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REGULATIONS STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS RELATING DIRECTIVE WITHIN THE UNITED KINGWMP J Kerry D P Hayes

TO

THE IMPLEMENTATION OF

THE

EMC

Radiocommunications Agency, Department of Trade and Industry. U.K.

This Paper examines the requirements necessary for compliance with the new approach (article 100) EMC Directive NO 89/336/EEC. THE EMC DIRECTIVE The EMC Directive No. 89/336/EEC comes into force on 1st January 1992. All apparatus which is liable to cause electro-magnetic disturbance, or the performance of which is liable to be affected by such disturbance, comes within the scope of the Directive. All electro-magnetic frequencies are covered, as are all electro-magnetic phenomena. Manufacturers have a choice as to how to comply with the Directive. They can either choose to comply with the relevant harmonised EMC Standards or meet the essential requirements. It is envisaged that most manufacturers will choose the route requiring compliance with EMC Standards, as this can be self certified for equipment other than telecommunications terminal equipment and radio transsitters. Harmonised Standards to support the EMC Directive are currently being drafted. Should the drafting not be completed by 1992, Member states may continue to apply existing national standards up to the end of 1992. Alternatively there is a procedure whereby a national standard may be notified to the Commission, and the Commission may decide, after consulting the Member States, that compliance with that Standard shall be accepted as equivalent to compliance with the Directive. The only products which are exempted at present from the EMC Directive are those which are subject to other Directives, and self-built amateur radio equipment. The above only summarises the requirements of the EMC Directive. A fuller description of the main features of the Directive appears in a complementary paper (1). DEVEMPMENT OF STANDARDS The New Approach depends heavily on the availability of European Standards. These will usually be prepared by the European Standards bodies, CEN (European Committee for Standardisation) and CENELEC (European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardisation) on the basis of mandates agreed with the European Commission. The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) will be preparing some specific standards. CEN and CENELEC are based in Brussels, and bring together the national standards bodies of the Comwmity and EFTA. BSI is the United

Kingdom member. ETSI is based Antipolis (near Antibes Nice).

at

Sophia

Setting standards in CEN and CENELEC is essentially a process of seeking consensus among the national members. One member provides an initial draft, although often these come from the International Commission/International Electrotechnical Special Committee on Radio Interference (IEC/CISPR). Once an acceptable text has been developed in the relevant Committee, it is circulated to all the national members for comment. The Committee reviews any resulting comments and the draft Standard is circulated to national members for adoption by weighted majority voting. Alternatively, particularly if the prlposal is to adopt an existing a national or international Standard as European Standard, a questionnaire procedure can be used to secure endorsement for a text. This can avoid the need to convene any meeting. All the national members have agreed to adopt the resulting European Standard as their national Standard (in the case of the United Kingdom, as a British Standard), and to withdraw any existing conflicting national Standard. The united Kingdoms position at all stages of this process is developed by consensus in the corresponding BSI Technical Committee, which is made up of representatives of interested parties including Industry and Trade Associations, and then argued, through BSI, in CEN and CENELEC. Obviously those whc participate most actively tend to have the greatest influence on the outcome. If a particular proposed Standard affects your interests and you wish to take part in determining the outcome, or have your views taken into account, you should contact BSI via your trade association. In accordance with a formal mandate from the European Commission, cENELEC will produce most of the Standards to support the EMC Directive. This activity will be overseen by the Technical Board. However, ETSI will be responsible under the Directive for preparing EMC Standards for radiocommunications equipment. The aim naturally will be to produce these Standards before the Directive comes into force. TO speed things along. these standards will be based upon those developed by the IEC. These existing IEC Standards were produced at international level by CISPR. There is therefore a correlation between the earlier CISPR Publications and the Standards which CENELEC is producing. These Standards are product specific and will be transposed in due course into BSI Standards. It will not however be possible to produce by 1st January 1993, dedicated immunity Standards for each of the numerous electrical and electronic product types that

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exist. Therefore CENELEC is currently engaged in producing generic EMC standards which are applicable over a broad range of products. These Generic Standards are currently being produced within the Technical Committee 110 (TC110) with the aim of completing drafts by mid 1990. EMC Standards work by ETSI is being undertaken by the Institute's Equipment Engineering Technical Committee (TC-EE) and is specifically the responsibility of sub-committee EE4. GENERIC STANDARDS The Generic Standards will describe the minimum requirements that a product must satisfy in order to enter the Community's Open Market. There is a fundamental need far these standards to be clearly written so that their requirements are not open to differing interpretation by different national authorites, test houses or personnel. These Standards will clearly stipulate a single test level with a single performance requirement. It is intended that these Generic Standards will be applicable to all electrical and electronic equipment for which there are no product standards. where product specific standards exist, these will take precedence over the Generic Standards. However, it should be noted that these standards only consider EMC and not related issues such as Health and Safety.
A distinction can be drawn between these Generic Standards and other Standards. Existing Standards such as CISPR 16 and IEC 801 contain a definition and description of the EMC phenomenon, and detail test/measurements methods, test instrumentation and test configurations, and perhaps ranges of immunity test levels. They do not prescribe particular test levels for particular products, or relate these levels to particular environment classes.

PRODUCT BPECIOIC STANDARDS Some product specific EMC Standards are product-family based, in that they cover a wide range of equipment, e.g. ITE, domestic appliances. Others are more specific e.g. washing machines. However product specific Standards normally cover all EMC phenomena for the specific product or family in that one Standard. They relate to specific electro-magnetic environmental conditions, and stipulate the test method to be used as well as the limiting values and test severity levels.
A

number of Droduct snecific Standards. which are European harmonised EMC Standards; have been issued or are currently being drafted. Annex A presents a list of such Standards.

Where a relevant harmonised EMC Standard does not exist by 1st January 1992, National Standards approved by the European Commission may be used instead. The reference numbers of such approved National standards Will be published. In the absence of specified harmonised EMC Standards, and an approved national standard, national arrangements in force on 1st January 1992 may remain in force until 31st December 1992.

TIOM8 OF THE W C DInSCTIV&


AS the Directive does not define frequency range limits, or levels of immunity and emission, and applies to virtually all electrical and electronic apparatus, the implications are extensive. The Directive's broad scope suggests that it will apply to all apparatus from integrated circuits to nuclear power stations without a y discrimination between 'components , 'apparatus' and 'installations'. If it is to be applied to spare parts, and sub-assemblies supplied for incorporation into systems, then this could have major implications for industry and consumers.

Generic Standards however will link the environment classification with the emission and/or immunity test level. They will not necessarily repeat the detailed test and measurements methods, test instrumentation and configurations that can be found In existing standards, but will refer to them. The Generic Standards will cover both emission and immunity for the following broad categories of disturbance:Conducted high frequency transients and ESD), Radiated low frequency, Radiated high frequency, and Conducted low frequency. Three EMC follows:environments will be (including

covered

as

Domestic/commercial/light industrial (the general purpose EMC environment), Industrial EMC environment, and Special M C environment.

Although there is the Technical File route (1). the application of this Directive is mainly dependant upon there being standards. Generic standards, which specify the minimum entry to market requirements, are currently being produced. In some cases however a product specific standard will be needed where there is a justifiable need to deviate from the Generic Standards. Traditionally these product standards have been produced some years after the marketing of that product. The standards making process is slow, requiring agreement by CENELEC, and normally CISPR/IEC. It 1s therefore unlikely that all the necessary standards will exist before the deadlines. A survey (2) commissioned by the Department of Trade and Industry concludes that there is a shortage of suitable EMC Test facilities in the UK. The specialised equipment and expert personnel needed to carry out EMC testing, particularly immunity testing, is insufficient to meet the testing demands that will arise from the Directive in its present form. This shortage will cause further

Draft Generic Standards have been produced for domestic, commercial and light industrial environments so far, covering both immunity and emissions.

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increases in the burden of compliance since EMC services will be expensive and slower, which could in turn stifle innovation. The Department of Trade and Industry is currently discussing with the Commission and other Member States, ways by which unnecessary burdens on industry can be minimised. Member States will be required to take all appropriate measures when products do not comply with the EMC Directive. This may mean withdrawing a product from the market or restricting the free movement of that product. The implications of this to industry are considerable, particularly in view of the fact that compliance with the Directive, as opposed to standards, is not measurable in absolute terms. The EMC performance of a product is an integral part of its design, and, quite often, the performance cannot be added to an existing product in an economic manner and cost effective way. The required performance can really only be achieved by design against an existing standard. As EMC Standards are not likely to be finalised until late 1991, industry may well be burdened by insufficient lead-in times for design changes to create compliant products. CENELEC is making good progress with standards but is handicapped by the size of the task, made worse by the ever increasing types of products which are being manufactured. These problems could be overcome by introducing suitable transitional arrangements, as has been done for other Directives, and by clarifying and focusing the scope of the EMC Directive. It has been suggested that for a period of five years after the adopting of a harmonised EMC standard for a particular product, implementation of the EMC Directive should be optional for that product. This could allow Member States to continue to apply existing EMC requirements such as those for domestic appliances and fluorescent lights in Directives 76/889/EEC and 76/890/EEC. Such a transition would also provide Industry with time to assimilate the new standards as they become available and to redesign existing products, and will also ease the pressure on EMC test and consultancy facilities. REFEERENCES
1 Green, L.B., 1990, "The Implementation of the EMC Directive", Radiocommunication Division, Department of Trade and Industry, UK

?innex
STANDARDS RELATING TO EBC. The following represent Harmonised Standards: (a) Radiation EN 55011 CISPR 11 854809: 1972(1981) 71/320/EEC (as amended) UN ECE Reg 13 (as amended) 72/245/EEC CISPR 12 BS 833:1970(1985) UN ECE Reg 10 EN 55013 CISPR 13 BS 905 Part 1 EN 55014 CISPR 14 BS 800:1983(1988) EN 55015 CISPR 15 BS 5394:1983(1988) EN 55022 CISPR 22 BS 6527:1988 EN60555 IEC 555-2 BS 5406:1976(1985) draft
or

agreed

Industrial, Scientific and Medical Equipment. Vehicle Brakes

Motor Vehicle Ignition

Motor Cycles & Vehicles with 3 or more wheels. Interference Limits for Sound and TV Recievers Household Appliances etc

Fluorescent Lamps and Luminaires (MeasurementMethods) Information Technology Equipment. Electrical Power Systems (The limitation of disturbances in electricity supply caused by domestic and similar appliances equipped with electronic devices)

(b) Immunity EN 55020 CISPR 20 BS 905 Part 2 HD 481 IEC 801-1 IEC 801-2 IEC 801-3 IEC 801-4 IEC 801-5 Immunity to Radio Interference of Broadcast Receivers

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Industrial Process Measurement and Control

Atkins, W.S., Management Consultants, April 1989, "The UK Market for EMC Testing and Consultancy Services", produced for Department of Trade and Industry, UK.
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In addition CEPT/TMZ/GEC TRS Harmonisation on Electro-magnetic Compatibility is in draft form.

Crown Copyright 1990. This paper has been published with the permission of the controller of Her Majesty's stationery Office.