Sie sind auf Seite 1von 10

1998

IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 9, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2009

Transient Strain Measurements of a Suspended Cable Under Impact Loadings Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors
Chien-Ching Ma and Cheng-Wei Wang
AbstractThe theoretical and experimental studies of ber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors is investigated. In the theoretical studies, the coupled-mode theory with transfer matrix method is used to simulate the dynamic responses of the FBG sensors subjected to a sinusoidal strain wave. The numerical results indicate that the increase of frequency and amplitude of strain wave result in signal distortion, hence the signal distortion limit is established to analyze the FBG dynamic sensing range. In the experimental studies, the FBG sensors as well as the strain gage are used to measure simultaneously the transient responses of dynamic strain for a suspended cable under impact loadings. The frequency spectra of the measuring results for transient responses of dynamic strain are analyzed and the natural frequencies of the cable are determined. The natural frequencies obtained from experimental measurements have excellent agreement for different sensors and different impact positions. In addition, the experimental results also have good correspondence with the theoretical analysis and the nite-element method (FEM). According to the available experimental results, it is proved that the FBG sensor has excellent ability of transient strain measurement for structures with curved surface and large curvature and has better performance than the traditional strain gage. Index TermsCoupled-mode theory, dynamic strain, ber Bragg grating (FBG), impact loading, natural frequency, suspended cable, transient response.

I. INTRODUCTION HE ber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors have attracted more and more attention in recent years due to their low weight, small size, high sensitivity, and immunity to electromagnetic elds [1][3]. In addition, it requires no electrical power at the sensing point. They can be used to measure temperature, strain, displacement, pressure, etc. For strain sensing, both the change of the grating period due to physical elongation of the sensor and the change in effective index due to photoelastic effect with shift the Bragg wavelength. In strain sensor applications, FBGs has been successfully applied to health monitoring of civil engineering structures such as bridges, dams and tunnels [4], [5]. Traditionally, for the purpose of position tracking

Manuscript received November 18, 2008; revised July 23, 2009; accepted August 24, 2009. Current version published November 04, 2009. This work was supported in part by National Science Council (Republic of China) under Grant NSC96-2221-E002-210-MY3. The associate editor coordinating the review of this paper and approving it for publication was Prof. Istvan Barsony. The authors are with the Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan 106, China (e-mail: ccma@ntu.edu.tw; r95522508@ntu.edu.tw). Color versions of one or more of the gures in this paper are available online at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. Digital Object Identier 10.1109/JSEN.2009.2031327

control, linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) sensors have been widely used for displacement measurement. Over a wide range, the LVDT sensor has good characteristics for resolution in the order of micrometers and there is no electrical contact between the moving specimen and the coils of the sensor [6][8]. However, compared with the FBG sensor, the LVDT is relatively large in physical size and heavy in weight. Besides, there are difculties for the measurement in the order of submicrometers due to lower sensitivity of the LVDT. In an attempt to overcome these disadvantages of the LVDT sensor, Chunag and Ma [9] presented a rather simple but effective method to set up an FBG sensing system and successfully used it for the application of tracking control of a multilayer piezoelectric actuator. In order to understand the optical properties of ber gratings, Erdogen [10] introduced the coupled-mode theory to describe the principle and spectral characteristics for uniform and nonuniform gratings. In addition, as a strain sensor, the spectral analysis of a FBG subjected to strain elds is important. Tai [11] simulated the maximum reectivity of a FBG corresponding to various nonuniform static strain conditions. Sikora [12] modeled the behavior of an apodized FBG under impulsive strain of rectangular shape. Minardo et al. [13] numerically investigated the response of FBG to the longitudinal ultrasonic waves in terms of shape and wavelength changes. Ling et al. [14] presented a simulation method for evaluating dynamic strain distribution along a uniform FBG using its reection spectrum. Since the FBG sensors are based on the wavelength encoding of the measurand signal information, the demodulators which convert the wavelength shifts into electrical signals should be included in sensing systems for easy-reading and real-time monitoring. Therefore, many demodulators have been developed such as the FabryPerot tunable lter system [15], [16], the imbalanced MachZehnder interferometer [17], [18], the long-period ber grating [19][21], the chirped ber grating [22], the FBG [23], [24], and the tilted FBG [25]. Among these methods, the FBG lter has the smallest specication of full-width at half maximum (FWHM) compared with other types of ber gratings, an FBG lter-based wavelength-optical intensity demodulation technique has the highest sensitivity. The FBG lter-based demodulation technique [10], [23], [24] is used in this study to obtain higher sensitivity. Furthermore, the FBG lter is placed at the output of the broadband light source to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the demodulation system. To investigate the ability of dynamic strain measurement, the FBG sensors are used in this study to measure the transient

1530-437X/$26.00 2009 IEEE

MA AND WANG: TRANSIENT STRAIN MEASUREMENTS OF A SUSPENDED CABLE UNDER IMPACT LOADINGS USING FBG SENSORS

1999

responses of a suspended cable under impact loadings. Cables are very efcient structural elements and hence have a wide range of practical applications in civil engineering and in electrical industry, including cable-stayed bridges, suspension bridges, guyed towers, and cable-supported roofs. A history of the derivations and solutions of the equations for the static and dynamic response of cables can be found in [26]. Besides theoretical investigations of cables, experimental verications of the solutions for the natural frequencies have also been carried out in the literature. Lee and Perkins [27] investigated experimentally the near resonant responses of the suspended elastic cables driven by harmonic excitation. Cheng and Perkins [28] compared theoretical and experimental forced responses and natural frequencies of a sagged horizontal cable supporting an array of discrete masses. Lin and Perkins [29] presented a theoretical model that describes the frequency responses of arbitrarily complex and sagged cable/mass systems and compared to those obtained experimentally using modal testing techniques. Since cables are crucial elements for overall structural safety of a cable-stayed bridge, the monitoring of cable tension force is very important and necessary. Russell and Lardner [30] determined the tension at the base of an inclined cable by using the modern cable theory [31] that considers the sag-extensibility without bending stiffness. Zui et al. [32] proposed the practical formulas to estimate cable tension force by the vibration method that takes account of both sag-extensibility and bending stiffness. Kim et al. [33], [34] introduced a comparative study of the existing vibration-based tension estimation techniques for cable supported bridges. The purpose of this study is to apply the FBG sensors to the measurement of transient responses of a suspended cable under impact loadings, to analyze the frequency spectra of experimental results, and to compare the measured natural frequencies with the theoretical predictions and the nite element method. With the accurate measurement of natural frequencies, the FBG sensors may have practical applications to the tension determination and damage detection of cables and hence to the health monitoring of cable structures. According to the available experimental results, it is proved in this study that the FBG sensor has excellent ability of transient strain measurement for structures with curved surface and large curvature and has better performance than the traditional strain gage. II. DYNAMIC SENSING PRINCIPLE AND SIMULATION OF FBG A. Theoretical Background The FBG is dened as a small periodical perturbation to the of the optical ber core deeffective index of refraction scribed by [10] (1)

is the dc index change spatially averaged over where a grating period, is the fringe visibility of the index change, is the nominal period, and describes grating chirp. By coupled-mode theory, the rst-order differential equations describing mode propagation through the grating in -direction are (2a) (2b) where and are the amplitudes of the forward- and is backward-propagating modes, respectively. the ac coupling coefcient. is the general dc self-coupling coefcient dened as (3) where for the uniform grating, is the Bragg wavelength which would be changed when the grating is subjected to various strain condition. The length of the uniform grating is assumed to be , so the . To obtain the limit of the grating is dened as reectivity of the uniform Bragg grating subjected to nonunismall form strain, the grating is assumed to be divided into sections and with uniform coupling properties. The number of cannot be arbitrarily large, since the coupled-mode sections theory approximations are not valid when a uniform grating section is only a few grating periods long. Hence, the is constrained as (4) By dening and as the eld amplitudes after traversing the section , the propagation through this uniform section can be described by a transfer matrix dened such that (5) where (6) is shown at the bottom of the page in which is . As a result, the the length of each section and propagation through the entire grating can be described by (7) where . By assuming that [i.e., ], the no backward-going wave exists for reectivity of the entire grating is then calculated by (8) For dynamic strain measurement, an optical lter which possesses a linear wavelength dependent transmittance is necessary to interpret the time-varied reected spectrum of FBG sensor

(6)

2000

IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 9, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2009

Fig. 1. Schematic of the uniform FBG under sinusoidal strain wave.

into the electrical signal. The linear lter is assumed in the form of
Fig. 2. The time responses of output light power for: (a) different frequency of strain and (b) different amplitude of strain.

where is the ltering slope and is equal to zero at . When the intensity of the light incident on the FBG sensor is , the output light power can be expressed as (9)

B. Simulation Procedure and Results Fig. 1 shows a uniform FBG which is subjected to a sinusoidal strain wave with velocity , amplitude , wavelength , frequency , and period . The time response of output light power is simulated for a period. The gratings parameters for the simulation are chosen to be similar to parameters of grating used in this study. The grating , the Bragg wavelength is , length is , the dc index the effective refractive index is , and the fringe visibility is . change is The parameters of the demodulation system are assumed to be as follows: Optical wavelength range is , the incident light spectrum is , and the . linear lter spectrum is The simulation results of output light power responses for two cases are shown in Fig. 2. In the rst case [Fig. 2(a)], the simulation is performed for a xed strain amplitude and for three different nondimentional frequency , , and of strain ( ). The response for is similar to sinusoidal function and agrees with sinusoidal strain wave. However, it is noted that the response for higher frequency of strain shows obvious difference from sinusoidal function by observing the reand . In the second case sults for [Fig. 2(b)], the simulation is performed for a xed frequency and for three different strain ampliof strain , 100 , and 1000 ). The tude ( response for is similar to sinusoidal function and agrees with sinusoidal strain wave. We also nd that the response for higher strain amplitude is different from sinuand 1000 . Therefore, the soidal function for 100 increase of frequency and amplitude of strain result in getting worse of the signal distortion.

Fig. 3. The signal accuracy versus frequency and amplitude of strain.

In order to establish a precise signal distortion limit of output light power response, the signal accuracy is dened as (10) According to the denition indicated in (10), the simulation result of the signal accuracy versus frequency and amplitude of strain is shown in Fig. 3. The signal accuracy declines gradually with the increase of frequency and amplitude of strain. Here, the signal distortion limit is dened when the signal accuracy is 90% (i.e., the solid line in Fig. 3). The lower left-hand side of the signal distortion limit is the region suitable for measurement application and is named good region in which the output light power response is assumed to be not distorted. On the contrary, the upper right-hand side of the signal distortion limit is named bad region in which the response is assumed to be distorted. The concept of signal distortion limit is established to discuss the dynamic sensing range of FBG in Section III. The result of this analysis provides a useful tool for the practical measuring application of the dynamic strain.

MA AND WANG: TRANSIENT STRAIN MEASUREMENTS OF A SUSPENDED CABLE UNDER IMPACT LOADINGS USING FBG SENSORS

2001

Fig. 4. The denition diagram of cable.

III. TRANSIENT STRAIN MEASUREMENT OF SUSPENDED CABLE A. Theoretical Determination of Natural Frequencies The simplest method to determine the natural frequencies of cable is the at taut string theory (11) where , , , and denote the th natural frequency, length of cable, cable tension, and mass of cable per unit length, respectively. However, this simple formula neglects bending stiffness of the cable and is only valid for a at long slender cable. The cable theory considering bending stiffness is used in this study. As shown in Fig. 4, an elastic cable suspended between two xed supports at the same level is considered. The following assumptions are made in the analysis. . 1) The sag-to-span ratio is sufciently small 2) The cable vibrates only within the - plane and its motion in the -direction is negligibly small. 3) The derivative cable tension caused by vibration is negligibly small. The equation of motion in the -direction becomes [28] (12) is exural rigidity of cable, and where in the -direction. By means of variable separation of is deection By assuming that the cable is clamped at both ends, the following characteristic equation is obtained: (18) (13) Equation (12) can be transformed into the following form (14) (15) where is the circular natural frequency. The general solution of (14) is The natural frequencies can be determined by numerical solving the roots of the characteristic equation. B. Experimental Setup As shown in Fig. 5(a), a single-strand steel cable with length , diameter , mass per unit length , Youngs modulus , and tension is clamped at both ends on the tensile tester. force The tension force in the cable is controlled by moving the left end of the cable horizontally and measured simultaneously by the load cell. There are two kinds of FBG sensor on the cable, including surface mounted FBG sensor and two-point mounted FBG sensor. The surface mounted FBG sensor is attached to the cable surface with strain gage cement on the full grating zone. The two-point mounted FBG sensor, different from traditional mounting method, is glued to the cable surface with epoxy at both end of grating zone. The grating must be prestrained in the measurement range for the two-point mounted FBG sensor. The Bragg wavelengths of the two FBG sensors before

Fig. 5. Experimental setup of: (a) the suspended cable with the FBG sensors and (b) the wavelength demodulation system.

(16) in which (17a) (17b) where and .

2002

IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 9, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2009

Fig. 6. The transient responses of the cable under impact at position D.

experimental measurement are both 1559.3 nm, and the grating lengths are both 10 mm. A resistive foil strain gage with gage length 1 mm is also used to compare the results from the FBG sensors. The positions of the surface mounted FBG sensor, the two-point mounted FBG sensor, and the strain gage are situated 40, 60, and 80 mm from the right end of the cable, respectively. The cable is impacted transversely by a steel rod at the position D (middle of the cable) and the position E (1/3 length of the cable from the left end). The transient responses induced by the impact loadings are measured by three sensors simultaneously. The wavelength demodulation system of the FBG sensors is shown in Fig. 5(b). A broadband source with working wavelength ranging from 1525 to 1570 nm and output power up to 20 dBm is used. In order to perform the simultaneous measurement of the two FBG sensors, a 1 2 coupler is used to divide the light beam from broadband source into two paths. The FBG behind the 1 2 coupler is used as lter to shape the light source spectrum. The isolator and the circulator can prevent the reected light of FBG lter and FBG sensor from coming back to the light source. The output light power from the circulator is transformed by the photodiode into the electrical power which is received by the oscilloscope. If the Bragg wavelength of the FBG sensor lies in the positive linear section of the shaped source spectrum, the output power will increase as the FBG sensor is elongated and will decrease as the FBG sensor is compressed.
Fig. 7. The frequency spectra of the cable under impact at position D measured with: (a) the surface mounted FBG sensor; (b) the two-point mounted FBG sensor; and (c) the strain gage.

C. Experimental Results and Discussion Fig. 6 shows the transient responses of dynamic strain for the cable under impact at position D measured with the two FBG sensors and the strain gage simultaneously. The vertical axis represents the voltage value recorded by the oscilloscope. The time period of the complicated transient responses is 0.1 s . The peak-toand the number of recorded samples is 2.5 peak values of voltage are indicated in the gure. The mounting positions of the three sensors are different due to the limited space of the cable, hence the measured signals for the transient strain responses of the three sensors are different.

The frequency spectrum of the cable can be constructed from taking the fast Fourier transform (FFT) from the time-domain transient responses measured by the three sensors. Fig. 7 shows the frequency spectra of the measured responses presented in Fig. 6. The indicated peaks in the spectra correspond to the natural frequencies of the cable. Due to the fact that the impact position D is at the middle of the cable, the induced cable modes are mainly symmetric and the power distribution observed in Fig. 7 is concentrated on the symmetric modes.

MA AND WANG: TRANSIENT STRAIN MEASUREMENTS OF A SUSPENDED CABLE UNDER IMPACT LOADINGS USING FBG SENSORS

2003

Fig. 8. The time-varied frequency spectra of the cable under impact at position D measured by the strain gage.

Fig. 9. The relationship between the signal distortion limit and the induced cable modes by impacting at position D measured with the strain gage.

The short-time Fourier transform (STFT) with Hamming window function is also taken in order to understand the frequency variation with time of the experimental signals. Fig. 8 shows the time-varied frequency spectra of the measured responses presented in Fig. 6 for the strain gage. The power is higher and the duration is longer for symmetric modes compared with antisymmetric modes. It is noted from the dynamic strain measurement in Fig. 6 that the result obtained by the strain gage has relatively large noise before the measurement which is not observed by two FBG sensors. Although the nature frequencies, which correspond to the peaks in the frequency spectra presented in Fig. 7, are almost the same, we can see that relatively larger noise also appears in the spectrum for strain gage. The reason is that the steel cable used in this study has curved surface and 1 mm in diameter. Hence, it is not easy to mount the strain gage in the steel cable with large curvature and result in the noise appears at the transient response measurement and frequency spectrum. This disadvantage is not observed in the dynamic strain measurements by two FBG sensors. Hence, the FBG sensors are more suitable and convenient than the strain gage to measure the dynamic strain for structures with curved surface and large curvature. According to the frequency spectra from FFT [Fig. 7(c)] and the time-varied frequency spectra from STFT (Fig. 8) measured by the strain gage, the natural frequencies and the maximum strain amplitudes of the induced cable modes by impacting at position D can be obtained. The relationship between the induced cable modes and the signal distortion limit (Fig. 3) discussed in the previous section is shown in Fig. 9 with strain wave . It is worthy to note that the induced velocity cable modes by impact at position D are all located in the good region, which means that the experimental responses measured by two FBG sensors (Fig. 6) are not distorted. The measured natural frequencies of cable under impact at position D using the FBG sensors and the strain gage (Table I) have excellent agreement with one another even though the responses obtained from the three sensors are quite different. The comparison of the experimental natural frequencies (average of the three sensors) with theoretical and numerical results is listed in Table II. The natural frequencies from the string theory are

TABLE I THE MEASURED NATURAL FREQUENCIES OF THE CABLE UNDER IMPACT AT POSITION D

much lower than the experimental results due to the neglect of bending stiffness. The results from the cable theory considering bending stiffness and the experiment have excellent agreement with error less than 1% for most modes. The nite-element method (FEM) with package software ABAQUS is also used to analyze numerically the natural frequencies of the cable. The results from FEM also have excellent agreement with the results from the cable theory and experiment. The blank space -- in Tables I and II indicates that this resonant frequency is not observed from the experimental measurement. Fig. 10 shows the transient responses of dynamic strain for the cable under impact at position E measured with the two FBG sensors and the strain gage simultaneously. The responses of impact at position E are very complicated and similar to the responses of impact at position D in time domain. We can see from Fig. 10 that relatively larger noise is observed for the transient response of dynamic strain measured by strain gage. Fig. 11 shows the frequency spectra from FFT of the transient responses in Fig. 10 for the three sensors. Due to the fact that the impact position E is asymmetric, the excited cable modes include the symmetric and antisymmetric modes. Therefore, there are more

2004

IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 9, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2009

TABLE II THE COMPARISON OF THE EXPERIMENTAL, THEORETICAL, AND NUMERICAL NATURAL FREQUENCIES OF THE CABLE UNDER IMPACT AT POSITION D

Fig. 10. The transient responses of the cable under impact at position E.

cable modes observed in the frequency spectra of impact at position E (Fig. 11) than the spectra of impact at position D (Fig. 7). Fig. 12 shows the time-varied frequency spectra from STFT of the measured responses in Fig. 10 for the strain gage. Different from the results of impact at position D in Fig. 8, both the symmetric and the antisymmetric modes have long duration time for the results of impact at position E in Fig. 12. With the information of frequency spectra from FFT [Fig. 11(c)] and the time-varied frequency spectra from STFT [Fig. 12] measured by the strain gage, the natural frequencies and the maximum strain amplitudes of the induced cable modes by impacting at position E can be obtained. The relationship between the induced cable modes and the signal distortion limit is shown in Fig. 13. The induced cable modes by impacting at position E are all located in the good region, which means the experimental responses of the two FBG sensors (Fig. 10) are also not distorted. The measured natural frequencies of cable under impact at position E using the different sensors (Table III) have excellent agreement with one another. The results of different impact positions D and E (Tables I and III), also have excellent agreement with each other. The comparison of the experimental nat-

Fig. 11. The frequency spectra of the cable under impact at position E measured with: (a) the surface mounted FBG sensor; (b) the two-point mounted FBG sensor; and (c) the strain gage.

ural frequencies (average of the three sensors) with theoretical and numerical results is listed in Table IV. Similar to the results of impact at position D (Table II), the natural frequencies from the string theory are much lower than the experimental results while the cable theory and the FEM have excellent agreement with experiment. In order to understand the relationship between the string theory and the cable theory, the variations of natural frequencies with respect to the ratio of length and diameter from the two

MA AND WANG: TRANSIENT STRAIN MEASUREMENTS OF A SUSPENDED CABLE UNDER IMPACT LOADINGS USING FBG SENSORS

2005

TABLE IV THE COMPARISON OF THE EXPERIMENTAL, THEORETICAL, AND NUMERICAL NATURAL FREQUENCIES OF THE CABLE UNDER IMPACT AT POSITION E

Fig. 12. The time-varied frequency spectra of the cable under impact at position E measured by the strain gage.

Fig. 13. The relationship between the signal distortion limit and the induced cable modes by impacting at position E measured with the strain gage.

TABLE III THE MEASURED NATURAL FREQUENCIES OF THE CABLE UNDER IMPACT AT POSITION E

Fig. 14. The variation of: (a) natural frequency and (b) natural frequency ratio with respect to length/diameter of the cable according to string and cable theories.

theories are shown in Fig. 14(a). With the increase of length-to diameter ratio, the natural frequencies from the two theories get close gradually, which means the string theory is suitable

to model very slender cable. Fig. 14(b) shows the natural frequency ratio of the string and cable theory. If the cable modeling error by the string theory less than 10% (i.e., the natural frequency ratio of the string and cable theories more than 0.9) is needed, the length-to-diameter ratio of the cable must be more

2006

IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 9, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2009

than 1000. However, the length-to-diameter ratio of the cable used in our experiment is only 280, hence the string theory is not suitable to predict the natural frequencies of this cable. IV. CONCLUSION The dynamic response of a FBG subjected to a sinusoidal strain wave is investigated. The FBG under nonuniform dynamic strain is considered to be piecewise-uniform, hence the reectivity calculations for the FBG are carried out by using the coupled-mode theory with transfer matrix method. A linear lter used to transform the variation of optical spectrum into light power signal is also considered. The simulation results indicate that the increase of frequency and amplitude of strain result in the distortion of output light power signal. The concept of the signal distortion limit is established to understand the dynamic sensing range of FBG. In addition to the dynamic sensing principle and simulation of FBG, the transient strain measurements of a suspended cable under impact loadings using the FBG sensors is performed in this study. Two kinds of FBG sensors, the surface mounted FBG sensor and the two-point mounted FBG sensor, are used as well as the strain gage to measure the dynamic strain simultaneously. The natural frequencies of the cable are obtained from analyzing the frequency spectrum of the measured transient response. For different sensors and different impact positions, the measured natural frequencies all have excellent agreement. The experimental results also agree well with the cable theory and the FEM. The traditional strain gage was usually used to measure strains for at surfaces. It is noted in this study that there is noise appeared in the measurement of dynamic strain for structures with curved surface and large curvature. According to the experimental results, it is proved that the FBG sensors have excellent ability to measure the transient strain response and natural frequencies for steel cables with small diameters and large curvatures. REFERENCES
[1] A. D. Kersey, M. A. Davis, H. J. Patrick, M. LeBlanc, K. P. Koo, C. G. Askins, M. A. Putnam, and E. J. Friebele, Fiber grating sensors, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, pp. 14421463, Aug. 1997. [2] K. O. Hill and G. Meltz, Fiber Bragg gratings technology fundamentals and overview, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, pp. 12631276, Aug. 1997. [3] Y. J. Rao, In-bre Bragg grating sensors, Measure. Sci. Technol., vol. 8, pp. 355375, Apr. 1997. [4] M. Nellen, Optical ber Bragg grating for structural monitoring in civil engineering, in Proc. 16th Congr. IABSE, Lucerne, Switzerland, 2003, vol. 24, pp. 8689. [5] H. N. Li, D. S. Li, and G. B. Song, Recent applications of ber optic sensors to health monitoring in civil engineering, Eng. Structures, vol. 26, pp. 16471657, Sep. 2004. [6] D.-J. Choi, C.-T. Rim, S. Kim, and Y. K. Kwak, High sensitivity inductive sensing system for position measurement, in Proc. 17th IEEE Instrum. Meas. Technol. Conf., 2000, vol. 2, pp. 595599. [7] S. C. Saxena and S. B. L. Seksena, A self-compensated smart LVDT transducer, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas., vol. 38, pp. 748753, 1989. [8] S. T. Wu, S. C. Mo, and B. S. Wu, An LVDT-based self-actuating displacement transducer, Sens. Actuators A., vol. 141, no. 2, pp. 558564, 2008. [9] K.-C. Chuang and C.-C. Ma, Tracking control of a multilayer piezoelectric actuator using a ber Bragg grating displacement sensor system, IEEE Trans. Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, 2009.

[10] T. Erdogan, Fiber grating spectra, J. Lightw. Technol., vol. 15, pp. 12771294, Aug. 1997. [11] H. Tai, Simple numerical simulation of strain measurement, Proc. SPIE, vol. 4772, pp. 1324, 2002. [12] A. Sikora, Impulse strain processing using uniform bre Bragg grating. Numerical simulation, Proc. SPIE, vol. 6159, pp. 61592C61592C, 2006. [13] A. Minardo, A. Cusano, R. Bernini, L. Zeni, and M. Giordano, Response of ber Bragg gratings to longitudinal ultrasonic waves, IEEE Trans. Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, vol. 52, pp. 304312, Feb. 2005. [14] H. Y. Ling, K. T. Lau, W. Jin, and K. C. Chan, Characterization of dynamic strain measurement using reection spectrum from a ber Bragg grating, Opt. Commun., vol. 270, no. 1, pp. 2530, Feb. 2007. [15] A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, and W. W. Morey, Multiplexed ber Bragg grating strain-sensor system with a ber Fabry-Perot wavelength lter, Opt. Lett., vol. 18, no. 16, pp. 13701372, Aug. 1993. [16] Y. L. Lo, In-ber Bragg grating sensors using interferometric interrogations for passive quadrature signal processing, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 10031005, Jul. 1998. [17] A. D. Kersey, T. A. Berkoff, and W. W. Morey, High-Resolution ber-grating based strain sensor with interferometric wavelength-shift detection, Electron. Lett., vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 236238, Jan. 1992. [18] M. H. Song, S. Z. Yin, and P. B. Rufn, Fiber Bragg grating strain sensor demodulation with quadrature sampling of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, Appl. Opt., vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 11061111, Mar. 2000. [19] R. W. Fallon, L. Zhang, L. A. Everall, J. A. R. Williams, and I. Bennion, All-Fibre optical sensing system: Bragg grating sensor interrogated by a long-period grating, Measure. Sci. Technol., vol. 9, pp. 19691973, Dec. 1998. [20] H. J. Patrick, G. M. Williams, A. D. Kersey, J. R. Pedrazzani, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Hybrid ber Bragg grating/long period ber grating sensor for strain/temperature discrimination, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 8, pp. 12231225, Sep. 1996. [21] V. Bhatia, D. Campbell, R. O. Claus, and A. M. Vengsarkar, Simultaneous strain and temperature measurement with long-period gratings, Opt. Lett., vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 648650, May 1997. [22] S. Kim, S. Kim, J. Kwon, and B. Lee, Fiber Bragg grating strain sensor demodulator using a chirped ber grating, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 13, pp. 839841, Aug. 2001. [23] I. C. Song, S. K. Lee, S. H. Jeong, and B. H. Lee, Absolute strain measurements made with ber Bragg grating sensors, Appl. Opt., vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 13371341, Feb. 2004. [24] J. Mora, J. L. Cruz, M. V. Andres, and R. Duchowicz, Simple highresolution wavelength monitor based on a ber Bragg grating, Appl. Opt., vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 744749, Feb. 2004. [25] S. C. Kang, S. Y. Kim, S. B. Lee, S. W. Kwon, S. S. Choi, and B. Lee, Temperature-independent strain sensor system using a tilted ber Bragg grating demodulator, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., vol. 10, pp. 14611463, Oct. 1998. [26] H. M. Irvine, Cable Structures. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1981. [27] C. L. Lee and N. C. Perkins, Experimental investigation of isolated and simultaneous internal resonances in suspended cables, J. Vibration and Acoustics, vol. 117, pp. 385391, Oct. 1995. [28] S. P. Cheng and N. C. Perkins, Theoretical and experimental analysis of the forced response of sagged cable/mass suspensions, J. Appl. Mech., vol. 61, pp. 944948, Dec. 1994. [29] H. P. Lin and N. C. Perkins, Free vibration of complex cable/mass systems: Theory and experiment, Journal of Sound and Vibration, vol. 179, no. 1, pp. 131149, Jan. 1995. [30] J. C. Russell and T. J. Lardner, Experimental determination of frequencies and tension for elastic cables, J. Eng. Mech., vol. 124, no. 10, pp. 10671072, Oct. 1998. [31] M. S. Triantafyllou and L. Grinfogel, Natural frequencies and modes of inclined cables, J. Structural Eng., vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 139148, Jan. 1986. [32] H. Zui, T. Shinke, and Y. Namita, Practical formulas for estimation of cable tension by vibration method, J. Structure Eng., vol. 122, no. 6, pp. 651656, Jun. 1996. [33] B. H. Kim and T. Park, Estimation of cable tension force using the frequency-based system identication method, J. Sound and Vibration, vol. 304, pp. 660676, Jul. 2007. [34] B. H. Kim, T. Park, H. Shin, and T. Y. Yoon, A comparative study of the tension estimation methods for cable supported bridges, Steel Structures, vol. 7, pp. 7784, Mar. 2007.

MA AND WANG: TRANSIENT STRAIN MEASUREMENTS OF A SUSPENDED CABLE UNDER IMPACT LOADINGS USING FBG SENSORS

2007

Chien-Ching Ma was born in Taipei, Taiwan, in 1956. He received the B.S. degree in agriculture engineering from the National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, in 1978, and the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in mechanical engineering from Brown University, Providence, RI, in 1982 and 1984, respectively. From 1984 to 1985, he worked as a Postdoctoral in the Engineering Division of Brown University. In 1985, he joined the faculty of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, as an Associate Professor. He was promoted to Full Professor in 1989. He is currently a Distinguished Professor of the Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University. His research interests are in the elds of wave propagation in solids, fracture mechanics, ber Bragg grating sensors, solid mechanics, piezoelectric material, and vibration analysis. Prof. Ma has received the Distinguished Research Award from the National Science Council (NSC) of Taiwan three times. He has been elected as Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Cheng-Wei Wang received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in mechanical engineering from the National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, in 2006 and 2008, respectively. His research interests are in the eld of vibration analysis and ber Bragg grating sensors.