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Research, Development and Standardization of Electric Vehicle in China

Liu Minghui
China FAW Co., Ltd R&D Center Sept. 20th 2011
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Contents
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Electric Vehicle Research & Development in China

Electric Vehicle Research & Development by FAW

Standardization of China Electric Vehicle

Contents
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Electric Vehicle Research & Development in China

Electric Vehicle Research & Development by FAW

Standardization of China Electric Vehicle

1. Electric Vehicle Research and Development in China


1.1 Driving Force of Electric Vehicle in China shortage of Oil Resources
Total consumption of oil in China (100 million tons) Fuel consumed by automobile in China (100 million tons) Dependency on oil imports exceeds 52%, which goes beyond world energy security warning level 3.92 4.55 4.56

Optimistic: annual demand 40 million units

3.52 3.17 2.49 2.72 3.3

3.66

3.73

3.75

3.75
150 million tons shortage of fuel for automobile

General: annual demand 30 million units

3.51

Total automotive fuel supply in China Forecast of automotive fuel consumption trend in China

Conservative: annual demand 25 million units

2.25

2.3

2.3

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Notes: Data before 2009 sourced from VDA

2020

According to 50% of oil consumptio n by automobile in the western countries

Forecast for 2020 in different scenarios (as per the current fuel consumption level)

Fuel consumption of automobile in China is forecasted to increase to 350-450 million tons by 2020. For sustainable development of the Chinese automotive industry, low carbon technology must be adopted to cover the 150 million tons shortage of automotive fuels

1. Electric Vehicle Research and Development in China


1.1 Driving Force of Electric Vehicle in China CO2 Emission
-46% Decrease -43% 184 137.5 116 160 130 95 -29%

CO2

216 155 168 101

CO2 gkm

Year

Actual 2006

Target Target 2016 2025

Actual Target Target 2015 2020 2006

Actual TargetTarget Target 2008 2015 2020 2025

Country

To reduce greenhouse gas pollution in the next decade, stringent CO2 emission regulations have been developed for passenger cars in the world; Low carbon will be a new and the most challenging regulation constraint for Chinese automotive industry in the next decade.

1. Electric Vehicle Research and Development in China


1.2 Analysis of Development Trend of Electric Vehicle in China
Year
2025 32% ( 5. 8L/100km) 14.4%
( 6.7L/100km) Fuel consumption/CO2

4%

50% ( 4L/100km )

14% 15.0%

L/100km g/km

4.1L/95g 6% 5.6L/130g

2020

61.1% ( 5.8L/100km )

3.5%

(5.3L/100km) 1.0% 0.2% 0.0%

42.3% (6.7L/100km, 12% down from 2010 2015


level)

56.5% ( 5.8L/100km, 13% down from PFI model level) 0.2% 0.0% 1.0%

6.2L/143g 6.9L/159g

79.4% ( 7.1L/100km, 8% down from model 2010 level)

19.4%(6.5L/100km)
0.9% 0.0% 0.0%

2010

93.5% ( 7.7L/100km )

5.7% 3.8% 0.9%

7.7L/177g

2008
Gasoline PFI

95.3% ( 8.0L/100km )
Gasoline GDI
Other Fuels

8.0L/184g
HEV/PHEV EV

In order to meet the CO2 regulation , there should be about at least 21.0% electric vehicle (including HEV/PHEV and EV) launched every year in China from 2020; China automotive industry will face electric vehicle industry restructuring in the next five to fifteen years.

1. Electric Vehicle Research and Development in China


1.3 Relevant Policies Regarding Electric Vehicle in China 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
Adjustment of fuel tax and consumption tax for passenger car

2009

2009 2010

2011
Development Plan of Energy Saving and Environmental Protection Industry of the 12th Five-Year Plan The 12th FiveYear Plan of Strategic Emerging Industry Development has classified electric vehicle as a strategic emerging industry

10 key energy Development saving projects Policy of of China Automotive Medium and Industry Long Term China Energy Medium and Conservation Long Term Plan Energy Conservation Plan Limit of Fuel Consumption of Passenger Cars

Rules on the The new 11th Five-Year Plan Production Admission Guidelines Management of New Energy National Automobiles Guideline on Medium- and Catalogue of Long-Term industry Program for restructuring Science and guideline Technology (version 2007) Development Comprehensive energy-saving & emission reduction work program

Plan on Notice on trial Adjusting and of subsidy for Revitalizing the individuals who Auto Industry buy new energy Plan on vehicles Adjusting and Revitalizing the Industry Auto Industry Development Demonstration Plan of & popularization Automobile and plan of energy saving and new New Energy energy vehicles Vehicles Rules on admission management of new energy vehicle manufacturers and products

Relevant policies

Many polices encouraging development of electric vehicles have been enacted by the Chinese government since 2004

1. Electric Vehicle Research and Development in China


1.4 Projects Led by MOST863 R&D MOST 863
-- 2001-R&D -- 2009 -Demo. -- 2012 -Prod. Growth After 2015 Prod.

Development

Vehicle Product

Drive System Integration

Hybrid Vehicle Drive System Platform

Fuel Cell Vehicle Drive System Platform

Pure Electric Vehicle Drive System Platform

Fuel cell, Battery, Super capacitor Key Components E-motor, Transmission, Engine New materials, new components, generic technology, Infrastructure related technologies Testing, Standard, Policies, Demonstration, Financing, Intellectual Property, Technical Information

Basis Study Policy Platform

There are four phases for electric vehicle in China

1. Electric Vehicle Research and Development in China


1.4 Projects led by MOST Ten Cities, Thousand Vehicle Demo Driving Ten Vehicle
Pilot cities(more than Ten Cities):
1. BeiJing 2. ChangChun 3. DaLian 4. JiNan 5. HeFei 6. ShangHai 7. HangZhou 8. WuHan 9. ChongQing 10. ChangSha 11. NanChang 12. KunMing 13. ShenZhen 14. TianJin 15. HaiKou 16. ZhengZhou 17. XiaMen 18. SuZhou 19. TangShan 20. GuangZhou 21. ShenYang 22. ChengDu 23. HuHeHaoTe 24. NanTong 25. XiangFan

Subsidy level
Motor Power Rate Fuel eff. (%)

Unit: 1K RMB

BSG
5-10% 4 10-20%

10-20%

20-30%

30-100%

28 32

32 36 42

42 45 50 60 250

HV
2 21 23 1 19 14 4 24 5 18 6 7 11 17 13 3

20-30% 30-40% >40%

16 22 9 12 15 25 8 10 20

EV FC-EV

100% 100%

1. Electric Vehicle Research and Development in China


1.5 China Electric Vehicle Industry Alliance TOP 10 Alliance Sponsored by the Auto Industry

General strategy of auto development General strategy of auto development Pay attention to both traditional energy vehicles and Pay attention to both traditional energy vehicles and electric vehicles electric vehicles Development strategy of electric vehicles Development strategy of electric vehicles Carrying out joint action, focusing priorities and Carrying out joint action, focusing priorities and seeking innovative development seeking innovative development Action outline Action outline Program of Joint Action of Electric Vehicle Program of Joint Action of Electric Vehicle Development Development

Electric Vehicle Industry Alliance (TOP10) Founded on July 11th 2009

Jointly research and develop electric vehicle, including key assemblies and components, etc Jointly develop standard for electric vehicle and components

1. Electric Vehicle Research and Development in China


1.5 China Electric Vehicle Industry Alliance State-Owned Enterprise Electric Vehicle Industry Alliance

State-owned Enterprise Electric Vehicle Alliance (20 state-owned enterprises) Founded on August 18th 2010

EV and electric drive commission

Battery commission

Recharging & service commission

Purpose: Cooperation, self-disciplined, win-win, innovation, development; Principle: voluntary, equality, cooperation, mutual benefit; Mission: Promote development of core technology of electric vehicle, and foster a group of enterprises with strong market competitiveness

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1. Electric Vehicle Research and Development in China


1.6 Status of Electric Vehicle Research and Development of Major Automakers in China
HEV or EV Features BSG ISG HEV Parallel Fully / Plug-In R-E EV BEV

Configuration

Fuel Efficiency (%) FAW SAIC Dongfeng GAIG BAIHC Changan Chery BYD

~ 3-5

~ 10-15

~ 20-50

40

100

Diversified technology roadmap is adopted by China automakers in their electric vehicle products The majority of products are still in the stage of product development or pilot production for Demo.

1. Electric Vehicle Research and Development in China


1.7 Conclusion Under pressure of oil shortage and CO2 emission, the Chinese government has Under pressure of oil shortage and CO2 emission, the Chinese government has classified electric vehicle as a strategic emerging industry and enacted a lot of classified electric vehicle as a strategic emerging industry and enacted a lot of policies to encourage development of electric vehicle, also some Electric Vehicle policies to encourage development of electric vehicle, also some Electric Vehicle Industry Alliances are founded. Industry Alliances are founded. The Chinese automakers adopted their own technology roadmaps with diversified The Chinese automakers adopted their own technology roadmaps with diversified technological plans. technological plans. The majority of products are still in the stage of product development or pilot The majority of products are still in the stage of product development or pilot production for Demo. production for Demo. A lot of researches have been made by the Chinese government and automotive A lot of researches have been made by the Chinese government and automotive industry regarding electric vehicle standard. industry regarding electric vehicle standard.

Contents
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Electric Vehicle Research & Development in China

Electric Vehicle Research & Development by FAW

Standardization of China Electric Vehicle

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2. Electric Vehicle Research & Development by FAW


2.1 FAWs Low Carbon Emission Enterprise Strategy Blueway

Fully improve low carbon emission and energy saving technology for traditional powertrain vehicle

Vigorously promote new energy vehicle technology

Promote both low carbon technologies for traditional powertrain and new energy vehicles

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2. Electric Vehicle Research & Development by FAW


2.1 FAWs Low Carbon Emission Enterprise Strategy Blueway

Economically feasible, technically available and environmentally compatible Passenger car

FAWs overall technology strategy for new energy vehicle is economically feasible, technically available and environmentally compatible

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2. Electric Vehicle Research & Development by FAW


2.2 FAW Electric Vehicle Technology Roadmap

HEV

EV

FC-EV
HEVHybrid electric vehicle PHEVPlug-in hybrid vehicle R-ERange-extended electric vehicle EVElectric vehicle FC-EVFuel cell electric vehicle

PHEV
CO2 Orientation Based on Maturity of Battery Technology Key components in-house Society, Family and Automobiles

R-E

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2. Electric Vehicle Research & Development by FAW


2.2 FAW Electric Vehicle Technology Roadmap CO2 Orientation
Technology road map

HEV/PHEV

HEV/PHEV

RE

EV

FCEV

Configuration

Idle start-stop Electric drive Driving generation Engine and motor drive Brake energy recovery External charge Low carbon emission level

(-) / >35% / >50%

(-) / >35% / >50%

60%

100%

Function

>100%

Develop electric vehicle technologies aiming to meet vehicle CO2 emission targets.

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2. Electric Vehicle Research & Development by FAW


2.2 FAW Electric Vehicle Technology Roadmap Based on Maturity of Battery Technology

Maturity of battery technology

FC-EV EV PHEV Full Hybrid Mild Hybrid


2010 2015 2020 2025 2030

Low

Powertrain electrification

High

Develop corresponding new energy vehicles gradually based on the maturity of battery technology and cost acceptability
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2. Electric Vehicle Research & Development by FAW


2.2 FAW Electric Vehicle Technology Roadmap Key Components In-house

Electric drive system

Vehicle integration
System from Tier 1 FAW Vehicle Integration

System integration
Sw & Control development

Component development
Key components development Pilot production

Production
production from system to key components

Energy storage system

Vehicle Integration
System from Tier 1 FAW Vehicle Integration

System integration
System production Pack & BMS development

Components development
Cell development Pilot production begins

production
Be involved in cell business

Sw & Control

FAW development

2010

2015

2020

2025

Develop core technologies and key components

2. Electric Vehicle Research & Development by FAW


2.2 FAW Electric Vehicle Technology Roadmap Society, Family and Automobiles

Water Energy

Bio-Energy

Solar Battery

HEMS

Wind Energy Nuclear Energy Home

battery

Home charging terminal

EV

PHEV
Grid Grid Residential area Public charging station

Society Society

Efficient usage of renewable energy Efficient usage of renewable energy Smart transportation system Smart transportation system Smart grid Smart grid

Family Family

Home regenerative energy power generation Home regenerative energy power generation Home energy storage system Home energy storage system Smart home power management Smart home power management

Automobile Automobile

Balanced home power usage Balanced home power usage Balanced power grid Balanced power grid Smart power charge and feed control Smart power charge and feed control

Integration of society, family and automobiles is the comprehensive solution for the future low carbon emission society. PHEV/EV is the ultimate trend for the development of automobiles.

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2. Electric Vehicle Research & Development by FAW


2.3 FAW Hybrid Car R&D Progress

1998-2000

2002-2005

2006-2008

2009-2013

Besturn Full Hybrid Car C Sample Besturn Full Hybrid Car B Sample HongQi Full Hybrid Car A Sample HongQi series HEV car

Beginning from basic research, FAW spent 10 years to develop Hybird cars based on B-class car 22

2. Electric Vehicle Research & Development by FAW


2.3 FAW Hybrid Car Technical Innovation in Besturn B70 HEV

Item Car Length/ Width/ High (mm) Curb Weight (kg) Engine Assy. Transmission E- Motor Battery Pack

Parameter 4705/1782/1465 1520 CA4GA5H L4 1.5L 5AMT PMSM 40kW 300 V / 5.3Ah/Lithium 10.5 5.9

FAW two-motor full hybrid system FAW-TMH

TM

Performance

Acceleration Performance (s) (0-100 km/h) NEDC Fuel Consumption (L/100km)

FAW two-motor full hybrid system FAW-TMHTM: it features all hybrid functions, and could be a type with plug-in

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2. Electric Vehicle Research & Development by FAW


2.3 FAW Hybrid Car Besturn B70HEV (Pilot Production and Demo Driving)

Pilot Production
Low volume production line has been set up Processes such as assembling of assys, body, vehicle and EOL etc.

Demo Driving
In 2008, demo driving during Beijing Olympic Games In 2009, demo driving at Dalian Davos Forum In 2011, Ten Cities, Thousand Vehicle demo driving in
Chang Chun

Pilot Assembly Line

Demo Driving

2. Electric Vehicle Research & Development by FAW


2.4 FAW Hybrid Bus R&D Progress

2002-2003

2004-2006

2007-2008

2009-2012

Volume production vehicle Type approval prototype Performance prototype Function prototype

Beginning from basic research, FAW spent totally 10 years to develop hybrid bus based on 10~12m long city bus

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2. Electric Vehicle Research & Development by FAW


2.4 FAW Hybrid Bus The 1st Generation 12m Hybrid City Bus
Item Length/ Width/ Height (mm) Curb Weight (kg) Engine Automatic Manul transmission E-Motor Battery Pack 0-50km/h Acceleration Performance (s) City fuel consumption (L/100km) Parameter 11995X2546X3200 12050 162 kW @ 2500 rpm 5AMT 90 kW @ 3600 rpm 336 V / 40 Ah NiMH <30 <30oil saving >25%

Bus

Assy.

Perfor mance

Launched in small volume in 2009, volume production began in 2010

2. Electric Vehicle Research & Development by FAW


2.4 FAW Hybrid Bus The 1st Generation 12m Hybrid Bus
In 2008, demo driving in Beijing Olympic Games In 2008, demo driving in Beijing Olympic Games In 2009, demo driving at Dalian Davos Forum In 2009, demo driving at Dalian Davos Forum In 2009, Ten Cities, Thousand Vehicle demo driving in Dalian, Changchun and Kunming In 2009, Ten Cities, Thousand Vehicle demo driving in Dalian, Changchun and Kunming

Totally 482 hybrid buses have been launched in Dalian, Changchun and Kunming, etc.

2. Electric Vehicle Research & Development by FAW


2.5 Other R&D Activities A0 Class EV Car
High Voltage CAN Bus

Item L/W/H/mm Car


Gear Box E-Motor

Parameter 4050/1789/1600 1460 230Nm/75kW 336V / 70Ah Lithium Slow charge6~8h), fast charge 30min80%SOC < 13

HCU

Curb Weight /kg E- Motor Assy. Battery

MCU INV

BATT

BMS

Function Acceleration Performance/s (0-100 km/h) NEDC Power Consumption kWh/100km Pure Electric Driving Range (NEDC)/km

<13 160 It can satisfy 98% of customers demand

Performance

Aiming for volume production, develop specific chassis, body and vehicle platform suitable for electric car .

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2. Electric Vehicle Research & Development by FAW


2.5 Other R&D Activities12m EV Bus
Item Bus Length (mm) Curb Weight (kg) E-Motor Assy. Battery Parameter 11900 11300+1500 80 / 150kW 384V / 360Ah Normal Charging 6~8h Electric drive, Regenerative Braking 80 25

Function

Max. Speed (km/h) Performance 0-50km/h acceleration performance (s) Cursing range in city condition (km)

>120

Aiming for volume production , develop new powertrain platform suitable for electric city bus

Contents
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Electric Vehicle Research & Development in China

Electric Vehicle Research & Development by FAW

Standardization of Chinese Electric Vehicle

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3. Standardization of Chinese Electric Vehicle


3.1 Organization for Chinese Electric Vehicle Standardization
Technical Committee of SAC

SAC TC114
ISO TC22/SC21 IEC TC69 Sub Technical Committee of Electric Vehicle SAC/TC114/SC27
World forum for coordination of vehicle regulations UN/WP29

Working group for hybrid electric vehicle

Working group for fuel-cell electric vehicle

Working group for battery system and application


Study and set standards Study and set standards regarding batterys regardingbattery batterys dimension, safety, cycle life, dimension, safety, cycle life, test procedure etc. test procedure etc. Study and set standards Study and set standards regarding battery regarding battery management system, management system, communication protocol, communication protocol, charging interface and charging interface and charging station etc. charging station etc.

Working group for E-drive system

Study and set Study and set standards for electric standards for electric vehicle and hybrid vehicle and hybrid vehicle vehicle

Study and set Study and set standards for fuel cell standards for fuel cell vehicle, system and vehicle, system and component component

Study and set Study and set standards for E-drive standards for EE-drive system system

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3. Standardization of Chinese Electric Vehicle


3.2 Architecture of Chinese Electric Vehicle Standardization

Architecture of electric vehicle standardization

Vehicle

Key components

Charging related

EV

HEV

FCEV

Energy storage system

E-drive system

DC/DC

On-board charging system

Charging interface

Corresponding standards are established in line with the diversified electric vehicle technologies

3. Standardization of Chinese Electric Vehicle


3.3 Status of China EV Standardization
Standard type Electric vehicle Vehicle Hybrid vehicle Standard feature GB/T GB/T Qty. of Qty. of standards to standards be set or have been set revised 12 12 7 4 7 2 1 3 4 40 4 13 5 4 2 2 5 47

Fuel cell vehicle GB/T+QC/T Energy storage GB/T+QC/T system Key component GB/T E-drive system DC/DC Chargingrelated On-board charge system Charging port Total GB/T GB/T GB/T

Electric Vehicle standard system has been set up after nearly fifteen years of study There are small amount of equivalent or modified international standards which have been adopted in China, most standards have been developed independently according to Chinas actual conditions and Electric Vehicle roadmap. With new electric vehicle technologies and solutions emerging constantly, there are totally 47 standards to be set or revised in the period of 2011-2015.

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3. Standardization of Chinese Electric Vehicle


3.4 Discussion on China Electric Vehicle Standardization Defination of PHEV and Related
Definition & classification standard of PHEV
Currently, subsidy is offered according to size of battery energy in China Relevant classification standard needs to be developed for PHEV as basis of subsidy
Method Electric Energy Consumption Fuel Consumption C = (DeC1 + DavC2)/(De + Dav)

1 E = (DeE1 + DavE4) / (De + Dav)

2 E = (DovcE1 + DavE4) / (Dovc + Dav) C = (DovcC1 + DavC2)/(Dovc + Dav)

Range Extender
Vehicle performance requirement in CD mode Vehicle performance requirement in CS mode

Fuel economy assessment method of external charging vehicles


ECER101: Dav=25km ; How about in China ? How to assess energy consumption of external charging vehicles

3. Standardization of Chinese Electric Vehicle


3.4 Discussion on China Electric Vehicle Standardization Charging or Fast Switching

There are some arguments between power net and auto industry about Either battery charging or fast switch shall be chosen, the issue itself should be resolved by standardization. Battery Charging

Currently, both Europe and Japan already have unified charging interface standards, however, China has no such mandatory standards released yet. Battery fast switch

3. Standardization of Chinese Electric Vehicle


3.4 Discussion on China Electric Vehicle standardization Cell and module related standards

Modular battery will be favorable for battery manufacturers to improve product quality and reduce cost. However, due to some restraints of personalized passenger car such as limited packaging space and load requirements, vehicle design will be hard to achieve with modular battery. Taxi and city bus with modular battery will be beneficial to the promotion of batterys mass production and centralized management when battery is in use. Standards to be developed: module specification, module interfaces etc.

3. Standardization of Chinese Electric Vehicle


3.5 Conclusion

Electric vehicle is one of the most important solution for oil shortage and CO2 emission in china, the Chinese government and automakers have made it as the most important development direction, the EV market will grow up rapidly and EV standardization will be a major challenge. The majority of products are still in the stage of product development or pilot production for Demo, standardization of Chinese electric vehicle is developing and does not mature enough, therefore, China should keep close cooperation with relevant international organizations in standardization and contribute its own efforts. The technological roadmap for China electric vehicle has its own unique features, and relevant standards have particularity.

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Thank You for your attention !

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