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# Motor Starting

Contents
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1 Introduction

## 1.1 Why do the calculation? 1.2 When to do the calculation?

2 Calculation Methodology

## 2.2 Step 2: Calculate Equipment Impedances

2.2.1 Network Feeders 2.2.2 Synchronous Generators 2.2.3 Transformers 2.2.4 Cables 2.2.5 Standing Loads 2.2.6 Motors

2.3 Step 3: Referring Impedances 2.4 Step 4: Construct the Equivalent Circuit 2.5 Step 5: Calculate the Initial Source EMF 2.6 Step 6: Calculate System Voltages During Motor Start

3 Worked Example

## 3.1 Step 1: Construct System Model and Collect Equipment Parameters

3.2 Step 2: Calculate Equipment Impedances 3.3 Step 3: Referring Impedances 3.4 Step 4: Construct the Equivalent Circuit 3.5 Step 5: Calculate the Initial Source EMF 3.6 Step 6: Calculate System Voltages During Motor Start

Introduction

## High voltage motor (courtesy of ABB)

This article considers the transient effects of motor starting on the system voltage. Usually only the largest motor on a bus or system is modelled, but the calculation can in principle be used for any motor. It's important to note that motor starting is a transient power flow problem and is normally done iteratively by computer software. However a static method is shown here for first-pass estimates only.

## Why do the calculation?

When a motor is started, it typically draws a current 6-7 times its full load current for a short duration (commonly called the locked rotor current). During this transient period, the source impedance is generally assumed to be fixed and therefore, a large increase in current will result in a larger voltage drop across the source impedance. This means that there can be large momentary voltage drops system-wide, from the power source (e.g. transformer or generator) through the intermediary buses, all the way to the motor terminals. A system-wide voltage drop can have a number of adverse effects, for example: Equipment with minimum voltage tolerances (e.g. electronics) may malfunction or behave aberrantly

Undervoltage protection may be tripped The motor itself may not start as torque is proportional to the square of the stator voltage, so a reduced voltage equals lower torque. Induction motors are typically designed to start with a terminal voltage >80%

## When to do the calculation?

This calculation is more or less done to verify that the largest motor does not cause system wide problems upon starting. Therefore it should be done after preliminary system design is complete. The following prerequisite information is required: Key single line diagrams Preliminary load schedule

Tolerable voltage drop limits during motor starting, which are typically prescribed by the client

Calculation Methodology
This calculation is based on standard impedance formulae and Ohm's law. To the author's knowledge, there are no international standards that govern voltage drop calculations during motor start. It should be noted that the proposed method is not 100% accurate because it is a static calculation. In reality, the voltage levels are fluctuating during a transient condition, and therefore so are the load currents drawn by the standing loads. This makes it essentially a load flow problem and a more precise solution would solve the load flow problem iteratively, for example using the Newton-Rhapson or Gauss-Siedel algorithms. Notwithstanding, the proposed method is suitably accurate for a first pass solution. The calculation has the following six general steps: Step 1: Construct the system model and assemble the relevant equipment parameters Step 2: Calculate the relevant impedances for each equipment item in the model Step 3: Refer all impedances to a reference voltage Step 4: Construct the equivalent circuit for the voltage levels of interest Step 5: Calculate the initial steady-state source emf before motor starting Step 6: Calculate the system voltages during motor start

## Step 1: Construct System Model and Collect Equipment Parameters

The first step is to construct a simplified model of the system single line diagram, and then collect the relevant equipment parameters. The model of the single line diagram need only show the buses of interest in the motor starting calculation, e.g. the upstream source bus, the motor bus and possibly any intermediate or downstream buses that may be affected. All running loads are shown as lumped loads except for the motor to be started as it is assumed that the system is in a steady-state before motor start. The relevant equipment parameters to be collected are as follows: Network feeders: fault capacity of the network (VA), X/R ratio of the network Generators: per-unit transient reactance, rated generator capacity (VA) Transformers: transformer impedance voltage (%), rated transformer capacity (VA), rated current (A), total copper loss (W)

## Cables: length of cable (m), resistance and reactance of cable (

Motor: full load current (A), locked rotor current (A), rated power (W), full load power factor (pu), starting power factor (pu)

## Step 2: Calculate Equipment Impedances

Using the collected parameters, each of the equipment item impedances can be calculated for later use in the motor starting calculations.

Network Feeders
Given the approximate fault level of the network feeder at the connection point (or point of common coupling), the impedance, resistance and reactance of the network feeder is calculated as follows:

Where

## is impedance of the network feeder ()

is resistance of the network feeder () is reactance of the network feeder () is the nominal voltage at the connection point (Vac) is the fault level of the network feeder (VA) is a voltage factor which accounts for the maximum system voltage (1.05 for voltages <1kV, 1.1 for voltages >1kV) is X/R ratio of the network feeder (pu)

Synchronous Generators
The transient resistance and reactance of a synchronous generator can be estimated by the following:

Where ()

## is the transient reactance of the generator

is the resistance of the generator () is a voltage correction factor (pu) is the per-unit transient reactance of the generator (pu) is the nominal generator voltage (Vac) is the nominal system voltage (Vac) is the rated generator capacity (VA) is the X/R ratio, typically 20 for generators with nominal voltage 100MVA, 14.29 for 1kV 100MVA, and 6.67 for all

is a voltage factor which accounts for the maximum system voltage (1.05 for voltages <1kV, 1.1 for voltages >1kV) is the power factor of the generator (pu)

Transformers
The impedance, resistance and reactance of twowinding transformers can be calculated as follows:

Where

## is the impedance of the

transformer () is the resistance of the transformer () is the reactance of the transformer () is the impedance voltage of the transformer (pu) is the rated capacity of the transformer (VA) is the nominal voltage of the transformer at the high or low voltage side (Vac) is the rated current of the transformer at the high or low voltage side (I) is the total copper loss in the transformer windings (W)

Cables
Cable impedances are usually quoted by manufacturers in terms of Ohms per km. These need to be converted to Ohms

## based on the length of the cables:

Where cable {) is the reactance of the cable {) is the quoted resistance of the cable { / km) is the quoted reactance of the cable { / km) is the length of the cable {m)

is the

resistance of the

Standing loads are lumped loads comprising all loads that are operating on a particular bus, excluding the motor to be started. Standing loads for each bus need to be calculated. The impedance, resistance and reactance of the standing load is calculated by:

W h er e is th e i m p e d a nc e of th e st a n di n g lo a d { ) is the resistance of the standing load {) is the reactance of the standing load {) is the standing load nominal voltage (Vac) is the standing load apparent power (VA) is the average load power factor (pu)

M ot or s

## Th e m ot or' s tra nsi en t im pe da nc e, re sis ta nc e an d re ac ta nc e is cal cul at ed as fol lo ws :

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## Sizing Gen-Sets For Large Motor Starting

Feb 1, 2008 12:00 PM, By Larry A. Bey, Cummins Onan Corp.

Remember, an on-site engine-generator set is a limited source of power, both in horsepower available from the engine, and kVA available from the generator. As such, it must be large enough to start as well as run connected motor loads. You've lost normal power. Your engine-generator set (gen-set) starts up and reaches speed. Now, you want to start some large motors key to your operation. Suddenly, starter holding coils drop out, starter contacts chatter, and a few motors stall due to insufficient torque for acceleration. Can this happen to you? It sure can, if you haven't sized your gen-set properly. We all know that motors draw a high inrush current during starting:typically six times full load current. But, inrush currents for the highefficient motors specified today are almost double that amount. Motors with high inertia loads can also require up to three times rated power during starting. Yes, it's common for motor starting kVA requirements to determine the size of the set. However, the following factors also play a key role in sizing gen-sets: Harmonics caused by variable frequency drives.

## Use of high-efficiency motors. Sequential starting of motors.

What's involved. When starting motors, large voltage and frequency dips may occur if the generator set isn't sized properly. Other loads connected to the generator output may be more sensitive to voltage and frequency dips than the motor or motor starter, and this may cause problems. For example, a rate of change greater than 1 Hz/sec in generator frequency may cause some static UPS units to malfunction. If the load on the generator set is a single large motor, particularly one requiring high starting torque, a number of problems can occur. They include: sustained low-voltage operation that can cause overheating; extended load acceleration times; opening of circuit breakers or motor protective devices; engine-generator protection shutdowns; and more. Your gen-set's ability to start large motors without excessive voltage and frequency dip is a function of the complete system. This includes: The engine power available; The generator's capacity; The response of the generator excitation system; The energy stored in the rotating inertia of the gen-set; and The acceleration of the motor and its load.

You can use the following equation to calculate RkW and RkVA for motors: RkW = [(Nameplate hp) x (0.746kW/hp)] / Efficiency (eq. 1) RkVA = RkW / Running motor PF (eq. 2) To calculate starting kilovolt-amperes (SkVA) and starting kilowatts (SkW) for motors, use these equations: SkVA = (Nameplate hp) x (Locked rotor kVA/hp) (eq. 3) SkW = (SkVA) x (Starting motor PF) (eq. 4) Step 2: Total the RkW, RkVA, SkW, and SkVA numbers for all the loads. Step 3: Select the gen-set by comparing the RkW, RkVA, SkW, and SkVA to the ratings on the manufacturer's specification sheets (after appropriate derating for ambient temperature and altitude). Example One calculation. Determine gen-set size for three loads started across-the-line in a single step. Here's pertinent information: Two 200 hp motors, Code G, 92% running efficiency, 0.25 starting PF, 0.91 running PF. Total 100kVA of fluorescent lighting, starting PF of 0.95, and running PF of 0.95 (Note: We're using the terms starting and running PF for the lighting load here for clarification when adding the motor loads. Actually, the ballast for the lighting load has a constant PF of 0.95.)

Step 1: Information gathering and calculations. 200 HP motor: RkW = (200 hp x 0.746 kW/hp) / 0.92 = 162.2kW RkVA = 162.2kW / 0.91 PF = 178.2kVA SkVA = 200 hp x 5.9 kVA/hp41180kVA SkW = 1180kVA x 0.25 PF = 295kW Florescent Lighting: RkW = 100kVA x 0.95 PF = 95kW RkVA = 100kVA SkVA = 100kVA

Sidebar: Here's What Causes Dip in Starting Voltage When you start a motor across-the-line with a gen-set, the motor represents a low impedance load while at locked rotor or stalled condition. This causes a high inrush current. The high motor inrush current (I ms) flows through the generator armature windings and is affected by the reactance. This causes a drop in generator voltage. Impedance controls the flow of current in AC circuits. But, the generator armature reactance is such a large part of its total impedance that resistance is ignored. The generator terminal voltage drops instantaneously when the motor starter contacts close at time t40, as a function of the subtransient reactance (X"d). Generally, the larger the generator, the lower its reactance. So, one way to minimize the instantaneous voltage dip is to increase the generator size.

Sidebar: Examples of High and Low Inertia High inertia loads include: Single- and multi-cylinder pumps Single -and multi-cylinder compressors without unloading valves Crushers Hydraulic elevators without unloading valves

Low inertia loads include: Fans, centrifugal and blower Compressors starting unloaded Centrifugal pumps Motor-generator elevators

Note: Pumps starting into high head pressure and large diameter fans or fans starting into high restriction areas should be classified as high inertia lo

n our example in Voltage Calculation - Part 2, we have only considered a single cable and checked only the voltage drop at starting.

In actual practice, we shall be comparing several cable sizes, selecting the cable that provides optimum design consideration. In this example, we shall be using several cables from 35 mm2 up to 120 mm2. Likewise, we shall be considering, not only the starting condition but the running condition of the motor as well. You might be asking, why we selected a motor in our example. The reason, a motor is a dynamic load. A motor circuit load varies from the starting to the normal running condition, thus there will be multiple considerations when selecting the cable for a motor circuit. In Table 2 Cable Selection, we have considered 5 cables sizes, all cables except one satisfy our design consideration which are the following: Voltage drop during starting < 15% Voltage drop during running < 5% Again we will be using values from our previous example which are the following: Voltagesending end = 400 volts Motor Running: Irunning = 180 A PFrunning = cos running = 0.87 sin running = 0.493 Motor Starting Istarting = 6 * 180 = 1080 A PFstarting = cos starting = 0.25 sin starting = 0.968

## Using the formula

Table 2. Cable Selection Size 35 50 70 95 120 r50 0.674 0.499 0.344 0.271 0.214 x50 0.0867 0.0858 0.0850 0.0825 0.0808 R 0.0809 0.0599 0.0413 0.0325 0.0257 X 0.0104 0.0103 0.0102 0.0099 0.0097 %Vdrunning 5.9% 4.5% 3.2% 2.6% 2.1% %Vdstarting 14.2% 11.7% 9.4% 8.3% 7.4%

In Table 2. Cable Selection, the 35 mm2 cable passes the motor starting voltage drop but fails the motor running voltage drop which makes this cable to be eliminated from our selection list. The 70 mm2, 90 mm2 and 120 mm2 cables satisfy all our design conditions, however, selecting any of these cables will make the installation more expensive than required. The 50 mm2 cable satisfy all conditions and cost of the project. Cable selection considerations does not stop here, there are more that need to be considered such as operating temperature and short-circuit withstand. In our next article, we shall be discussing about cable operating temperatures.