM 2006( June)

In Diagram 3, O is the origin and PQRS is a trapezium. PS is parallel to QR. Straight line RS is
parallel to x-axis. Point Q and S lies on x-axis

P (-1, 10)

R(4, -11)

Diagram 3
Find
(a)
(b)

Equation of a straight line QR

x-intercept of the straight line QR
[ 5 marks ]

5. SPM 2006(Nov)
Diagram 5 shows a straight line PQ and a straight line RS drawn on a Cartesian plane. PQ is
parallel to RS.

y
P (0, 4)

R (0, 4)

S (0, 4)

Diagram 5

Find
a) the equation of the straight line PQ,
b) the x-intercept of the straight line PQ
[ 5 marks ]

87

6. SPM 2007( June)

In Diagram 2, O is the origin . Point P and point R lie on the y-axis. PS is parallel to the x-axis
and straight line SR is parallel to straight line PQ .

y
S (8 , 3)

Q(-4,0)

R
Diagram 2
Find
(a)

(b)

the x-intercept of the straight line SR

[ 5 marks ]

7. SPM 2007(Nov)
In Diagram 2, O is the origin .Straight line KL is parallel to straight line MN. The equation of
straight line KL is 2x + y = 4. The points L and N lie on y-axis .

K
M (-3, 7)

L
N
O
Diagram 2
Find
c) the equation of the straight line MN,

88

d) the x-intercept of the straight line MN

[ 5 marks ]
8. SPM 2008( June)
In Diagram 5, PQRS is parallelogram and O is the origin . It is given that the equation of the
straight line PQ is 2y = x + 18.

y
Q
P

R( 7, 2)
O
0
Find
(a)
(b)

Diagram 5

the equation of a straight line RS,

the x-intercept of the straight line RS.
[ 5 marks ]

9. SPM 2008( Nov)

Diagram 6 show a trapezium PQRS drawn on a Cartesian plane. SR is parallel to PQ .
y
S (8 , 9)

P (3 , 5)

Q(11,1)
O

Diagram 6

89

Find
(a)
(b)

the equation of a straight line SR

the y-intercept of the straight line SR
[ 5 marks ]

Exercise
1)
1
6)

2)
7)

5
2

1
3
1

3)

8)

4)

9)

1
3
10. x = -27

5.

3
2
2

5)
1
3

10)

Intercept
x-intercept
1.

x = -2

7.

x= 9

2.
8.

5
2
x = 10

x=

3.
9.

5
4
x = -20

x=

y-intercept

90

4.

x=

11.

x=2
x = -12

6.
12.

x=

5
2
2
3

1.
7.

y=8
y = -10

2.

y = -7

3.
9.

y = -9
y = -7

4
10.

y=6
y = -6

5.
11.
2
3

y = -6
y=

6.

y=7

Exercise
1. y = -2x + 17
6. y =

2
x5

2. y = 5x +12
7. y = -

3. y = -2x + 1

4
x+2
5

8. y =

1
x3
2

2
x3
3
4
9. y =
x-1
3

3
x -19
4

4. y =

5. y = -

5.

2y = -5x + 1

18
5

two points
1.

6.

y=x1

y = 3x 5

1
x+
4

2.

y=

9
4
7.

y = 6x + 11

3.

3y = x + 5

4.

y = -2x 1

8.

y = -4x + 6

9.

y = 12x + 1

Exercise
1.

y = 2 x 3

6.
11.

y = 2x -2
2y = x + 5

2.

y = 5x + 6

3. y = 2x + 11

4.

y=x3

5.

y = -3x +11

7.

y = -2x 3

8. y = 3x + 6

9.

y = 3x 12

10.

y = -2x + 3

1
1.
(i) (ii)
3
2.

(i)

The Straight Line

3
5

(ii)

x = 18

y=

3
x+1
5

(iii) x = -

91

5
3

3.

(i)

4
3

(ii)

y = 8x 48

4.

(i) -6

(ii)

y=

5.

(i) Q = (4,0)

(ii)

2y = -3x - 9

6.

(i) x = 2

(ii)

( 4,0 )

7.

(a) p = 7

8.

(a)

1
2

3
x6
2

(iii) y = -2x + 2

(b) y = 2x 7
(b)

2y = x + 2

(c)

Past Years SPM Questions

1. SPM 2003 Q5
5
(a) x =
2
2. SPM 2004 Q6
(a) y = 3x 15
3. SPM 2005 Q5
(a) y = 7

(b) y-intercept =9

(b) 2y = -x - 8
x=8

(a) y = -2x -3

(b) x = -

The Straight Line

92

3
2

(-2,0)

(a) y = -2x + 11
6. SPM 2007 ( June) Q7
3
(a) y = x 3
4

(b) x intercept =

11
2

(b) x-intercept = 4

7. SPM 2007 ( Nov) Q5

(a) y = -2x + 1
8. SPM 2008 ( June) Q7
1
3
(a) y = x
2
2
9. SPM 2008 ( Nov) Q5
1
(a) y = + 13
2

The Straight Line

(b) x intercept =

1
2

(b) x-intercept = 3

(b) y intercept = 13

93