Sie sind auf Seite 1von 15

Chapter 2:

TraditionalandOnline DisputeResolution
WHATTHISCHAPTERISABOUT
Thischapterexplainswhichcourtshavepowertohearwhatdisputesandwhenandoutlineswhathappens before, during, and after a civil trial. The chapter also covers alternative dispute resolution and online dispute resolution.

CHAPTEROUTLINE
I. THEJUDICIARYSROLEINAMERICANGOVERNMENT
Thepowerofjudicialreview:thecourtscandecidewhetherthelawsoractionsoftheexecutivebranchand thelegislativebranchareconstitutional.

II.

BASICJUDICIALREQUIREMENTS
A. JURISDICTION Tohearacase,acourtmusthavejurisdictionover(1)thedefendantorthepropertyinvolvedand(2)the subjectmatter. 1. JurisdictionoverPersonsorProperty Acourthasinpersonam(personal)jurisdictionoverstateresidents.Longarmstatutespermitcourts toexercisejurisdictionovernonresidentswhohaveminimumcontactswiththestate(e.g.,dobusiness there).Acourthasinremjurisdictionoverpropertywithinitsborders. JurisdictionoverSubjectMatter Acourtofgeneraljurisdictioncandecidevirtuallyanytypeofcase.Acourtsjurisdictionmaybe limitedbythesubjectofasuit,theamountofmoneyincontroversy,orwhetheraproceedingisa trialorappeal. JurisdictionoftheFederalCourts a. FederalQuestions AnysuitbasedontheConstitution,atreaty,orafederallawcanoriginateinafederalcourt.

2.

3.

b. DiversityofCitizenship Federaljurisdictioncoverscasesinvolving(1)citizensofdifferentstates,(2)aforeigngovern mentandcitizensofastateorofdifferentstates,or(3)citizensofastateandcitizensorsubjects ofaforeigngovernment.Theamountincontroversymustbemorethan$75,000.

UNIT ONE: THE LEGAL ENVIRONMENT OF BUSINESS

4.

Exclusivev.ConcurrentJurisdiction Exclusive:whencasescanbetriedonlyinfederalcourtsoronlyinstatecourts.Concurrent:When bothfederalandstatecourtscanhearacase.

B. JURISDICTION INCYBERSPACE Whetheracourtcancompeltheappearanceofaparty outside thephysicallimitsofthecourtsjuris dictiondependsontheamountofbusinessthepartytransactsovertheInternetwithpartieswithinthe courtsjurisdiction. C. VENUE Venueisconcernedwiththemostappropriatelocationforatrial. D. STANDING TOSUE Standingistheinterest(injuryorthreat)thataplaintiffhasinacase.Aplaintiffmusthavestandingto bring a suit, and the controversy must be justiciable (real, as opposed to hypothetical or purely academic).

III.

THESTATEANDFEDERALCOURTSYSTEMS
A. STATECOURTSYSTEMS 1. 2. TrialCourts Trialcourtsarecourtsinwhichtrialsareheldandtestimonyistaken. CourtsofAppeals Courtsthathearappealsfromtrialcourtslookatquestionsoflaw(whatlawgovernsadispute)but not questions offact (what occurredinthedispute),unlessatrialcourtsfindingoffact isclearly contrarytotheevidence.Decisionofastateshighestcourtonstatelawisfinal.

B. THEFEDERALCOURTSYSTEM 1. U.S.DistrictCourts The federal equivalent ofastate trialcourt ofgeneraljurisdiction. There isatleast one federal district court in every state. Other federal trial courts include the U.S. Tax Court and the U.S. BankruptcyCourt. U.S.CourtsofAppeals TheU.S.(circuit)courtsofappealsfortwelveofthecircuitshearappealsfromthefederaldistrict courtslocatedwithintheirrespectivecircuits. Thecourtofappealsforthethirteenthcircuit(the federalcircuit)hasnationaljurisdictionovercertaincases. TheUnitedStatesSupremeCourt TheSupremeCourt,thehighestlevelofthefederalcourtsystem,canreviewanycasedecidedby anyofthefederalcourtsofappeals,andithasauthorityoversomecasesdecidedinstatecourts.To appealacasetotheSupremeCourt,apartyasksforawritofcertiorari.WhethertheCourtissuesthe writiswithinitsdiscretion.

2.

3.

IV.

FOLLOWINGASTATECOURTCASE
A. THEPLEADINGS 1. ThePlaintiffsComplaint

CHAPTER 2: TRADITIONAL AND ONLINE DISPUTE RESOLUTION

10

Filedbytheplaintiffwiththeclerkofthetrialcourt.Contains(1)astatementallegingthefactsfor thecourttotakejurisdiction,(2)ashortstatementofthefactsnecessarytoshowthattheplaintiffis entitledtoaremedy,and(3)astatementoftheremedytheplaintiffisseeking. 2. TheSummons Served on the defendant, with the complaint. Notifies the defendant to answer the complaint (usuallywithintwentytothirtydays). TheDefendantsResponse Noresponseresultsinadefaultjudgmentfortheplaintiff. a. Answer Admitstheallegationsinthecomplaintordeniesthemandsetsoutanydefenses.Mayinclude acounterclaimagainsttheplaintiff.

3.

b. MotiontoDismiss Thedefendantmayfileamotiontodismiss.Ifthecourtdeniesthemotion,thedefendantmust fileananswer.Ifthecourtgrantsthemotion,theplaintiffmustfileanamendedcomplaint. B. PRETRIALMOTIONS 1. MotiontoDismiss (Seeabove.)Eitherpartymayfileamotiontodismissiftheyhaveagreedtosettlethecase.Acourt mayfilesuchamotiononitsown. MotionforJudgmentonthePleadings Anypartycanfilethismotion(afterthepleadingshavebeenfiled),whennofactsaredisputedand onlyquestionsoflawareatissue.Acourtmayconsideronlythosefactsstatedinthepleadings. MotionforSummaryJudgment Anypartycanfilethismotion,ifthereisnodisagreementaboutthefactsandtheonlyquestionis whichlawsapply.Acourtcanconsiderevidenceoutsidethepleadings.

2.

3.

C. DISCOVERY Theprocessofobtaininginformationfromtheopposingpartyorfromwitnesses.Mayincludedeposi tions;interrogatories;requestsforadmissions,documents,objects,entryonland,andphysicalormental examinations. D. PRETRIALCONFERENCE Thisisaninformaldiscussionbetweenthejudgeandtheattorneys,afterdiscovery,toidentifytheis sues,considerasettlement,andplanthetrial. E. JURYSELECTION Theprocessbywhichajuryischosenisvoirdirethejurorsarequestioned,andapartymayaskthat somenotbesworn. F. ATTHETRIAL First,each side presents opening statements. Second, the plaintiff presents his orher case, offering evidence,includingthetestimonyofwitnesses.Thedefendantcanchallengetheevidenceandcrossex aminethewitnesses. 1. MotionforaDirectedVerdict

11

UNIT ONE: THE LEGAL ENVIRONMENT OF BUSINESS

After the plaintiffs case, the defendant can ask the judge todirect averdict on the ground the plaintiffpresentednoevidencetojustifyrelief.Ifthemotionisnotgranted,thedefendantpresents hisorhercase,afterwhichthismotioncanbefiledagain. 2. JuryVerdict Inajurytrial,thejurydecidesthefactsandtheamountoftheaward,ifany,tobepaidbythelosing party.Thisistheverdict.

G. POSTTRIALMOTIONS 1. MotionforJudgmentN.O.V. Thedefendantcanfilethismotion,ifheorshepreviouslymovedforadirectedverdict.Thestan dardsforgrantingthismotionarethesameasthoseforgrantingamotiontodismissorforadi rectedverdict. MotionforaNewTrial Thismotionisgrantedifthejudgebelievesthatthejuryerredbutthatitisnotappropriatetogranta judgmentfortheotherside.

2.

H. THEAPPEAL 1. FilingtheAppeal Appellantfilesanoticeofappealwiththeclerkofthetrialcourt,andtherecordonappeal,anab stract,andabriefwiththereviewingcourt.Appelleefilesanansweringbrief.Thepartiescangive oralarguments. AppellateReview Appellatecourtsdonotusuallyreversefindingsoffactunlesstheyarecontradictedbytheevidence presentedatthetrialinthelowercourt. a. OptionsofanAppellateCourt (1)Affirm:enforcethelowercourtsorder;(2)reverse(ifanerrorwascommittedduringthe trial);or(3)remand:sendbacktothecourtthatoriginallyheardthecaseforanewtrial.

2.

b. AppealtoaHigherAppellateCourt Ifthereviewingcourtisanintermediateappellatecourt,thecasemaybeappealedtothestates highestcourt.Ifafederalquestionisinvolved,thecasemaygototheUnitedStatesSupreme Court. I. ENFORCINGTHEJUDGMENT Ajudgmentmaynotbeenforceable,particularlyifalosingpartydoesnothavesufficientassetsorin surancetocoverit.

Chapter3
V. THECOURTSADAPTTOTHEONLINEWORLD
A. ElectronicFiling Tosavetime,storagespace,etc.,courtsareswitchingfrompapertoelectronicdocumentfiling,usingthe Internet,email,andCDROMs.

CHAPTER 2: TRADITIONAL AND ONLINE DISPUTE RESOLUTION

12

B. CourtsOnline MostcourtshaveWebsites.Whatisavailableonthesitesvaries. C. CyberCourtsandProceedings Thefuturemayseetheuseofvirtualcourtrooms,inwhichproceedingstakeplaceonlyontheInternet.

VI.

ALTERNATIVEDISPUTERESOLUTION(ADR)
A. NEGOTIATION Partiescometogetherinformally,withorwithoutattorneys,totrytosettleorresolvetheirdifferences withoutinvolvingindependentthirdparties. B. MEDIATION Partiescometogetherinformallywithamediator,whomayproposesolutionsfortheparties.Ame diatorisoftenanexpertinaparticularfield. C. ARBITRATION Anarbitratorthethirdpartyhearingthedisputedecidesthedispute.Thedecisionmaybelegally binding. 1. ArbitrationClauses Disputesareoftenarbitratedbecauseofanarbitrationclauseinacontractenteredintobeforethe dispute.Courtsgenerallyenforcesuchclauses. ArbitrationStatutes Moststateshavestatutesunderwhicharbitrationclausesareenforced.TheFederalArbitrationAct (FAA)enforcesarbitrationclausesincontractsinvolvinginterstatecommerce. TheArbitrationProcess Atanarbitrationhearing,thepartiesmaketheirarguments,presentevidence,andcallandexamine witnesses,andthearbitratormakesadecision.Thedecisioniscalledanaward,evenifnomoneyis involved.

2.

3.

D. OTHERTYPESOFADR 1. EarlyNeutralCaseEvaluation Partiesselectaneutralthirdparty(generallyanexpert)toevaluatetheirpositions,withnohearing andnodiscovery.Theevaluationisabasisfornegotiatingasettlement. Minitrial Aprivateproceedinginwhichattorneysbrieflyargueeachpartyscase.Athirdpartyindicateshow acourtwouldlikelydecidetheissue. SummaryJuryTrial Likeaminitrial,butajuryrendersanonbindingverdict.Negotiationsfollow.Ifnosettlementis reached,eithersidecanseekafulltrial.

2.

3.

VII.

ONLINEDISPUTERESOLUTION
ManyWebsitesofferonlinedisputeresolution(ODR)servicestohelpresolvesmalltomediumsizedbusi nessliabilityclaims.

13

UNIT ONE: THE LEGAL ENVIRONMENT OF BUSINESS

A. WHATLAWAPPLIESINANODRPROCEEDING ? MostODRservicesdonotapplythelawofaspecificjurisdiction.Resultsarebasedongeneral,common legalprinciples. B. NEGOTIATION ANDMEDIATION SERVICES 1. OnlineNegotiation Asettlementmaybenegotiatedthroughblindbidding:onepartysubmitsanoffertobeshownto theotherpartyifitfallswithinapreviouslyagreedrange.Thereisalimitedtimetorespond. MediationProvidersSquareTrade SquareTraderesolves,aspartofafreepilotprogram,disputesinvolving$100ormorebetweeneBay customers.SquareTradealsoresolvesotherdisputesrelatedtoonlinetransactions,usingsoftwareto walkparticipantsthroughastepbystepresolutionprocess.

2.

C. ARBITRATION PROGRAMS 1. InternetCorporationforAssignedNamesandNumbers(ICANN) ThefederalgovernmentsetupICANNasanonprofitcorporationtooverseethedistributionofdo mainnames.ICANNhasissuedrulesandauthorizedorganizationstoresolverelateddisputes. ResolutionForum,Inc.(RFI) RFI,anonprofitentityassociatedwiththeCenterforLegalResponsibilityatSouthTexasCollegeof Law,offersarbitrationinanonlineconferenceroomviaastandardbrowser,usingapassword. VirtualMagistrateProject(VMAG) VMAGresolvesdisputesinvolvingusersofonlinesystems;victimsofwrongfulmessages,postings andfiles;andsystemoperatorssubjecttocomplaintsorsimilardemands.Onlinerelatedcontract, intellectualproperty,property,andtortdisputes.Thegoalisresolutionwithinseventytwohours. Appealofaresultmaybemadetoacourt.

2.

3.

TRUEFALSEQUESTIONS
(AnswersattheBackoftheBook) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Underalongarmstatute,astatecourtcancompelsomeoneoutsidethestatetoappearinthecourt. DoingsubstantialbusinessinajurisdictionovertheInternetcanbeenoughtosupportacourtsjurisdic tionoveranonresidentdefendant. TheUnitedStatesSupremeCourtisthefinalauthorityforanycasedecidedbyastatecourt. Suitsinvolvingfederalquestionsoriginateinfederaldistrictcourts. Ananswermayadmitordenythestatementsorallegationsinacomplaint. Beforeatrial,iftherearenoissuesoffact,andonlyquestionsoflaw,acourtmaygrantasummary judgment. Onlyalosingpartymayappealtoahighercourt. Mostlawsuitsgototrial.

CHAPTER 2: TRADITIONAL AND ONLINE DISPUTE RESOLUTION

14

9. 10.

Inmediation,amediatormakesadecisiononthematterindispute. Apartytoanarbitrationagreementmayneverbecompelledtoarbitrateadispute.

FILLINQUESTIONS
(AnswersattheBackoftheBook) Amotion__________________________(todismiss/forsummaryjudgment)allegesthatevenifthefactsina complaintaretrue,theirlegalconsequencesaresuchthatthereisnoreasontogoonwiththesuitandnoneedfor the defendant to file an answer. A motion _____________________________ (to dismiss/for judgment on the pleadings)isfiledafterthecomplaint,answer,andanycounterclaimandreplyhavebeenfiled,whennofactsare disputedandonlyquestionsoflawareatissue.Amotionfor ________________________ (summaryjudgment/a newtrial)isproperifthereisnodisagreementonthefactsandtheonlyquestioniswhichlawsapplytothefacts.

MULTIPLECHOICEQUESTIONS
(AnswersattheBackoftheBook) 1. Bob,wholivesinTexas,advertiseshisbusinessontheWeb.Bobspagereceiveshundredsofhitsby residentsofOhio.IfaresidentofOhiofilesasuitagainstBobinanOhiostatecourt,thecourtcancom pelBobtoappear,undertheslidingscaletest,if BobconductedsubstantialbusinesswithOhioresidentsathisWebsite. therewasanyinteractivitywithanyOhioresidentatBobsWebsite. BobsWebsitewasonlyapassivead. anyoftheabove. InAlphaCompanyssuitagainstBetaCorporation,beforethetrialAlphacanobtainfromBetaaccessto allrelateddocumentsinBetasfiles. everythinginBetasfiles. nothinginBetasfiles. onlymaterialinBetasfilesthatBetaiswillingtomakeavailable. GeneralBusiness,Inc.(GBI),hasitsofficesinVirginia,butownspropertyinMaryland,whereAnnfiles asuitagainstGBIconcerningthatproperty.Inthissuit,Marylandhas diversityjurisdiction. inpersonamjurisdiction. inremjurisdiction. nojurisdiction. NationalServiceCorporationwasincorporatedinDelaware,hasitsmainofficeinCalifornia,anddoes businessinNewYork.Nationalissubjecttothejurisdictionof Delaware,California,orNewYork. DelawareorCalifornia,butnotNewYork. DelawareorNewYork,butnotCalifornia. CaliforniaorNewYork,butnotDelaware.

a. b. c. d. 2. a. b. c. d. 3. a. b. c. d. 4. a. b. c. d.

15

UNIT ONE: THE LEGAL ENVIRONMENT OF BUSINESS

5. a. b. c. d.

AceManufacturing,Inc.,losesitssuitagainstBestProducts,Inc.,andfilesanappeal.Theappellatecourt ismostlikelytoreviewthetrialcourts applicationofthelaw. considerationofthecredibilityoftheevidence. findingsoffact. interpretationoftheconductofthewitnesses. TheUnitedStatesSupremeCourtisrequiredtohearJohnssuitagainstKayif itcomesfromafederalcourt. itisanappeal. Johnlostinalowercourt. noneoftheabove. GrantservesacomplaintonLee,whofilesamotiontodismiss.Leewillalsoneedtofileananswerto thecomplaintif themotiontodismissisgranted. themotiontodismissisdenied. Grantfilesamotionforjudgmentonthepleadings. noneoftheabove. InCarolssuitagainstDon,beforegoingtotrial,thepartiesmeet,withtheirattorneys,totrytoresolve thedisputewithoutathirdparty.Thisis arbitration. litigation. mediation. negotiation. InSarassuitagainstTim,theirattorneyspresentthecasetoajudgeandjury.Thejuryrendersanadvi soryverdict.Thejudgethenmeetswiththepartiestoencourageasettlement.Thisis aminitrial. asummaryjurytrial. earlyneutralcaseevaluation. mediation. SmallBusinessCompanysubmitsaclaimagainstMediumMarketSupplier,Inc.,toanonlinedispute resolutionforum.Anappealofthisdisputemaybemadetoacourtby Smallonly. Mediumonly. SmallorMedium. noneoftheabove.

6. a. b. c. d.

7. a. b. c. d.

8. a. b. c. d.

9. a. b. c. d.

10. a. b. c. d.

SHORTESSAYQUESTIONS
1. Whatisjurisdiction?Howdoesjurisdictionoverapersonorpropertydifferfromsubjectmatterjurisdiction? Whatdoesalongarmstatutedo?

CHAPTER 2: TRADITIONAL AND ONLINE DISPUTE RESOLUTION

16

2.

Whataretheadvantagesanddisadvantagesofalternativedisputeresolution?

ISSUESPOTTERS
(AnswersattheBackoftheBook) Jan contracted with Dean to deliver a quantity of computers to Jans Computer Store. They disagree over the amount,thedeliverydate,theprice,andthequality. 1. Theirstaterequiresthattheirdisputebesubmittedtomediationornonbindingarbitration.Ifthedisputeisnot resolved,orifeitherpartydisagreeswiththedecisionofthemediatororarbitrator,willacourthearthecase? 2. Atthetrial,afterJancallsherwitnesses,offersherevidence,andotherwisepresentshersideofthecase,Dean hasatleasttwochoicesbetweencoursesofactions.Deancancallhisfirstwitness.WhatelsemightDeando? 3. Afterthetrial,thejudgeissuesajudgmentthatincludesagrantofreliefforJan,butthereliefisnotasmuchas Janwanted. NeitherJannorDeanaresatisfiedwiththisresult. Caneitherpartyorbothappealtoahigher court?

Chapter 3
Chapter 3 Traditional and Online Dispute Resolution
Your Full Name:

Quiz

Your Email Address: (required)

The Email address of an instructor to mail your quiz results to:

1. The doctrine of judicial review allows:

17

UNIT ONE: THE LEGAL ENVIRONMENT OF BUSINESS

a. the executive branch to revoke court decisions. b. the judiciary to decide whether laws or actions of the other branches of government are constitutional. c. the judiciary to write laws when Congress is unable or unwilling to do so. d. Congress to remove federal judges when their decisions do not follow public policy. 2. The Supreme Court case that established the principle of judicial review was: a. Gibbons v. Ogden. b. Wickard v. Filburn. c. Friends of the Earth, Inc. v. Crown Central Petroleum Corp. d. Marbury v. Madison. 3. Before a court may hear a case, it must have jurisdiction: a. over the person against whom the case is brought or the property at issue and the subject matter involved in the case. b. over the defendant only. c. over the defendant or the property at issue but not over the subject matter. d. over the subject matter involved in the lawsuit only. 4. Courts may have either general or ______________ jurisdiction. a. complimentary b. regulatory c. perfunctory d. limited 5. A federal court can exercise jurisdiction if a case: a. involves a matter of state law only. b. involves a treaty, the U.S. Constitution, or federal law. c. involves an adoption. d. involves state law and the parties are citizens of the same state. 6. A standard being developed by the courts to determine when the exercise of jurisdiction over outof-state defendant is proper in cyberspace transactions is referred to as: a. the reasonable person standard. b. the standard of due care. c. the sliding-scale standard. d. the Standard Jurisdictional Commercial Code. 7. Venue concerns: a. the subject matter of a case. b. the means for selecting an attorney.

CHAPTER 2: TRADITIONAL AND ONLINE DISPUTE RESOLUTION

18

c. the procedure for appeal in a case. d. the most appropriate location for a trial. 8. If you have standing to sue, this means: a. you cannot legally seek relief through the court system. b. you have no legally protected or tangible interest in the case. c. you have a legally protected and tangible interest in the case. d. you have the physical ability to withstand a drawn-out trial. 9. The decisions of a state's highest court are ____________ on questions of state law. a. indeterminate b. appealable to the United States Supreme Court c. appealable only to the U.S. Court of Federal Claims d. final 10. The federal court system does not consist of which of the following: a. the United States Supreme Court. b. the U.S. district courts. c. the U.S. Chamber of Commerce. d. the U.S. courts of appeals. 11. In order to bring a case before the United States Supreme Court, the Supreme Court must issue: a. a writ of habeas corpus. b. a writ of nolo contendere. c. a writ of certiorari. d. nothing. Cases are automatically accepted by the Supreme Court. 12. The pleadings consist of: a. the deposition and the response. b. the complaint and the request for documents. c. the summary judgment and the answer. d. the complaint and the answer. 13. Which of the following motions is not a pretrial motion? a. A motion for summary judgment. b. A motion for a directed verdict. c. A motion to dismiss. d. A motion for judgment on the pleadings. 14. The process of obtaining information from an opposing party prior to going to trial is known as:

19

UNIT ONE: THE LEGAL ENVIRONMENT OF BUSINESS

a. excavation. b. discovery. c. internment. d. service of process. 15. During jury selection, if a lawyer asks that a prospective juror not be seated because the lawyer does not like the way the juror dresses, this may be done: a. through the use of an interrogatory. b. through the use of a preemptory challenge. c. through the use of a motion for directed verdict. d. d.through the use of alternative dispute resolution. 16. A motion for a directed verdict may be made: a. in the pretrial stage of litigation. b. at trial, at the end of the plaintiff's case. c. only in a jury trial. d. when a party wishes to appeal the trial court's decision. 17. After a trial, if a lawyer asks the judge to set aside the jury's verdict and rule in favor of her client instead, the lawyer would be asking for: a. a summary judgment. b. a motion for a directed verdict. c. a writ of certiorari. d. a judgment notwithstanding the verdict. 18. In general, an appellate court will overturn the decision of a lower court only if: a. the judge in the lower court was a member of a nontraditional political party. b. an error occurred in applying the law to the case. c. a minor error was made in interpreting the facts of the case. d. the plaintiff lost the case. 19. The electronic filing (e-filing) of documents relating to lawsuits is now permitted: a. in all courts, state and federal. b. in federal courts only. c. in state courts only. d. in a number of courts in both the federal and state court systems. 20. Joe and Krista have a dispute concerning a contract. They decide to try to settle the problem themselves, without the help of a third party. This type of ADR is known as: a. mediation. b. negotiation.

CHAPTER 2: TRADITIONAL AND ONLINE DISPUTE RESOLUTION

20

c. a summary jury trial. d. arbitration. 21. When a dispute involves parties who must or would like to continue an ongoing business relationship, they often choose which method of ADR to resolve their dispute? a. Arbitration. b. Administrative agency adjudication. c. Summary judgment. d. Mediation. 22. When a court determines that a dispute may be resolved through arbitration, the dispute is: a. submitted to a mediator. b. justiciable. c. not arbitrable. d. arbitrable. 23. Which of the following is not a type of ADR that involves "assisted negotiation?" a. Litigation. b. Mini-trials. c. Early neutral case evaluation. d. Summary jury trial (SJT). 24. A major, nonprofit provider of ADR services is: a. the AFL-CIO. b. the AAA. c. the UFL. d. the FDA. 25. Which of the following statements is not true with respect to online dispute resolution (ODR)? a. ODR is generally simpler and more practical than litigation. b. ODR is best used to settle disputes between large corporations in which the amount in dispute is significant, because to litigate such disputes in court could be very costly and time consuming. c. To date, disputes resolved in ODR forums have most commonly involved disagreements over the rights to domain names. d. Negotiation, mediation, and arbitration services are now all provided online

Name: lolo Email: lolaflorez20@yahoo.com Score: 4 Your Correct? Correct Description

21

UNIT ONE: THE LEGAL ENVIRONMENT OF BUSINESS

Answer 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. b c c b d b b c a d a a b d d d d d a a a a b yes no no no no no no yes no no no no yes no no no yes no no no no no no b d b d d a b b b d c c d d a d b c d

Answer the judiciary to decide whether laws or actions of the other branches of government are constitutional. Marbury v. Madison. over the person against whom the case is brought or the property at issue and the subject matter involved in the case. Limited involves a treaty, the U.S. Constitution, or federal law. the sliding-scale standard. the most appropriate location for a trial. you have a legally protected and tangible interest in the case. Final the U.S. Chamber of Commerce. a writ of certiorari. the complaint and the answer. A motion for a directed verdict. discovery. through the use of a preemptory challenge. at trial, at the end of the plaintiff's case. a judgment notwithstanding the verdict. an error occurred in applying the law to the case. in a number of courts in both the federal and state court systems. negotiation. Mediation. arbitrable. Litigation.

CHAPTER 2: TRADITIONAL AND ONLINE DISPUTE RESOLUTION

22

24. 25.

d d

no no

b b

the AAA. ODR is best used to settle disputes between large corporations in which the amount in dispute is significant, because to litigate such disputes in court could very costly and time consuming.

How did you do? If you missed a few, revisit the chapter in the book, the Study Guide, and the Web site for additional help or feedback on these topics. Please share with us your feedback on these quizzes at the Business Law Today: The Essentials 6e support site with the Talk to the Authors and Talk to Us features. Best of luck! --Miller and Jentz and SW Legal Studies in Business