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CHAPTER 5: VARIATIONS

IMPORTANT CONCEPTS Statement y varies directly as x P varies directly as Q2 M is directly proportional to


N

Direct Variations Using symbol ` , y P M

x Q2
N

Equation with k as constant of variation y = kx P = kQ2 M=k


N

Statement y varies inversely as x P varies inversely as Q2 M is inversely proportional to


N

Inverse Variations Using symbol ` , y P M

1 x 1 Q2 1 N

Equation with k as constant of variation k y= x k P= Q2 k M= N

Statement w varies directly as x and y P varies directly as q and r2 s varies directly t and inversely as u d varies directly as e2 and inversely as f R varies inversely as M and
N

Joint Variations Using symbol ` , w P s d R

xy q r2
t u
e2 f

Equation with k as constant of variation w = kxy P = kq r2 s= d= R=


kt u
ke 2 f

M N M N 4 steps to solve problems involving variations: STEP 1 : Change the statement using the symbol . STEP 2 : Write down the equation connecting the variables using k as the constant of variation. STEP 3 : Find the value of k. STEP 4 : Find the value of variable required.

A) DIRECT VARIATION
Variations 57

EXAMPLE 1:
1 when Q = 2. 3 Express P in terms of Q and find the value of P when Q = 18.

Given that P varies directly as Q and P =

STEP 1 : Symbol STEP 2 : Equation STEP 3 : Find the value of k,

P Q P = kQ 1 = k(2) 3 1 = 2k 3 1 k = 6

, k = constant

THEN, substitute k = HENCE,

1 in the equation P = kQ. 6 1 P= Q 6

STEP 4:Find the value of P when Q = 18,

P=

1 6

18

P=3 Exercises:

1.

Given that y varies directly as x and y = 15 when x = 5. a) Express y in terms of x. b) Find the value of y when x = 4.

2.

Given that P Q 2 and P = 10 when Q = 2. a) Express P in terms of Q. b) Find the value of P when Q = 4.

3. Given that y varies directly as x and y = 6 when x = 9. c) Express y in terms of x. d) Find the value of y when x = 25.
Variations 58

4. It is given that m varies directly as n 3 and m = 32 when n = 2. Express m in terms of n 1 and find the value of m when n = . 2

EXAMPLE 2 : P varies directly as x 2 where x = 5 + y. Given that P = 72 when y = 1. a) Express P in terms of x. b) Find the values of y when P = 200. STEP 1 : Symbol P x2 STEP 2 : Equation P=kx2 , k = constant STEP 3 : Find the value of k, substitute and x = 5 + y in the above equation: P = k(5 + y) 2 Then substitute P=72 and y = 1, 72 = k(5 + 1) 2 72 = 36k 72 k= 6 k=2 THEN, substitute k = 2 in the equation P = k x 2 HENCE, P=2x2

STEP 4:Find the value of y when P = 200 by substitute x = 5 + y 200 = 2(5 + y) 2 100 = (5 + y) 2 100 = 5 + y 10 = 5 + y y = 10 5 and y = -10 5 y=5 and y = -15 M varies directly as x 2 where x = 3 + y. Given that M = 64 when y = 1. a) Express M in terms of x.
59

Exercises: 1.

Variations

b) Find the values of y when M = 400.

2.

Given that T S 2 and S = 2w 3, and T = 12 when W = 1. a)Express T in terms of S b)Find the value of T when W = 5

B) INVERSE VARIATION
EXAMPLE 1: Given that y varies inversely as x and y = 6 when x = 4. Express y in terms of x and find the value of y when x = 3.

STEP 1 : Symbol STEP 2 : Equation STEP 3 : Find the value of k,

1 x k y= x k 6= 4 k = 24

, k = constant

THEN, substitute k = 24 in the equation y = HENCE,

k . x 24 y= x

STEP 4:Find the value of y when x = 3,

y=

24 3

y=8 Exercises:

1. Given that y varies inversely as x and x = 4 when y = 3. a. Express y in terms of x. b. Find the value of y when x = 6.
Variations 60

2. Given that P varies inversely as x and P = 6 when x =


find the value of P when x = 3
1 . 3

1 . Express P in terms of x and 3

3. Given that y varies inversely as x 2 and y = 2 when x = 4.


a) Express y in terms of x b) Find the value of y when x = 2.

4. Given that S varies inversely as square root of r and S = 5 when r = 16.


a) Express S in terms of r. b) Find the value of S when r = 25.

5. Given that P varies inversely as


P Q
Variations

. Complete the following table. 2

6 9

4
61

6. The table below shows some values of the variables M and N such that N varies inversely
as the square root of M. M N 4 6 36 2

Find the relation between M and N.

C) JOINT VARIATION
EXAMPLE 1: (DIRECT VARIATION & DIRECT VARIATION) y varies directly as x and z. Given that y = 12 when x = 2 and z = 3. a) Express y in terms of x and y, b) Find the value of y when x = 5 and z = 2.

STEP 1 : Symbol STEP 2 : Equation STEP 3 : Find the value of k,

y xz y = kxz 12 = k (2)(3) 12 = 6k k=2

, k = constant

THEN, substitute k = 2 in the equation y = kxz. HENCE, y = 2xz

STEP 4:Find the value of y when x = 5 and z = 2, y = 2(5)(2) y = 20

Exercises: 1. p varies directly as q and r. Given that p = 36 when q = 4 and r = 3. a) Express p in terms of q and r, b) Find the value of p when q = 3 and r = 3.
Variations 62

2. Given that y mn and y = 20 when m = 2 and n = 5. a) Express y in terms of m and n b) Find the value of y when m = 3 and n = 4.

EXAMPLE 2: ( INVERSE VARIATION & INVERSE VARIATION) Given that y varies inversely as x and z. y = 10 when x = 2 and z = 4. Express y in terms of x and z, then find the value of y when x = 4 and z = 5. 1 STEP 1 : Symbol y xz k STEP 2 : Equation y= , k = constant xz k STEP 3 : Find the value of k, 10 = 2( 4) k = 80 THEN, substitute k = 80 in the equation y = HENCE,
k . xz 80 y= xz
8 0 y = 4(5) 80 y= , y = 4. 20

STEP 4:Find the value of y when x = 4 and z = 5,

Exercises: 1. Given that m

1 x y

and m = 3 when x = 3 and y = 16. Express m in terms of x and y. Find

the value of y when m = 9 and x = 12.

Variations

63

2. Given that y d = 4.

1 and y = 2 when d = 3 and e = 4, calculate the value of e when y = 3 and d 2e

EXAMPLE 3 (DIRECT VARIATION + INVERSE VARIATION) 1. Given that y varies directly as x and varies inversely as v and y = 10 when x = 4 and v=5. a) Express y in terms of x and v b) Find the value of y when x = 2 and v = 15. x STEP 1 : Symbol y v kx STEP 2 : Equation y= , k = constant v k4 STEP 3 : Find the value of k, 10 = 5 50 = 4k 25 k= 2 25 kx THEN, substitute k = in the equation y =. 2 v 25 x HENCE, y= 2v 25 ( 2) STEP 4:Find the value of y when x = 2 and v = 15, y = 2(15 ) 5 0 5 y= , y= . 3 0 3 Exercises: 1. M varies directly as N and varies inversely as P and m = 6 when N = 3 and P = 4. a) Express M in terms of N and P. b) Calculate the value of M when N = 5 and P = 2.

Variations

64

2. Given that w

x and w = 10 when x = 8 and y = 16. Calculate the value of w when y

x= 18 and y = 36.

3. F varies directly as G to the power of two and varies inversely as H. Given that F = 6
when G = 3 and H = 2, express F in terms of G and H. Find the value of G when F = 27 and H = 4.

4. Given that S

P and S = 6 when P = 3 and M = 2. Calculate the value of P when S = M3

2 and M = -4.

5. Given that p varies directly as x and inversely as the square root of y. If p = 8 when x = 6
and y = 9. a. express p in terms of x and y, b. calculate the value of y when p = 6 and x = 9.

Variations

65

EXAMPLE 4: The table shows some values of the variables d, e and f. d e f Given that d 12 9 4
e f

10 25 m

a) express d in terms of e and f


b) calculate the value of m.

STEP 1 : Symbol STEP 2 : Equation -

e f e f

d=

, k = constant

STEP 3 : Find the value of k, substitute d = 12, e = 9, and f = 4 12 =


k 4 9

48 = 3k k = 16 THEN, substitute k = 16 in the equation HENCE, d =. d=


k f 1 6 f e e

STEP 4:Find the value of m (f) when d = 10 and e = 25,

10 =

16

10m = 16 10m = 80 m = 10 Exercises: 1. The table shows the relation between three variables D, E and F. D 2 1 2 Given that D E 3 6 F 4 m

5,

25 m

1 EF a) express D in terms of E and F b) calculate the value of m.

Variations

66

2. The table shows some values of the variables w, x and y, such that w varies directly as the square root of x and inversely as y. w 18 3 x 9 K y 2 36

a) find the equation connecting w x and y. b) calculate the value of K.

Objective Questions 1. The table shows relation between the variables, x and y. If y x , find the value X Y A. 10 7 B. 14 5 2 5 C. 8 7 M D. 35 2 of m.

2.
Variations 67

m n

2 9

X 25

The table shows the relation between the variables, m and n. If m varies inversely as the square root of n, then x = A. 18 25 B. 6 5 C. 28 3 D. 50 9

3. It is given that y

v2 , and y = 6 when v = 4 and w = 8, calculate the positive value of v w when y = 25 and w = 3.

A. 5

B. 6

C. 12.5

D. 25 1 , express y in terms of x. 3 3 D. y = 5x

4. Given that y varies inversely as x and y = 5 when x = A. y =


15 x

B. y = 15x

C. y =

5 3x

5. Given that y varies directly as x, and y = 6 when x = 2, express y in terms of x. A. y = 1 3x B. y = 3x C. y = 12x D. y = 12 x

6. Given that P varies inversely as A. P = 2 3


Q

, and P = 2 when Q = 9, express P in terms of Q.


Q

B. P = 6

C. P =

6 Q

D. P =

18 Q

7. The relation between the variables, P, x and y is represented by P x m y n . If P varies directly as the square of x and inversely as the cube of y, then m + n = A. -1 B. 1 C. 5 D. -6

8. Given that y varies directly as x n . If x is the radius and y is the height of the cyclinder whose volume is a constant, then the value of n is A. -2 B. 1 C. 2 D. 3

9. The table shows the corresponding values of d and e. The relation between the variables d and e is represented by d 1 4 9 16 e 30 15 10 7.5 Variations 68

A.e d

B. e

1 d

C. e

1 d

D. e

1 d2

10. T varies directly as the square root of p and inversely as the square root of g. This joint variation can be written as A. T

p g

B. T

p2 g

C. T

p g

D. T

p g2

11. It is given that m varies inversely as s and t. If m = 3 when s = 2 and t = 4, find the value of m when s = 2 and t = 6. A. 2 B. 3 C. 4 D. 5

12. It is given that G

1 H2

H = 5M -1. If G =3 when M = 2, express G in terms of H.

A. G =

9 H2

B. G =

27 H2

C. G =

243 H2

D. G =

243 H

13. d e f 6 3 2 8 X 5

The table shows the relation between the three variables d, e and f. If d value of x A. 6 14. It is given that y B. 10 C. 12

e , calculate the f

D. 13

x n . If y varies inversely as the square root of x, then the value of n is

Variations

69

A.

1 2

B.

1 2

C. -1

D. 2

15. F 6 12 G 9 m H 2 3

The table shows the relation between the three variables, F,G and H. If F varies directly as the square root of G and inversely as H, then the value of m is A. 3 16. S P M 2 3 4 3 1 X B. 9 C. 81 D. 144

The table shows the relation between the variables, S, P and M. If S the value of x A. 4 17. Given that p A. p =
9x2 2y

1 , calculate P M

B. 8

C. 16

D. 64

x2 and p = 6 when x = 2 and y = 3, express p in terms of x and y y

B. p =

2x2 9y

C. p =

x2 9y

D. p =

9x2 y

18. Given that y varies directly as x 2 and that y = 80 when x = 4, express y in terms of x A. y = x 2 19. w x y 2 12 9 3 24 m B. y = 5x C. y = 5x 2 D. y =

1280 x2

The table shows the relation between the three variables, w, x and y. If w the value of m A. 2 B. 4 C. 8

x y

, calculate

D. 16

Variations

70

20. If M varies directly as the square root of N, the relation between M and N is A. M

B. M

N2

C. M

1 2

D. M

1
1

N2

PAST YEAR QUESTIONS 1. SPM 2003(Nov) Given that p is directly proportional to n 2 and p = 36, express p in terms of n A. p = n 2 B. p = 4n 2 C. p = 9n 2 D. p = 12n 2

2. SPM 2003(Nov) w x y 2 8 4 3 18 n

The table shows some values of the variables, w, x and y which satisfy the relationship w
x y

, calculate the value of n B. 9 C. 12 D. 36

A. 6

3. SPM 2004(Nov) P varies directly as the square root of Q. The relation between P and Q is 1 1 1 A. P Q 2 B. P Q 2 C. P Q2 4. SPM 2004(Nov) P 3 6 M 8 w r 4 9

D. P

1 Q2

The table shows the relation between the three variables p, m and r. Given that m , calculate the value of w r A. 16 5. SPM 2004(Jun)
Variations 71

B. 24

C. 36

D. 81

n . It is given that p = 4 when n = 8 and r = 6. r Calculate the value of p when n = 64 and r = 3


The relation between p, n and r is p

A. 16 6. SPM 2004(Jun)

B. 24

C. 32

D. 48

It is given that p varies inversely with w and p = 6 when w = 2. Express p in terms of w. A. p =


3 w

B.

1 2 w

C. p = 3w

D. p = 12w

7. SPM 2005(Nov) The table shows some values of the variables x and y such that y varies inversely as the square root of x. x y 4 6 16 3

Find the relation between y and x. A. y = 3


x

B.

12 x

C.

3 2 x 8

D.

96 x2

8. SPM 2005(Nov) It is given that y varies directly as the square root of x and y = 15 when x = 9. Calculate the value of x when y = 30. A. 5 B. 18 C. 25 D. 36 9. SPM 2005(Nov) The table shows some values of the variables w, x and y such that w varies directly as the square of x and inversely as y. W 40 M Calculate the value of m. A. 90 x 4 6 y 2 4

B. 45

C. 30

D. 15

10. SPM 2005(Jun) Table shows values of the variables x and y. x y 3 5 m 15

It is given x varies directly with y. Calculate the value of m.


Variations 72

A. 6 11. SPM 2005(Jun)

B. 9

C. 12

D. 15

P varies directly with the square of R and inversely with Q. It is given that P = 2 when Q = 3 and R = 4. Express P in terms of R and Q. 4Q 32 Q 3R 2 3 R A. P = B. C. D. P = 2 Q 8Q 3 R 3R 12. SPM 2006(Jun) It is given that y varies inversely with x and y = 21 when x = 3. Express y in terms of x. A. y = 7x B. y =
x 7

C. y =

1 63 x

D. y =

63 x

13. SPM 2006(Jun) Table 2 shows two sets of values of Y, V and W. Y 3 5 m V 3 5 W 12 18

It is given that Y varies directly with the square of V and inversely with W. Find the value of m. 5 4 1 0 A. B. C. D. 3 9 9 6 25 14. SPM 2007(Nov) Table 1 shows some values of the variables x and y. x y 2 4 n 32

It is given that y varies directly as the cube of x. Calculate the value of n. A. 4 B. 8 C. 16 D. 30 15. SPM 2007(Nov) P varies inversely as the square root of M. Given that the constant is k, find the relation between P and M. A.

P = kM

1 2

B. P =

k M
1 2

C. P = kM

D. P =

k M2

16. SPM 2007(Nov)

Variations

73

The relation between the variables x, y and z is x and z = 8. Calculate the value of z when x = A. 2 17. SPM 2007(Jun) It is given that P varies inversely with Q and P = between P and Q. 4 A. P = Q 5 18. SPM 2007(Jun) B. P = 1 Q 5 B. 18

y 5 . It is given that x = when y = 2 z 4

5 and y = 6. 3 C. 32

D. 72

2 1 when Q = . Find the relation 5 2


4 5Q

C. P =

D. P =

1 5Q

Table shows some values of the variables F, G and H that satisfy F F 20 108 Calculate the value of p. A. 5 B. 9 C. 10 G 2 6 H 3 p

G2 . H

D. 18

19. SPM 2008(Nov) Table shows some values of the variables R and T. It is given that R varies directly as T . R T Find the value of y. A. 24 20. SPM 2008(Nov) Given y varies inversely as x 3 , and that y = 4 when x = . Calculate the value of x when y = 1 . 1 6 1 A. B. C. 2 D. 8 8
Variations 74

54 36

72 y

B. 27

C. 48

D. 64

21. SPM 2008(Nov) It is given that P varies directly as the square root of Q and inversely as the square of R. Find the relation between P, Q and R. A. P
Q2

R 22. SPM 2008 (Jun)

B. P

Q R
2

C. P

R2 Q

D. P

R Q2

It is given that p varies directly as the square root of w and that p = 5 when w = 4 . Express p in terms of w. A. p =
5 2 w 16

B. p =

80 w2

C. p =

5 w 2

D. p =

10 w

23. SPM 2008(Jun) Table shows some values of the variables m and n, such that m varies inversely as the cube of n m n Calculate the value of x. A.
4 27

1 2 2

x 3

B.

4 9

C. ANSWERS

9 1 6

D.

27 16

Chapter 21 Variations A) DIRECT VARIATION Example 1: No. 1. a) y = 3x b) y = 12 No. 2. a) P = 5 2 Q 2 b) P = 40 No. 3. a) y = 2x b) y = 50 No. 4. m = 1 3 1 n ,m= 2 1 6

Example 2: No. 1. a) M = 4x 2 b) y = 7 and y = -13 B) INVERSE VARIATION 1 2 Example 1: No. 1. a) y = x b) y = 2


Variations

No. 4. a) S =

20 r b) S = 4

75

No. 2. a) P =

2 x 3 b) P = 5

No. 5. P = 9 , Q = 81 N0. 6. k = 12, N =


12 M

No. 3. a) y =

16 x2

b) y = 4 C) JOINT VARIATION Example 1: No. 1. a) k = 3, p = 3qr No. 2. a) k = 2, y = mn b) y = 24 Example 2: No. 1. k = 36, No. 2. k = 72, m= x y=
3 6 y

y=9 e=
3 2

72 , de 2
8N P
2 x 0 , y

Example 3: No. 1. a) k = 8, b) M = 20 No. 2. k = 20, No. 3. k =


4 , 3

M=

w= F=

w=2 G = 9

4G 2 , 3H

No. 4. k = 16,

S=

16 P , M3
p=
4x y

P = -8

No. 5. a) k = 4, b) y = 36 Example 4: No. 1. a) k = 24, b) m = 16 No. 2. a) k = 12, b) K = 81 w=


12

D=

24 EF

x y

Objective Questions. 1.D 2.B 3.A


Variations

6. C 7. A 8. A

11.A 12.C 13.B

16. C 17. A 18. C


76

4.C 5.B

9. C 10. C

14.B 15.C

19. D 20. C

PAST YEAR QUESTIONS 1.B 2.B 3.A 4.B 5.A 6.B 7.B 8.D 9.B 10.B 11.A 12.A 13.C 14. A 15.B 16.B 17.D 18. A 19. C 20. C 21.B 22.C 23. A

Variations

77