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An Introduction to Washing Principles and Products

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Mechanism differences

vertical

We have to be carefull about 3 main parameters at laundry machines. These 3 parameters are; 1-rotation speed of the machine 2-falling height (depends on loading capacity, water amount, wing structure and rotation speed) 3-Machine surface area and structure (depends on the type of machine (vertical or horizontal) and amounts and size of the holes at the surface of machine) For the best results during the rotation of the machine from left to right, wings of the machine has to throw the garments from hour 11 point to hour 5 point. This adjustment can be done by arranging the loading amountwater level-and rotation speed. This equilibrium is the best level for optimum effect and safe wash. If the falling point passes over 12 then abrasion will be lost, if the falling point occurs before or around 9 again abrasion will be lost and in both cases related to the structure of the fabric risk of crease increases too much.

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Mechanism differences
ROTATION SPEED LIQOUR RATIO RELATION LOW ROTATION SPEED RISKY WASHING ONLY POSSIBILITY BY REDUSING THE LOADING CAPACITY ONLY POSSIBILITY BY REDUSING THE LOADING CAPACITY ONLY POSSIBILITY BY REDUSING THE LOADING CAPACITY OPTIMUM WASHING POINT 2 LOW LIQOUR RATIO MEDIUM LIQOUR RATIO HIGH LIQOUR RATIO

MEDIUM ROTATION ONLY POSSIBILITY BY REDUSING THE SPEED LOADING CAPACITY HIGH ROTATION SPEED OPTIMUM WASHING 1

ONLY POSSIBILITY BY REDUSING THE LOADING CAPACITY RISKY WASHING

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

WASHING MACHINERY
Vertical Drum -sophisticated -high degree of automation / control -various sizes up to 750 kg capacity -more common in Europe/ North Africa/ Americas

BARREL -simple -lower degree of sophistication -more aggressive action -more common in Asia

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Mechanism differences

vertical

barrel

Drum diameters are different, beating rate per turn higher.


Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles
RBD Garment Team 10/06

Mechanism differences

vertical

barrel

For machines of equal capacity, the barrel machine has greater metal surface friction area.
RBD Garment Team 10/06

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

Mechanism differences

Fall time Carriage time

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Mechanism differences

vertical

barrel

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Mechanism differences

vertical

barrel

for vertical drum machine less friction is imparted, resulting in less abrasion.
Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles
RBD Garment Team 10/06

Main procsess in the laundry


-Pre-treatment

-stone and/or enzyme wash effect adjustment

-bleaching colour adjustment

-finishing Handle adjustment

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

BASIC DENIM WASHING PRINCIPLES


-Pre-treatment

This step is the basic, but most important part of washing. Related to the final target we have to take the correct prevention in this part. This process has 3 main targets; removing the impurities coming from the fabric, de-sizing at weaving fabrics and decreasing the crease risk on the garment *removing the impurities: -either from the cotton or from the manufacturing period garment can contain some impureties. These impurities can be based on oil, alkaline or acidic chemicals and all of them can cause several problems in the next steps of washing. In this step a professional laundry man has to decide about the risk and he has to use the suitable auxiliaries to remove these impurities. *de-sizing: -all of the weaved fabrics contains size on them. During the weaving processes there can be two main problems; one is breaking of the yarn because of high friction and second is dust formation. Size is the solution of these problems, because sizes are making a floppy film on surface and improves the tensile strength and directly causes better efficiency. However, this size becomes a problem so it must be remove in washing. There are several types of size are available in the market. But they can divided in two groups-water soluble sizes (CMC or PVA based sizes) and dissolvable sizes in water (starch based sizes)Starch based sizes still are used widely and have the biggest market share because of their cheap prices and easy purchase conditions.There are 4 methods to remove the size; 1-washing with high alcalines 2-washing with high acids 3-washing with oxidative chemicals 4-enzymatic desizng with alfa-amylases First three methods are difficult , risky and expensive method at laundry business because of this nearly all of the market prefers enzymatic de-sizing.
RBD Garment Team 10/06

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

BASIC DENIM WASHING PRINCIPLES


Preventation of creases: One of the main problems in laundry business is creases. We can separate creases into 4 groups related to their reasons; Mechanic based creases: these are the creases related to the ratio of water, loading capacity and rotation speed of drum. Chemical reaction based creases: These are the creases related to the wetting time of fabric or unevenness auxiliary applications Fabric based creases: These are the creases comes from the production of the fabric Storage based creases

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

BASIC DENIM WASHING PRINCIPLES


DESZNG RECPE LQOUR RATIO: 1/6-1/10 (DEPENDNG ON MACHNE TYPE) TIME : 10 MNUTES LAVA ZYME DEZ LAVA WET W-LA LAVA SPERSE KDS SERA LUPE M-CF 0,5-1 GR/LT( amylase enzyme for removing of size) 0,5-1 GR/LT(wetting and scouring agent) 0,5-1 GR/LT(dispersing and washing agent) 0,5-1 GR/LT(anti-crease agent)

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

WETTING DISPERSING AGENT


Used in Desizing process
must rapidly wet out jean prevents white lines caused by rigid creases permits penetration of Amylase to fully desize prevents back staining of loose indigo onto weft yarns and pockets

Also used in stonewash / after washing to reduce back staining

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

BACK-STAINING
Re-deposition of loose indigo, or indigo dyed short fibres, removed during desizing, stone-washing or enzyme washing. Re-deposited Indigo, reduces the contrast between warp and undyed weft Re-deposited indigo stains pockets and labels Re-deposited indigo is more prone to Ozone and yellowing AND SOLUTION LAVA SPERSE GROUPS Back-staining is UNDESIREABLE in denim washing

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

BACK-STAINING
THERE ARE 3 BASIC GROUPS OF DISPERSING AGENTS FIRST GROUP IS WASHING AND SCOURING BASED PRODUCTS LIKE

LAVA SPERSE HOC


SECOND GROUP IS DISPERSING ABILITY BASED PRODUCTS LIKE

LAVA SPERSE HES


AND THE THIRD AND MOST EFFECTIVE GROUP IS THE MIXTURE OF THESE TWO GROUPS

LAVA SPERSE KDS

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

ANTI-CREASE (Lava Lupe M-CF)

Prevents crease formation during the washing procsess. Increases the loading capacity of the washing machine Reduses the stone spots risk during the stone wash procsess

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

BASIC DENIM WASHING PRINCIPLES


Enzyme is a kind of protein, that is obtained by extraction method from naturally existing bacteria and fungi. The structure of enzyme is a biologic polymer and it can be found every cell. Enzymes help the chemical reactions in living cells by breaking the large molecules to smaller ones or vice versa. In fact, all the reactions can occur without enzymes, however enzymes reduce the energy demand of the cell for initiating the reaction and increase its speed. So ,they are known as biological catalyst The starting molecule in a reaction is called substrate , and the yield molecule is called substate. Enzymes , incorporate the reaction for yielding the substate but they may be recovered unchanged at the end of the reaction. Therefore , the reaction can continue over and over again while the enzyme is active . The relationship between the enzyme and substrate can be explained like lock-key model. So there is only one substrate that the enzyme is active on. For instance , catalase enzymes decompose hydrogen peroxide but they don`t affect the cellulasic fibres and cellulase enzymes attack the cellulosic fibre and give no damage to the peroxides.

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Enzymes
Enzymes are living organisms which will attack a specific molecular group
Head Body

Anchor

Their shape guarantees selectivitythey are specific in their action


Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles
RBD Garment Team 10/06

The advantages of using a product which contains enzymes versus

conventional chemical catalysts are as follows: Increase the rate of the chemical reactions, Provide mild conditions for reactions such as neutral pH and room temperature. The reaction can be easly controlled. Enzymes are biologically degredable , so they do not cause any environment problems. They can be used instead of most of the harmful chemicals.

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Enzymes in Laundry Business


Amylase Cellulase desizing (removes starch) breaks and removes fibres bio-bleaching anti-peroxide

Laccase Catalase

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

AMYLASES
IF YOU THINK ALFA AMYLASES AS KEY THEIR LOCK IS STARCH. THEY CHANGE THE FORM OF STARCH TO A WATER SOLUABLE STRUCTURE THE MAIN DIFFERENCE AT ALFA AMYLASES IS TEMPARATURE STABILITY. SO WE CAN CLASSIFY ALFA AMYLASES AS TERMO-STABIL AND NON-TERMO STABIL GROUPS

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

AMYLASES
Lava Zyme DEZ
effective 40 80 C liquid - pumpable

Lava Zyme A-EN


1.5 times stronger than DEZ liquid - pumpable effective 40 95 C

Normal desizing conducted at 70 C Higher temperature, more back staining of indigo onto pockets and white weft yarns, which is undesirable Good alkaline stability can use products at lower temperature 55 C
reduces back staining 55 C lower efficiency of enzyme slightly higher dosage needed
RBD Garment Team 10/06

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

CELLULASE ENZYMES
Here we use cellulase enzymes which attack and weaken cellulose (cotton) Enzymes weaken the surface fibres, which are then mechanically torn off during processing taking with them indigo. The need mechanical action to work, often to improve the rate of abrasion they are used with stones.

attack point

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Indigo dyeing mechanism

Consider a textile yarn. It is not just a smooth surface, but thousands of parallel fibres twisted together. The surface is not smooth, it had fibre ends poking out.

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Indigo dyeing mechanism

Indigo ring dyes. It does not penetrate far into the individual fibres in a yarn. It remains stuck on or very near the surface.

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Indigo dyeing mechanism

Abrasion removes the indigo from the surface of the textile


Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles
RBD Garment Team 10/06

Cellulase Enzymes
We can separate Cellulase enzymes into two groups; Neutral Cellulases: These are the enzymes which are active between pH: 6-8 lower abrasion than acid cellulases low backstaining pH 6 - 8.0 Acid Cellulases: high abrasion higher back-staining than neutral cellulases pH 4.5 - 5.5 optimized pH and temparature = maximum activity of the enzyme
Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles
RBD Garment Team 10/06

NEUTRAL CELLULASE
For Stone washing Neutral cellulases are the most commonly used mild action attack on cotton (cellulose) fibre
attacks indigo ring dyed cotton fibres on surface of jean causes surface fibres to break and detach fibres on surface dyed with indigo therefore removed reducing indigo

can be in powder or liquid form


usually contain
ENZYME BUFFER DISPERSING AGENT

MAIN PERFORMANCE OF CELLULASE ENZYMES DEPENDS ON TWO PRIMER VARIABLES 1-TEMPARATURE 2-pH

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Temperature profiles
Activity/Stability
110 100

90

rel. activity in %

80

70

ENZYME 1

60

ENZYME 2
50

40

30

20 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75

temperature in C
Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles
RBD Garment Team 10/06

pH profile
Activity/Stability
120 100 ENZYME 2

80 rel. activity in %

60 ENZYME 1 40

20

0 3 4 5 6 pH
RBD Garment Team 10/06

10

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

DyStar NEUTRAL CELLULASES


Name Form Temp

Lava Cell N-ST Lava Cell N-ST 250 Lava Cell N-TE Lava Cell NG Lava Cell BALANCE Lava Cell N-NM Lava Cell Liquid A Lava Cell POWER
Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

Powder Powder Powder Powder


Powder Powder Liquid Powder

40-45 C 40-45 C 40-45 C 50-60 C 50-60 C 50-60 C 50-60 C 50-60 C


RBD Garment Team 10/06

BIOPOLISHING
Here we use cellulases again to attack and weaken the cellulose fibres. Any fibres protruding for the surface of the garment are weakened and exposed and prone to being broken. Enzyme action alone is not enough to cause the breakage mechanical action is also needed. Either the action of fabric in jet, or in tumble drying.
Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles
RBD Garment Team 10/06

BIOPOLISH
Process to attack the surface of the garment to remove hairiness, pilling

creates smooth surface

often called
anti pill wash de-pill wash flat wash biopolishing

for BIOPOLISHING WASHING - ACID CELLULASES are used

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Biopolishing
fibrilated cotton the effect on the fabric surface

biopolished cotton

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

ACID CELLULASE
Working range ph 4.5 5.5 strong medium action attack on cotton (cellulose) fibre
attacks cotton fibres on surface of jean causes surface fibres to break and detach creates smooth

usually in liquid form and un-buffered must be killed


by alkalinity raise temp above 70 C

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

DyStar NEUTRAL CELLULASES


Name Form Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Temp /pH

Lava Cell B-TS Lava Cell B-HX Lava Cell B-EX Lava Cell B-FX KONZ Lava Cell B-IX Lava Cell B-LA Lava Cell B-LH Lava Cell B-LK
Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

55-65 C -Ph 4,5-5 55-65 C -Ph 4,5-5 55-65 C -Ph 4,5-5 55-65 C -Ph 4,5-5 55-65 C -Ph 4,5-5 55-65 C -Ph 4,5-5 55-65 C -Ph 4,5-5 55-65 C -Ph 4,5-5
RBD Garment Team 10/06

Bio-polishing
Commonly known as flat washing. Often done after garment dyeing to clean up the garment Also done to soften up garments Possible problems
Change of shade Loss of fastness Loss of strength Damage to threads/sewings Weakening of seams Bursts.

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Bleaching procsess in laundry


There are 5 main methods are common in the market; 1-Hypocloride bleaching 2-peroxide bleaching 3-permanganate bleaching 4-enzymatic bleaching 5-Lava Jeans FO bleaching

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Bleaching procsess in laundry


1-Hypocloride bleaching This system is the main bleching method for indigo dyed fabrics. Advantages: 1-to reach light colors (even ice blue and white colors) 2-blue cast Disadvantages: 1-strength loss (especially at lycra blends) 2-Its not possible to reach grey casts

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Bleaching procsess in laundry


Cast and the strength loss of hypo bleach can be changed related to the recipe. Ph and temparature are the main variables during the procsess. At high pH (9,5-10) reaction can be occure slower but this range is the best range for less strength losses. If the temparature goes up the reaction can happen more quickly but at high temparatures, controling of the reaction becomes more difficult. Because of this most of the user prefer temparatures under 60 C. In low temparature aplications, final cast can be a little bit green-blue, by the help of temparatue cast becomes shiny blue. Especially at lycra blends strengt loss can be the biggest problem and the best method of increasing the strength can be summarized as dividing the bleaching bath into several baths.
After bleaching we have to make an neutralization process and for this procsess sodium bi sulfite and peroxide are the two possibilities. If the neutralization chemical will be peroxide then the biggest advantage will be more shiny blue cast but sometimes for stopping of Hypo smell peroxide can be not enough. These kind of cases the best oppurtunity can be bi sulfite usage.

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Bleaching procsess in laundry


1-Permanganate bleaching This system is the mainly prefered at spreying . Advantages: 1-Its very easy to see the spreying area because of color change 2-less strength loss related to hypo bleach Dis-advantages: 1-Its to difficult to use in machine.

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Bleaching procsess in laundry


1-Persulfate bleaching This system is the mainly prefered for reaching grey casts after stone wash or hypo bleach . Advantages: 1-grey cast Dis-advantages: 1-high strength loss (especially at high temparatures) 2-limited amount of bleaching

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

ENZYMATIC BLEACHING SYSTEM Laccase enzyme Decolourises Indigo without using bleach Provides very good contrast Gives a fashionable grey cast Does not affect tensile strength Easy process

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

The indigo dyestuff is reduced to water-soluble decomposition products by oxidoreductase (Lava Zyme LITE) and removed by rinsing. This process is boosted by the mediator, which is contained in the product. Due to the pH-value of 5.5 6.5 which is necessary for this bleaching process stickers made of leather and metal are treated carefully as well as the garment itself. Sulphur and reactive dyestuffs are not affected by this bleaching system. It is specific to indigo dyestuff. This means there is no attack to the cotton fibre and so nearly no loss in tensile strength. Without any particular after-scouring or after-bleaching a greyer colour shade compared to other bleaching systems especially chlorine bleaching - is obtained. A clearer shade may be achieved by after-bleaching with hydrogen peroxide. It is essential to rinse and wash after bleaching. Then, a softener is applied on the garment and finished as normal.
RBD Garment Team 10/06

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

DENIM with Lycra


Vast quantities of jeans are being made containing Lycra Laundries are faced with challenge to produce full shade range Range must include bleached and full bleached looks Hypochlorite damages elastane fibres like Lycra Laundries still try to use Hypochlorite but face severe risk of damages

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Rapid bleaching of elastane containing indigo-dyed jeans based on acid released peroxide donator allows fast deep bleaching of denim lycra without damaging elastane easier to control than hypochlorite gives fashionable grey blue grey blue can be turned back to blue blue easily A safe way to bleach denim lycra.

L.Jeans FO 2 g/l 50 C 10 min.

L.JeansFO 2g/l 70c 10 min.


RBD Garment Team 10/06

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

FINISHING
Finishing part of the garment wash is one of the most important issue which will complete the look of the garment with handle. these are the main product groups for finishing part of laundry business 1-Cationic softeners 2-non-ionic softeners 3-micro silikons 4-macro silikons 5-nano-silikons 6-stiff coating

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

EvoSoft UNT
Nonionic fatty acid with additives Pumpable liquid
provides a full, soft flowing hand is extremely stable against yellowing

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

EVOSoft UCL EVOSoft UCT


Standart fatty acid base cationic softeners Soft handle with smothness on the surface Low yellowing

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

EVOSoft GFL
Universal quaternary softener (cationic) Very soft voluminous handle Excellent surface smoothness Stable against to yellowing Increases the pile stability

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

EVOSoft PEN
Non-ionic PE wax emulsion gives a smoothness on the surface improves sewability improves tear strength at resin finishes improves resistance to pilling

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

EvoSoft MEB EvoSoft MET EvoSoft MEC


These are micro silikon emulsions Gives good sofness with high smoothness High washfastness Espesially Evo Soft MET can be used the make more darker colors by spraying.(for reparing of bleaching faults in laundry)

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

EVOSoft MCT
Special non-ionic micro silikon emulsion No color change, suitable for white colors Improves the strength of the fabric Smooth and soft handle High wash fastness

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

EVOSoft MSA
Non-ionic macro silikon Elastic silikon handle Non yellowing High working stability High washing stability

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

EVOSoft VJS
Silikon solution (Not emulsion) Extremely shear stable One of the safest silikon for jet type of machines At laundry prosesses it is repariable (after this silikon you can easily repair the color)

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

EVOSoft HWA
Amido siloxane Slightly hydrophilic Secure softening (no spots)

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

EVOSoft SEL
Water based non-ionic silikon elastomer Has high washfastness at 30-40 degree washes and dry cleaning Suitable to use at fashion denim aplications Improves the strength and shining of the garment when it used with resin aplictions at laundry business

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Introduction
The discolouration of textiles, i.e. a change of shade or loss of whiteness, giving a yellow tint, is commonly known as YELLOWING. It is a widespread problem and there is no single reason for its cause. Instead a number of conditions can singly or in combination lead to the problem. Yellowing is not specific to certain fibres, finishes or washing processes.

It is NOT specific to chemicals or chemical treatments, but certainly factors within these can lead to yellowing

It is not possible to isolate one cause for yellowing, so in this presentation, we will look at some of the different types of yellowing which may be encountered in Indigo dyed fabrics or garments

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Yellowing
Cotton, as can all organic polymers, yellows with age. As it ages, it develops a yellow tint. This ageing cannot explain severe yellowing, or accelerated yellowing problems . Light, acids, impurities, detergents and chemicals, overdosed FBAs contribute to yellowing problems But these alone do not explain yellowing problems in cotton and Indigo dyed fabrics 1. Yellowing occurs on fabrics without FBA 2. FBAs quality has been constantly improved 3. Our knowledge and experience in their application has Garment Team RBD 10/06 improved .

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

Phenolic Yellowing
Certain lubricants used in weaving are known to create yellowing

Hydrocarbon oils commonly used in weaving or knitting as lubricants yellow with age due to oxidation .

In recent years addition of anti-oxidants to these oils led to the phenomenon of

PHENOLIC YELLOWING

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Phenolic Yellowing
The presence of antioxidants can also cause serious yellowing problems They react with NOx This reaction causes yellowing A Common Antioxidant is BHT (butylated hydrox toluene). This is of phenolic basis and readily reacts with NOx producing yellowing.

This is just one of number of phenolic compounds which similarly react producing yellow coloured Quinoid derivatives

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Phenolic Yellowing
Anti Oxidants are used in all of these materials Packaging materials Sewing machine lubricants Sewing lubricants applied to fabrics Finishing chemicals (including FBAs) Fibres (coning, spinning-oils, or released from elastomeric fibres) Silicon Softeners, or emulsifiers used to make silicon emulsions

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Scorching
Temperature of drying and curing can impart yellowing due to scorching of the cotton fibre. Good control therefore must be used to minimise this type of damage

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Indigo Dyed materials.


FACT: Indigo dyed fabrics are even more prone to yellowing. Indigo, if exposed to certain agents such as NOx , Ozone (O3 ) can react to produce a number of yellow coloured compunds. Impurities in enzymes and chemicals used in garment washing can similarly cause breakdown of Indigo into yellow coloured derivatives Packaging materials can contribute to yellowing.

Reactions between contaminants in cardboard and plastics can produce ozone, nitrogen or sulphur oxides. These compounds can react to produce yellow compounds.

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Indigo Dyed materials.


. From the very start of Indigo dyed garment manufacture from the raw material right through to the finished product, there are any number of products which can cause, accelerate ,or worsen yellowing problems. As previously stated all textile fabrics are prone to yellowing. With Indigo dyed fabrics we also encounter a number of additional opportunities to introduce yellowing. Indigo itself , through simple oxidation, can transform into many different substances, some colourless, but a great deal are yellow in colour.

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Minimisation of Yellowing Risk


It is impossible to eliminate yellowing, but it is possible to reduce conditions which cause Classical Yellowing Ensure bleaching and bleach neutralisation residues are minimised or eliminated Minimise back staining Avoid the use of chemicals which create yellowing Avoid leaving garments damp any longer than necessary Control drying and curing conditions Also at spinning, warping, dyeing and weaving control products used which may cause yellowing.

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Yellowing on indigo dyed material


Yellowing cause by ozone and/or NOx

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

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Yellowing on indigo dyed material

Original without gassing

Ozone gassing on treated fabric with Silicon Original Lava Jeans softener PRO

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Softeners and Yellowing


Specialised anti-yellowing softeners are available and have three main action mechanisms 1. barrier forming
- Film forming softeners which create a protective layer over the fibre and encapsulate the indigo , thus protecting it from exposure to air pollution , and therefore to yellowing. Disadvantage -can also lock onto the fibre, residues from processing which can therefore no longer be easily removed, accelerating classical yellowing

2. sacrificial reaction
React with air pollutants and in the process of reaction break down into colourless compounds, but sometimes the breakdown compounds can accelerate classical yellowing effect.

3. alternative reaction partner 4. the most successful class of anti yellowing softeners which react with airborne pollutants thereby de-activating or weakening them before they are able to affect the indigo.
RBD Garment Team 10/06

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

Lava Jeans PRO

Soft polyacrylate Offers excellent anti yellowing properties by film forming mechanism Gives high protection against yellowing effect Pumpable Gives unique smooth handle

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Yellowing on indigo dyed material


Treatment of ready-made denim in drum-type washing machines Add to the last rinse

2 5 % o.w.g. Lava Jeans PRO


Set at pH 4 5 by adding approx. 1 ml/l acetic acid Bath temperature: Treatment time: 10 min
Liquor ratio: 4:1 8:1

25 40 C

Note: Applying common softening agents with Lava Jeans PRO can impair the impact of Lava Jeans PRO. Silicon softening agent should not be used because they increase the risk of yellowing.

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

O C N C Denim exposed to O3 O H H
O3 levels worldwide a) winter b) summer

Treatment of ready-made denim in drum-type washing machines Add to the last rinse 2 5 % o.w..g. Lava Jeans PRO Set at pH 4 5 with acetic acid Bath temperature: Treatment time: Liquor ratio: 4:1 8:1 Note: Applying common softening agent with Lava Jeans PRO can impair the impact of Lava Jeans PRO. Silicon softening agent should not be used because they increase the risk of yellowing.
Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

Control Denim

25 40 C 10 min

Lava Jeans Pro treated exposed to O3

N
RBD Garment Team 10/06

GARMENT CURE
DyStar Process for wrinkle free garments
Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles
RBD Garment Team 10/06

DyStar Garment -CURE for Garments

Garment-Cure Garment-Cure -

The approved concept for non-iron and wrinkle-resistant finish on garments is an industry-proven method for wash and wear finishing of ready-made garments such as trousers, skirts and shirts. meets the technological and ecological demands of the market.

Garment-Cure -

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Advantages of Garment-CURE: suitable for all ready-made garments made of natural cellulosic and man-made cellulosic fibres provides non-iron effects, if desired also with permanent crease prevents creasing during wear as well as after washing and tumble-drying (easy care) is fast to washing meets requirements of Ecotex-Standard 100

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

DyStar products for the Garment-CURE process: Evo Pret RCI Evo Soft VNI Evo Soft ME Evo Soft SNY Evo Soft ELP Evo Soft PEN Evo Protect FSU
self-cross linking DMDHEU resin fatty acid softener silicone micro emulsion elastomeric silicon micro emulsion elastomeric macro silicon emulsion softener for improvement of the tear strength fluorocarbon resin for water repellent finish (stain release)

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Application recipe: A. Dip-spinning: - liquor to goods ratio: - bath temperature: - pH value of the bath: - treatment time: 4 : 1 - 10 : 1 25 - 40 C 4.0 - 5.0 10 min

100 % cotton trousers (proposal): 25 - 50 g/l Evo Pret RCI 5 - 20 g/l Evo Soft ME or SNY 20 - 40 g/l Evo Soft VNI 0 - 1 g/l Sera Wet M-DF

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Denim trousers (pre-washed and neutralized): 40 - 70 g/l Evo Pret RCI 10 - 30 g/l Evo Soft VNI 10 - 30 g/l Evo Soft PEN 0 - 1 g/l Sera Wet M-DF Linen trousers: 40 - 70 g/l Evo Pret RCI 20 - 40 g/l Evo Soft VNI 10 - 30 g/l Evo Soft SNY or Evo Soft ELP (prediluted) 0 - 1 g/l Sera Wet M-DF

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06

Drying and curing


1.

Hydroextract 80 - 100 % pick-up 2. Tumble dry 80 100 C 10 - 20 % residual moisture 3. Iron or topper treatment or press (if a perm. crease is requested):
a. steam 5 - 10 sec b. press 10 - 15 sec. at 150 - 180 C no steam c. vacuum 3 - 5 sec. (pressure 4 - 7 bar . 28 - 42 psi) 4.Cure

in tunnel finisher or curing oven


cotton trousers: 150 - 160 C / 6 - 10 min denim trousers: 150 - 160 C / 10 - 15 min linen trousers: 140 - 150 C / 8 - 10 min

Introduction to Denim Laundry Principles

RBD Garment Team 10/06