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The physical appearance and spatial arrangement of ancient cities reflected and reinforced the structures of political power that operated within their respective societies. I. The Geography
Hellenic Civilization

Palace, Temples - Acropolis high state vs Astu flat Political Power: Monarchy and Oligarchy King had a palace/temples on the acropolis Palace of the king is the political center of the city while the temple was the religious center of the city - Meaning hill or high ground; heart of the city - Elevation signifies hierarchy/power and importance such as HILL OF AREOGAPUS - Flat area surrounding the area was called astu - Astu included an agora = Big open space dedicated to political, religious and civic life = Served as a commercial center, market place, area for law announcements and ostracism = Simply a meeting place for the citizens, everyday matters

Political Power: Democracy People are the power in the state Cleisthenes is called the Father of Democracy Agora is the heart of the city - Level ground signified democracy and thus equality among the people - Events previously in the Acropolis were transferred here - The peoples place; since people were the important, reforms were focused here - People were now involved in the institutionalism of ostracism = Ostrakons: broken pieces of pottery used as ballot = 6000+ ballots determine 10-year exile; respected commoners opinions = to prevent potential tyrants to be tyrants. = women couldnt get ostracized because they were not considered as citizens. Augustan City It 2. For historian Richard Sennett, how the ancient Athenians and Romans viewed their respective cities was inextricably linked to how they viewed the human body. I. Athenians Naked: Civilized Clothed: barbaric They are not naked they are clothed by the city. Sheltered by physical structures which reflected the glory of Athens. Only barbarians who have no city to shelter them need clothes. They dont need clothes to express civilization. They have drama, poetry, art, etc.

To ancient Athenian displaying oneself affirmed ones dignity as a citizen, Athenian democracy placed great emphasis on its citizens exposing their thoughts to others just as men exposed their bodies Man to man erotic love = love between citizens, express love of city nakedness = sign of people entirely at home in the city, cuty place in which one could live happily exposed unlike barbarians who aimlessly wandered the earth without the protection of stone. II. Romans Applying bodily ratios to city planning and arhitecture. -Vitruvius = Father of Western Architecture = Famous because of Vitruvian Man - They focus on the symmetries and measurements of the human body - Application of Vitruvius body City planning/Urban plan -They find the center of the city = navel of the body - After they locate the center, it will have intersection, creating an elaborate gridiron securing the borders of Rome - secure borders - serve as conduits of the imposition of Roman Culture Elements of Pantheon 1. Symmetry 2. Proportionality of the body 3. height = width 3. The creation and planning of cities were integral aspects of forming and maintaining ancient empire Hellenistic cities - In order to secure the control all over the empire, there were cities built like Alexandria Augustan City -Augustus used facades to show that nothing changed in Rome. - He wanted to show that Rome is still a Republic. He doesnt want the people to see that it is not an empire - Augustus Roman City Planning Blatant Roman Imperialism -secure borders -cultural imposition + Alexander saw these cities as pockets of Hellenic cities. + There were territories that had to change because of the conquer

of Romans. + One example of this is the use of Gridiron 4. St. Augustines differentiation of the City of God from the City of Man stands in stark contrast to how Pericles juxtaposed Athens and Sparta in his Funeral Oration. City of God > Eternal City of Man > Material Should try to be citizens of city of God instead of City of Man - St Augustine: City of God --> ideal City; focused on the eternal City of Man --> focused on Material (decadence: Rome) Audience: Current and newly converted Christians Situation: Sacking of Rome - Pericles: Athens --> Ideal City; democratic and liberal; freedom Sparta --> focused on military strength; no holistic formation: physical only Audience: Relatives of the dead Situation: Peloponnesian War - Essentially, both idealized a 'city' and shuns another, both also were means to affirm/ console those affected by the circumstances 5. Urban centers of the Ancient World and the Middle Ages proved to be effective locations for the diffusion and consumption of new products and ideas. Agora This was a simple market place, - A place for commoners - Gradually placed political religious functions here Since political and religious functions were placed here, new ideas are being born in this urban center. We can see how democracy can be exercised in this place. Ostracism was executed in this place. This was done to prevent potential tyrants to be tyrants. This new idea was created so that no one could be tyrants. Common Athenians vote out. This means that an individual is really important here because its a 1 to 1 vote. All sorts of people are allowed to go here thats why we can find the birth of new ideas in this place. We can also see the diffusion of new products in this place since this place is also a plaee of trade. Urban Centers also paved the way to the Rise of Christianity -The strategy that St. Paul designed was very successful since he used Urban communities to propagate Christianity. -Background: he used his being an artisan to build communities - He started in small cells of Christian communities through out the Roman Empire -Then, he targeted urban centers because they were populated and highly densed -He bridged the gap between these urban centers even without technology - He used letters to Urban cities like Corinth and Galathea.

-These letters were sent through extensive road networks. In Rome - His citizenship also helped him go to and from the urban centers. Since he was a citizen of Rome, he has the freedom to move within the empire and spread the Word of Christ. Genoa and Venice- We can consider these 2 ports as urban centers because they engaged in trades, so they have surplus in some way. -Given their geographical places, they became the most successful merchants. - They were in the coastal areas, thats why they have access to the East like the Byzantine Empire. They were able to trade products in the trade fairs like luxury gas, and spices. During these trade fairs in champagne, consumption and diffusion of cloth made out of wool was also evident. During these trade fairs, the Italians promoted Banking and Accounting ideas. These institutions were important since there were no fixed currencies. These merchantile institutions paved the way for buying items on credit. We can see from these trade fair a high level of trade going on because concepts like double entry bookkeeping systems, notes of exchange, credit, paper transactions were being used. 6. There was a radical break in Western history during the transition from the Age of Antiquity to the Middle Ages in terms of urbanization and the formation of cities. The reign of the last emperor was cut short by a Germanic tribe. Then the leader of this Germanic tribe makes himself the king of Italy. Advancements in the age of Antiquity and Renaissance period were so abundant while the advancements during the Dark ages remained stagnant. Maybe this is because the Roman Empire was like the center of Rome. When it declined, people were in chaos because they didnt know where to turn to. Without this form of government, there will be nobody to provide security for its people. There will be no institution to facilitate the security of trades. Because of all these things urbanization suddered a decline. All the people wanted to leave the city and go to rural areas. Since there were no form of government to turn to, they will provide their own substinence by going ot rural areas. -In rural areas there was economic security - They were able to provide themselves with day o day substinence After this, Charlemagne wanted to centralize Europe again -When he died, migration took place again. -Out of the need for security, a central idea was born (Feudalism) - serf works for the landlords in exchange for protection -serf had to give some of the crops to the Lord -They cant leave the land. They are bound to the Lord, no freedom -Because of this they wont really have time for intellectualization just like during the Age of Antiquity where people had the time for structures, politics. Here they have to work just so theyll have they day to day substinence. -The urbanization was very different. There were no big capital -Before, the city was open. Now, walls provided them security. Theres no real institution or government to protect then -main point wast intellectualization and trades, but it was security,

-Serfs werent as free as burghers in terms of activities. 7. Janet Abu-Lughods two articles argue that from the 1000s to the 1400s, Western Europe developed an extensive urban network that connected the different cities of the continent from the English Channel to the Mediterranean Sea. The Champagne Trade Fairs -Signals the beginnings of urbanization -There was an increase in economic trade activities - Since there was trade, it was evident that there was surplus - There were 3 main actors in these trade airs 1. Champagne - It provided the venue - Located in Northern France 2. Italy (Genoa) - provided the goods coming from the East - They were the ones who controlled the ports - There had the nearest ports that had access to East and Middle East. Because of this they also had access to items like spices and luxuries which were in demand - Italy connected Champagne to the Eastern part - Muslims were also key merchants through the Italian merchants 3. Merchants from low countries like Belgium an Netherlands. These people came from literally geographically low countries. They brought in cloth and wool products. These people also came from Flanders who were Flemish Merchants So how did they really conduct this? - In order for this to work the trade fairs need security. Thats why they travel in caravans to bring in luxury goods. - Since the Count of Champagne wasnt directly under France, he could enact laws outside jurisdiction to further strengthen outside jurisdiction - These trade fairs happened during the High Middle Ages. - It was also impermanent due to the seasonal demand - There were no fixed currencies - 6 cities (2 months each) for 1 year - It was seasonal because the demand wasnt high enough for the fair to stay - The supply was just adequate enough for the Merchants to stay for 2 months. And after that they just go. - Security was the main concern for the merchants participating here. - Taxation were uniform and were implemented well - Europe was still volatile for attack thats why they were concerned fr the security of the place These trade fairs describe how Europe was on its way to urbanism

The logistics of the trade fairs themselves proved that there were linkages in the regions of Europe (Regional connectivity Trade: level of surplus