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HUAWEI BSC6000 Base Station Subsystem V900R008

BSS Radio Network Opimization Guidelines

Issue Date INTERNAL

01 2008-06-10

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HUAWEI BSC6000 Base Station Subsystem BSS Radio Network Opimization Guidelines

Contents

Contents
About This Document.....................................................................................................................1 1 Introduction to Radio Network Optimization.....................................................................1-1
1.1 Triggering Conditions of Radio Network Optimization.................................................................................1-2 1.2 Procedure of Radio Network Optimization.....................................................................................................1-2

2 Network Optimization Startup...............................................................................................2-1


2.1 Organization of Radio Network Optimization Team......................................................................................2-2 2.2 Determination of Optimization Acceptance Counters....................................................................................2-3 2.3 Preparations of Network Optimization Tools.................................................................................................2-3

3 Single Site Verification.............................................................................................................3-1


3.1 Preparations for Single Site Test.....................................................................................................................3-3 3.2 Single Site Test and Troubleshooting.............................................................................................................3-3

4 RF Optimization.........................................................................................................................4-1
4.1 Preparations for RF Optimization Test...........................................................................................................4-4 4.2 Collection of RF Optimization Data...............................................................................................................4-4 4.3 Analysis of RF Optimization Data..................................................................................................................4-4 4.3.1 Analysis of Coverage Problems.............................................................................................................4-5 4.3.2 Analysis of Interference Problems.........................................................................................................4-7 4.3.3 Analysis of Hardware Faults..................................................................................................................4-8 4.3.4 Analysis of End-To-End Network Elements Interoperation..................................................................4-8 4.4 Implementation of RF Optimization...............................................................................................................4-8

5 KPI Optimization.......................................................................................................................5-1
5.1 Collection of KPI Optimization Data..............................................................................................................5-3 5.2 Analysis of KPI Optimization Data................................................................................................................5-3 5.2.1 Analysis of Access Counter Optimization.............................................................................................5-4 5.2.2 Analysis of Congestion Counter Optimization......................................................................................5-4 5.2.3 Analysis of Handover Counter Optimization.........................................................................................5-6 5.2.4 Analysis of Call Drop Counter Optimization.........................................................................................5-7 5.3 Implementation of KPI Optimization..............................................................................................................5-8

6 Network Acceptance..................................................................................................................6-1
6.1 Main Counters of Network Acceptance..........................................................................................................6-2 6.1.1 Drive Test Counters...............................................................................................................................6-2 Issue 01 (2008-06-10) Huawei Proprietary and Confidential Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd i

Contents

HUAWEI BSC6000 Base Station Subsystem BSS Radio Network Opimization Guidelines 6.1.2 Performance Measurement Counters.....................................................................................................6-3

6.2 Contents of the Network Acceptance Report..................................................................................................6-4

7 Network Optimization Tools...................................................................................................7-1


7.1 Probe................................................................................................................................................................7-2 7.2 TEMS..............................................................................................................................................................7-2 7.3 ANT Pilot for GSM.........................................................................................................................................7-3 7.4 Assistant..........................................................................................................................................................7-3 7.5 ANT for GSM.................................................................................................................................................7-5 7.6 Nastar..............................................................................................................................................................7-6

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Figures

Figures
Figure 1-1 Procedure of network optimization....................................................................................................1-2 Figure 2-1 Organization of the radio network optimization team........................................................................2-2 Figure 3-1 Verification procedure of a single site................................................................................................3-2 Figure 4-1 Procedure of RF optimization.............................................................................................................4-2 Figure 5-1 Procedure of KPI optimization...........................................................................................................5-2 Figure 5-2 Call dropped due to oversized coverage.............................................................................................5-7

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HUAWEI BSC6000 Base Station Subsystem BSS Radio Network Opimization Guidelines

Tables

Tables
Table 2-1 Network optimization tools..................................................................................................................2-3 Table 6-1 Drive test counters of the GSM network..............................................................................................6-2 Table 6-2 Performance counters of the GSM network.........................................................................................6-3 Table 7-1 Main functions of the Assistant............................................................................................................7-3 Table 7-2 Main functions of the Nastar................................................................................................................7-6

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HUAWEI BSC6000 Base Station Subsystem BSS Radio Network Opimization Guidelines

About This Document

About This Document

Purpose
BSS radio network optimization refers to appropriately adjusting the planning results of the mobile communications network so that the network can operate more economically and reliably. Through radio network optimization, the service quality and resource usage of the network are greatly improved. This document consists six major topics, which are overview of GBSS radio network optimization, network optimization startup, single site verification, RF optimization, KPI optimization, and network acceptance.

Product Version
The following table lists the product version related to this document. Product Name BSC Product Model BSC6000 Product Version V900R008

Intended Audience
This document is intended for network optimization engineers.

Change History
For changes in the document, refer to Changes in BSS Radio Network Optimization Guidelines.

Organization
1 Introduction to Radio Network Optimization Radio network optimization refers to appropriately adjusting the planning results of the mobile communications network so that the network can operate more economically and reliably. Through radio network optimization, the service quality and resource usage of the network are greatly improved, and the balance among coverage, capacity, and quality is achieved. 2 Network Optimization Startup Network optimization startup consists of organizing the network optimization team, determining the acceptance counters, and arranging the network optimization tools.
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About This Document

HUAWEI BSC6000 Base Station Subsystem BSS Radio Network Opimization Guidelines

3 Single Site Verification Single site verification is a self-test associated with the equipment in each site and each cell. The purpose of single site verification is to verify that the basic functions, such as access, call, and handover for each site and each cell in the area to be optimized are normal before RF optimization. Single site verification is optional for the existing networks. 4 RF Optimization RF optimization aims to optimize the signal coverage, mitigate the interference, and ensure the even distribution and normal coverage of the radio signals after the service parameters are optimized. 5 KPI Optimization KPI optimization involves optimizing the service performance of the network to meet the acceptance requirements. During KPI optimization, the engineers for the network optimization find and solve the problems that do not meet the acceptance requirements through the analysis of the drive test data and the traffic measurement data. 6 Network Acceptance Network acceptance aims to make sure that the network performance meets the optimization specifications. It involves the collection of traffic measurement data and drive test data, as well as the evaluation of network quality and the presentation of network optimization. 7 Network Optimization Tools Network optimization tools are used for data collection, data analysis, and simulation analysis. They help to simplify network optimization and improve efficiency in work. The network optimization tools are Probe, TEMS, ANT pilot for GSM, Assistant, ANT for GSM, and Nastar.

Conventions
1. Symbol Conventions The following symbols may be found in this document. They are defined as follows Symbol Description Indicates a hazard with a high level of risk that, if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury. Indicates a hazard with a medium or low level of risk which, if not avoided, could result in minor or moderate injury. Indicates a potentially hazardous situation that, if not avoided, could cause equipment damage, data loss, and performance degradation, or unexpected results. Indicates a tip that may help you solve a problem or save your time. Provides additional information to emphasize or supplement important points of the main text.
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DANGER

WARNING

CAUTION
TIP

NOTE

HUAWEI BSC6000 Base Station Subsystem BSS Radio Network Opimization Guidelines

About This Document

2. General Conventions Convention Times New Roman Boldface Italic Courier New 3. Command Conventions Convention Boldface Italic [] {x | y | ...} [ x | y | ... ] { x | y | ... } * [ x | y | ... ] * Description The keywords of a command line are in boldface. Command arguments are in italic. Items (keywords or arguments) in square brackets [ ] are optional. Alternative items are grouped in braces and separated by vertical bars.One is selected. Optional alternative items are grouped in square brackets and separated by vertical bars.One or none is selected. Alternative items are grouped in braces and separated by vertical bars.A minimum of one or a maximum of all can be selected. Alternative items are grouped in braces and separated by vertical bars.A minimum of zero or a maximum of all can be selected. Description Normal paragraphs are in Times New Roman. Names of files,directories,folders,and users are in boldface. For example,log in as user root . Book titles are in italics. Terminal display is in Courier New.

4. GUI Conventions Convention Boldface > Description Buttons,menus,parameters,tabs,window,and dialog titles are in boldface. For example,click OK. Multi-level menus are in boldface and separated by the ">" signs. For example,choose File > Create > Folder .

5. Keyboard Operation Convention Key Key1+Key2 Description Press the key.For example,press Enter and press Tab. Press the keys concurrently.For example,pressing Ctrl+Alt+A means the three keys should be pressed concurrently.
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Convention Key1,Key2

Description Press the keys in turn.For example,pressing Alt,A means the two keys should be pressed in turn.

6. Mouse Operation Action Click Double-click Drag Description Select and release the primary mouse button without moving the pointer. Press the primary mouse button twice continuously and quickly without moving the pointer. Press and hold the primary mouse button and move the pointer to a certain position.

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1 Introduction to Radio Network Optimization

1
About This Chapter

Introduction to Radio Network Optimization

Radio network optimization refers to appropriately adjusting the planning results of the mobile communications network so that the network can operate more economically and reliably. Through radio network optimization, the service quality and resource usage of the network are greatly improved, and the balance among coverage, capacity, and quality is achieved. 1.1 Triggering Conditions of Radio Network Optimization Network optimization can be performed during the lifetime of the network. It helps to optimize the network performance according to the telecom operator's requirements, and thus brings about more benefits. 1.2 Procedure of Radio Network Optimization Radio network optimization involves the following phases: project startup, single site verification, RF optimization, KPI optimization, and network acceptance.

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1.1 Triggering Conditions of Radio Network Optimization


Network optimization can be performed during the lifetime of the network. It helps to optimize the network performance according to the telecom operator's requirements, and thus brings about more benefits. The radio network optimization is mainly performed in the following two phases:
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Network construction period Radio network optimization complements and rectifies the operational network planning to raise the quality and efficiency of the network.

Network maintenance period When the network quality deteriorates due to changes in the propagation environment and traffic volume, you can perform network optimization to adjust network parameters so that the network can operate stably and efficiently.

1.2 Procedure of Radio Network Optimization


Radio network optimization involves the following phases: project startup, single site verification, RF optimization, KPI optimization, and network acceptance. Figure 1-1 shows the procedure of network optimization. Figure 1-1 Procedure of network optimization
Network optimization preparation and startup inputs Existing network inputs: Performance measurement data Alarm data Complaints Network optimization records Cell Parameter Table Radio Network Planning Report Engineering Parameter Table KPI optimization outputs Updated Cell Parameter Table/Cell Parameter Optimization Record Updated Engineering Parameter Table/Engineering Parameter Optimization Record Daily Performance Measurement Report (Optional) Start

Network optimization preparation and startup

Single site verification

RF optimization outputs Updated Cell Parameter Table/Cell Parameter Optimization Record

RF optimization

Updated Engineering Parameter Table/Engineering Parameter Optimization Record

KPI optimization Radio network optimization reports Radio Network Acceptance Report Radio Network Optimization Report

Network acceptance

End

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1 Introduction to Radio Network Optimization

Phase 2 Network Optimization Startup 3 Single Site Verification

Description According to the telecom operator's requirements for the GSM radio network, discuss and determine the optimization counters. The optimization counters are one of the criteria for network acceptance. The radio network optimization team begins to function when the site is ready for service. Verify that the site runs properly and that the data configuration is consistent with that determined during radio network planning. Collect the information on the site and the ambient environment for future optimization. RF optimization ensures the radio signal coverage and solves the RFrelated service problems. RF optimization is performed based on clusters. Several BTSs are from one cluster. RF optimization is performed based on the drive test data. The overlapped areas must be optimized. KPI optimization, consisting of the analysis of the drive test data and that of the traffic measurement data, supplements the RF optimization in radio network problems. Through KPI optimization, services-related problems, such as access failures, call drops, and handover failures are solved. The entire radio network is checked, if required. The acceptance is passed when the final network KPIs meet the customers' requirements.

4 RF Optimization

5 KPI Optimization

6 Network Acceptance

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2 Network Optimization Startup

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About This Chapter

Network Optimization Startup

Network optimization startup consists of organizing the network optimization team, determining the acceptance counters, and arranging the network optimization tools. 2.1 Organization of Radio Network Optimization Team During network optimization startup, you need to determine the members of the radio network optimization team. 2.2 Determination of Optimization Acceptance Counters The acceptance counters are the targets of network optimization. The definition, test requirements, and test methods of the counters must be determined together with the telecom operator before network optimization. Some counters that are already determined during the planning period can be obtained from the contract. 2.3 Preparations of Network Optimization Tools Each network optimization team must have at least one set of network optimization tools.

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2.1 Organization of Radio Network Optimization Team


During network optimization startup, you need to determine the members of the radio network optimization team. Figure 2-1 shows the organization of the network optimization team. Figure 2-1 Organization of the radio network optimization team
Project manager

Area network 1

...... ......

Area network N

TS/TL

TS/TL DT/signaling/ performance measurement counter selection engineer Performance measurement counter analysis engineer

DT/signaling/ performance measurement counter selection engineer Performance measurement counter analysis engineer

Troubleshooting engineer

......

Troubleshooting engineer

Complaints analysis engineer

Complaints analysis engineer

Parameter modification engineer

Parameter modification engineer

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2 Network Optimization Startup

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Technical Supporters (TSs) Team Leader (TL)

2.2 Determination of Optimization Acceptance Counters


The acceptance counters are the targets of network optimization. The definition, test requirements, and test methods of the counters must be determined together with the telecom operator before network optimization. Some counters that are already determined during the planning period can be obtained from the contract. The key counters that indicate the network quality include the coverage rate, call drop rate, call setup success rate, and congestion rate. The acceptance counters are classified into drive test counters and traffic measurement counters. The type of the counters to be focused on varies with the type of the network.
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For new networks with comparatively few subscribers, the acceptance counters mainly refer to drive test counters. For the existing network with a certain amount of subscribers, the acceptance counters should refer to both drive test counters and performance counters.

2.3 Preparations of Network Optimization Tools


Each network optimization team must have at least one set of network optimization tools. Table 2-1 lists the network optimization tools. Table 2-1 Network optimization tools SN 1 Category Drive test tools Name Genex Probe/ Assistant, TEMS, ANT K1205, MA10, Signaling Analyzer Genex Nastar YBT250 Description Collects data on the Um interface Analyzes the signaling traced on the A and Abis interfaces Analyzes the traffic measurements Sweeps frequencies

2 3 4

Signaling instruments Performance analysis tool Spectrum analyzer

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3 Single Site Verification

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About This Chapter
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Single Site Verification

Single site verification is a self-test associated with the equipment in each site and each cell. The purpose of single site verification is to verify that the basic functions, such as access, call, and handover for each site and each cell in the area to be optimized are normal before RF optimization. Single site verification is optional for the existing networks. The functions of single site verification are as follows: Distinguishing the problems during network optimization from the equipment faults, for example, distinguishing call drops and access failures caused by network coverage from that caused by equipment faults. The differentiation facilitates locating and solving problems and also enhances the network optimization efficiency. Familiarizing the engineers for network optimization with the information, such as the site location, site configuration, and surrounding environment in the area to be optimized as well as laying foundation for the succeeding network optimization.

Single site verification involves the test preparations, single site test, and troubleshooting. Figure 3-1 shows the verification procedure of a single site.

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HUAWEI BSC6000 Base Station Subsystem BSS Radio Network Opimization Guidelines

Figure 3-1 Verification procedure of a single site

Radio Parameter Planning Data Sheet

Test preparations Site state check Configuration data check Other preparations

Radio Parameter Configuration Data Sheet

Single site test Frequency check LAC/CID check Ambient site C/I check Call functions check (voice/SMS) Coverage DT check Antenna system check ...

Single Site Verification Checklist

Troubleshooting

When all the cells in the area to be optimized pass the verification and no equipment fault occurs, the single site verification ends and the RF optimization starts. 3.1 Preparations for Single Site Test During preparations for single site test, you need to check the site status, check configuration data, select test places or routes, and debugs test instruments. 3.2 Single Site Test and Troubleshooting Single site test aims to locate the problems associated with the installation and functionality of the equipment. After the signal site test is complete, the test results of each site should be produced.

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3 Single Site Verification

3.1 Preparations for Single Site Test


During preparations for single site test, you need to check the site status, check configuration data, select test places or routes, and debugs test instruments. You need to perform the following operations before single site test:
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Checking site status Prepare the list of test cells and ensure that the cells are normal. Checking the configuration data Check whether the configuration data in the Radio Parameter Configuration Data Sheet is the same as that in the BSC database.

Selecting test places or routes To ensure that the test services are provided by the test cell, select a place within the coverage of the test cell where the signal strength is strong.

Other preparations

Consult the engineers for network optimization from the telecom operator to verify that the power of each site is ready for transmission. Obtain the test mobile phone number. Select the position where signals are strong in the target cell. Obtain the test SIM card and ensure that the relevant services are available. Debug the instruments for the test to ensure that they are operational. Ensure that the test MS is in engineering mode and that the battery is fully charged. Print test forms. Familiarize yourself with the test site information, including the site location, cell ID, frequencies, omnidirectional or directional antenna, and antenna azimuth.

3.2 Single Site Test and Troubleshooting


Single site test aims to locate the problems associated with the installation and functionality of the equipment. After the signal site test is complete, the test results of each site should be produced. Single site test involves the following aspects:
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Site configuration and troubleshooting

Checking frequencies Check whether the ARFCNs are the same as those planned. Checking LAI Check whether the LAI is the same as that planned. Checking handover Check whether the configuration of the neighbor cell is complete and whether the handover parameters are normal.

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For the abnormal site configuration, you need to adjust related parameters to solve the problem.
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Site coverage and troubleshooting Check whether the field strength is normal and whether there are problems such as abnormal power amplification, improper antenna system connection, blockage due to environmental change, and inconsistent antenna tilt and azimuth. Solve the problems in site coverage by adjusting the antenna system.

Site service test and troubleshooting Perform Call Quality Test (CQT) to check whether the access and conversation of the speech services are normal through dialing test. Solve the service problems by adjusting related parameters or by rectifying hardware faults.

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4 RF Optimization

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About This Chapter
RF optimization involves the following aspects:
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RF Optimization

RF optimization aims to optimize the signal coverage, mitigate the interference, and ensure the even distribution and normal coverage of the radio signals after the service parameters are optimized.

Signal coverage optimization Problems in radio coverage are caused by the following factors:

Incomplete network planning and imperfect radio network structure Equipment faults Low construction quality New coverage requirements from the customers

The handling methods vary with the causes of the coverage problem.
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Interference optimization

For the downlink, the field strength is great and the speech quality is poor. For the uplink, the interference level is high.

For the interference occurred during RF optimization, you need to locate the interference sources. The interference sources that affect the GSM system are as follows:

Intra-network interference Intra-network interference involves the co-channel interference and adjacent channel interference. When C/I < 12 dB or C/A < -6 dB, interference occurs. Interference appears more frequently when aggressive frequency reuse is used. The probability of interference increases when tight frequency reuse patterns are used.

Interference from repeaters Repeaters are used in the early phase of network construction to extend the BTS coverage distance. If not appropriately used, the repeaters will cause interference to BTSs.

Interference from other high-power communications equipment


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Radar sites, analog sites, and the communications equipment of the same frequency band cause interference.

Hardware faults Hardware faults consist of TRX fault, Combining and Distribution Unit (CDU) fault or divider fault, spurious emission, and intermodulation.

Figure 4-1 shows the procedure of RF optimization. Figure 4-1 Procedure of RF optimization
Start

Test preparations: Determining the optimization target Categorizing the clusters Determining the test route Keeping ready the documents and tools

Data collection: Drive test Indoor test BSC configuration data collection

Adjustment: Engineering parameter adjustment Neighbor cell parameter adjustment

Are the optimization results factory? Yes End

No

Problem analysis: Coverage analysis Interference analysis Hardware faults analysis End-to-end network elements interoperation analysis

4.1 Preparations for RF Optimization Test The preparations for RF optimization test ensure the smooth operation of RF optimization. It involves determining the optimization target, categorizing the clusters, determining the test route, and arranging for the documents and tools. 4.2 Collection of RF Optimization Data The RF optimization data can be collected through drive tests, indoor tests, and signaling tracing. The collected data together with the BSC call tracing data and configuration data provide reference for problem location. The data helps to check whether the network operates in accordance with the specifications. 4.3 Analysis of RF Optimization Data The DT and CQT are efficient means to locate radio network problems. After the tests are complete, you need to analyze the collected data, and then to locate and solve the problems according to the analysis result. Through the analysis of RF optimization data, you can locate network problems related to coverage, interference, hardware failure, and interoperability of network elements, and then make appropriate adjustments. 4.4 Implementation of RF Optimization
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4 RF Optimization

The implementation of RF optimization involves the adjustment of the cell engineering parameters and cell parameters based on the data analysis so that they meet the KPI requirements.

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4.1 Preparations for RF Optimization Test


The preparations for RF optimization test ensure the smooth operation of RF optimization. It involves determining the optimization target, categorizing the clusters, determining the test route, and arranging for the documents and tools. The test preparation phase involves the following aspects:
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Determining the optimization target Determine the optimization target so that the network can operate as planned and that the KPIs meet the acceptance requirements.

Categorizing the clusters The coverage, capacity, and quality of the GSM network are related to each other. Therefore, RF optimization must be performed in clusters instead of single BTSs.

Determining the test route Before the drive test, determine with the customer the KPI drive test route. The drive test route must include the customer-specified route, if there is any.

Getting ready the documents and tools For details, refer to 2.3 Preparations of Network Optimization Tools. The required documents include user guides, reports, and templates.

4.2 Collection of RF Optimization Data


The RF optimization data can be collected through drive tests, indoor tests, and signaling tracing. The collected data together with the BSC call tracing data and configuration data provide reference for problem location. The data helps to check whether the network operates in accordance with the specifications. The RF optimization data can be collected through the following methods:
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Drive test In the coverage area of the network, use the mobile phone in standard conversation mode to collect counters associated with the specified services.

Call quality test The call quality test (CQT) covers the continuous coverage services that are listed in the commercial contract or in the planning report of the trial office. The test method is the same as the drive test. The CQT areas consist of the indoor areas (buildings, malls, subways, indoor stadiums, and government agencies) and operator-required test areas (VIC and VIP).

The RF optimization data is collected through the DT and CQT. The DT is performed more often, and the CQT is performed according to the contract or planning requirements.

4.3 Analysis of RF Optimization Data


The DT and CQT are efficient means to locate radio network problems. After the tests are complete, you need to analyze the collected data, and then to locate and solve the problems according to the analysis result. Through the analysis of RF optimization data, you can locate
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4 RF Optimization

network problems related to coverage, interference, hardware failure, and interoperability of network elements, and then make appropriate adjustments. 4.3.1 Analysis of Coverage Problems The analysis of coverage problem, the key of RF optimization, focuses on signal distribution. 4.3.2 Analysis of Interference Problems Interference is a key factor that influences network operation. It greatly affects the speech quality and handover. Call drops or congestion may be caused. The interference analysis involves uplink interference analysis and downlink interference analysis. 4.3.3 Analysis of Hardware Faults Hardware faults affect the normal operation of the network or disrupt the network. Also, the network performance deteriorates. Hardware faults consist of the network element faults and transmission link faults. You can determine the type of the faults by checking the hardware alarms and analyzing the traffic measurement results. 4.3.4 Analysis of End-To-End Network Elements Interoperation The end-to-end network elements refer to the nodes on the mobile communications network. The proper operation of the network elements, including the BTS, BSC, and MSC, is the prerequisite for the normal operation of the network.

4.3.1 Analysis of Coverage Problems


The analysis of coverage problem, the key of RF optimization, focuses on signal distribution. The common coverage problems and corresponding checking items are as follows:
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If the coverage area becomes smaller after the BTS starts services, check the following items:

Check the ambient environment of the BTS antennas. Check the changes in the propagation environment. Check whether there are VSWR alarms and main and diversity receive alarms on the Site Maintenance Terminal System. Check whether the VSWR is less than 1.5. Check whether the TMA is operational. Check the engineering parameters such as the antenna tilt and azimuth. Check the BTS transmit power. Check whether the BTS receiver sensitivity is normal. Check whether the parameters associated with coverage are set properly. Check whether the noise floor is high due to interference and poor electromagnetic environment.

If the coverage problems are caused by the expansion of the BTS capacity, check the following items:

Check whether the configuration of combiners changes after capacity expansion. Check whether appropriate antennas are selected. Check whether the new antennas are installed in accordance with the requirements. Check the location of the BCCH transmit antenna of the omnidirectional double transmit antennas.
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For the directional double transmit antennas, check whether the pitch and the azimuth of the antennas are consistent. Check the output power on top of the cabinet for different TRXs when the maximumcoverage configuration is used.

If the coverage problems are caused by BTS swapping or new construction, check the following items:

Check whether the azimuth and height of the antennas is the same as those before swapping. Check whether the tilt of the directional antennas is the same as that before swapping. Check whether the power on top of the cabinet for the BTS before and after swapping are consistent. Check whether the BTS receiver sensitivity is normal. Check whether the noise floor is high due to interference and poor electromagnetic environment. Check whether there are VSWR alarms and main and diversity receive alarms on the Site Maintenance Terminal System. Check whether the parameters associated with coverage are set properly. Check whether the antennas are installed in accordance with the requirements after the BTS is put into operation or after new construction. Check whether appropriate antennas are selected. Check the location of the BCCH transmit antenna of the omnidirectional double transmit antennas. For the directional double transmit antennas, check whether the pitch and the azimuth of the antennas are consistent. Check that there are inverse connections in the antenna system. Check whether the TMA is operational. Check the power on top of the cabinet for different TRXs when the maximum-coverage configuration is used.

The common problems that affect coverage are as follows:


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Water running into the antennas Passive intermodulation antennas Inappropriate antenna type Select the antennas that meet the network performance requirements and ensure there are signals under the antenna tower.

Tower influences on the omnidirectional antennas The tower has great influences on the signal strength and the coverage area of the antennas. The influences depend on the distance between the MS and the tower.

Inappropriate installation of the directional antennas The antennas may be connected inversely or wrongly. The azimuth and pitch of the transmit antennas and the receive antennas are not consistent. The diversity spacing, the isolation from the tower, and the shadows of the directional cells in the neighbor coverage areas are not set appropriately.

Inappropriate installation of the omnidirectional antennas


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The radiator of the omnidirectional antenna is blocked by the post. The diversity spacing and the isolation from the tower are not set appropriately. The installation is not perpendicular to the horizontal plane.
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Problems associated with the connection of the antenna system, combiner and divider, and CDU Water leaks into the connectors and the feeders in the antenna system. The connectors are not tightened. The connection of the jumpers is not consistent with data configuration, which causes inverse connection of the transmit antennas and the receive antennas. The jumpers and the feeders are not properly connected, which causes signal loss, excessive VSWR, passive cross-modulation, and interference.

TMA problems Water leaks into the TMA. The lower noise amplifier (LNA) is damaged. The TMA is connected inversely.

BTS front-end module fault The isolator, duplexer, or other filters break down. The false VSWR alarm, faulty LNA, and small output power of the TRX or the amplifier affect the coverage.

The parameters that affect coverage areas are as follows: TRX power level, TMA power attenuation factor, MS maximum transmit power control level, MS minimum receive signal level, and RACH minimum access level

4.3.2 Analysis of Interference Problems


Interference is a key factor that influences network operation. It greatly affects the speech quality and handover. Call drops or congestion may be caused. The interference analysis involves uplink interference analysis and downlink interference analysis.
l

Analysis of uplink interference problems If the traffic volume is low compared with the interference band, then the uplink interference exists.

Analysis of downlink interference problems If the Received Signal Quality (RXQUAL) is lower than the predefined threshold and the Received Signal Level (RXLEV) is higher than the predefined threshold, then the downlink interference exists. If Both RXQUAL and RXLEV are lower than the predefined thresholds, then the coverage problem exists.

The interference sources of the GSM network are as follows:


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Intra-network interference Interference from repeaters Interference from other high-power communications equipment Hardware faults

The location and troubleshooting are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4.


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5. 6.

Perform the drive test. Eliminate the interference based on the check results.

4.3.3 Analysis of Hardware Faults


Hardware faults affect the normal operation of the network or disrupt the network. Also, the network performance deteriorates. Hardware faults consist of the network element faults and transmission link faults. You can determine the type of the faults by checking the hardware alarms and analyzing the traffic measurement results. If the network performance deteriorates due to poor transmission quality and unstable operation of boards and transmission links on the Abis and A interfaces, analyze as follows: 1. 2. Check the transmission alarms and board alarms to see whether there is intermittent transmission or faulty boards. Check whether the transmission paths, bit error rate, and 2M connectors are normal. Also, check whether the equipment is properly grounded.

4.3.4 Analysis of End-To-End Network Elements Interoperation


The end-to-end network elements refer to the nodes on the mobile communications network. The proper operation of the network elements, including the BTS, BSC, and MSC, is the prerequisite for the normal operation of the network. The interoperation problems of the network elements refer to the problems in interface protocols, version matching, A and Abis interface data configuration, and interface signaling compatibility. All the problems affect the network performance.

4.4 Implementation of RF Optimization


The implementation of RF optimization involves the adjustment of the cell engineering parameters and cell parameters based on the data analysis so that they meet the KPI requirements. Antenna adjustment is a part of the RF optimization. You should consider the optimization cost when replacing the antennas, adding TMAs, and adding BTSs. You can solve most RF problems by adjusting the following engineering parameters:
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Antenna tilt Antenna azimuth Antenna height Antenna location Antenna type Adding TMAs Replacing site type, for example, replacing a site that supports 20 W power amplification with a site that supports 40 W power amplification Adjusting the site location Adding sites
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CAUTION
The previous engineering parameter with higher adjustment priority is listed firstly.

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5
About This Chapter

KPI Optimization

KPI optimization involves optimizing the service performance of the network to meet the acceptance requirements. During KPI optimization, the engineers for the network optimization find and solve the problems that do not meet the acceptance requirements through the analysis of the drive test data and the traffic measurement data. KPI optimization involves the counters such as the call-completion rate, call drop rate, handover success rate, and congestion rate. Figure 5-1 shows the procedure of KPI optimization.

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Figure 5-1 Procedure of KPI optimization


Start

RF optimization Data collection: Configuration data Drive test data Performance measurement data Call trace data Make solutions Data analysis Discuss solutions Are the optimization results satisfactory? Yes End No Data analysis and processing

Are the Yes optimization results satisfactory? No

5.1 Collection of KPI Optimization Data The KPI optimization data consists of the drive test data, call tracing data, traffic measurement data, and configuration data. The data helps to check whether the network operates in accordance with the specifications. Also, the data provides reference for locating problems. 5.2 Analysis of KPI Optimization Data The single site test focuses on the functional problems associated with the equipment, the RF optimization focuses on the problems associated with signal coverage, and the KPI optimization focuses on the KPI problems. The analysis of KPI optimization data helps solve the remaining equipment and coverage problems. The common KPI problems are associated with call access, congestion, handover, and call drops. 5.3 Implementation of KPI Optimization During the implementation of KPI optimization, you can adjust the radio configuration parameters to enhance the service performance.

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5.1 Collection of KPI Optimization Data


The KPI optimization data consists of the drive test data, call tracing data, traffic measurement data, and configuration data. The data helps to check whether the network operates in accordance with the specifications. Also, the data provides reference for locating problems.

Collection of Drive Test Data


The data collected during drive test is associated with the MS. The drive test in KPI optimization should be more detailed and comprehensive than that in RF optimization. The drive test in KPI optimization involves the following aspects:
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Test services: speech and data Test methods: continuous conversation, dialing test, and automatic test

Collection of Call Tracing Data


The call tracing data is collected on the network equipment side. It consists of the following:
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User signaling messages Cell signaling messages Standard interface signaling messages LAC data Real-time performance monitoring data

Collection of Traffic Measurement Data


The performance measurement data indicates the radio performance on the network level and the cell level. GBSS performance data consists of the following:
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Access data Call drop data Handover data Traffic volume Congestion data

Collection of Configuration Data


The configuration script files collected in the BSC are used for problem analysis and location.

5.2 Analysis of KPI Optimization Data


The single site test focuses on the functional problems associated with the equipment, the RF optimization focuses on the problems associated with signal coverage, and the KPI optimization focuses on the KPI problems. The analysis of KPI optimization data helps solve the remaining equipment and coverage problems. The common KPI problems are associated with call access, congestion, handover, and call drops.

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5.2.1 Analysis of Access Counter Optimization The analysis of access problems aims to make sure that the drive test data and traffic measurement data meet the specifications. 5.2.2 Analysis of Congestion Counter Optimization The congestion in the GSM network refers to the SDCCH congestion and TCH congestion. If SDCCH congestion occurs, it means there are no idle SDCCH available. If TCH congestion occurs, either the channel request fails because no idle TCHs are available or the TCH assignment fails after the assignment command is issued. In the later case, there are various reasons that cause the assignment failure. 5.2.3 Analysis of Handover Counter Optimization The analysis of handover problems involve the analysis of the drive test data and the analysis of the traffic measurement data. It aims to make sure whether the drive test data and traffic measurement data meet the specifications. Before performing handover optimization, check whether the handover problem is associated with radio handover failures or other causes. 5.2.4 Analysis of Call Drop Counter Optimization Call drops are associated with coverage, handover, interference, antenna system, transmission, and parameter setting.

5.2.1 Analysis of Access Counter Optimization


The analysis of access problems aims to make sure that the drive test data and traffic measurement data meet the specifications.
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Access specifications (drive test) The access specifications consist of the calling party completion ratio, called party completion ratio, and access delay of the CS and PS services.

Access specifications (traffic measurements) The access specifications consist of the paging success rate and call setup success rate.

If access problems exist, the call drop counters obtained from drive test and traffic measurement might fail to meet the acceptance requirements. The common access problems are as follows:
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Paging problems Assignment problems Authentication and encryption problems Equipment problems

To solve the access problems, you need to adjust the following antenna configuration parameters:
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Cell reselection parameters The cell reselection parameters consist of the reselection start threshold, reselection delay, reselection hysteresis, and cell offset.

Radom access parameters The random access parameters consist of the RACH minimum access threshold, BS-PAMFRAMS, MS minimum access level, and RACH error threshold.

5.2.2 Analysis of Congestion Counter Optimization


The congestion in the GSM network refers to the SDCCH congestion and TCH congestion. If SDCCH congestion occurs, it means there are no idle SDCCH available. If TCH congestion
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occurs, either the channel request fails because no idle TCHs are available or the TCH assignment fails after the assignment command is issued. In the later case, there are various reasons that cause the assignment failure. The common congestion and troubleshooting are as follows:
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Congestion caused by high traffic volume Check the performance measurement results to see whether the traffic volume of the SDCCH and the TCH exceeds the specifications. For congestion caused by high traffic volume, capacity expansion is the fundamental solution. Also, traffic sharing can be applied to mitigate the congestion.

SDCCH congestion caused by burst traffic If the SDCCH congestion rate and the traffic volume are high while the TCH traffic volume is normal, the SDCCH congestion may be caused by a traffic burst. To mitigate the SDCCH congestion, you can configure more SDCCHs or enable the SDCCH-TCH dynamic conversion function.

Congestion caused by TRX failure In a cell configured with multiple TRXs, if a faulty TRX is out of service, congestion may occur. You can replace the faulty TRX. If you are not sure whether the fault lies in the TRX or not, check whether the cables in the antenna system are properly connected and whether the VSWR is normal. If the cables in the antenna system are properly connected and the VSWR is normal, replace the TRX and then check whether the services recover.

Congestion caused by interference Interference on the Um interface also causes congestion. Mitigate the congestion by solving the interference problems.

Congestion caused by channel assignment failure due to inconsistent coverage The causes are as follows:

The transmit power of the TRXs in a cell are not the same. Check whether the combiner and divider, CDU, and SCU are properly connected. The coverage areas of the transmit antennas in a cell are not the same. You can solve the problem through engineering adjustment. The transmit and receive antennas are not on the same horizontal plane or their tilts are not the same. You can solve the problem by adjusting the antennas.

Congestion caused by inappropriate data configuration The data configuration involved in such congestion is as follows:

Planning of location areas Plan the location areas reasonably to decrease SDCCH congestion. Dynamic allocation of SDCCHs Enable the SDCCH dynamic allocation function to decrease SDCCH congestion. Dual-band network Set the dual-band network parameters (for example, CRO, CBA, CBQ, and Cell Reselection Hysteresis) appropriately to decrease SDCCH congestion.

Timer setting Check whether the timers, such as T3101, T3103, T3107, T3122, T3212, and T3111, are set appropriately.

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5.2.3 Analysis of Handover Counter Optimization


The analysis of handover problems involve the analysis of the drive test data and the analysis of the traffic measurement data. It aims to make sure whether the drive test data and traffic measurement data meet the specifications. Before performing handover optimization, check whether the handover problem is associated with radio handover failures or other causes. The common handover problems and troubleshooting are as follows:
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Unsuccessful handover The MS fails to initiate a handover when the signals in the cell are weak or signal quality is poor. Take the following aspects into consideration:

Whether the handover conditions are met Whether there is a candidate cell that meets the handover conditions The handover thresholds are set too low. No neighboring cell relation is set. The handover hysteresis is set inappropriately. The best cell measurement time N and P are set inappropriately.
NOTE

Adjust relevant parameters based on the following causes:


P/N criterion: If the triggering conditions of an event are met for at least P seconds within N seconds, then the event meets the P/N criterion.
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The BTS clock expires.

Handover problems caused by hardware failure If a handover problem occurs while the configuration data of the faulty cell and its neighbor cells is not changed recently, then check whether the problem is caused by hardware failure. If so, replace the faulty hardware.

Handover problems caused by inappropriate data configuration

In independent MSC networking mode, if the incoming or outgoing MSC handover is abnormal, check whether the signaling settings are inconsistent in the local and peer MSCs and whether the data of the local and peer MSCs is changed. In co-MSC networking mode, if the handover between the BSCs from different manufacturers is abnormal, check whether signaling settings are consistent in the two BSCs, and then check whether the data of the two BSCs is changed. If the handover failure applies to only one cell, then analyze the problem based on the actual situations. Check the timers related to handover, such as the T3105, Ny1, T3103, and T3124.

To locate the handover problems, do as follows: 1. Check whether the fault lies in one cell or in all the cells. Check also the characteristics of the faulty cells. For example, the faulty cells are neighboring cells of a cell or the faulty cells share a BSC or an MSC. Check whether the configuration data is adjusted before the problem occurs. Check whether the problem is caused by hardware faults. Register the related performance measurement counters such as handover performance measurement counters and TCH performance measurement counters.
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5.

Perform a drive test in the faulty cell and analyze the signaling.

5.2.4 Analysis of Call Drop Counter Optimization


Call drops are associated with coverage, handover, interference, antenna system, transmission, and parameter setting. The causes and troubleshooting of common call drops are as follows:
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Coverage-related call drops are caused by the following:

Discontinuous coverage with blind areas The signals on the edge of an isolated BTS are weak and of poor quality; thus, calls are dropped as they cannot be handed over to other cells. In complex landforms, for example, mountainsides, the transmission of the signals is blocked and discontinuous, which causes call drops.

Bad indoor coverage Densely distributed buildings and thick walls cause great attenuation and low indoor level, which lead to call drops.

Cross-area coverage (isolated island) In Figure 5-2, cell B is the neighbor cell of cell A, but cell C is not. If the MS roams from cell A to cell C and still seizes the signals of cell A, when a handover is initiated from cell A to cell B, the MS will not find a suitable target cell and the call is dropped.

Figure 5-2 Call dropped due to oversized coverage

Can't find next cell cause call drop Cell A Cell C

Cell B Expected Coverage Actual Coverage

Undersized coverage If the hardware of a cell is faulty, for example, the radiator of the antenna is blocked or the BCCH TRX is faulty, calls might be dropped.

For calls dropped due to coverage, locate the areas with insufficient coverage through drive test, and then remove inappropriate neighbor cell relations and rectify hardware faults, provided that the indoor communications is acceptable. For details, refer to 4 RF Optimization.
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Handover-related call drop


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For details on the analysis of handover-related call drop and its troubleshooting, refer to 5.2.3 Analysis of Handover Counter Optimization.
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Interference-related call drop For details on the analysis of interference-related call drop and its troubleshooting, refer to 4.3.2 Analysis of Interference Problems.

Antenna system-related call drop For details on the analysis of antenna system-related call drop and its troubleshooting, refer to 4 RF Optimization.

Transmission-related call drop For details on the analysis of transmission-related call drop and its troubleshooting, refer to 4.3.3 Analysis of Hardware Faults. In addition, you can perform the analysis together with the following traffic measurement results:

A interface failures during TCH seizure TCH availability Call drops due to terrestrial link interruption

Parameter-related call drop Check whether the parameters related to call drop are set appropriately. The parameters are as follows:

Radio link timeout SACCH multi-frames Access control parameters Timer T3101 and timer T3107 T200 and N200 parameters

5.3 Implementation of KPI Optimization


During the implementation of KPI optimization, you can adjust the radio configuration parameters to enhance the service performance. Before adjusting the radio configuration parameters, you need to perform the following preparations:
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Make a detailed parameter adjustment plan with the following aspects included:

Adjustment objectives Version of the network equipment and instructions Adjustment procedures Adjustment details (the parameter values before and after the adjustment should be recorded) Operation time
NOTE

Determine the operation time on the basis of the network security and the operation impacts on the services. Generally, perform the adjustment at midnight (after 24:00) when the traffic volume is low. Do not perform dynamic adjustment during peak hours.

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Troubleshooting

Review the adjustment plan. Review the adjustment plan of the parameters in large size and that are of a high security level.

Submit the Application for Network Operation to the customer. The application should include at least the following items:

Operation content Operation purpose Operation time Whether the resources such as personnel, vehicles, and SIM cards should be prepared by the customer Abnormal results that might occur and their troubleshooting measures Operation impacts on the services (impacts on traffic counters)

CAUTION
Back up the original data and record the date before every operation. After the adjustment of the radio configuration parameters, perform the following checks:
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Back up the latest data file on the GBAM server and record the date. Verify that the BTSs and cells are operational after the adjustment. Conduct a dialing test and ensure that the services are normal. Check the traffic measurement results such as the access success rate, congestion rate, call drop rate, and handover rate. Troubleshoot in time to ensure normal operation of the equipment. Record the adjustment and its effects for future check.

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6
About This Chapter
l

Network Acceptance

Network acceptance aims to make sure that the network performance meets the optimization specifications. It involves the collection of traffic measurement data and drive test data, as well as the evaluation of network quality and the presentation of network optimization. If the optimized network performance meets the requirements, you can perform network optimization acceptance. Acceptance of counters through drive test You are advised to perform the drive test after all the drive test counters meet the specifications within specific areas.
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Acceptance of performance counters You are advised to perform the performance counter acceptance after all the performance counters meet the specifications with reliable state.

6.1 Main Counters of Network Acceptance The main counters of network acceptance consist of the drive test counters and the performance measurement counters. 6.2 Contents of the Network Acceptance Report The to-be-submitted reports consist of the acceptance report and optimization report. The acceptance report is optional for existing networks.

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6.1 Main Counters of Network Acceptance


The main counters of network acceptance consist of the drive test counters and the performance measurement counters. 6.1.1 Drive Test Counters Drive test counters are obtained during drive tests along the predefined test route. 6.1.2 Performance Measurement Counters The performance counters are obtained through traffic measurement.

6.1.1 Drive Test Counters


Drive test counters are obtained during drive tests along the predefined test route. Table 6-1 Drive test counters of the GSM network Counter Call setup success rate (CS services) Call drop rate (CS services) Coverage rate Speech quality Calculation Method Call setup success rate (CS services) = number of putthroughs/call requests x 100% Call drop rate (CS services) = call drops/number of conversations x 100% Coverage rate = samples with satisfactory signal level/total samples x 100%
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Method 1: speech quality level Method 2: Mean Opinion Score (MOS)

PDP activation success rate GPRS attachment success rate Average attachment time PDP average activation time WAP first page display success rate WAP average first display time WAP download success rate WAP downloading rate

PDP activation success rate = PDP activation successes/total activation attempts x 100% GPRS attachment success rate = successful GPRS attachments/total GPRS attachment attempts x 100% Average attachment time = total successful attachment time/ successful attachments PDP average activation time = total successful PDP activation time/successful PDP activations WAP first page display success rate = successful WAP first page displays/WAP login attempts x 100% WAP average first display time = total successful WAP first page display time/successful WAP first page displays WAP download success rate = successful WAP downloadings/WAP download attempts x 100% WAP downloading rate = successful downloading data input (bytes)/successful downloading time (seconds)
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Counter Ping success rate Ping average delay FTP downloading rate

Calculation Method Ping success rate = ping successes/ping attempts x 100% Ping average delay = total successful ping time/ping successes FTP downloading rate = successful downloading data input (bytes)/successful downloading time (seconds)

6.1.2 Performance Measurement Counters


The performance counters are obtained through traffic measurement. Table 6-2 Performance counters of the GSM network Counter Immediate Assignment Success Rate SDCCH Congestion Rate (All Channels Busy) Call Drop Rate on SDCCH TCH Assignment Success Rate TCH Congestion Rate (All Channels Busy) Calculation Method Immediate Assignment Success Rate = Call Setup Indications (CS Services)/Channel Requests (CS Services) x 100% SDCCH Congestion Rate (All Channels Busy) = Railed SDCCH Seizures due to Busy SDCCH/ SDCCH Seizure Requests x 100% Call Drop Rate on SDCCH = Call Drops on SDCCH/Successful SDCCH Seizures x 100% TCH Assignment Success Rate = Successful Assignments/Assignment Requests x 100% TCH Congestion Rate (All Channels Busy) = (TCH Seizure Requests (Signaling Channel) + TCH Seizure Requests (Traffic Channel) + TCH Seizure Requests in TCH Handovers (Traffic Channel) - (all the TRXs in the cell)Successful Channel Assignments (TCH))/(TCH Seizure Requests (Signaling Channel) + TCH Seizure Requests (Traffic Channel) + TCH Seizure Requests in TCH Handovers (Traffic Channel)) x 100% TCH Seizure Success Rate = (Successful TCH Seizures (Signaling Channel) + Successful TCH Seizures (Traffic Channel) + Successful TCH Seizures in TCH Handovers (Traffic Channel))/ (TCH Seizure Requests (Signaling Channel) + TCH Seizure Requests (Traffic Channel) + TCH Seizure Requests in TCH Handovers (Traffic Channel)) x 100%

TCH Seizure Success Rate

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Counter Call Establishment Success Rate

Calculation Method Call Establishment Success Rate = Successful Assignments/(SDCCH Seizures for Speech Service + Call Setup Indications (MOC Non SMS) (TCHF) + Call Setup Indications (MTC) (TCHF) + Call Setup Indications (Emergency Call) (TCHF) + Call Setup Indications (Call Re-establishment) (TCHF) + Call Setup Indications (MOC Non SMS) (TCHH) + Call Setup Indications (MTC) (TCHH) + Call Setup Indications (Call Re-establishment) (TCHH)) x 100% Handover Success Rate = (Successful Internal IntraCell Handovers + Successful Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handover + Successful External Outgoing Cell Handovers)/(Internal Intra-Cell Handover Commands + Outgoing Internal InterCell Handover Commands + Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handover Commands) x 100% TCH Call Drop Rate (Including Handover) = Call Drops on TCH/(Successful TCH Seizures (Signaling Channel) + Successful TCH Seizures (Traffic Channel) + Successful TCH Seizures in TCH handovers (Traffic Channel)) x 100% TCH Call Drop Rate (Excluding Handover) = (Call Drops on TCH - Call Drops on TCH in Stable State (Release Indication))/Successful TCH Seizures (Traffic Channel) Traffic Call Drop Rate = 60 x Traffic Volume on TCH/Call Drops on TCH

Handover Success Rate

TCH Call Drop Rate (Including Handover)

TCH Call Drop Rate (Excluding Handover)

Traffic Call Drop Rate

6.2 Contents of the Network Acceptance Report


The to-be-submitted reports consist of the acceptance report and optimization report. The acceptance report is optional for existing networks.

Acceptance Report
The XXX Radio Network Acceptance Report has the following contents:
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Project background Networking modes Acceptance area division and KPI test route Acceptance counters (drive test counters and performance counters) Acceptance method Conclusion and suggestions
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Optimization Report
The XXX Radio Network Optimization Report has the following contents:
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Project background Networking modes Optimization process, contents, and progress Optimization counters (drive test counters and performance counters) Conclusion RF optimization, which includes:

Test method Comparison of coverage data before and after optimization Test method Comparison of drive test KPI before and after optimization Analysis of access counters Analysis of retainability counters Analysis of mobility counters List of problems List of solutions List of remaining problems

KPI optimization, which includes:


Comparison of traffic measurement KPI before and after optimization, which includes:

Conclusion and analysis of KPI optimization, which includes:


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Analysis of remaining problems Network development suggestions Appendix:


List of the engineering parameters after optimization List of the system parameters after optimization

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7
About This Chapter

Network Optimization Tools

Network optimization tools are used for data collection, data analysis, and simulation analysis. They help to simplify network optimization and improve efficiency in work. The network optimization tools are Probe, TEMS, ANT pilot for GSM, Assistant, ANT for GSM, and Nastar. 7.1 Probe Probe is a high-performance test tool used on the air interface in WCDMA, HSDPA, GSM, and GPRS. It is used for data collection and verification of radio network planning and optimization. 7.2 TEMS TEMS is a test tool used for real-time diagnosis on the air interface. 7.3 ANT Pilot for GSM ANT pilot for GSM is a generic term for the GSM900/DCS1800 radio parameter collector and system software. 7.4 Assistant Assistant is a professional background analysis tool. It supports the WCDMA, HSDPA, GSM, and GPRS modes and is compatible with multiple formats of drive test data provided by the leading manufacturers. The Assistant performs the functions such as uplink and downlink data combination analysis, intelligent expert system, event simulation, displaying, statistics, filtering, and reporting. 7.5 ANT for GSM ANT for GSM analyzes the data collected by the ANT Pilot, automatically locates the problems found during drive tests, and provides troubleshooting suggestions. 7.6 Nastar Nastar performs comprehensive analysis on the performance data, configuration parameters, and engineering parameters of the GSM BSS network. It provides multiple display modes used for network planning, performance analysis, and geographical display.

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7.1 Probe
Probe is a high-performance test tool used on the air interface in WCDMA, HSDPA, GSM, and GPRS. It is used for data collection and verification of radio network planning and optimization. The applications of the Probe are as follows:
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Test the network quality and radio parameters. Decode the messages on the air interface and display in real time the data, cells, and geographical locations. Monitor, trace, and test the system status in real time

The Probe provides the following functions:


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Supports multi-mode tests in WCDMA, HSDPA, GSM, and GPRS Supports multiple CS and PS service tests Supports multi-MS tests Supports Scanner tests Supports indoor tests Supports the presetting of test plans Supports the judgment of predefined events Supports hardware alarms Supports filtering of the received data Supports automatic saving, exporting, and retrieving of the log Displays co-activated information Displays radio measurement parameters geographically in real time Adjusts the GPS location information dynamically and statically Displays and interprets the air interface messages Displays the RLC and APP throughput Displays customized parameters Supports GPS timing synchronization

7.2 TEMS
TEMS is a test tool used for real-time diagnosis on the air interface. The TEMS monitors the speech channels as well as the data transfer of CSD/HSCSD and GPRS/ EDGE. It also measures the KPI of the PS network and evaluates operation performance of the network. The TEMS provides convenient and powerful drive test functions. It has the following features:
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The drive test supports four mobile phones at the same time. The test data and messages are recorded in one file and you can have the information of one or all mobile phones displayed.
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Supports speech and data service tests. Supports frequency lock test. Supports playback and extraction of the drive test files, as well as the quick search by time, event, and message.

7.3 ANT Pilot for GSM


ANT pilot for GSM is a generic term for the GSM900/DCS1800 radio parameter collector and system software. The ANT pilot for GSM is composed of the ANT pilot (enhanced)/(standard) and the ANT for GSM (enhanced)/(standard). With the high-speed digital panoramic receiver ANTSCAN in the drive test system and a series of new functions such as intelligent diagnosis provided by the ANT for GSM2000 (enhanced), the ANT pilot for GSM facilitates searching and locating interference and has higher efficiency of data analysis. The ANT pilot for GSM supports Chinese language and runs on the Windows operating system. Apart from collecting data, the ANT pilot for GSM displays the electronic map and the cells with Chinese names, which eases the work of the measurement engineers. In addition, the ANT pilot for GSM can independently and automatically complete the test tasks.

7.4 Assistant
Assistant is a professional background analysis tool. It supports the WCDMA, HSDPA, GSM, and GPRS modes and is compatible with multiple formats of drive test data provided by the leading manufacturers. The Assistant performs the functions such as uplink and downlink data combination analysis, intelligent expert system, event simulation, displaying, statistics, filtering, and reporting. The applications of the Assistant are as follows:
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Help to get familiar with the network performance, locate the network problems, and improve the network quality. Verify the radio network planning and optimization results

Table 7-1 lists the main functions of the Assistant. Table 7-1 Main functions of the Assistant Function Analyzing the test data in WCDMAGSM dual mode Supporting data from different test devices Flexibly adding the type of the drive test data
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Description The Assistant analyzes the test data in the WCDMA and GSM networks. It supports independent display of engineering parameters and independent display of data in real time. The Assistant can import the test data from the Probe, Huawei RNC, DTI Scanner, Anritsu Scanner, Agilent E6474A, and Agilent E7476A. It offers excellent display and analysis of the test counters. For the new equipment, you need only to update the corresponding file.

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Function Supporting four geographic binning modes and three data sampling methods Independently analyzing the drive test devices Supporting environment of scrambling code multiplexing Automatically combining the drive test files Comprehensively analyzing the uplink and downlink data Analyzing by geographic area or time segment Displaying the drive test track Supporting test data playback Supporting multiple data display modes

Description The four geographic binning modes are distance binning, grid binning, time binning, and no binning. The three data sampling methods are average value sampling, maximum value sampling, and minimum value sampling. The Assistant supports independent display and analysis of the devices and the frequencies. The Assistant analyzes the environments for scrambling codes multiplexing on a large-scale network.

The Assistant automatically combines the drive test files.

By synchronizing the system time with the GPS time, the Assistant displays the drive test data and comprehensively analyzes the uplink and downlink data. The Assistant supports data analysis by geographical area or time segment. After a geographical area or a time segment is locked, all analysis is performed based on the specified data. In geographical display mode, the Assistant automatically displays the drive test track and adjusts the display parameters. The system supports automatic and manual playback of the test data, display of the problematic parameters in detail, and quick problem location. The data display modes that integrate the common operations consist of the map, curve chart, customized XY chart, PDF chart, and Excel. In map mode, the Assistant provides fast pilot line, layer offset, overlapped path filtering, area memory, and engineering parameter control and display. In curve chart mode, the Assistant supports dynamic modification and dragging of data curves, graph zooming and rotating, and chart customization. In Excel mode, the Assistant supports searching, copying, and common calculations.

Supporting bidirectional multiwindow coactivation Displaying the realtime data

The Assistant supports bidirectional multi-window co-activation among maps, charts, Excels, and signaling events.

The Assistant provides the real-time display of the Scanner coverage and the UE pilot information.

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Function Parsing Layer 3 signaling Supporting various application analysis items

Description The Assistant supports parsing the RRC, NAS, and RR signaling on layer 3. It also supports searching a text by message name and message body. For the Scanner data, the Assistant supports handover event simulation, pilot pollution analysis, soft handover statistics, adjacent cell relation analysis, and detailed analysis report. The Assistant also provides analysis reports on UE network event predefinition, PS service statistics, and CS service statistics.

Exporting data in different formats Filtering data by counter Word collector Simulating the closure of a single Scanner site

The Assistant supports data export in different formats, such as .bmp, .txt, and .xls. The Assistant filters the imported data by counter. The Assistant exports the browsed pictures and Excels to a Word file. The Assistant supports simulating the closure of a single Scanner site or cell. By closing a site, the Assistant simulates the changes of the pilot signals at a test point to evaluate the impact of the site on the test point. The focus should be on the recalculation of the RSSI on the drive test point covered by the site. The Assistant supports automatic matching between the RNC data and UE data during RNC data import. HSDPA statistics indicates the current network performance and service performance, rate statistics and channel decoding statistics, and parameter configuration. The Assistant measures by site the key counters such as the SHO, call setup, call drop, and call setup failure. The Assistant automatically generates a drive test report.

Automatically matching RNC messages Analyzing the HSDPA statistics Measuring the counters by site Intelligent report system

7.5 ANT for GSM


ANT for GSM analyzes the data collected by the ANT Pilot, automatically locates the problems found during drive tests, and provides troubleshooting suggestions. The ANT for GSM has the following features:
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The ANT for GSM is a software platform that integrates the GSM network parameters, drive test data, and electronic map. The network optimization engineers know the distribution of the network parameters from the electronic map and thus correctly set the parameters of the antenna direction, height, tilt, transmit power, and handover level.

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The ANT for GSM is a network analysis system based on the field test data. It requires no complex technical background from the operators. The engineers for network optimization can easily locate problems from different downlink performances. The ANT for GSM is based on the existing GSM cell planning.

Through radio downlink mobility tests, the ANT for GSM verifies the cell configuration. In addition, it adjusts the related parameters based on different performance measurement results in the traffic measurement report from the switching office. Based on the collected downlink data, the ANT for GSM analyzes the geographical parameters and performs quantitative assessment of the mobile network.

7.6 Nastar
Nastar performs comprehensive analysis on the performance data, configuration parameters, and engineering parameters of the GSM BSS network. It provides multiple display modes used for network planning, performance analysis, and geographical display. Through network monitoring report, RNP configuration check, weekly and monthly report, swapping report, and theme query, the Nastar for GSM helps the users in terms of daily monitoring and maintenance, problem location and troubleshooting. Thus, the work efficiency is greatly enhanced. The applications of the Nastar are as follows:
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Analyze frequencies and neighbor cells Monitor the performance of the entire network Analyze the network problems and locate the faults

Table 7-2 lists the main functions of the Nastar. Table 7-2 Main functions of the Nastar Function Data import Description By processing a single data or multiple data, the Nastar helps the engineers to know comprehensively the network performance and to locate problems quickly. The Nastar supports the following data sources:
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Engineering parameters Configuration data Traffic measurement data (including BSC traffic data and the PCU traffic data)

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Function Geographical display

Description Geographical display of the Nastar consists of the following:


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Site navigation BSC coverage display Location area display Configuration parameter display GSM900/DCS1800 layer switch Engineering parameter rendering Cell ID Special topic diagram display

Frequency analysis and optimization

Frequency analysis and optimization of the Nastar involves the following checks:
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Check of co-channels and adjacent channels Check of co-channel and co-BSIC Check of idle frequencies Check of frequency hopping Check of frequency optimization

Analysis and optimization for neighbor cells

The Nastar checks the redundant and miss-configured cells and provides suggestions of the optimization for neighbor cells.
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Maintenance of neighbor cells Automatic planning of neighbor cells Check of unidirectional neighbor cells Check of less neighbor cells (the number of neighbor cells is lower than the preset minimum value) Solution to neighbor cell optimization problems

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Function Performance data analysis and extensive reports

Description The Nastar comprehensively analyzes the performance data and outputs various reports.
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The daily network reports are as follows:


Network monitor report PCU monitor report Daily, weekly, and monthly reports Swapping comparison report Radio quality report Health check report Comprehensive network expansion report KPI performance Access performance Retainability performance Mobility performance TRX performance Resource usage PS-domain KPI performance

The following are comprehensively analyzed:


Configuration check

The Nastar performs the configuration check based on the analysis of the performance data, configuration data, and engineering parameters. It compares and checks the correctness and reasonability of the following data:
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RNP check report of the BSC RNP check report of the PCU

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