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ME1007 PROCESS PLANNING AND COST ESTIMATION

UNIT I WORKSTUDY AND ERGONOMICS

WORK STUDY
IT AIMS AT ACHIEVING HIGHER EFFCIENCY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF EXISTING FACILITIES THROUGH SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS. ADAPTING THIS WORKSTUDY TECHNIQUES PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE CAN BE IMPROVED WITH RELATIVELY SHORT TIME AND WITH VERY LITTLE OR NO EXTRA CAPITAL EXPENDITURE. IT IS A STUDY OF HUMAN WORK IN ALL ASPECTS IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE EFFECTIVENESS WITH WHICH THE WORK IS DONE

A generic term for those techniques, particularly method study and work measurement, which are used in the examination of human work in all its contexts, and which lead systematically to the investigation of all the factors which affect the efficiency and economy of the situation being reviewed, in order to effect improvement.

WORK STUDY TECHNIQUE IS DIVIDED INTO TWO PARTS: Method study/motion study is the systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed way of doing work, as a means of developing and applying easier and more effective methods and reducing cost. Time study/work measurement is the application of techniques designed to establish the time for a specified job at a defined level of performance.

WORK STUDY OBJECTIVES The objective of applying work study is to obtain the optimum use of the human and material resources, which are available to it. The benefits may stem from improvements in one ore more of the following: 1) increased production and productivity. 2) reduced cost- labor, material, overheads. 3)Improvement of condition, which involves an element of excessive fatigue or danger. 4)Improved quality. 5) better control of cost and time

BASIC PROCEDURE: Basic steps in conducting work study can be summarized as: Select the job or process to be studied. Observe or record everything by using the appropriate recording technique. Examine the recorded facts critically with respect to the purpose of the activity, where it is performed, sequence in which it is done, the person or the machine which is doing it, the means by which it is done. Develop the most economical method by considering everything. Measure the output of the method and calculate a standard time for it. Define the new method and the related standard time to identify it Implement the new method as standard practice. Maintain the new standard practice by appropriate control procedure

HISTORY OF WORK STUDY FERDERICK W. TAYLOR(1856-1915) He is known as the father of scientific management and industrial engineering. He is the first person to use a stopwatch to study work content and, as such, the father of time study. Thought his professional life, he worked as an apprentice machinist, time keeper, expediter, lathe operator, gang boss, foreman of the machine shop and chief engineer.

Methods study/ method engineering/ methods analysis / work improvement Systematic recording of existing and proposed ways of doing work in order to simplify the job improvement of procedures improvement of layout reduction of human fatigue improvement in the use of materials, machines, labor improvement in physical workplace

The objectives of Method Study are : Improvement of processes and procedures Improvement in the design of plant and equipment Improvement of plant layout. Improvement in the use of men, materials and Improvement in the flow of production and process. Economy in human effort and the reduction of unnecessary fatigue. Method Standardization Improvement in safety standards. Development of a better physical working environment

The Method Study procedure The basic procedure was first developed and articulated by Russell Currie at Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) and consists of six steps (SREDIM): SELECT the work or area to be studied. RECORD all appropriate and relevant data about the current situation. EXAMINE critically, the recorded data. DEVELOP alternative approaches to making improvements and choose the most appropriate. INSTALL the new method, to make the required changes to the situation. MAINTAIN that new situation.

Steps and Procedure to conduct Method Study : Select: the work to be studied. Record: all the relevant facts about the present method by direct observation. Examine: those facts critically and in an orderly sequence, using the techniques best suited to the purpose. Develop: the most practical, economic and effective method, having due regard to all contingent circumstances. Define: the new method so that it can always be identified. Install: that methods as standard practice. Maintain: that standard practice by regular routine checks. These are the seven essential stages in the application of method study ; none can be excluded. Strict adherence to the sequence, as well as to their content, is essential for the success of an investigation. They are shown diagrammatically on the chart

Factors to be considered in selecting a job for method study: Economic Consideration. The cost of the study should be estimated and examined: short-term & Long-term. The loss of time due to the investigation. For any job, if accumulated estimated benefits from the recommended method outweighs the estimated total cost then we should take-up the job under study Discounted Cash Flow Technique (DCF) Under Preliminary Considerations, the early job choices are: Bottlenecks: which are holding up other production operations. Movements of material over long distances: between shops or operations involving a great deal of manpower or where there is repeated handling of material. Operations involving Repeated work: using a great deal of labour liable to run for a long time Technical Considerations: Make sure that adequate technical knowledge is available with which to carry out the study. Human Reactions: These are the most important factors to be taken into consideration, since mental and emotional reactions to investigation, and change of method have to be anticipated.

Method Study

Method Study
Man, Machines, Materials, Money, Technology and Time are the main resources required to produce goods and are to be deployed in the most effective manner We have to select the best available combination of these resources at any point of time. Method Study helps in analysing the existing methods and develop a more efficient method for future.

Definition And Objective of Method Study Method Study is the systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed ways of doing work, as a means of developing and applying easier and more effective methods and reducing costs. The objectives of Method Study are : Improvement of processes and procedures Improvement in the design of plant and equipment Improvement of plant layout. Improvement in the use of men, materials and machines. Efficient materials handling

Definition And Objective of Method Study


Improvement in the flow of production and process. Economy in human effort and the reduction of unnecessary fatigue. Method Standardization Improvement in safety standards. Development of a better physical working environment

Working Conditions And Influence

Good working conditions contribute to improvement in productivity. The following are a few Occupational safety and health conditions Fire prevention and protection Layout and house keeping (5S) Lighting and Ventilation Noise and Vibration Ergonomics Arrangement of working Time

Procedure
The solution of any problem follows the following sequence of phases in that order : 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Define: The problem. Record: All the facts relevant to the problem. Examine: The facts critically but impartially. Consider: The courses of actions (possible solutions) and decide which to follow. Implement: The solution. Follow Up: The development. The basic procedure for the whole of work study, which embraces the procedures of both method study and work measurement. Contd

Procedure
Steps and Procedure to conduct Method Study :

a) b)
c) d)

Select: the work to be studied. Record: all the relevant facts about the present method by direct observation. Examine: those facts critically and in an orderly sequence, using the techniques best suited to the purpose. Develop: the most practical, economic and effective method, having due regard to all contingent circumstances.

Procedure
e) f) Define: the new method so that it can always be identified. Install: that methods as standard practice.

g)

Maintain: that standard practice by regular routine checks.

These are the seven essential stages in the application of method study ; none can be excluded. Strict adherence to the sequence, as well as to their content, is essential for the success of an investigation. They are shown diagrammatically on the chart.

Method Study to improve methods of production

Select
Work which can be studied With economic advantage

Method Study
At Work Place By means of Charts

At Work Place By means of Charts

Define Scope of Study Record Outline Process ; Flow Process Man type , Material type ; Multiple Activity ; Travel Flow Diagrams ; String Diagrams ; Models Two handed ; Simo ; Multiple Activity Cycle Graphs ; Chronocycle Graphs ; Film Analysis ; Memotion Photography

Other Means

Other Means

Examine the facts critically Challenge PURPOSE PLACE SEQUENCE PERSON - MEANS Seek Alternatives

Find Pointers
Eliminate Combine or Change Develop A record of an improved method Planning and Control Materials Handling General Environment and Working Conditions Plant Layout Re - Examine that record to establish The Best Method under Prevailing Circumstances Define Install The Improved method Plan - Arrange - Implement Maintain Verify at regular intervals that The important method as defined is in fact in use
To achieve improved factory and work space layout Improved design of equipment Better working conditions Reduction of fatigue Resulting in improved use of material Plant and equipment manpower Mechanical Aids ; Manual Controls and Visual instruments Equipment design ; Jigs and fixtures Local Working Conditions

Simplify

Higher Productivity

Selection Of Job Factors o be considered in selecting a job for method study: Economic Consideration. Technical Consideration. Human Reactions. Economic Consideration. The cost of the study should be estimated and examined: short-term & Long-term. The loss of time due to the investigation. For any job, if accumulated estimated benefits from the recommended method outweighs the estimated total cost then we should take-up the job under study Discounted Cash Flow Technique (DCF) or Pay-back period method may be used for this purpose.

Selection Of Job
Under Preliminary Considerations, the early job choices are: Bottlenecks: which are holding up other production operations. Movements of material over long distances: between shops or operations involving a great deal of manpower or where there is repeated handling of material. Operations involving repetitive work: using a great deal of labour liable to run for a long time.

Selection Of Job Technical Considerations: Make sure that adequate technical knowledge is available with which to carry out the study. Human Reactions: These are the most important factors to be taken into consideration since mental and emotional reactions to investigation, and change of method have to be anticipated.

The Field Of Choice


Types of Jobs Complete Sequence of manufacture Examples Manufacture of an electric motor from raw material to dispatch Transformation of thread into cloth from preparation to inspection Receipt, packing and dispatch of fruit Recording Technique Outline process chart Flow process chart Flow diagram

Factory layout : Movements of a diesel engine movement of cylinder head through all machining materials operations. Movements of grain between milling operations

Outline process chart Flow process chart material type Flow diagram Travel chart Models

The Field Of Choice


Types of Jobs Examples Recording Technique Flow process chart-man type string diagram String diagram Factory layout Labourers servicing spinning : movement of machine with bobbins workers Cooks preparing meals in a restaurant kitchen Handling of materials Putting materials into and taking them out of stores Loading lorries with finished products.

Flow process chart material type Flow diagram String diagram

Workplace layout

Light assembly work on a bench Typesetting by hand

Flow process chart-man type. Two-handed process chart. Multiple activity chart. Simo chart. Cyclegraph. Chronocyclegraph.

The Field Of Choice


Types of Jobs Gang work or automatic machine operation Movements of operatives at work Examples Assembly line Operator looking after semiautomatic lathe Female operatives on short cycle repetition work Operations demanding great manual dexterity Recording Technique Multiple activity chart Flow process chartequipment type Multiple activity chart Flow process chart equipment type Films Film analysis Simo chart Memotion photography Micromotion analysis

The Field Of Choice When selecting a job for method study it will be found helpful to have a standerdised list of points to be covered as shown below :-

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Product and operation Person who proposes investigation Reason for proposal Suggested limits of investigation Particulars of the job a) How much is produced or handled per week?

The Field Of Choice b) What percentage (roughly) is this of the total produced or handled in the shop or plant? c) How long will the job continue? d) Will more or less be required in future? e) How many operatives are employed on the job i. Directly? ii. Indirectly? f) How many operatives are there in each grade and on each rate of pay? g) What is the average output per operative (per team) per day? h) What is the daily output compared with the output over a shorter period? (e.g. an hour)

The Field Of Choice


i) How is payment made? (team-work, piecework, premium bonus time rate, etc) j) What is the daily output i. Of the best operative? ii. Of the worst operative? k) When were production standards set? l) Has the job any especially unpleasant or injurious features? Is it unpopular i. With workers ? ii. With supervisors ?

The Field Of Choice 6. Equipment. a) What is the approximate cost of plant and equipment? b) What is the present machine utilisation index? 7. Layout a) Is the existing space allowed for the job enough? b) Is extra space available ? 8. Product. a) Are the frequent design changes causing modifications ? b) Can the product be altered for easier manufacture ? c) When and how is product inspected ? d) What quality is demanded ?

The Field Of Choice

9.

What savings or increase in productivity may be expected from a method improvement ? a) Through reduction in the work content of the product or process. b) Through better machine utilisation. c) Through better use of labour Contd

The Field Of Choice It is important to set clearly defined limits to the scope of the investigation Method study investigations so often reveal scope for even greater savings that there is a strong temptation to go beyond the immediate objective This should be resisted, and any jobs shown up as offering scope for big improvements through method study should be noted and tackled separately. Do not use a spoon when a steam shovel is needed

Record, Examine, Develop


After selecting the work to be studied Systematic recording of all the existing method and critical examination of these are carried out to eliminate every unnecessary element or operation and to develop the quickest and best method by having an improved sequence of doing the work, omitting the redundant elements, selecting more appropriate person and more suitable place for doing the work. Is to record all the facts relating to the existing method. The success of the whole procedure depends on the accuracy with which the facts are recorded,

Record, Examine, Develop


because they will provide the basis of both the critical examination and the development of the improved method. It is therefore essential that the record be clear and concise. The usual way of recording facts is to write them down. Unfortunately, this method is not suited to the recording of the complicated processes which are so common in modern industry.

To overcome this difficulty other techniques or `tools of recording have been developed, so that detailed information may be recorded

Record, Examine, Develop precisely and at the same time in a standard form, in order that it may be readily understood by all method study men, in whatever factory or country they may be working.
The most commonly used of these recording techniques are charts and diagrams. There are several different types of standard charts available, each with its own special purposes.

Record, Examine, Develop Two groups of charts :

Those which are used to record a process sequence, i.e., a series of events or happenings in the order in which they occur, but which do not depict the events to scale; and

Those which record events, also in sequence, but on a time scale, so that the interaction of related events may be more easily studied.

Record, Examine, Develop


The most commonly used method study charts
A. Charts

and diagrams

Indicating process SEQUENCE Outline Process Chart Flow Process Chart Man Type Flow Process Chart Material Type Flow Process Chart Equipment Type Two Handed Process Chart

B. Charts

Using a TIME SCALE Multiple Activity Chart Simo Chart Indicating movement Flow Diagram String Diagram Cyclegraph Chromocyclegraph Travel Chart

C. Diagrams

Symbols used in Method Study

The recording of the facts about a job or operation on a process chart is made much easier by the use of a set of standard symbols, which together serve to represent all the different types of activity or event likely to be encountered in any factory or office.
The two principal activities in a process are operation and inspection.

Process Chart Symbols


Operation
Indicates the main steps in a process, method or procedure. Usually the part, material or product concerned is modified or changed during the operation.

Inspection
Indicates an inspection for quality and / or check for quantity

Transport
Indicates the movement of workers, materials or equipment from place to place

Process Chart Symbols


Temporary Storage or Delay

Indicates a delay in the sequence of events : for example, work waiting between consecutive operations, or any object laid aside temporarily without record until required.

Permanent Storage

Indicates a controlled storage in which material is received into or issued from a store under some form of authorization; or an item is retained for reference purposes.

Combined Activities

Indicates a controlled storage in which material is received into or issued from a store under some form of authorization; or an item is retained for reference purposes.

The Outline Process Chart

The Outline Process Chart


An outline process chart is a process chart giving an overall picture by recording in sequence only the main operations and inspections.

In an outline process chart, only the principal operations and the inspections carried out are recorded to ensure effectiveness While preparing the outline process chart we use Symbols of Operation and Inspection A brief note of the nature of each operation is made beside the symbol

Example
Assembling a switch rotor

Switch Rotor Assembly


The operations and inspections carried out on the spindle made from 10mm steel rod are as follows O1 Face, turn, undercut and part off on capstan lathe (0.025 hrs) O2 Face opposite end on the same machine(0.010 hrs). Transport to inspn dept I 1 Inspect for dimensions and finish (no time fixed). Transport to milling section O3 Straddle mill four flats on end on a horizontal miller (0.020 hrs). Transport to work bench O4 Remove burrs at the burring bench(0.020 hrs). Transport to inspn dept I2 Final inspn of machine (no time)

O5 Degreasing(0.0015 hrs) O6 Cadmium plating(.008 hrs) I3 Final check (no time) O7 Face on both sides, bore the cored hole and ream to size on a capstan lathe(0.080 hrs) O8 Drill cross-hole and burr on two-spindle drill press(0.022 hrs) I4 Final check dimensions and finish (no time) Transport to finished parts stores and await with-drawl for assembly. Note the numbering of operations and inspections

Outline process chart

Outline process chart


In making an outline process chart we start with a vertical line down the right hand side of the page to show the operations and inspections undergone. The time allowed per piece is also shown on the left hand side.

FLOW PROCESS CHART


Process activity symbols Operation Inspection Transport Temporary storage or Delay Permanent storage

Process chart symbols


Used to represent different types of activities or events. Very convenient, widely understood type of short hand, saves a lot of writing and helps in making the sequence of activities clear.

Flow process chart


A FLOW PROCESS CHART records what the worker does. It is a chart setting out the frequency of flow of a product or procedure by recording all events under review using process chart symbols. there are different types of flow process charts. Purpose: To set out the sequence of the flow of a product or a procedure by recording all the events under review ( Inspection ) using the appropriate process chart symbols.

Activities recorded in the flow chart


Those where some thing is happening to the work piece. Those where the work piece is not touched (stored or standstill)

Three types of flow process charts


Man type
Flow chart which records what the worker does

Material type
Flow chart which records how material is handled or treated

Equipment type
Flow chart which records how the equipment is used

FLOW PROCESS CHART FOR ENGINE Stripping Cleaning - Greasing

Critical Examination
The questioning technique is the critical means by which the critical examination is conducted each activity being subjected in turn to a systematic and progressive series of questions

OPERATIONS
Make Ready Do Put Away Make ready and put away operations can be represented by transport and inspection symbols DO operations can be shown by O

CRITICAL EXAMINATION - Primary questions


The Purpose The Place The sequence The person The means for which at which in which by which by which

the activities are undertaken

CRITICAL EXAMINATION - Primary questions


With a view to Eliminating Combining Rearranging Simplifying
those Activities

PRIMARY QUESTIONS
PURPOSE PLACE SEQUENCE PERSON MEANS ELIMINATE COMBINE REARRANGE REARRANGE SIMPLIFY

THE SECONDARY QUESTIONS


Definition The secondary questions cover the second stage of the questioning technique, during which the answers to the primary questions are subjected to further query to determine whether possible alternatives to place, sequence, persons and/or means are practicable or preferable as the means of improvement up on the existing method

SECONDARY QUESTIONS
During the second stage of questioning, we should address
What else might be done? What should be done?

Purpose Place Sequence Person Means

These questions are the basis for a systematic method study.

EXAMPLE: ENGINE Stripping Cleaning - Degreasing

DEVELOP IMPROVED METHOD

After critically examining and sequential questioning we develop the improved method and record the improved method in a flow process chart as shown

TOOLS USED FOR PREPARING PLANT LAYOUTS


1. String diagram 2. Flow Process chart 3. Travel Chart

4. Flow diagram
5. Multiple activity chart

6. Template Models

String diagram
String diagram is a useful tool to record the distance traveled by a worker in the working area. The string diagram is a scale plan or model on which a thread is used to trace and measure the distance traversed which has to be minimum by
Workers Material or Equipment

during a specified sequence of events

Observe the clusters of points, pins, turning points. Also observe the grid lines which represent a measure of the distance between the points.

Construction of a String diagram


Step-1
Preparing a study chart

Step-2
Drawing a scale plan of the working area

Step-3
Combining steps 1,2 to construct the final diagram

Step-1: Preparing a study chart


Worker being studied is followed and all the points along the working areas are noted in a study sheet until a representative picture of the workers is obtained. Thus the movements are noted down for enough number of cycles so as to capture the actual work in terms of the journey made by the worker with their respective frequencies.

Step-2: Drawing a scale plan of the working area


Machines, benches, stores and all other points at which calls are made are drawn to scale together with doorways, pillars etc that effect the path movements. Then attachments like soft wood, composition board and pins are driven firmly at every point. Pins are driven also at turning points on the route. This ensures a shop floor environment which helps to do the study accurately.

Step-3: Combining the steps 1 and 2


A measured length of thread is wound from the starting point of the movement of the worker and leading through all the points on the path of the worker in the same order noted in the step-1 This results in a String diagram.

Example of a String diagram


Movement, Transport of tiles from Inspection to Storage

IMPROVED METHOD

Serving dinners in a hospital ward

FPC - Dinners in a hospital ward

Original Flow Diagram Inspn and Marking

Improved FD of Inspection and Marking

Travel chart
A travel chart is a tabular record for presenting quantitative data about the movements of workers, materials or equipment between any number of places over any given period of time.

Why Travel chart ?


Although the string diagram is a neat and effective way of record the movement of worker or material for critical examination,
o o

they take long time to construct look increasingly like a complex maze with increasing complexity of movement paths

When the movement patterns are complex, the travel chart is quicker and more manageable to record.

More about Travel chart


Always a square A column at (m,n) is checked only when there is a direct movement from station at m to station at n directly. The number of times a column at (m,n) is checked over a period of time gives the frequency of movement of a worker or material. The matrix is always a symmetrical matrix.

Travel chart

FLOW DIAGRAM
While the flow process chart describes the flow of a product or process, it is generally supplemented with a flow diagram. While the flow process chart records travel distances and time taken for various operations, the flow diagram is a plan , drawn to scale of the work area, correctly indicating the position of machines and working positions.
The symbols are also indicated in the flow diagram. The example shown indicates the flow diagram of receiving, inspection, marking and storing materials. After recording examining and developing a new method, the improved flow diagram shows the transport operations reduced from a 11 to 6. delays from 7 to 2. and the distance travelled reduced from 56.2 to 32.2

Original Flow Diagram Inspection and Marking

Improved FD of Inspection and Marking

MULTIPLE ACTIVITY CHART


Multiple activity chart is a useful recording tool for situations where the work involves the interaction of different persons. Such as the operator working on different machines. In Mac a time scale is used. Mac can be used effectively even if there is no movement of workers involved in the work under consideration. Focus on Mac in situations where the operator are moving and to identify the idle time of the worker or the machine

Multiple activity chart


A MULTIPLE ACTIVIITY chart is a chart in which the activities of more than one subject (worker, machine or item of equipment) are each recorded on a common time scale to show their inter relationship. By using separate vertical columns or bars, to represent the activities of different operatives or machines against a common time scale, the chart shows very clearly periods of idleness on the part of any of the subjects during the process.

Inspection of catalyst in a converter


The following slides show the present method of inspecting catalyst in a convertor where teams of electrician and mate, fitter and mate, rigger and process man are working together. In the original method it took 6 mins for the inspn. After recording, critically examining and developing a new method, the inspection time is reduced to four minute,ie a 32% saving.

MAC-Inspn of catalyst in a converter-original method

MAC-Inspn of catalyst in a converter-Improved method

TEMPLATE MODELS
Template models are used to study the layout and the positioning of various machines by pasting templates on the plant layout diagram. This can be extended by using the string diagram technique to visualize the flow of the material.

Work measurement

Part II of Work Study

Introduction
Work measurement is the application of techniques designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out specified jobs at a defined level of performance. We have seen how total time to manufacture a product is increased by: adding undesirable features to product, bad operation of the processes, and ineffective time added because of worker and management. All this leads to decreased productivity.

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Introduction
Method study is one of principal techniques by which work content in the product manufacture or process could be decreased. It is a systematic method of investigating and critically examining the existing methods, to develop the improved ones. Method study is, then, a technique to reduce the work content mainly by eliminating unnecessary movements by workers and/or materials and/or equipments. However, even after that, there could be substantial unnecessary time taken for the process because of lack of management control and/or inaction of worker.
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Introduction
Work measurement (WM) is concerned with investigating, reducing and eliminating ineffective time, whatever may be the cause. WM is the means of measuring the time taken in the performance of an operation or series of operations in such a way that the ineffective time is shown up and can be separated out. In practice, proving existence of the ineffective time is the most difficult task. After existence is proved, nature and extent is easy to see!

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Introduction
WM is also used to set standard times to carry out the work, so that any ineffective time is not included later. Any addition the standard time would show up as excess time and thus can be brought to attention. Since, standard times are set for all the activities through WM, it has earned bad reputation amongst workers. Major reason for that has been the initial focus of the WM methods, which essentially targeted only the worker controllable ineffective times. Management controllable ineffective times were ignored traditionally.
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Introduction
Two critical issues in work study: 1. Method study should precede the work measurement, always. 2. Elimination of management controllable ineffective time should precede the elimination of the ineffective time within the control of the workers.

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Purpose of WM
To reveal the nature and extent of ineffective time, from whatever cause, So that action can be taken to eliminate it; and then, To set standards of performance that are attainable only if all avoidable ineffective time is eliminated and work is performed by the best method available.

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Uses of WM
To compare the efficiency of alternative methods. Other conditions being equal, the method which takes the least time will be the best method. To balance the work of members of teams, in association with the multiple activity charts, so that, as far as possible, each member has tasks taking an equal time. To determine, in association with man and machine multiple activity charts, the number of machines an worker can run.

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Uses of time standards


To provide information on which the planning and scheduling of production can be based, including the plant and labor requirements for carrying out the program of work and utilization of resources. To provide information on which estimates for tenders, selling prices and delivery promises can be based. To set standards of machine utilization and labor performance which can be used for incentive scheme. To provide information for labor-cost control and to enable standard costs to be fixed and maintained.

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Techniques for WM
Time study Activity sampling; and rated activity sampling Synthesis from standard data Pre-determined motion time system Estimating Analytical estimating Comparative estimating.

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Time study
A WM technique for 1. Recording the times and rates of working for the elements of a specified job carried out under specified conditions, 2. Analyzing the data so as to obtain the time necessary for carrying out the job at a defined level of performance.

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Selecting a job for time study


The job in question is a new one not previously carried out. A change in material or method of working has been made and a new time standard is required. A complaint has been received about the time standard for an operation. A particular operation appears to be bottleneck holding up the subsequent operations and possibly previous operations. Standard times are required prior to the introduction of an incentive scheme.

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Selecting a job for time study


To investigate the utilization of a piece of plant, the output of which is low, or which appears to be idle for an excessive time. As a preliminary to making a method study, or to compare the efficiency of two proposed methods. When the costs of a particular job appears to be excessive.

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Qualified worker
One who is accepted as having the necessary physical attributes, who possesses the required intelligence, education, and has acquired the necessary skill and knowledge to carry out the work in hand to satisfactory standard of safety, quantity and quality. In setting the time standards, specially when they are to be used for incentives, the standard to aimed at is one which can be attained by the qualified worker. A representative worker is one whose skill and performance is the average of the group under consideration. (S/)He may not necessarily be a qualified worker.
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Steps in making a time study


Obtaining and recording all the information about the job, the operator and the surrounding conditions, which is likely to affect the carrying out of the work. Recording a complete description of the method, breaking down the operation into elements. Examining the detailed breakdown to ensure that the most effective method and motions are being used. Measuring and recording the time taken by the operator to perform each element of the operation.

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Steps in making a time study


At the same time assessing the effective speed of the working of the operative in relation to the observers concept of the rate corresponding to standard rating. Extending the observed times to basic times. Determining the allowances to be made over and above the basic time for operation. Determining the standard time for the operation.

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Breaking the job into elements


An element is an distinct part of a specified job selected for convenience of observation, measurement and analysis. A work cycle is the sequence of elements which are required to perform a job or yield a unit of production. The sequence may sometimes include occasional elements. For each job, a detailed breakdown of the complete job into elements is necessary. Because.

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Reasons for breakdown of job


To ensure that productive work (or effective time) is separated from unproductive activity (or ineffective time). To permit the rate of working to be assessed more accurately than would be possible if the assessment were made over a complete cycle. To enable different types of elements to be identified and distinguished, so that each may be accorded the treatment appropriate. To enable elements involving high fatigue to be isolated and to make the allocation of fatigue allowances more accurate.

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Reasons for breakdown of job


To facilitate checking the method and so that subsequent omission or insertion of elements may be detected quickly. To enable a detailed work specification to be prepared. The enable time values for frequently recurring elements, such as the operation of machine control or loading and unloading work-pieces from fixtures, to be extracted and used in compilation of the synthetic data.

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Types of elements
A repetitive element is an element which occurs in every work cycle of the job. An occasional element does not occur in each work cycle of the job, but which may occur at regular or irregular intervals. e.g. machine setting. For a constant element, the basic time remains constant whenever it is performed. e.g. switch the machine on. A variable element is an element for which the basic time varies in relation to some characteristics of the product, equipment or process, e.g. dimensions, weight, quality etc. e.g. push trolley of parts to next shop.

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Types of elements
A manual element is an element performed by a worker. A machine element is automatically performed by a powerdriven machine (or process). A governing element occupies a longer time than any of the other elements which are being performed concurrently. e.g. boil kettle of water, while setting out teapot and cups. A foreign element is observed during a study which, after analysis, is not found to be necessary part of the job. e.g. degreasing a part that has still to be machined further.

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Recording time for activities


Cumulative timing The watch runs continuously throughout the study. At the end of each element the watch reading is recorded. The individual element times are obtained by subsequent subtractions. The purpose of this procedure is to ensure that all the time during which the job is observed is recorded in the study. Typically, most work-study persons attain fair degree of accuracy quickly when using the cumulative method.

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Recording time for activities


Flyback time The hands of the stopwatch is returned to zero at the end of each element and are allowed to start immediately, the time for each element being obtained directly. In a comparative study of two methods carried out the Purdue University, the average error in reading the watch using the cumulative method was +0.000097 min per reading and using the flyback method was -0.00082 min per reading.

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Recording time for activities


Cumulative time recording is preferred, because: Trainees achieve reasonable accuracy more quickly. It does not matter if element times are occasionally missed by observed; the over-all time of the study will not be affected. Foreign elements and interruptions are automatically included since the watch is never stopped. Temptation to adjust the element time to rating is less compared to flyback time. Workers have greater faith in the fairness as they see that no time can have been omitted. Flyback method can have slight delays when the stopwatch is snapped back to zero at the end of each element.
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Recording time for activities


Differential timing The elements are timed in groups, first including and then excluding each small element. Typically used for short element short cycle work, where elements are so short that there is not enough time for studyperson to look at the watch and make a recording. In this process, either the cumulative or the flyback method of watch manipulation may be used.

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Time study: Rating


Rating is the assessment of the workers rate of working relative to the observers concept of the rate corresponding to the standard pace. It is a comparison of rate of working observed by the workstudy person with a picture of some standard level. The standard level is the average rate at which qualified workers will naturally work at a job, when using the correct method and when motivated to apply themselves to their work. This rate of working is called standard rating.

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Time study: Rating


If the standard pace is maintained and the appropriate relaxation is taken, a worker will achieve standard performance over the working day. Standard performance is the rate of output which qualified workers will naturally achieve without over-exertion as an average over the working shift provided they know and adhere to the specified method and, they are motivated to apply themselves to their work. This performance is denoted as 100 on the standard rating and performance scales.

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Time study: Rating


It should be noted though that the standard pace applies to particular workers (with good physique, physical conditioning) working in appropriate environment. In practice, because of the inherent dissimilarities amongst workers, the rate of work is never the same throughout the working day. It is not uncommon for workers to work faster at some periods of the day than they do during others. So standard performance is achieved on average over a period of time with in-built standard deviation. In fact, working at the standard rate will not always mean moving the limbs with the same speed.
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Time study: Rating


The purpose of rating is to determine from the time actually taken by the operator being observed the standard time which can be maintained by the average qualified worker and which can be used as a realistic basis for planning, and incentive schemes. Time study is concerned with speed at which operator carries out the work, in relation to the concept of normal speed. Speed here means the effective speed of operation.

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Factors affecting rate of working


Factors outside the control of workers include: Variation in the quality or other characteristics of the material used, although they be within the prescribed tolerance limit. Changes in the operating efficiency of tools or equipment within their normal life. Minor and unavoidable changes in methods or conditions of operations. Variation in the mental attention for the performance of elements. Changes in the climatic and other conditions.

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Factors affecting rate of working


Factors within workers control: Acceptable variation in the quality of the process/product. Variation due to workers ability. Variation due to ability of mind, specifically attitude. Optimum pace at which the worker will work depends on The physical effort demanded by the work. The care required on the part of the worker. Training and experience.

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Rating factor
The figure 100 represents standard performance. If the operator is apparently performing with less effective speed, than the assigned factor is less than 100. If, on the other hand, the effective rate of working is above standard, the operator gets a factor above hundred. Essential idea being: Observed time x Rating = Constant

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Rating factor
This constant is known as the basic time:

Rating Observed time x Standard Rating

Basic Time

So, depending on the rating assigned for the operator, the basic time can either be less than or greater than the observed time.

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Selected time
The selected time is the time chosen as being representative of a group of times for which an element or group of elements. These times may be either observed or basic times; and should be denoted as selected observed or selected basic times. Theoretically, the results of all the computations of the basic time for any single constant element should be same. However, because of inherent process variations, it happens rarely!

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Selected time
It becomes necessary to select a representative time for each element from all the basic times which have been entered into the time study. Multiple ways to pick a representative selected time from the available ones. Statistics suggests.. Taking averages! There are other ways though! Before the selected time is decided, the anomalies in the sample should be noted. Exceptionally high or low points should get some attention.

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Selected time
Constant element A very high or short observed time for a given element of job should be treated with caution. An exceptionally high observed time could be due to incorrect recording, but most common reason is material or environment variation. In such as case, it should be checked whether such a variation is frequent or rare. Excess observed time because of rarely occurring events is typically not included as a representative.

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Selected time
The average time calculations should exclude this observation. But, the excess-over-average time is added to the contingency allowance. Frequent large variations indicate that the element is not a constant one but a variable element. Excessively large time for this element could be detected by corresponding reduction in time for the immediate element. Exceptionally short times could be due to human error. A rare reason of observation of such short times could also be a last-minute-process-improvement. In such as case, the job should be studied again with more detailed attention.
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Selected time
Variable element In general more observations will be necessary of a variable element than of a constant element before reliable representative basic times can be established. The analysis of factors affecting the time to complete the element should be closely studied. Some relationship should be established between the observed time and the variable factors. Multiple factors could be affecting the observed time variation and establishing relationships amongst multiple factors is difficult

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Work content
The work content of a job or operation is defined as: basic time+ relaxation allowance+ any allowance for additional work (e.g. the part of relaxation allowance that is work related). Standard time is the total time in which a job should be completed at standard performance i.e. work content, contingency allowance for delay, unoccupied time and interference allowance. Allowance for unoccupied time and interference may not be frequently included in the standard time calculations; however, the relaxation allowance is.
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Standard time constituents


A contingency allowance is a small allowance of time which may be included in a standard time to meet legitimate and expected items of work or delays, precise measurement of which is uneconomical because of their infrequent or irregular occurrence. Contingency allowance for work should include fatigue allowance; whereas the allowance for delay should be dependent on the workers. Typically contingency allowances are very small and are generally expressed as percentage of the total repetitive minutes of the job.
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Standard time constituents


Contingency allowance should not be more than 5%, and should only be given where the contingencies cannot be eliminated and are justified.

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Standard time constituents


Relaxation allowance is an addition to the basic time intended to provide the worker with the opportunity to recover from the physiological and psychological effects of carrying out specified work under specified conditions and to allow attention to personal needs. The amount of the allowance will depend on the nature of the job. One of the major additions to the basic time. Industrial fatigue allowance, in turn, forms a major portion of the relaxation allowance. Relaxation allowances are also given as percentages of the basic times.
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Standard time constituents


Typical values of relaxation allowance are 12-20%. In addition to including relaxation allowances, short rest pauses could be added over the period of work for an operator.

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Other allowances
Start-up / shut-down allowance Cleaning allowance Tooling allowance Set-up / change-over allowance Reject / excess production allowance Learning / training allowance Policy allowance is an increment, other than the bonus increment, applied to standard time to provide a satisfactory level of earning for certain level of performances under exceptional conditions.
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Standard time
Now, we can add all the constituents to arrive at the standard time for a job. Standard time = observed time + rating factor + relaxation allowance + work related contingency allowance + delay related contingency allowance.

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