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Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Master en Direccion de Marketing International Marketing Prof. Dr. Shintaro Okazaki

CROSS-CULTURAL CONTENT ANALYSIS OF NIVEA SUN TV- COMMERCIALS

Universidad Autonoma de Madrid Master en Direccion de Marketing International Marketing Prof. Dr. Shintaro Okazaki CROSS-CULTURAL

Presented by:

Diogo Areias (diogoareiass@gmail.com) Marion Scherzinger (marionscherzinger@gmail.com) Marius Weitz (marius.weitz@gmx.net)

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

Abstract

This report analyses seven TV-spots of Nivea Sun products from Brazil, Germany, Singapore and Spain to elaborate some indicators of the standardization of Nivea’s global advertising. Referring to Hofstede, there are five cultural dimensions described (power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation) and expectations based on his scores formulated. With a qualitative content analysis approach, the adverts were studied and results were drawn. These show, in particular, dimension- related problems, which were recommended to make use of in further studies. Overall there have been indicators of Nivea’s communication to be standardized or only slightly adapted in culturally similar countries and mostly or totally adapted in culturally distinct countries.

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

Contents

  • 1 Introduction

1

  • 2 Background

2

  • 2.1 The brand Nivea

2

  • 2.1.1 General Information .................................................................................

2

  • 2.1.2 Organizational Structure

.........................................................................

3

  • 2.1.3 Adaptation of communication

4

  • 2.2 Culture

5

  • 2.3 Cultural Dimensions

6

  • 2.3.1 Hofstede’s Dimensions

...........................................................................

6

  • 2.3.2 GLOBE Dimensions .................................................................................

7

  • 2.3.3 Aggregate Personality Traits

..................................................................

8

  • 2.3.4 Applying the Cultural Dimensions

.......................................................

10

  • 3 Expectations

...............................................................

11

  • 3.1 General Expectations

..............................................................

11

  • 3.2 Country-specific expectations

................................................

12

Brazil

  • 3.2.1 .......................................................................................................

12

3.2.2

3.2.3

3.2.4

Germany

.................................................................................................

12

Singapore

...............................................................................................

13

Spain

.......................................................................................................

13

  • 4 Method

.........................................................................

13

  • 4.1 Qualitative Content Analysis

..................................................

13

  • 4.2 Research Questions

................................................................

15

  • 4.3 Object of Study

........................................................................

15

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

  • 4.4 Categories

................................................................................

15

  • 5 Results & Discussion

18

  • 6 Acknowledgments

24

  • 7 References

24

Appendix

28

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

1

Introduction

Due to the steadily increasing process of globalization, economies grow together and markets become more international and more complex. This development provides new opportunities, but also challenges and transnational activities are a necessity for many companies in order to remain competitive and to operate profitably. When operating in foreign markets, companies are faced with the question whether to standardize marketing elements or to adapt them according to the requirements of the local market. The understanding of culture-specific conditions and the divergent behavior of consumers are a critical factor for success. As a measurement of the understanding of cultures, global marketing and advertising research mostly applied the concept of the cultural dimensions developed by Hofstede (Okazaki & Mueller, 2007). In this paper, the authors were especially interested in analyzing in detail advertising elements of a determined company in order to figure out the global communication strategy. The elected brand is Nivea, a globally operating company in the sector of skin care. The product category on which represents the focus of this research is sun care. As factors such as climatic conditions or even skin color preferences vary among cultures (e.g. Shankar & Subish, 2007), the product category sun care seems to be an interesting object of study when it comes to cross-cultural advertising research. The question which was being evaluated, is: Does Nivea Sun use a standardized, global communication strategy or do they adapt their communication locally; and if they do the latter, which communication elements are universally present and which are unique to the respective country? To investigate this topic, television commercials of Nivea Sun, which were broadcasted in the recent past in Germany, Spain, Brazil and Singapore were analyzed. Germany is the home country of Nivea, which is why it was elected and Spain was chosen in order to provide an intraeuropean comparison. Furthermore a South American country in Brazil and an Asian country in Singapore was included in the analysis, as intercontinental results may give additional insights about the global communication strategy of Nivea Sun.

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

Qualitative analysis of content was the methodology of choice. The derived categories were directly linked to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions in order to compare the results of the content analysis with those of Hofstede’s cultural scores of the respective countries. The paper starts with background information about the brand Nivea, the construct culture and specifical methods to measure cultural values. Then the expectations of the study will be presented before going into detail regarding the methodology of the study. Finally, the obtained results will be presented and the conclusions are discussed. The ambition of the paper is to draw conclusions about the communication strategy of the a specific brand in order to obtain insights about how a globally operating company, such as Nivea, coordinates their marketing actions in geographically and psychologically distant countries.

2 Background

The next point will give information and data about Nivea as a brand and about the construct culture, in particular the possibilities to measure culture. Key literature shall be taken into account when discussing the cultural dimensions.

  • 2.1 The Brand Nivea

In the following chapter, the brand Nivea shall be introduced briefly and some points such as organizational structure shall be accentuated, which will be important for this work.

  • 2.1.1 General Information

Beiersdorf is the company which stands behind the brand Nivea. Beiersdorf is a listed joint stock corporation focused on consumer goods in the skin care sector (Beiersdorf corporate website). The annual turnover amounts to 6,2 billion € (Beiersdorf, 2010) and the total number of employees worldwide is approx. 19.000 (both figures refer to 2010). The company has the headquarters in Hamburg, Germany and is operating on a global scale, with 150 affiliates worldwide. The following brands belong to Beiersdorf:

Nivea

Eucerin

La Prairie

8x4

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

SLEK

Hansaplast

Labello

SBT

Nivea is by far the biggest brand of the ones mentioned and has a wide range of products: deodorants, body lotions, hand crèmes, shower gels, products for hair care, sun care and decorative cosmetics.

  • 2.1.2 Organizational Structure

The brand Nivea is coordinated following the regio-centric approach. The following approximation shall reflect the organizational structure in a graphic way in order to provide an easier understanding:

Cross-cultural content analys is of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz • SLEK

Table 1: Organizational Structure of Nivea

The headquarters or the General Business Unit (GBU) of the company is based in Hamburg. This is where the global strategic decisions are made. On the next hierarchical level there are regional headquarters, where strategic decisions for the countries which belong to the region are being made 1 . For instance, in Singapore the specific strategy for all the countries in the region Asia Pacific is being developed (Australia, China, Hong Kong, Vietnam, Japan, India, Korea,

1 The following information is from internal sources of Nivea. However, there are issues in terms of confidentiality as this information is kept on a basic level and does not reveal any kind of delicate data.

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

Malaysia, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand). Milan, for example, is the regional headquarters for South Western Europe and coordinates the countries Italy, Spain, Portugal and Greece.

2.1.3 Adaptation of Communication

The organizational structure of Nivea is also an important factor when it comes to the adaptation of the communication in order to fulfill the needs of the local customers. In general, the strategy in terms of communication is being made in the headquarters in Hamburg. They provide master versions for television, internet and also print media in English which is then sent to the regional headquarters. In many cases, the regional headquarters sends the master to the several countries which have no other adaptation power than to translate the message from English into their local language. In some other cases the region or the countries may include some modifications in order to target the local needs of the customers in a more precise way. Furthermore, in some cases, the regional headquarter may even produce own TV spots or print advertisements. The described power to adapt the communication media depends on the level of the tier the region or country is classified in. Nivea has a certain classification of groups of countries which have more or less power to realize local adaptations in terms of communication, so-called tiers.

Cross-cultural content analys is of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz Malaysia, New

Table 2: Nivea’s system of adaptation power

If a country is classified in the first tier, it has the maximum power of adaptation, while being in the last group; the country has to stick to the guideline provided

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

by the headquarters. The classification is based on several internal criteria such as sales volume, sales potential and also cultural values and differences. Apart from the corporate image which Nivea is trying to generate all over the world with the use of the same brand name and brand logo, the company is aware of the existing cultural differences and the need to realize local adaptation when it comes to communication. Unfortunately we are neither able to provide the exact criteria which Nivea is using in order to classify the tiers, nor to give an overview of the tiers and the countries which belon g to the respective groups as it is confidential and to be kept internal to Nivea.

2.2 Culture

Culture is a term which seems to be omnipresent nowadays. It is used in many different areas such as biology, art, economy, religion, science and many more. At the same time almost every single person is probably able to give a statement about what culture is, but few people can clearly define the term. In their classic study about the concept and definition of the term culture, Kroeber and Kluckhohn identify an enormous quantit y and variety of meanings (Kroeber & Kluckhohn, 1952). They try to classify the various definitions of culture and build six categories (descriptive, historical, normative, psychological, structural and genetic definitions), which refer to different and not comparable aspects. Triandis identified three aspects in this mass of definitions, which are regarded by almost all researchers as common components (Triandis, 2007):

culture derives from the interaction between humans and the

environment culture is mediated over generations

culture consists of common elements

Such elements include the ones mentioned as follows: values, rules, norms, ethical codes, beliefs, assumptions, rituals, celebrations, symbols, stories, myths, artifacts etc. (Brown, 1995). Later in this work, these elements will play an important role when figuring out possible similarities or differences of the TV spots from several countries.

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

  • 2.3 Cultural Dimensions

In the previous chapter, the concept of culture was briefly introduced. The authors researching in the field of culture suggest that there are significant differences among countries or regions, but the difficult point is: How can you categorize culture into common dimensions and how can you measure these dimensions. In the following chapter, these issues shall be discussed, presenting several concepts of measuring culture.

2.3.1 Hofstede’s Dimensions

According to the Dutch cultural psychologist and social scientist Geert Hofstede “mental programs of members of the same nations tend to contain a common component” (Hofstede 2001). The goal of his research was the identification of dimensions for the analysis of those “components” or rather to figure out differences and similarities between nations. In 1980 in his study "Culture's Consequences" Hofstede presented the results of his research in international business and from IBM. He had obtained the data through a written survey. The participating employees of IBM stated in detail how they behave in certain situations, how they rate their own work style and what they expect from a leader. Hofstede's study was therefore focused on the collection of work-related values. After two survey rounds (1967 and 1972) Hofstede had collected more than 116,000 questionnaires (each with more than 100 questions) from the IBM offices in 72 countries available for analysis. Hofstede is considered the first cross-cultural researcher who managed such a large-scale empirical study. Based on these data Hofstede developed four basic dimensions to compare national cultures. The dimensions are called "power distance", "uncertainty avoidance", "individualism / collectivism" and "masculinity / femininity." After further studies Hofstede added a fifth dimension, "short-term / long-term orientation”. The descriptions of these dimensions shall be explained briefly in the following table: 2

2 A more detailed description with specific indicators for each dimension can be seen in the delivered excel file.

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

Cross-cultural content analys is of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz 2.3.2 GLOBE

2.3.2 GLOBE Dimensions

The Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Research Program (GLOBE), was initiated in 1991 with the aim to prove the generalizability of “Charismatic Leadership” in twenty different cultures (House & Shamir, 1995). This intent evolved and finally developed a worldwide research program, which involves 170 researches in management and social science from 62 countries. In order to differentiate societies and organizations, nine cultural dimensions were developed, which are presented in the following table:

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

Cross-cultural content analys is of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz Table 3:

Table 3: GLOBE Dimensions (Grove, 2005)

Analog to Hofstede’s study, the several countries were classified according to the data and furthermore, were grouped to ten different regional clusters of culture (see appendix). Later on, for every single cluster, a cultural profile was created. It is worth mentioning that, both Hofstede’s Model and the GLOBE concept are regarded as highly valuable research studies in international business and management (Shi & Wang, 2011). Nevertheless, there are significant differences in research design, collection of data and countries, analyzed dimensions and conclusions which are a current topic of intercultural research.

2.3.3 Aggregate Personality Traits

In natural language there exist hundreds of trait adjectives. One of the most important tasks for psychologists was to find a way to structure them and to form a comprehensive, stable system. Finally, the path led to the Five-Factor- Model which was developed via the lexical approach, gathered from the different languages in which about 18,000 words were found that describe the characteristics of personality (McCrae & Costa, 1990). Ultimately, via factor analysis, five stable and consistent, overall dimensions are identified, the "Big

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

Five" personality traits. Each dimension is expressed in six categories (facet scales) and will be presented in the following table:

Cross-cultural content analys is of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz Five" personality

Table 4: Five-Factor-Model (McCrae & Costa, 1998)

These personality traits can be used as a cultural measurement by adding up individual values of personality traits of the members of each culture in order to obtain an average score. In the analyses which have been conducted so far, data has been collected from numerous cultures and has been compared (see appendix for cultural scores of aggregate personality profiles). The following general empirical knowledge could be gained by these analyses (McCrae & Terraciano, 2005):

culture-level values of the traits are generalizable across age and gender of time; the factor structure of the traits on the cultural level comes very close to the one on the individual level; geographically and historically related cultures have similar personality profiles; aggregated values indicate convergence and discriminant validity with other culture-level measuring instruments. This evidence suggests that the determination of aggregate personality profiles represents a suitable method for describing cultures. However, this approach is still a relatively new one and extensive research has to be realized in order to

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

have

a

more

profound

personality profiles.

knowledge

of

the

generalizabilit y

of

aggregate

2.3.4 Applying the Cultural Dimensions

There exist many other classifications of cultural dimensions which are not going to be discussed in detail, but which are worth mentioning, such as Hall’s concept of “high context vs. low context cultures” (Hall, 1976), Leung & Bond’s “Social Axoms” (Leung & Bond, 2004) or Schwartz’ “Cultural dimensions of values” (Schwartz, 1994). In the following chapters of this paper however, the focal point with respect to cultural measurements will be Hofstede’s concept of cultural dimensions. It is important to consider some critical issues when applying Hofstede’s model. Many researchers criticized that the samples were not representative (McSweeney, 2002). In the original study, information was used from a worldwide survey of IBM employees. Therefore it is not assured that the four-, later five-factor system actually measures national cultures, but rather differences in corporate culture between the countries. Furthermore, Hofstede's approach ignores differences within a nation (Blom & Meier, 2002). The model treats a nation as a homogeneous state of individuals who all share the same value structure. One has to consider as well, that the original data might be out-of-date, as the data was mainly collected in between 1968 and 1972 (Okazaki & Mueller, 2007). Cultural values may have changed as culture is a dynamic construct. Nevertheless, many replications of Hofstede’s study have shown that the data is still valid (deMooij & Hofstede, 2010). Despite the critical considerations, of all concepts of measuring culture Hofstede’s model has been applied most to global marketing and is still considered as an accurate framework used to explain differences in branding or communication strategies. However, one has to take into account that “some manifestations of each dimensions are more work-related, whereas others can be applied to consumer behavior and advertising” (deMooij & Hofstede, 2010). Gudykunst and Ting-Toomey (1988) figured out the three cultural dimensions of Hofstede which explain a variance in communication styles the best. Those are power distance, individualism/collectivism and uncertainty avoidance. Nevertheless, researchers have linked also masculinity/femininity and/or long-

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

term orientation to marketing research (e.g. Okazaki, 2004). Therefore, a priori, no dimension is excluded in the course of the research for this paper.

3

Expectations

In the upcoming chapter, it is tried to generate expectations of the outcome of the cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun’s TV spots, which were linked directly to Hofstede’s cultural dimensions.

  • 3.1 General Expectations

First of all, it has to be mentioned that the outcome will highly depend on the affiliation to a certain tier, according to the organizational structure of Nivea. Therefore, the level of standardization or localization seen in the spot is expected to depend on two factors, Nivea’s internal classification of the countries in terms of tiers and the cultural differences expressed in Hofstede’s culture scores. As there is no explicit information about the tiers made available by Nivea, the expectations are limited to Hofstede’s scores (table 5) and a possible affiliation to certain tiers will be discussed a posteriori.

Cross-cultural content analys is of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz term orientationhttp://geert-hofstede.com/national- culture.html ) Considering the cult ural value scores shown in t he table above, it has to be stated that the scores are varying signifi cantly among the four chosen countries. Therefore the general expectation is that the visual and lingual elements used in the spots will vary signifi cantly among the four count ries. Especially Singapore has scores that vary in a considerat e way from those of the other three Reflection paper – Interna tional Marketing Page 11 " id="pdf-obj-14-43" src="pdf-obj-14-43.jpg">

Table 5: Hofstede’s Cultural Value Scores for the four elected countries (http://geert-hofstede.com/national- culture.html)

Considering the cultural value scores shown in the table above, it has to be stated that the scores are varying significantly among the four chosen countries. Therefore the general expectation is that the visual and lingual elements used in the spots will vary significantly among the four countries. Especially Singapore has scores that vary in a considerate way from those of the other three

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

countries, so the values suggest that Nivea’s TV commercials in Singapore do include more elements unique to the local culture which are not represented in the TV spots of the other countries. Also one could assume that the spots from Spain and Brazil show the highest level of similarity, according to their respective scores in Hofstede’s study.

  • 3.2 Country-specific expectations

In the next step, the expectations of the four chosen countries will be pointed out one by one.

  • 3.2.1 Brazil

Brazil has a relatively high score for Power Distance. One could expect to see portrayals of social status in the spots. Individualism is relatively low in Brazil, so the “we-consciousness” is accentuated in the spots and the communication is to be understood in the context and less directly. Uncertainty Avoidance is scored with 76. A reflection of this in the spot could be a high level of informational content provided.

  • 3.2.2 Germany

Power distance is scored very low. The thriving to belong to a higher class should not be an issue in the spot. In the contrary, the people in the spot are “average” or middle class people. A rather direct communication style is applied. Hofstede’s score for Individualism is relatively high, which suggests a focus on the “I” in the visual and lingual elements. Masculinity scores high. Therefore one could expect to see a certain level of competitiveness or even a larger role differentiation between the genders. Long-term orientation is lower than the average for Germany so there might be a preference to achieve quick results to be shown in the television commercials.

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

  • 3.2.3 Singapore

Singapore scores high in power distance. People with a certain social reputation or belonging to the upper-class might be used in the spot. Individualism is very low in Singapore, so the “we” is highlighted in the spots. A strong context-based communication style is used. Singapore scores 8 in uncertainty avoidance, thus very low. The amount of rules in the country is extremely high. However, this can be explained rather by the high power distance than by the necessity of the people for regulations. Maybe a lower amount of information is needed in the spots.

  • 3.2.4 Spain

In general, Spain scores relatively close to the average in power distance, individualism and masculinity, so it is hard to foresee any specific implications with respect to the spots for these dimensions. Uncertainty avoidance is very high, with a score of 86. One could expect to see a high level of information given about the product, in order to create a lower perception of risks. The long-term orientation score is very low for Spain, so achieving quick results might be accentuated in the communication or a feeling of “living in the moment” might be created.

4

Method

This section talks about the method used to analyze the television spots, the advertisements which were chosen as objects of the study, the research process and at last the results.

  • 4.1 Qualitative Content Analysis

The chosen method of this study was the qualitative content analysis as it is an adequate tool for measuring the degree of standardization of advertising (de Mooij & Hofstede, 2010) and with respect to cross-cultural advertising research is the method which is used the most (Okazaki & Mueller, 2007). And also Bernard Berelson defined Content Analysis as "a research technique for the objective, systematic, and quantitative description of manifest content of

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

communications" (Berelson, 1971). This method is a research tool focused on the actual content and internal features of media. A quantitative approach was not possible as of the limited resources available. Furthermore, the goal of this research was to obtain insights about the advertising strategy of Nivea Sun and not to compose a generalizable report. This study followed the qualitative content analysis procedure recommended by Philipp Mayring, professor for pedagogical psychology, who published his first paper about this method in 1983 (Mayring, 2000a). Mayring defines two approaches to elaborate categories: the inductive and the deductive way. As this study includes Hofstede's cultural dimensions, the deductive technique was chosen.

Cross-cultural content analys is of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz communications" (Berelson,

Table 6: Step Model of deductive category application (Mayring, 2000b)

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

  • 4.2 Research Questions

The goal of this study was to identify differences between the spots of four countries with the help of Hofstede‘s cultural dimensions in order to get an idea of the standardization of Nivea Sun’s global commercial strategy. Therefore, four different levels were defined by the researchers to analyze the main characteristics of the TV-ads: the focus, the lingual aspect, the visual part and the metalingual elements.

Cross-cultural content analys is of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz 4.2 Research

Table 7: Levels of the TV spot analysis

  • 4.3 Object of Study

As object of the research there were 7 TV-Spots of Nivea Sun products analyzed, which were aired in Brazil, Germany, Singapore and Spain. The Spots have been made accessible by contacts from Beiersdorf. The selection was made based on the linguistic knowledge of the researchers and on the availability of the objects. As preparation for the analysis, the video material was transcribed in the original language, the text was translated to English, the visual part was described and the metalingual impression added (as can be seen in the appendix). Except for the first part with the original language, all researchers participated in the description to reduce the personal influence.

  • 4.4 Categories

For the second step of the deductive approach, the cultural dimensions of Hofstede and the four levels of the spots were united. With this mixture the study combines the basic knowledge of the cultural differences with the levels of

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

video material. Thus, the five Dimensions of Hofstede stand for the main categories and the differentiations (high or low, long-term or short-term, etc.) for the subcategories.

Power Distance

Definition

Example

Coding Rule

C1

High Power

High Acceptance of unequal

There are different

First: Nominal

Distance

power distribution.

classes shown with a way of dressing, accessories.

counting of indicators, then transferring to "++" = high,

C2

Low Power

Low Acceptance of unequal

People shown look

"+" = positive,

Distance

power distribution.

like equals, no status symbols are worn.

"0" = neutral, "" = negative, "‐‐" = low.

Individualism

Definition

Example

Coding Rule

C3

Individualism

People's selfimage is defined in terms of "I".

The text uses the "I" a lot.

First: Nominal counting of indicators,

C4

Collectivism

People's selfimage is defined in terms of "We".

Text and images focus on groups, rather than the individual.

then transferring to "++" = individualistic, "+" = positive, "0" = neutral, "" = negative, "‐‐" = collectivist.

Masculinity

Definition

Example

Coding Rule

C5

Masculinity

Preference in society for achievement, heroism, assertiveness and material reward for success. Society at large is more competitive.

The focus in the spot lies on being the best in something.

First: Nominal counting of indicators, then transferring to "++" = masculine, "+" = positive,

C6

Femininity

Preference in society for quality of life and interpersonal relationships. Society is less competitive.

Relationships and social contact emphasized in the images.

"0" = neutral, "" = negative, "‐‐" = feminine.

Uncertainty

Definition

Example

Coding Rule

Avoidance

C7

High

High degree to which the

There is a formal way

First: Nominal

Uncertainty

members of a society feel

of speaking used

counting of indicators,

Avoidance

uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity.

during the spot.

then transferring to "++" = high,

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

C8

Low

Low degree to which the

Spontaneity and

"+" = positive,

Uncertainty

members of a society feel

informality dominate

"0" = neutral,

Avoidance

uncomfortable with uncertainty and ambiguity.

the spot.

"" = negative, "‐‐" = low.

LongTerm

Definition

Example

Coding Rule

Orientation

C9

LongTerm

Fostering of virtues oriented

The spot focuses on a

First: Nominal

Orientation

towards future rewards, in particular perseverance and thrift.

longterm use to save money.

counting of indicators, then transferring to "++" = longterm,

C10

ShortTerm

Focus on the momentary status

The emphasis of the

"+" = positive,

Orientation

and gain, preference for quick results.

spot is placed on an immediate effect.

"0" = neutral, "" = negative, "‐‐" = shortterm.

Table 8: Categories of analysis.

The subcategories were individually analyzed in the spots on all levels with the help of indicators, describing them more specifically. 3 As for the coding, the numbers of indicators being fullfilled were counted to get an impression on how intense the subcategories were presented in the spots. Afterwards the researchers discussed the nominal results and formed according to them the 5-degree classification for each country: A big number of indicators and a strong relevance were assigned a “++” or “—“, according on the subcategory. No or only very few adequate tracers would get a “0” as a neutral score. The lingual elements of the spots were mainly analyzed be the persons native or well-educated in the corresponding language. For example: Gisele Bündchen talks in the second Brazilian spot only a few words but she highlights, that she only trusts Nivea with the protection of her skin. This text tells the costumer that as well he or she can and should trust in Nivea Sun products, which is a sign of collectivism. The rest of the spots were first analysed by one researcher and then completed by the other two, to decrease the influence of individual preferences. Furthermore the indicators were reviewed and slightly adapted after the first two spot studies in order to improve the results. Especially the following categories

3 See Analysis Worksheet on attached CD.

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

have shown themselves hard to analyze, even after some detailing: Long-term orientation and Power Distance. Furthermore the researchers realized differences in interpretation of some spot- elements, based on the personal knowledge, experience and connected thinking. In such cases, the researchers discussed their opinions and elaborated a fitting allocation of the elements. 4

  • 5 Results & Discussion

    • 5.1 Country-Specific Results

Brazil The expectation regarding the dimension power distance could not be confirmed. There was no indicator of high power distance, rather the opposing. In contrary to our expectations we could not find a clear tendency of individualism or collectivism either. Individualistic signs for example in form of personalized headlines (e.g. “My skin is super important”) pointed to some kind of “I-consciousness”. On the other hand the image of Gisele Bündchen applying sun screen on the skin of the girl creates a mother-daughter, more collectivist association. Also Gisele Bündchen, being an international superstar, acting like a person doing “every-day stuff” at the beach creates a feeling close to the customer; a feeling as if she was “one of us” and therefore indicates some kind of metalingual collectivism. Very informal speech with the shop attendant, joking around (even with some sexual connotations), very little precise information about the product and her, jumping and dancing at the beach, which suggests an active, sporty attitude towards health, point to a low uncertainty avoidance, in contrary to what was anticipated. Masculinity was very low as well, highlighted were rather behaviors showing the joy of being at the beach, having fun in life. Even the shop attendant was just

4 The whole analysis of the spots can be retraced by looking at the “Analysis Worksheets” on the attached CD (Because of the big size of the documents they were not attached in the printed appendix)

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

flirting with Gisele Bündchen and enjoying the situation instead of working in an ambitous way.

Germany & Spain These two countries were allocated together in this part, because of very similar spots, in which one can find only a few differences. The main difference is just the language. The power distance was evaluated as rather low, as the persons appearing in the spots seem to be from the middle class and no signs of accentuating a certain social status are to be recognized. This is in line with the expectation drawn for Germany. In terms of individualism, there was a strong “I-focus” in the spots, mainly focused on individual persons applying the product. Furthermore a lot of detailled, precise information was given which indicates a low-context culture. However, in the Spanish commercial, different images as, for instance, a young men playing the guitar in a group of apparently friends, can be interpreted as more collectivistic. As in the Brazilian spots, there were no signs of Masculinity to be seen, but rather joy, happiness and associations with vacations and an easy life. Regarding long-term orientation concerns, the researchers were not able to find any clear indicators. In terms of uncertainty avoidance, the visual environment of the spots is supposedly far from any serious concerns and more playful. On the other hand, a lot of technical and precise information about the product is given. A further difference in between Spain and Germany is, that in the latter, the lingual elements were more formal and structured than in the Spanish ad.

Singapore In the Singaporean advertisment, no unequivocal statements about power distance can be made. In the spot, one woman cares for her friend and is concerned about her. The two women wear similar clothes and have a strong connection which creates a

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

“we-consciusness” in the spot, thus a collectivist note. This tendency was already assumed in chapter 3.2.3 .. Furthermore, a high uncertainty avoidance behavior is established. The women are aware of the risk of the UV-rays and seek to protect themselves. Both visually, with one women protecting her face with her hand from the sunlight, and verbally, this tendency is confirmed in the commercial. The scene in the spot takes place in a work-related environment and the verbal expressions such as “for perfectly skin” or the fear of ruining the “whitening effort” illustrate an ambitious, goal oriented attitude, which is predominant in masculine cultures. According to Hofstede, Singapore had an average score in this dimension, though.

In the following table, the results of the content analysis are presented in a simplified manner, in order to facilitate a simple comparison of the drawn indications with the respective country scores of Hofstede’s model.

Cross-cultural content analys is of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz “we-consciusness” in

Table 9: Comparison of the research results with Hofstede’s cultural dimension scores.

The researchers found out that the spots from Germany and Spain showed an almost identical pattern in terms of the indicators of the cultural dimensions, as it is a standardized spot. In terms of the categories, there are also similar results for the spots from Brazil, although there was a different concept applied with the

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

use of a celebrity endorsement by Gisele Bündchen. One of the two Brazilian spots starring the supermodel is very visual, the other one is based more on verbal elements and jointly they somehow create a similarity to Germany and Spain. Conversely, the advertisment from Singapore makes use of a totally different concept with a city environment and a different advertisement with a whitening product as the focal point. It has a stronger collectivist nucleus than the other countries.

5.2 Dimensions

When comparing the scores for power distance, one can recognize that, with the exception of Germany, the indicators of the spots do not coincide with the scores from Hofstede. It seems reasonable to suggest that the product category of sun screen is not as suitable for this dimension as luxury goods such as jewelry could be. In the latter case, it would be interesting to investigate, if the luxury goods are worn “showing them off” or more in a casual way, so that an impression is created as if the person was less powerful than he or she actually is. In the case of Nivea, this focus is not provided. Individualism was reflected in the most intense way in the German spot which is in line with Hofstede’s score. An interesting observation was that the Spanish spot was almost identical to the German one, but involved some images which led to a slightly more collectivist connotation than in the German version. The Brazilian spots are unfolding both individualistic and collectivist tendencies while the Singaporean exposure was definitely more collectivist, which puts this dimension generally in line with Hofstede’s scores for individualism. Except for Singapore, the advertisment s revealed strong indications for femininity, which is not conveyed in the country scores. The assumption is evoked that this might be another dimension which is strongly related to the product category. In the case of Nivea Sun, the scenery in the advertisments from Germany, Brazil and Spain are mainly the sunny beach which implies happiness, joy, the accentuation of the value of life and a realtionship oriented society. Probably in other product categories, such as products for domestic

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

work, in which the intensity of the role differentiation could be an object of study, are more adequate for the analysis with ths category. With respect to the category uncertainty avoidance, it has to be stated that there were no unambiguous accordances with the scores of Hofstede’s study. Especially the stark contrast in case ot the Singaporean ad was significant as the persons in the spot showed a strong disposition to seek security while the Hofstede score 8 was one of the lowest of all investigated countries. Substantial product innovations might be an object which is closer related to this cultural dimension and could reveal more reliable scores. Finally, the dimension long-term orientation does not appear in the table of the comparison above. The simple reason is that in none of the countries significant results could be obtained as the indicators were very hard to measure. A posteriori, the dimension was excluded from the results & discussion section. Summing up the conclusions of the content analysis regarding Hofstede’s cultural dimensions, it can be stated that the dimension individualism/collectivism revealed very insightful and unambiguous results. Other product categories or foci were proposed for the research of Hofstede’s dimensions power distance, masculinity and uncertainty avoidance. In case of Nivea, the authors recommend to enrich the study focus of individualism/collectivism by adding further categories which are not directly related to the dimensions of Hofstede. The latter are more organization- or work-related rather than made to investigate consumer behavior. Furthermore, it has to be affirmed that the small sample size of advertisements and the strictly qualitative approach of the study, in addition to the fact that the advertisement messages are always strongly product- and also campaign- related, represented one if the main difficulties for this research project. However, the ambition was never to generate a generalizable classification for Nivea, rather than to gain insights of Niveas strategy in terms of standardization and the elements used in different cultures.

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

  • 5.3 Nivea’s strategy

As we already stated, the spots from Germany and from Spain were, apart from some minor differences, standardized. The concept of the commercials was the same, the language obviously the biggest difference. One could assume that Germany, the headquarters, may have a big weight in the developing process of the spots and that Nivea Spain has very limited power to adapt or even produce their own country-specific television commercials. Nevertheless, in the spot, the mentioned modification in order to accentuate the more collectivist attitude in the visual part and the less formal lingual expressions, were the only points of difference. It seems safe to say that Nivea Spain is classified in a lower tier, probably less because of sales potential as Spain is the fifth biggest European market for Nivea and more because of perceived sufficient cultural similarities to not localize advertising and apply a mainly standardized communication strategy. Finally, this issue will stay an assumption as the information is kept internal to Nivea. In contrary, Brazil, which is Nivea’s South American Headquarters is supposed to be in the top tier of Nivea as the TV spots star Gisele Bündchen, a Brazilian top model, and are differing in terms of the visual concept. Apart from that, Brazil is Nivea’s biggest market in South America and therefore the effectiveness of the communication is especially important. It is permitted to suppose that the appeal of a female supermodel or especially Gisele Bündchen is a positive factor for the success of the advertisements in Brazil and therefore a locally adapted communication strategy with celebrity endorsement is applied. Singapore is Nivea’s Asian headquarter and is coordinating the regional countries. It is possible that Singapore therefore is not in the top tier as it is a relatively small economy with a GDP of approx. 222 million US$ 5 and is more or less adapting the advertising strategy for Asia in general rather than exclusively for their own market. A point of difference, which draws the attention, is the distinction in the product focus. While in the western countries, the support of tanning is one major benefit of the sun screen. In Singapore, the exact contrary

5

Department

of

Statistics

of

Singapore

(figures

from

2010):

http://www.singstat.gov.sg/stats/themes/economy/hist/gdp2.html

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

is occurring. A sun screen with whitening effect is the desired product of the customers. Therefore, in Singapore and in other Asian countries as well, Nivea has no other choice than to adapt marketing strategy to the local requirements. The last point which shall be mentioned is that in all analyzed spots, regardless the country, the brand name is the same and the logo of Nivea is shown in the advertisements, which creates a pillar for a corporate brand image and a corporate identity, despite the cultural differences and adaptations. In any case, a more extensive research of Nivea spots from more countries in different regions seems to be very fruitful in order to determine the global marketing strategy of the brand Nivea.

  • 6 Acknowledgments

We are heartily thankful to Prof. Dr. Shintaro Okazaki, whose encouragement, guidance and support from the initial to the final level enabled us to develop an understanding of the subject. Furthermore, we would like to thank Nivea Spain, Nivea Brazil and the Global Business Unit of Nivea in Germany for providing the television commercials of Nivea Sun.

  • 7 References

Berelson B (1971) Content Analysis in Communication Research. Glencoe, Ill:

Free Press. p. 519.

Blom H, Meier H (2002) Interkulturelles Management: Interkulturelle Kommunikation. Internationales Personalmanagement. Diversity-Ansätze im Unternehmen. Berlin: NWB Verlag. p.57.

Brown A (1995) Organizational Culture. London: Pitman Publishing.

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

De Mooij M, Hofstede G (2010) The Hofstede model: applications to global branding and advertising strategy and research. International Journal of Advertising. Vol. 29, Number 1. Pp. 85-110.

Grove, CN (2005) Worldwide Differences in Business Values and Practices:

Overview

of

GLOBE

Research Findings. Available:

http://www.grovewell.com/pub-GLOBE-dimensions.html [Access: December 2,

2011].

Hall ET (1976) Beyond Culture, New York: Anchor Press.

Hofstede G (2001) Culture’s Consequences - Comparing values behaviors

institutions and organizations across nations. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks. pp. 38-

422.

House RJ, Shamir B (1995) Führungstheorien – Charismatische Führung. In:

Kieser, A. et al.: Handwörterbuch der Führung, 10th ed. Stuttgart.

Kroeber AL, Kluckhohn C (1952) Culture - A critical review of concepts and definitions, Cambridge.

Leung K, Bond MH (2004) Social axioms: A model for social beliefs in multi- cultural perspective. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. pp. 119–

197.

Mayring P (2000a) Qualitative Inhaltsanalyse. Grundlagen und Techniken. 7th edition. Weinheim: Deutscher Studien Verlag.

Mayring P (2000b) Qualitative Content Analysis. Forum: Qualitative Social Research. 2. p. 5. Available: http://www.qualitative-research.net/fqs-texte/2- 00/2-00mayring-d.htm [Access: December 7, 2011].

McCrae RR, Costa PT (1990) Personality in Adulthood, New York, 1990.

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McCrae RR, Costa PT, Del Pilar GH, Rolland J, Parker WD (1998) Cross- Cultural Assessment of the Five-Factor Model: The Revised NEO Personality Inventory. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 1. pp. 171-188.

McCrae RR, Terraciano A (2005) Personality Profiles of Cultures: Aggregate

Personality Traits. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 3. pp. 407-

425.

McSweeney B (2002) Hofstede's Model of National Cultural Differences and Their Consequences: A Triumph of Faith – A Failure of Analysis. Human Relations. 1. pp. 89-118.

Okazaki S (2004) Do multinationals standardize or localize? The cross-cultural dimensionality of product-based Web sites. Internet Research. 1. pp. 81-84.

Okazaki S, Mueller B (2007) Cross-Cultural Advertising: where we have been and where we need to go. International Marketing Review. 5. pp. 499-518.

Schwartz SH (1994) Beyond individualism/collectivism: New cultural dimensions of values. In: Individualism and collectivism: Theory, method, and applications. Editors: Kim U, Triandis HC, Kagitcibasi C, Choi SC, Yoon G. Thousand Oaks. Sage. pp. 85–119.

Shankar PR, Subish P (2007) Cultural differences in the desire of a population to seek out the sun. Journal of Pakistan Association of Dermatologists. 17. pp.

100-104.

Shi X, Wang J (2011) Interpreting Hofstede Model and GLOBE Model:

Which Way to Go for Cross-Cultural Research? International Journal of Business and Management. 5. pp. 93-99.

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Triandis HC (2007) Culture and Psychology – A History of the Study of Their Relationship. in: Handbook of Cultural Psychology. editors: Kitayama S, Cohen D. New York. pp. 59-76.

Websites

Annual Report Beiersdorf (2010). Annual Report 2010, Consolidated Income Statement Beiersdorf. Available: http://www.annualreport2010.beiersdorf.com/en/financial- statements/consolidated-income-statement.html. Accessed November 13, 2011.

Beiersdorf Corporate Website. Available: http://www.beiersdorf.com/ Accessed November 05, 2011.

Department of Statistics of Singapore (2010). Available : http://www.singstat.gov.sg/stats/themes/economy/hist/gdp2.html Accessed December 13, 2011.

GLOBE Website. Available: http://business.nmsu.edu/programs-centers/globe/ Accessed November 6, 2011.

Hofstede Website. Natural Cultural Dimensions. Available: http://geert-hofstede.com/national-culture.html Accessed November 6, 2011.

Nivea Website. Available : http://www.nivea-international.com/pages/int-country-selection Accessed October 27, 2011.

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

Appendix

Cross-cultural content analys is of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz Appendix Table

Table 10: GLOBE Clusters of Cultures and numbers of societies in them (Grove, 2005)

Cross-cultural content analys is of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz Appendix Table

Table 11: Aggregate Personality Traits; Scores of 51 cultures (McCrae & Terraciano, 2005)

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

Spot Descriptions and Translations

Germany: Spot 1 – Nivea Sun Protect and Bronze

Lingual - German

 

Translation -

   

Visual

Metalingual

English

   

Entdecken Sie eine

 

Discover

 

a

new

One can see a woman at

 

neue Form von

form

of

sun

the beach in a bikini, first

Happiness,

 

summer

Sonnenschutz.

protection.

 

alone then walking to a

feeling,

beauty,

Nivea Sun Protect

Nivea

Sun

man, people in and near

motion, vividness.

& Bronze schützt

Protect & Bronze

 

the

water

in

the

zuverlässig gegen

protects

reliably

background. Nivea Sun

Sonnenbrand und

against sun burn

Homepage and Nivea

stimuliert

die

and

stimulates

Logo in the picture. Man

Carefree, lightness.

 

the

skin-own

Hauteigene

melanin

 

lifts the woman and

Melaninproduktion.

production.

 

swings her around one time. Then vision of the sky and the product flying

Für intensivere,

For

a

more

Product

focus:

längeranhaltende

intensive

 

and

until it lands in the hand

Flying,

light,

Bräune. Ganz ohne

longer

lasting

 

of the woman at the

shining.

Selbstbräuner.

tan.

Totally

beach. She smiles and

without self-tan.

begins to apply the lotion

Neu, Nivea Sun

New, Nivea Sun

with her hand on the back of her shoulder.

Protection, smoothness, beauty.

Protect & Bronze.

Protect

&

(The viewer just sees the

Bronze.

 

side of her head, the shoulder und her hand.

 

short front shot of the

Summer

 

feeling:

woman, than again the

(fast)

tan

,

beach,

 

Music

lyrics:

 

shoulder and a sparkling

sea.

it’s all

right

round line, during which

now,

it’s

all

the skin gets a darker

right!

color, and

this text

   

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

   

appearing: "Intensivere,

Well informed.

länger

anhaltende

Bräune*" and further

down in small text:

"*3wöchige

Studie,

Vergleich mit

NIVEA®

SUN Lotion ohne den

Melaninstimulierenden

Freedom,

Wirkstoff".

The

text

disappears

and

the

acceptance, equality, love, luck.

protect and bronze logo of the product appears.

Change to the woman now in a white dress sitting besides to the man in a white shirt at a sofa construction with white linens. Other people standing

and

sitting

in

the

background. Zoom in to faces of the couple, both laughing and enjoying themselves. Zoom out to the whole beach terrace with other young people

Innovation.

in the picture. In the front the product Nivea Sun

Protect

and

Bronze

Lotion is shown and besides it the word “Neu”

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

   

in white letters.

 

Germany: Spot 2 – Nivea Sun Light Feeling

Lingual -

Translation -

Visual

Metalingual

German

English

So leicht war der

Summer

was

Blond woman in a bikini,

 

Sommer

noch

never this light!

sitting at a beach, applying

Summer

feeling,

nie!

The new Light

sun lotion on her arms.

contentedness.

Die neue Light

Feeling

Sun

The Nivea logo comes into

Feeling

Sun

Lotion

from

the picture from the

Lotion von Nivea

Nivea Sun.

bottom and goes up to the

Sun. Klebt nicht, fettet nicht. Zieht sofort ein.

Doesn’t stick, doesn’t grease. Immediately

top. From the back a man in shorts approaches. Change to the man laying

absorbed. Light Feeling Sun

on the beach, the woman

Lightness, Happyness, Love.

Light Feeling Sun

Lotion, because

with her head on his belly.

Lotion,

denn

Beauty is vitality.

He drops some sand on

Schönheit

ist

her belly, caressing. Then

Lebensfreude.

the woman’s belly is

Nivea

Light

shown with the sand on it

Nivea

Light

Feeling

also

as

and the man blowing it

Feeling auch als

spray.

100%

away. He looks up to her,

Spray.

100%

invisible,

new

she smiles at him. On the

unsichtbar, neu

from the number

low right the homepage of

Summer

feeling:

von der Nummer

1.

nivea.de/sun is written.

terrace, bikinis, easy

1.

Music:

Fly

 

Change to a terrace of a

life,

group

with

me,

high building, some young

acceptance.

Feel the breeze,

people sit on stools in

 

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

   

bikinis and shorts. In the back a sign with "sun" can be seen. Change to a woman’s body in a white bikini. In the left hand a Nivea Sun Light Feeling

Satisfaction.

Sun Lotion. The right hand applies the lotion on the left shoulder, seen from the back. The words "klebt nicht fettet nicht zieht sofort ein" are shown. Scene moves slowly up to the woman’s smiling face. Change to the product standing on a table besides a beach bag with the word "Neu". Change to a beach scene: a brunette woman in a bikini with a man in a white shirt, touching her at her hips. Behind them the sea. On top of the picture the Nivea logo and the slogan "Schönheit ist

Beauty.

Lebensfreude".

The

woman and man are

smiling,

flirting,

get

nearer. Change to a man on the beach, applying the

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

   

lotion with a spray on his

 

shoulder, again seen from

Freedom,

 

the

back.

In

the

acceptance,

love,

 

luck

background

   

a

person

 

walks at the beach. The Nivea logo is shown on the

top right of the picture.

The man sprays the lotion on his arm and then his belly, now shown from the front without the top or bottom of the body. Change to a woman applying the lotion on her

Best Choice.

shoulder

seen

from

beneath with the words

"100%

unsichtbar".

Change to her hand moving over her belly. In the background the sea. Change to a female hand

holding the spray and spraying once. The Nivea logo still there and the word "Neu". Additionally there is a certificate "Nr. 1

Nivea:

Grösste

Sonnenpflegemarke Deutschlands" shown.

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

Spain: Spot 1 – Nivea Sun Protect and Bronze

Lingual -

Translation -

 

Visual

 

Metalingual

Español

 

English

   

Este

verano broncearte más

rápido, está en ti,

estimula

la

With Nivea Protect and Bronze this

In the first image there´s a young woman walking close to the beach. She is

Happiness, summer feeling, relaxation,

con Nivea Protect

summer you can

wearing

a

bikini.

In

the

beauty.

and Bronze. La primera loción que además de protegerte del sol

get tanned much faster. This is the first lotion, which besides protecting you from the sun,

background one can see the beach and some palm trees. The Nivea logo is located in the upper right corner.

producción

also stimulates

Happiness, joy, beach

natural

de

the natural

The next image

shows a

ambient.

melanina de tu

production of

man at the beach looking

piel,

sin

melanin of your

straight at the woman.

autobronceador.

skin, without self-

Then appears, flying

tan.

through the air, the Nivea

Product focus.

Nuevo

Protect

Sun

Protect

and

Bronze

and

Bronze,

New Protect and

Lotion. In this image one

broncéate

más

Bronze, tan (you,

can see a palm tree in the

rápido y siéntete

imperative) faster

background. The

word

diez

con Nivea

and

feel (you,

“Nuevo”

is

in

the upper

Sun.

imperative)

 

right corner and the

amazing

 

with

“www.nivea.es” is in the

Nivea Sun.

 

lower left corner.

Ahora con nuevo

Now

in

a

new

diseño.

design!

 

Then

the

package

falls

Happiness,

playful

 

down

and

the woman

situation.

catches it with her hands.

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

   

The woman is smiling and

 

has

the

beach

as

background.

 

Softness

ans

skin

 

care, tenderness.

She begins to apply the lotion smoothly with her hand on the back of her shoulder. (The viewer just sees the side of her head, the shoulder und her hand. short front shot of the woman, putting on

Product effect focus, skin care, healthy

tanned

skin,

cream, than again the shoulder and a sparkling round line with the text appearing:

smoothness, natural tanned skin, beauty, quality.

“Estimula

la

melanina”

appears

at

the same time

with some sparkling stars. Then underneath it there appears another text “Sin

autobronceador”.

After

that

appears

 

“Protect

Product effect, skin

&Bronze”

as

a

logo

just

care, healthy tanned

over the shoulder. The beach is background.

the

skin, smoothness, natural tanned skin.

Then one sees the woman

running

straight

to

the

man, and when she is close to him, he lifts her up and

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

   

swings her around one

 

time. With it in the image

there

is

the

 

text

“bronceado más rápido” in

white

letters.

Then

the

image changes and shows

the man holding her at the

beach

from

a

bigger

Quality,

product

distance,

with

 

2

women

diversity, branding

and

one

man

in

the

background. In first plan

we

see

the

Nivea

Sun

Protect&Bronze

 

package

and the text “FPS 20,30”

The

last

image

is

composed

by

5

different

products of Nivea Sun. On

the

upper

right

corner

there

is

the Nivea Logo

and

on

the

lower

left

corner “N°1 mundial en cuidado

there

is

the

text

solar” The packages rotate

one

by

one

to

their new

design.

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

Spain: Spot 2 – Nivea Sun Light Feeling

 

Lingual -

Translation -

 

Visual

 

Metalingual

Español

 

English

 

Disfruta del sol

Enjoy the

sun

First one can see a woman

 

con la primera

with the first non-

seated at the beach

Summer

feeling,

lecha solar ligera

sticky sun lotion

wearing a blue shirt with

holiday.

de Nivea Sun no

by Nivea Sun.

the Nivea sun lotion by her

pegajosa.

side.

The

image

focus

Leche solar Light

Nivea Sun Light

switches to the product.

Feeling de Nivea

Feeling

lotion,

Then the image shows a

Sun no pegajosa

quickly

absorbed

boy playing guitar and two

de

rápida

and

non-sticky

young women wearing a

Joy and Fun.

absorción y solo

only

by

Nivea

bikini, sitting on the beach

de Nivea Sun.

Sun.

next to him. There are two boys walking in the

Porque belleza es disfrutar!

Because beauty is joy!

background.

In the next image shows a blond woman putting the Nivea cream on her left arm and a man approaches her from the back, taking

Softness and skin care, beauty.

off

the

sunglasses

and

looking at her skin. Then the camera focuses on the woman’s belly while she applies the lotion.

The

subsequent image

shows the man laying on

Lightness,

freedom,

the beach, the woman with her head on his belly.

careless.

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

   

He drops some sand on her belly, caressing. Then the woman’s belly is

Summer feeling

shown with the sand on it and the man blowing it

away. In

the

same image

appears the word “no pegajosa” written in white.

After

this,

the

image

shows the woman smiling.

Change to a roof terrace of a high building, some young people sit on stools

Summer breeze

in

beach

wear

such

as

bikinis and board shorts. In the back a sign with "sun" can be seen. Then the image shows a woman’s body in a white bikini. In the left hand a Nivea Sun Light Feeling Sun Lotion. The right hand applies the lotion on the left shoulder,

seen from the back. One also

can

see

“www.nivea.es”

in

the

right

down

corner.

The

beach in the background.

Affection

and

Then

the

image shows a

tenderness,

love,

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

   

man

approaching the

lightness.

young woman, They smile at each other in a lovable atmosphere. The words “rápida absorción” appears

Happiness,

love,

on the image in white

atmosphere,

letters.

tenderness,

caress,

affection.

The next image displays the product and a beach towel on a wood table. The background there is a light

blue curtain moving with the wind.

Party

ambient,

 

summer ambient

The last image displays the

 

man and the woman close

Happiness and Joy

 

together from the front. She looks at him and the

 

man kisses her shoulder and both smile. The upper right corner

Softness and skin care, tenderness,

 

there is the Nivea logo and two sentences: “belleza es disfrutar” and “belleza es

 

Nivea”

Happiness,

love

 

atmosphere, tenderness, caress,

 

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

Brazil: Spot 1 – Nivea Sun Protect and Bronze con Factor Azul

Lingual -

Translation -

 

Visual

Metalingual

 

Português

 

English

     

Gisele:

Oi

por

Gisele:

Hi,

do

In

the first image Gisele

 

favor você

tem

you

have

Nivea

Bündchen

(Brazilian

Sensuality,

Nivea

Nivea Sun com

Sun

with

blue

model)

enters

a

shop,

colors

reference,

factor azul?

factor please?

wearing a blue bikini and a

beauty

Empregado:

Shop Attendant:

white

mini

skirt (Nivea

Não.

No.

Would

you

colors).

 

A

quer ajuda para pasar?

senhora

like

help

some on?

to

put

The

next image one can

 

see the entire store, and the

Mention to the place

Gisele: Excuse

shop attendant organising

where

you

can

buy

Gisele: Como?

me?

the Nivea products

the product.

 

Empregado: A

Empregado:

 

shelves.

It

also

 

shows

 

senhora não pode

Miss, you can’t

Gisele approaching to the

sair nesse sol sem

be out in this sun

Nivea shelves and trying

Nivea Sun, isso é

without

Nivea

to

find

the product she

a loucura.

Sun, that’s crazy!

wants.

 

Gisele:

Não

Gisele: No, thank

Then the shop attendant

Beauty

obrigado,

Nivea

you,

you

don’t

looks at her, in hypnotized

Sun

não

precisa

have to put on

way.

de

passar

antes,

Nivea Sun before,

The man stands up and

If

you don´t find the

ele

protege

na

it

protects

you

starts a conversation with

product what should

hora.

right away.

 

the Gisele. In the image is

you do (asking the

Shop Attendant:

possible to see both

shop attendant).

Empregado:

But

I

can help

talking, but the image is

Mas

eu

ajudo

a

you rubbing it in.

more focused on the

senhora

a

woman instead of the man,

Association Nivea to

espalhar.

Gisele: No need,

who is only possible to see

the woman’s Beauty

Gisele: Não

Nivea Sun is easy to apply and you

from the back. Gisele is holding a Nivea

Cross-cultural content analysis of Nivea Sun TV-Spots D. Areias, M. Scherzinger, M. Weitz

preciso, o Nivea

get an even tan.

 

Sun

package

with

two

 

Sun

e

fácil

de

 

hands.

 

espalhar

e