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Suction Lines

Type L
Copper OD
(Inches)

Velocity = 1500 fpm

0.33
0.64
1.03
2.13
3.63
5.53
7.83
13.6
21.0
30.0
40.6
52.7
82.2
118

R-134a

Suction Temperature (F)


-20

R-404A

0.08
0.15
0.24
0.50
0.86
1.31
1.85
3.21
4.96
7.07
9.57
12.4
19.4
27.9

Line Size

Suction Lines

Type L
Copper OD
(Inches)

Velocity = 1500 fpm

The four thermodynamic potentials:

Gibbs Function:
Equation of State:

R-507

Enthalpy:

R-717

Velocity of Sound:

0.15
0.29
0.46
0.96
1.64
2.49
3.53
6.13
9.46
13.5
18.3
23.7
37.0
53.2

0.24
0.46
0.73
1.52
2.60
3.95
5.60
9.74
15.0
21.4
29.0
37.7
58.7
84.4

0.37
0.70
1.12
2.33
3.98
6.05
8.57
14.9
23.0
32.8
44.4
57.7
89.9
129

Type L
Copper OD
(Inches)

Suction Temperature (F)


-40

-20

20

0.10
0.18
0.29
0.61
1.03
1.57
2.22
3.87
5.97
8.52
11.5
15.0
23.3
33.5

0.16
0.30
0.48
1.00
1.70
2.59
3.67
6.39
9.85
14.1
19.0
24.7
38.5
55.4

0.25
0.47
0.76
1.58
2.69
4.10
5.81
10.1
15.6
22.2
30.1
39.1
60.9
87.6

0.38
0.72
1.16
2.41
4.11
6.26
8.86
15.4
23.8
33.9
45.9
59.7
93.0
134

Steel Line Size


SCH

a
velocity of sound
ft/sec
cp isobaric specific heat
Btu/lbm-R
cv isochoric specific heat
Btu/lbm-R
f
Helmholtz function
Btu/lbm
g
Gibbs function
Btu/lbm
gc gravitational conversion factor 32.174 lbm-ft/lbf -sec2
h enthalpy
Btu/lbm
J
Joules constant
778.16926 ft-lbf /Btu
m mass
lbm
M molecular weight
--N no. of molecules
--n no. of moles
lb mol
p
pressure
lbf /ft2
Q heat
Btu
s
entropy
Btu/lbm-R
T temperature
R
u internal energy
Btu/lbm
v
specific volume
ft3/lbm
V volume
ft3
W work
ft-lbf
isothermal compressibility
ft2/lbf
s adiabatic compressibility
ft2/lbf

specific heat ratio


--Superscript: 0 = heat capacity at zero pressure

S-I
m/sec
kJ/kg-K
kJ/kg-K
kJ/kg
kJ/kg
1.0
kJ/kg
1.0
kg
----kg mol
kPa
kJ
kJ/kg-K
K
kJ/kg
m3/kg
m3
kJ
(kPa)-1
(kPa)-1
---

p = 0.81 psi

0.04
0.10
0.18
0.49
0.99
1.74
2.76
5.76
10.2
16.4
24.4
34.5
61.9
99.8

t = 1F, p = 1.9 psi

Velocity = 150 fpm

p = 1.1 psi
20

Suction Temperature (F)


-20

20

-20

20

0.06
0.15
0.29
0.76
1.54
2.70
4.28
8.92
15.8
25.3
37.7
53.2
95.4
154

0.09
0.23
0.43
1.13
2.30
4.02
6.37
13.2
23.4
37.5
55.7
78.7
141
227

2.27
4.35
6.98
14.5
24.7
37.6
53.3
92.6
143
204
276
359
559
803

2.40
4.58
7.36
15.3
26.0
39.6
56.1
97.6
150
215
291
378
589
846

0.94
2.25
4.25
11.3
23.1
40.4
64.1
134
237
379
565
798
1430
2310

0.99
2.37
4.48
11.9
24.3
42.6
67.6
141
250
400
595
841
1510
2430

0.02
0.06
0.11
0.29
0.60
1.05
1.67
3.49
6.19
9.92
14.8
20.9
37.5
60.4

20

-20

20

0.06
0.13
0.25
0.67
1.36
2.38
3.78
7.88
14.0
22.4
33.3
47.0
84.3
136

2.11
4.03
6.47
13.4
22.9
34.8
49.3
85.8
132
189
255
332
517
744

2.29
4.37
7.02
14.6
24.8
37.8
53.5
93.1
144
205
277
360
562
807

0.68
1.63
3.10
8.27
16.9
29.7
47.1
98.4
175
280
418
590
1060
1710

0.73
1.77
3.36
8.97
18.3
32.2
51.1
107
190
304
453
641
1150
1860

t = 1F
p = 0.50 psi p = 0.72 psi
Suction Temperature (F)
-40
-20

Suction Temperature (F)


-20

20

0.28
0.66
1.23
3.23
6.54
11.4
18.0
37.2
65.6
105
155
219
390
625

0.30
0.72
1.35
3.56
7.20
12.5
19.8
40.9
72.2
115
171
240
429
688

Liquid Lines
p = 0.97 psi

p = 1.3 psi
20

Suction Temperature (F)


-20

20

-20

20

0.06
0.15
0.29
0.77
1.56
2.73
4.32
8.99
15.9
25.4
37.8
53.4
95.6
154

0.10
0.23
0.44
1.16
2.35
4.10
6.50
13.5
23.9
38.1
56.6
79.9
143
230

1.47
2.81
4.52
9.38
16.0
24.4
34.5
60.0
92.5
132
179
232
362
520

1.61
3.09
4.96
10.3
17.5
26.7
37.8
65.8
101
145
196
255
397
570

0.72
1.73
3.27
8.69
17.7
31.0
49.1
102
181
289
431
608
1090
1750

0.79
1.90
3.59
9.53
19.4
34.0
53.9
112
199
317
472
667
1200
1920

p = 1.3 psi
20

Suction Temperature (F)


-20

20

-20

20

0.07
0.16
0.30
0.79
1.60
2.80
4.43
9.22
16.3
26.1
38.8
54.7
98.0
158

0.10
0.24
0.45
1.18
2.40
4.20
6.64
13.8
24.4
38.9
57.9
81.6
146
234

1.44
2.75
4.42
9.16
15.6
23.8
33.7
58.6
90.3
129
174
227
353
508

1.58
3.02
4.85
10.1
17.2
26.1
37.0
64.4
99.2
142
192
249
388
558

0.71
1.71
3.23
8.58
17.5
30.6
48.4
101
179
286
425
600
1070
1730

0.79
1.88
3.55
9.43
19.2
33.6
53.2
111
196
314
467
659
1180
1900

Liquid Lines

Suction Temperature (F)


-40

-20

20

0.14
0.23
0.42
0.69
1.23
1.70
3.22
4.59
7.09
9.48
12.2
19.2
27.7
48.0
75.6
109

0.23
0.39
0.71
1.19
2.12
2.92
5.54
7.91
12.2
16.3
21.0
33.0
47.7
82.6
130
187

0.38
0.63
1.17
1.94
3.46
4.77
9.06
12.9
20.0
26.7
34.4
54.0
78.0
135
213
305

0.59
0.99
1.82
3.03
5.41
7.46
14.2
20.2
31.2
41.7
53.7
84.4
122
211
333
477

0.09
0.19
0.43
0.85
1.84
2.83
6.65
10.7
19.0
27.9
39.0
70.9
115
237
430
690

0.16
0.32
0.74
1.46
3.16
4.85
11.4
18.2
32.4
47.5
66.3
120
195
400
725
1160

p = 1.1 psi

20

0.26
0.53
1.20
2.37
5.11
7.82
18.3
29.3
51.9
76.1
106
192
311
637
1160
1850

0.41
0.81
1.85
3.64
7.84
12.0
28.0
44.7
79.1
116
162
292
473
969
1750
2810

20

0.40
0.94
1.77
4.63
9.33
16.2
25.6
52.8
92.9
148
219
308
549
880

0.44
1.05
1.96
5.12
10.3
18.0
28.3
58.4
103
164
243
341
608
974

t = 1F, p = 3.6 psi

p = 0.73 psi

Suction Temperature (F)


-20

Discharge Lines
t = 1F, p = 2.2 psi

Velocity = 150 fpm

Suction Temperature (F)


-20

20

0.40
0.95
1.78
4.65
9.38
16.3
25.7
53.0
93.4
149
220
310
552
884

0.45
1.05
1.97
5.16
10.4
18.1
28.5
58.8
104
165
244
343
611
979

Discharge Lines
t = 1F, p = 2.8 psi

Velocity = 150 fpm


Suction Temperature (F)
-20
12.7
21.1
39.0
64.8
116
159
302
431
666
891
1150
1800
2600
4510
7110
----

t = 1F, p = 3.5 psi

20

-20

20

13.0
21.7
40.0
66.6
119
164
311
443
685
915
1180
1850
2680
4630
7300
----

9.89
19.6
44.3
87.0
187
286
665
1060
1880
2750
3820
6910
-------------

10.2
20.1
45.5
89.4
192
293
683
1090
1930
2820
3930
7100
-------------

Suction Temperature (F)


-20
20
1.73
3.41
7.68
15.1
32.3
49.3
114
182
322
472
657
1190
1920
3920
7080
----

1.91
3.76
8.48
16.6
35.6
54.4
126
201
356
520
724
1310
2110
4320
7810
----

Suction Line capacities based on 200 equivalent feet, saturated refrigerant vapor, 60F liquid (86F liquid for R-717)
Liquid Line capacities based on 200 equivalent feet, saturated 60F refrigerant liquid (86F for R-717)
Discharge Line capacities based on 100 equivalent feet, 105F condensing temperature, isentropic + 50F discharge vapor temperature, 25F superheated vapor entering compressor, 60F liquid (86F liquid for R-717)
All line capacities calculated with thermodynamic and thermophysical properties computed using NIST Refprop v6.01 database
Approximate line capacity for other saturation temperature t and equivalent length Le:
Line capacity = Table capacity * (Table Le * Actual t / Actual Le)0.55
Approximate saturation temperature t for other line capacities and equivalent lengths Le:
t = (Actual Le / Table Le) * (Actual capacity / Table capacity )1.8

Carrying Capacity of Air Conditioning Lines - Tons of Refrigeration


Line
Size

Suction Lines

Liquid Lines

Discharge
Lines

Velocity= t = 1F
Velocity= t = 1F
t = 1F
Type L
Copper OD 1500 fpm p = 1.4 psi 150 fpm p = 2.9 psi p = 3.0 psi
(Inches)
Suction Temperature = 40F
3/8
1/2
5/8
7/8
1-1/8
1-3/8
1-5/8
2-1/8
2-5/8
3-1/8
3-5/8
4-1/8
5-1/8
6-1/8

0.41
0.79
1.27
2.64
4.50
6.85
9.69
16.9
26.0
37.1
50.2
65.3
102
146

0.17
0.41
0.77
2.02
4.09
7.13
11.3
23.4
41.3
65.8
97.8
138
246
395

1.93
3.70
5.94
12.3
21.0
32.0
45.3
78.8
121
173
234
305
475
683

1.60
3.83
7.21
19.1
38.7
67.5
107
222
392
626
930
1310
2350
3770

0.37
0.88
1.66
4.35
8.78
15.3
24.1
49.8
87.8
140
207
292
520
834

Line
Size

Suction Lines

Liquid Lines

Discharge
Lines

t = 1F
Velocity= t = 1F
Velocity= t = 1F
Type L
Copper OD 1500 fpm p = 0.96 psi 150 fpm p = 2.1 psi p = 2.2 psi
(Inches)
Suction Temperature = 40F
3/8
1/2
5/8
7/8
1-1/8
1-3/8
1-5/8
2-1/8
2-5/8
3-1/8
3-5/8
4-1/8
5-1/8
6-1/8

0.26
0.51
0.81
1.68
2.87
4.37
6.19
10.8
16.6
23.7
32.1
41.7
65.0
93.4

0.10
0.25
0.46
1.23
2.49
4.35
6.89
14.3
25.3
40.4
60.0
84.7
151
243

1.82
3.47
5.58
11.6
19.7
30.1
42.6
74.1
114
163
220
287
447
642

1.23
2.94
5.54
14.7
29.9
52.2
82.7
172
304
486
723
1020
1830
2940

Suction Line capacities based on 100 equivalent feet, saturated refrigerant vapor, 100F liquid
Liquid Line capacities based on 100 equivalent feet, saturated 100F refrigerant liquid
Discharge Line capacities based on 100 equivalent feet, 105F condensing temperature, isentropic + 50F discharge vapor temperature, 25F superheated vapor entering compressor, 60F liquid
All line capacities calculated with thermodynamic and thermophysical properties computed using NIST Refprop v6.01 database

0.26
0.62
1.16
3.05
6.17
10.7
17.0
35.1
61.9
98.6
146
206
367
589

Line
Size

Suction Lines

Liquid Lines

Discharge
Lines

t = 1F
Velocity= t = 1F
Velocity= t = 1F
Type L
Copper OD 1500 fpm p = 1.4 psi 150 fpm p = 3.3 psi p = 3.5 psi
(Inches)
Suction Temperature = 40F
3/8
1/2
5/8
7/8
1-1/8
1-3/8
1-5/8
2-1/8
2-5/8
3-1/8
3-5/8
4-1/8
5-1/8
6-1/8

0.38
0.72
1.15
2.39
4.08
6.21
8.79
15.3
23.6
33.7
45.5
59.2
92.2
133

0.16
0.38
0.72
1.89
3.82
6.67
10.5
21.9
38.6
61.6
91.5
129
230
370

Types of Energy
potential: energy due to relative position.
kinetic: energy due to relative velocity.
internal: the sum of all potential and kinetic energies.
heat: energy transferred between system and surroundings due to
temperature difference.
work: energy transferred between system and surroundings due to
pressure difference.
Heat Units
calorie: energy required to raise one gram of water by 1C.
BTU: energy required to raise one pound of water by 1F.
Thermodynamic Systems
closed: energy can cross system boundaries, but mass cannot.
open: both energy and mass can cross system boundaries.
isolated: neither energy nor mass can cross system boundaries.
States
saturation pressure (vapor pressure): pressure at which a phase
change will take place at a given temperature.
saturation temperature: temperature at which a phase change will
take place at a given pressure.
subcooled liquid: liquid at a temperature below its saturation temperature.
superheated vapor: vapor at a temperature above its saturation
temperature.
critical point: saturated state where the liquid and vapor phases
become indistinguishable.
triple point: saturated state where the solid, liquid and vapor phases
are in equilibrium.

t = 1F, p = 3.6 psi

p = 1.0 psi

t = 1F
p = 0.31 psi p = 0.49 psi
Suction Temperature (F)
-40
-20

0.42
1.00
1.88
4.93
9.96
17.3
27.4
56.5
99.7
159
235
331
590
947

Discharge Lines
t = 1F, p = 2.2 psi

Velocity = 150 fpm

Liquid Lines

0.04
0.10
0.19
0.50
1.02
1.79
2.84
5.92
10.5
16.8
25.0
35.3
63.2
102

20

0.39
0.92
1.73
4.53
9.16
15.9
25.2
52.0
91.7
146
217
305
544
872

t = 1F, p = 2.2 psi

Suction Temperature (F)


-20

0.04
0.10
0.18
0.49
0.99
1.74
2.76
5.74
10.2
16.3
24.2
34.2
61.4
98.8

0.03
0.06
0.11
0.30
0.62
1.09
1.73
3.61
6.42
10.3
15.3
21.6
38.8
62.6

t = 1F, p = 1.3 psi

20

t = 1F
p = 0.48 psi p = 0.70 psi
Suction Temperature (F)
-40
-20

Suction Temperature (F)


-20

Discharge Lines

Velocity = 150 fpm

p = 0.70 psi

t = 1F, p = 3.0 psi

Suction Lines

80
80
80
80
80
80
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

Discharge Lines

Liquid Lines

0.03
0.08
0.16
0.42
0.86
1.50
2.38
4.98
8.84
14.2
21.1
29.8
53.5
86.3

Velocity = 1500 fpm


IPS

Liquid Lines

R-407C

I-P

0.02
0.05
0.09
0.25
0.51
0.90
1.43
2.99
5.31
8.53
12.7
18.0
32.3
52.2

0.09
0.17
0.28
0.58
0.99
1.50
2.13
3.70
5.70
8.14
11.0
14.3
22.3
32.1

Suction Lines

3/8
1/2
3/4
1
1-1/4
1-1/2
2
2-1/2
3
3-1/2
4
5
6
8
10
12

Specific Heat Ratio:

0.21
0.40
0.64
1.33
2.27
3.46
4.90
8.53
13.1
18.8
25.4
33.0
51.4
73.9

20

3/8
1/2
5/8
7/8
1-1/8
1-3/8
1-5/8
2-1/8
2-5/8
3-1/8
3-5/8
4-1/8
5-1/8
6-1/8

Isobaric Specific Heat:

0.13
0.25
0.40
0.84
1.43
2.17
3.08
5.35
8.25
11.8
15.9
20.7
32.3
46.4

Velocity = 1500 fpm

Isochoric Specific Heat:

20

-20

Line Size

Entropy:

0.02
0.06
0.11
0.30
0.61
1.06
1.69
3.54
6.29
10.1
15.0
21.3
38.3
61.7

t = 1F
p = 0.33 psi p = 0.49 psi
Suction Temperature (F)
-20
0

Suction Temperature (F)


-40

3/8
1/2
5/8
7/8
1-1/8
1-3/8
1-5/8
2-1/8
2-5/8
3-1/8
3-5/8
4-1/8
5-1/8
6-1/8

R-22

Refrigeration Engineer Quick Reference

0.22
0.43
0.68
1.42
2.42
3.69
5.22
9.07
14.0
20.0
27.0
35.1
54.7
78.7

3/8
1/2
5/8
7/8
1-1/8
1-3/8
1-5/8
2-1/8
2-5/8
3-1/8
3-5/8
4-1/8
5-1/8
6-1/8

Third Law: You can never reach absolute zero.

(Physical Constants on reverse side.)

0.14
0.27
0.44
0.91
1.55
2.36
3.35
5.82
8.98
12.8
17.3
22.5
35.1
50.5

Velocity = 1500 fpm

Second Law: You can only break even at absolute zero.

Nomenclature

0.09
0.17
0.27
0.56
0.95
1.45
2.05
3.57
5.51
7.87
10.6
13.8
21.6
31.0

Type L
Copper OD
(Inches)

First Law: You cant win, you can only break even.

Helmholtz Function:

20

Suction Lines

Thermodynamic Laws (simplified)

Ideal Gas Law:

Line Size

Third Law: It is impossible to cool a body down to absolute zero.

Thermodynamic Equations

-20

3/8
1/2
5/8
7/8
1-1/8
1-3/8
1-5/8
2-1/8
2-5/8
3-1/8
3-5/8
4-1/8
5-1/8
6-1/8

Second Law (isolated system):


The entropy change of any system and its surroundings, considered together, is positive, and
approaches zero for any process that approaches reversibility. It is considered the fundamental law of natural science.
The two classical statements of the Second Law:
Clausius statement: It is impossible to construct a device that operates in a cycle and produces no effect other than the transfer of heat from a cooler body to a hotter body.
Kelvin-Plank statement: It is impossible to construct a device that operates in a cycle and
produces no effect other than the raising of a weight and the exchange of heat with a
single reservoir.

Suction Temperature (F)


-40

t = 1F
p = 0.39 psi p = 0.57 psi
Suction Temperature (F)
-40
-20

Thermodynamic Terms

1.77
3.38
5.43
11.3
19.2
29.3
41.4
72.1
111
159
215
279
435
625

1.64
3.90
7.33
19.4
39.3
68.5
108
225
397
633
941
1330
2370
3810

0.42
0.99
1.86
4.88
9.85
17.1
27.0
55.8
98.3
156
232
326
581
932

Thermodynamic Properties
mass: the property of a body that is a measure of its inertia, causing it to have weight in a gravitational field.
temperature: a measure of the relative hotness or coldness of a
substance.
pressure: force per unit area.
density: the amount of mass of a substance within a unit volume.
specific volume: the amount of space occupied by a unit mass of a
substance.
internal energy: sum of all potential and kinetic energies in a substance.
enthalpy: the total useful energy in a substance.
entropy: a measure of energy which is no longer available to perform useful work.
specific heat: the amount of energy necessary to raise the temperature of a substance under constant pressure (Cp) or constant
volume (Cv).
latent heat: energy necessary to produce a change in phase without causing a temperature change.
sensible heat: energy that changes temperature.
Thermodynamic Processes
adiabatic: no heat crosses the system boundary
isenthalpic (throttling): constant enthalpy
isentropic: constant entropy
isobaric: constant pressure
isochoric (isometric): constant volume
isothermal: constant temperature

Idealized Thermodynamic Cycles


Vapor Cycles
Carnot: Isentropic compression; isobaric/isothermal heat addition
(vaporization); isentropic expansion; isobaric/isothermal heat
rejection (condensation). This cycle, though not practical to implement, represents the maximum efficiency attainable from any heat
engine.
Rankine: Isentropic compression; isobaric heat addition;
isobaric/isothermal heat addition (vaporization); isentropic expansion; isobaric/isothermal heat rejection (condensation). This cycle
is closely approximated in actual steam turbine plants.
Combustion Cycles
Otto: Isentropic compression; isochoric heat addition; isentropic
expansion; isochoric heat rejection.
Diesel: Isentropic compression; isobaric heat addition; isentropic
expansion; isochoric heat rejection.
Brayton: Isentropic compression; isobaric heat addition; isentropic
expansion; isobaric heat rejection.
Ericcson: Isothermal compression; isobaric heat addition; isothermal expansion; isobaric heat rejection.
Stirling: Isothermal compression with heat rejection; isochoric heat
addition; isothermal expansion with heat addition; isochoric heat
rejection.
Refrigeration Cycles
Reversed Carnot: Isentropic compression; isobaric/isothermal heat
rejection (condensation); isentropic expansion; isobaric/isothermal heat addition (evaporation).
Vapor Compression: Isentropic compression; isobaric heat rejection; isobaric/isothermal heat rejection (condensation); isenthalpic
expansion; isobaric/isothermal heat addition (evaporation). This is
the idealized cycle for most modern air conditioning and refrigeration systems.
Reversed Brayton: Isentropic compression; isobaric heat rejection;
isentropic expansion; isobaric heat addition. This cycle uses air
as a refrigerant.
Reversed Stirling: Isothermal compression with heat rejection; isochoric heat rejection; isothermal expansion with heat addition;
isochoric heat addition.

www.sporlan.com
206 Lange Drive, Washington, MO 63090

Form 5-162-702

First Law (closed system):


Heat entering a system can either increase temperature (internal energy) or be used to perform work on the surroundings. It is the law of energy conservation, i.e., energy cannot be
created or destroyed.

Line Size

R-134a

Zeroth Law: When two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, they must be in
thermal equilibrium with each other.

R-22

Carrying Capacity of Refrigeration Lines - Tons of Refrigeration

Thermodynamic Laws

Refrigerant Data

Conversion Factors

Bernoulli equation:

Reynolds Number:

Colebrooks equation:

Darcy-Weisbach equation:

Orifice equation (incompressible flow):

> 250

Refrigeration Engineer Quick Reference

Orifice equation (vapor flow):

where

> critical pressure ratio

Critical pressure ratio:

Nomenclature

I-P

orifice area
ft2
flow coefficient
--diameter
ft
friction factor
--gravitational
conversion factor
32.174 lbm-ft/lbf -sec2
k
specific heat ratio
--hf head loss due to friction ft
Le equivalent length
ft
m mass flow rate
lbm /sec
p
pressure
lbf /ft2
Re Reynolds Number
--v
velocity
ft/sec
z
height
ft

effective roughness
ft

specific weight
lbm /ft2-sec2
absolute viscosity
lbf -sec/ft2

kinematic viscosity
ft2/sec

density
lbm /ft3
Subscripts: u = upstream; d = downstream
Ao
Cf
D
f
gc

Physical Constants
g
k
NA
R

standard acceleration
due to gravity
Boltzmanns constant
Avogadros constant
universal gas constant

ASHRAE Number

Chemical Name

R-10
R-11
R-12
R-12B1
R-13
R-13B1
R-14
R-20
R-21
R-22
R-22B1
R-23
R-30
R-31
R-32
R-40
R-41
R-50
R-110
R-113
R-114
R-115
R-116
R-123
R-124
R-125
R-130
R-134a
R-141b
R-142b
R-143a
R-150
R-150a
R-152a
R-160
R-160B1
R-161
R-170
R-227ea
R-236ea
R-236fa
R-245ca
R-245fa
R-C270
R-290
R-C318
R-600
R-600a
R-601
R-601a
R-610
R-611
R-630
R-631
R-702n
R-704
R-717
R-718
R-720
R-728
R-729
R-732
R-740
R-744
R-744A
R-764
R-1120
R-1130
R-1132a
R-1140
R-1150
R-1270

tetrachloromethane (carbon tetrachloride)


trichlorofluoromethane
dichlorodifluoromethane
bromochlorodifluoromethane (halon 1211)
chlorotrifluoromethane
bromotrifluoromethane (halon 1301)
tetrafluoromethane (carbon tetrafluoride)
trichloromethane (chloroform)
dichlorofluoromethane
chlorodifluoromethane
bromodifluoromethane (halon 1201)
trifluoromethane
dichloromethane (methylene chloride)
chlorofluoromethane
difluoromethane (methylene fluoride)
chloromethane (methyl chloride)
fluoromethane (methyl fluoride)
methane
hexachloroethane
1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane
1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane
chloropentafluoroethane
hexafluoroethane
2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane
2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane
pentafluoroethane
1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane
1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane
1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane
1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane
1,1,1-trifluoroethane
1,2-dichloroethane
1,1-dichloroethane
1,1-difluoroethane
chloroethane (ethyl chloride)
ethyl bromide (halon 2001)
fluoroethane (ethyl fluoride)
ethane
1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane
1,1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoropropane
1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane
1,1,2,2,3-pentafluoropropane
1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane
cyclopropane
propane
octafluorocyclobutane
n-butane
2-methyl propane (isobutane)
n-pentane
2-methyl butane (isopentane)
ethyl ether
methyl formate
methyl amine
ethyl amine
normal hydrogen
helium
ammonia
water/steam
neon
nitrogen
air
oxygen
argon
carbon dioxide
nitrous oxide
sulfur dioxide
trichloroethene (trielene)
trans-1,2-dichloroethene (dielene)
1,1-difluoroethene (vinylidene fluoride)
chloroethene (vinyl chloride)
ethene (ethylene)
propene (propylene)

Sporlan Letter
Designation

Color Designation (PMS No.)1

ASHRAE 34
Safety Group

H
F

Orange (021)
White (N/A)

B1
A1
A1

E
T

Light Blue (2975)


Pinkish-Red/Coral (177)
Yellow-Brown/Mustard (124)

A1
A1
A1

Light Green (352)

B1
A1

Light Blue-Gray (428)

A1
B2
A2
B2
A3

Dark Purple/Violet (266)


Dark Blue/Navy (302)
Dark Grey (424)
Light Blue-Gray (428)
Deep Green (335)
Medium Brown/Tan (465)

A1
A1
A1
A1
B1
A1
A1

Light Blue (2975)

A1
A2
A2

A2

A3

A1
A3
A1
A3
A3

B2

A3
A1
B2
A1
A1
A1

Silver

A1
A1
B1

B3
A3
A3

CAS Registry Number


56-23-5
75-69-4
75-71-8
353-59-3
75-72-9
75-63-8
75-73-0
67-66-3
75-43-4
75-45-6
1511-62-2
75-46-7
75-09-2
593-70-4
75-10-5
74-87-3
593-53-3
74-82-8
67-72-1
76-13-1
76-14-2
76-15-3
76-16-4
306-83-2
2837-89-0
354-33-6
79-34-5
811-97-2
1717-00-6
75-68-3
420-46-2
107-06-2
75-34-3
75-37-6
75-00-3
74-96-4
353-36-6
74-84-0
431-89-0
431-63-0
690-39-1
679-86-7
460-73-11
75-19-4
74-98-6
115-25-3
106-97-8
75-28-5
109-66-0
78-78-4
60-29-7
107-31-3
74-89-5
75-04-7
1333-74-0
7440-59-7
7664-41-7
7732-18-5
7440-01-9
7727-37-9
7782-44-7
7440-37-1
124-38-9
10024-97-2
7446-09-5
79-01-6
156-60-5
75-38-7
75-01-4
74-85-1
115-07-1

Critical Values 2
Temperature (F)
542.03
388.33
233.55
308.84
83.71
152.60
-50.15
504.23
353.21
205.06
281.89
78.66
455.27
305.17
172.59
289.49
111.43
-116.70
808.3
417.31
294.22
175.91
67.78
362.63
252.10
151.12
730.5
213.91
399.56
278.78
163.20
559.1
481.7
235.87
369.1
447.3
216.0
89.92
217.04
282.72
256.86
345.96
309.29
257.27
206.06
239.41
305.62
274.46
385.8
370.0
380.57
416.39
314.4
361.4
-399.93
-450.31
269.99
705.18
-379.58
-232.52
-220.96
-181.42
-188.48
87.76
97.61
315.77
568
469.9
85.46
305.3
48.55
198.36

Pressure (psia)
661.37
639.27
599.89
594.94
562.31
574.90
543.89
794.81
751.30
723.74
744.33
701.40
881.83
744.20
838.61
965.95
855.29
666.40
571
492.00
472.39
452.52
441.20
531.10
525.66
526.34
847.0
588.75
616.41
597.99
547.60
778.9
735.3
655.10
764
903.6
682
706.59
432.21
507.92
464.12
569.27
527.94
809.23
616.07
402.84
550.56
527.94
487
490
527.94
870.23
1082.0
815.11
190.75
32.99
1643.7
3199.2
388.50
492.81
548.97
731.42
704.88
1069.9
1050.1
1142.9
712
795
646.62
746.9
731.00
676.54

Specific Vol (ft 3/lbm)

Length

Molecular
Weight

0.0287
0.0289
0.0284
0.0225
0.0275
0.0215
0.0256
0.0324
0.0306
0.0306
0.0204
0.0305
0.0357
0.0371
0.0378
0.0446
0.0506
0.0988
0.0284
0.0286
0.0276
0.0261
0.0258
0.0291
0.0286
0.0280

1 ft =

Mass

153.82
137.37
120.91
165.36
104.46
148.91
88.01
119.38
102.92
86.47
130.92
70.01
84.93
68.48
52.02
50.49
34.03
16.04
236.74
187.37
170.92
154.47
138.01
152.93
136.48
120.02
167.85
102.03
116.95
100.50
84.04
98.96
98.96
66.05
64.51
108.96
48.06
30.07
170.03
152.04
152.04
134.05
134.05
42.08
44.10
200.04
58.12
58.12
72.15
72.15
74.12
60.05
31.06
45.08
2.02
4.00
17.03
18.02
20.18
28.01
28.97
32.00
39.95
44.01
44.01
64.06
131.39
96.95
64.04
62.50
28.05
42.08

0.0313
0.0348
0.0368
0.0370
0.0364
0.0435

0.1120
0.0276
0.0285
0.0291
0.0306
0.0310
0.0617
0.0706
0.0258
0.0703
0.0714
0.0690
0.0679
0.0609
0.0459
0.0714
0.0632
0.5320
0.2300
0.0682
0.0497
0.0332
0.0510
0.0529
0.0367
0.0302
0.0342
0.0353
0.0305
0.0312
0.0385
0.0748
0.0717

1 lbm =

F =

1 psi =

1.0
--m
m
kg/sec
Pa
--m/sec
m
m
N/m3
Pa-sec
m2/sec
kg/m3

I-P

S-I

32.1740 ft/sec2
5.657308x10-24 ft-lbf /R
2.73159766x1026 / lb mol
1545.349 ft-lbf /lb mol-R

9.80665 m/sec2
1.380650x10-26 kJ/K
6.02214199x1026 / kg mol
8.314471 kJ/kg mol-K

R-401A
R-401B
R-402A
R-402B
R-403A
R-403B
R-404A
R-405A
R-406A
R-406B
R-407A
R-407B
R-407C
R-407D
R-407E
R-408A
R-409A
R-409B
R-410A
R-411A
R-411B
R-411C +
R-412A
R-413A
R-414A
R-414B
R-416A
R-417A
R-500
R-501
R-502
R-503
R-504
R-505
R-506
R-507A (R-507)
R-508A (R-508)
R-508B
R-509A (R-509)

R-22/R-152a/R-124 (53/13/34)
R-22/R-152a/R-124 (61/11/28)
R-125/R-290/R-22 (60/2/38)
R-125/R-290/R-22 (38/2/60)
R-290/R-22/R-218 (5/75/20)
R-290/R-22/R-218 (5/56/39)
R-125/R-143a/R-134a (44/52/4)
R-22/R-152a/R-142b/R-C318 (45/7/5.5/42.5)
R-22/R-600a/R-142b (55/4/41)
R-22/R-600a/R-142b (65/4/31)
R-32/R-125/R-134a (20/40/40)
R-32/R-125/R-134a (10/70/20)
R-32/R-125/R-134a (23/25/52)
R-32/R-125/R-134a (15/15/70)
R-32/R-125/R-134a (25/15/60)
R-125/R-143a/R-22 (7/46/47)
R-22/R-124/R-142b (60/25/15)
R-22/R-124/R-142b (65/25/10)
R-32/R-125 (50/50)
R-1270/R-22/R-152a (1.5/87.5/11)
R-1270/R-22/R-152a (3/94/3)
R-1270/R-22/R-152a (3/95.5/1.5)
R-22/R-218/R-142b (70/5/25)
R-218/R-134a/R-600a (9/88/3)
R-22/R-124/R-142b/R-600a (51/28.5/16.5/4)
R-22/R-124/R-142b/R-600a (50/39/9.5/1.5)
R-134a/R124/R-600 (59/39.5/1.5)
R-125/R-134a/R-600 (46.6/50/3.4)
R-12/R-152a (73.8/26.2)
R-22/R-12 (75/25)
R-22/R-115 (48.8/51.2)
R-23/R-13 (40.1/59.9)
R-32/R-115 (48.2/51.8)
R-12/R-31 (78/22)
R-31/R-114 (55.1/44.9)
R-125/R-143a (50/50)
R-23/R-116 (39/61)
R-23/R-116 (46/54)
R-22/R-218 (44/56)

0.068947573 bar
0.0068947573 MPa
6.8947573 kPa
0.068045964 atm
0.070306958 kgf /cm2
2.0360 in Hg(32F)1
2.0418 in Hg(60F)1
2.0360207 in Hgconv
51.714933 mm Hgconv (torr)
51,714.933 m Hgconv (microns)
27.681 in H20(39.2F)1
27.708 in H20(60F)1
27.679905 in H20conv
703.06958 mm H20conv

Volume
1 ft 3 =

0.028316847 m3
28.316847 litre
7.4805195 gal (liq. U.S.)

Specific Volume
1 ft 3/lbm =

0.062427961 m3/kg
62.427961 cm3/g
7.4805195 gal (liq. U.S.)/lbm

Density
1 lbm /ft 3 =

16.018463 kg/m3
0.016018463 g/cm3
0.13368056 lbm /gal (liq. U.S.)

Energy (work)
1 BtuIT 2 =

778.16926 ft-lbf
1055.0559 Joule (watt-sec)
0.29307107 watt-hr
251.99576 calIT
251.82723 calth
1.0550559 x 1010 ergs
0.99933123 Btuth
1.0007717 Btu(mean)
1.0043734 Btu(39F)
0.9997575 Btu(59F)
0.9996438 Btu(60F)

Power
1 ton, refrigeration3 =

Composition (mass percentages)

1.8 * C + 32
R - 459.67
1.8 * K - 459.67

Pressure

Refrigerant Blends
ASHRAE Number

0.45359237 kg
16 ounces (avoir.)
14.583333 ounces (troy)
7000 grains
0.03108095 slugs
5.0 x 10-4 tons (short, US)
4.4642857 x 10-4 tons (long, UK)
4.5359237 x 10-4 tonnes (1000 kg)

Temperature

S-I
m2
--m
---

0.3048 meters

Sporlan Letter
Designation

Color Designation (PMS No.)

X
F
L
R

Pinkish-Red/Coral (177)
Yellow-Brown/Mustard (124)
Light Brown/Sand (461)
Green-Brown/Olive (385)

Orange (021)

ASHRAE 34
Safety Group
A1
A1
A1
A1
A1
A1
A1
A2

V
N

Lime Green (368)


Cream (156)
Medium Brown (471)
Dark Brown/Chocolate (450)

R
F

Medium Purple (248)


Medium Brown/Tan (465)

Rose (507)
Dark Purple/Violet (266)
Blue-Green/Teal (326)

A1
A1
A1
A1
A1
A1
A1
A1
A1
A2
A2
A2
A2
A1

Medium Blue (2995)


Yellow-Green/Lime (381)
D

Yellow (109)

R
W

Light Purple/Lavender (251)


Blue-Green/Aqua (3268)

Blue-Green/Teal (326)

Dark Blue/Navy (302)

A1
A1
A1

A1
A1
A1
A1

Trade Name
MP39
MP66
HP80
HP81
ISCEON 69-S
ISCEON 69-L
HP62, FX-70
GREENCOOL G2015
GHG
GHG-HP
Klea 60
Klea 61
Klea 66, Suva 9000

FX-10
FX-56
FX-57
AZ-20, Suva 9100, Puron
GREENCOOL G2018a
GREENCOOL G2018b
GREENCOOL G2018c
Arcton TP5R
ISCEON 49
GHG-X4, Autofrost, Chill-It
Hot Shot, Kar Kool
FRIGC (FR-12)
ISCEON 59, NU-22
Carrene #7

AZ-50
Klea 5R3
Suva 95
Arcton TP5R2

Critical Values 2
Temperature (F)

Pressure (psia)

Specific Vol (ft 3/lbm)

221.48
218.38
168.85
181.45
196.2
191.7
161.86
222.8
241.7

669.03
679.07
614.11
656.35
680
638
541.71
622
708

0.0324
0.0322
0.0294
0.0299

179.44
165.88
186.89
196.82
191.78
182.30
224.46
219.84
158.30
210.31
204.71
203.9
225.5
214.5
231.3
226.4
226.8
193.8
215.87
205.15
177.31
65.17
143.84
244.0
288.0
159.34
51.81
53.70
189.0

650.77
592.21
672.11
650.21
686.59
629.46
667.17
683.24
691.81
718.46
717.54
718
708
615
682
666
583
595
605.25
690.97
582.84
618.54
643.80
686
748
538.78
536.72
556.11
585

0.0302
0.0285
0.0312
0.0315
0.0320
0.0325
0.0316
0.0313
0.0290
0.0329
0.0322

Molecular
Weight

0.0328

0.0326
0.0304
0.0282
0.0290
0.0317

0.0325
0.0279
0.0281

94.44
92.84
101.55
94.71
91.99
103.26
97.60
111.91
89.86
88.58
90.11
102.94
86.20
90.96
83.78
87.02
97.43
96.67
72.59
82.36
83.07
83.44
92.17
103.95
96.93
101.59
111.92
106.75
99.30
93.10
111.63
87.25
79.25
103.48
93.69
98.86
100.10
95.39
123.96

12,000 Btu/hr
200 Btu/min
3.5168528 kW
4.7161772 hp (500 ft-lbf /sec)
4.7142798 hp, electric
4.7815890 hp, metric (75 m-kgf /sec)

Specific Enthalpy
1 BtuIT /lbm =

2.326 kJ/kg

Specific Entropy
1 BtuIT /lbm-R =

4.1868 kJ/kg-K

Viscosity (absolute)
1 lbf -sec/ft2 =

47.88026 Pa-sec (N-sec/m2)


478.8026 poise (dyne-sec/cm2)
47,880.26 centipoise (mPa-sec)
32.17405 lbm /ft-sec

1 Conversion

factors for mercury and water manometer pressure units are calculated
using standard acceleration of gravity at the stated temperature. Additional digits are
not justified as the definitions of the units do not take into account compressibility
and changes in density caused by the revised temperature scale, ITS-90. Conversion
factors for conventional mercury and water manometer pressure units, noted on this
chart with subscript "conv", Hgconv and H20conv, are based on ISO Standard 31-3:1992.

2 The

Fifth International Conference on the Properties of Steam (London, July 1956)


defined the International Table calorie as 4.1868 J. Therefore, the exact conversion
for the International Table Btu is 1.05505585262 kJ. The notation of International
Table on this chart is subscript "IT", and the notation for thermochemical is subscript
"th". The thermochemical Btu, Btuth, is based on the thermochemical calorie, calth,
where calth is defined as 4.184 J.

3 Ton,

refrigeration is defined as the rate of cooling provided by melting a ton of ice in


one day, with the latent heat of fusion for water defined as 144 Btu/lbm. A slightly more
accurate value for the latent heat of fusion for water is 333.6 kJ/kg (143.4 BtuIT/lbm).
For conversion to other units, 1 ton refrigeration = 12,000 BtuIT/hr is used.

Note: Conversions in bold are exact.

1Refrigerant color designations per ARI Guideline N


2Data obtained from various sources, including: ASHRAE, NIST, and refrigerant manufacturers

+ preliminary ASHRAE Number


ASHRAE 34 refrigerant designation system:
first digit on the right: number of fluorine atoms
second digit on the right: number of hydrogen atoms plus one
third digit on the right: number of carbon atoms minus one (not used when equal to zero)
fourth digit on the right: unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds in the compound (not used when equal to zero)
The lower-case letter that follows the refrigerant designation refers to the form of the molecule when different forms (isomers) are possible, with the most symmetrical form indicated by the number alone. As the form becomes less and less symmetrical, the letters a, b, and c (lower case) are appended.

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Fluid Flow Equations