Sie sind auf Seite 1von 9

AP European History - Semester 1 Midterm Final

Study online at


Adam Smith

LAISSEZ-FAIRE. Letting people do what they want in the economy w/o gov't interfering for the maximum wealth. Applied FOUR-STAGE THEORY. INNOVATIONS in FARM PRODUCTION in 18th century that led to SCIENTIFIC and MECHANIZED agriculture. British colony in N. America revolted against Britain. TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION and the INTOLERABLE ACTS really ticked them off. Signed DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE against Britain, fought a war, British surrendered at YORKTOWN, history was made, and we have the good ol' USA. :] Radical Protestant group that believed only ADULT BAPTISM conformed to Scripture. Established Old Testament theocracy in Mnster; allowed polygamy. Rebaptism becomes capital offense in HRE. 18th aristocratic efforts to resist growing power of European monarchs government bonds based on value of CONFISCATED CHURCH LANDS in the French Revolution Gangs of people who hunted Jacobins down in the Thermidorian Reaction and beat them up. Art that applies naturalistic, REALIST styles and contrast with light and dark. Religious AND secular themes. Involved with ABSOLUTISM. A PRISON near Paris torn down by Parisians following bread riots and the dismissal of Jacques Necker "On Crimes and Punishment". CRITICAL ANALYSIS to make punishments effective and just. "SOCIAL SCIENCE" French mathematician and physical scientist. Allied with JANSENISTS, Catholic opponents of the Jesuits. Religious WAGER This French noble family/dynasty was restored to the French throne under a constitutional monarchy after Napoleon 18th century prices of this major food staple steadily ROSE with POPULATION GROWTH. Bad for the POOR but benefited LANDOWNERS. Economic cause of FRENCH REVOLUTION.


Bread Riots

Artisans would RIOT if they thought the price of something, particularly BREAD became UNJUST. Would CONFISCATE the item and sell it for a "JUST PRICE" Enclosure movement, developed transportation (railways/canals), good resources (coal, iron, steel), industrial innovations, political stability, developed banking system and culture all led to Britain being the first to industrialize. Lists of grievances/COMPLAINTS brought by the Estates General to the king. Briefly replaced Necker as minister of FINANCE. Wanted new land tax, lower taxes, internal trade, grain/salt trade etc. Needed approval of Estates General CHIEF MINISTER for Louis XIII and XIV. Laid groundwork for Louis XIV's ABSOLUTISM. Controlled France for Louis XIV when Louis was a kid and provoked the FRONDE Politique CHIEF MINISTER for Louis XIII and XIV. Laid groundwork for Louis XIV's ABSOLUTISM. Developed INTENDANT SYSTEM Outlawed student groups in Germany Mother of 3 sucky French kings and CONTROLLED THEM ALL. Fought to maintain CATHOLIC DOMINANCE in France. Ordered the killings of St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Russian Enlightened Monarch. Limited administrative reforms, economic growth, territorial expansion (tons of it) First king in European history to be executed by his own subjects. Beginning of the commonwealth/republican governments. Louis XVIII's constitution with a hereditary monarchy and a bicameral legislature Defined rights of Russian NOBILITY, as long as they SERVED THE STATE voluntarily. Rights: no taxes, power over serfs, hereditary nobility. Urban UNDERCLASS revolt against government in FLORENCE in which poor had a 4-yr control of government. Center of ITALIAN RENAISSANCE. City of DE MEDICIs.


Agricultural Revolution American Revolution


British Industrialization



Cahiers de Dolances Calonne





Cardinal Mazarin


Aristocratic Resurgence Assignat



Cardinal Richelieu


Bands of Jesus Baroque Art

20. 21.

Carlsbad Decrees Catherine de Medici





Catherine the Great Charles I





Blaise Pascal Bourbons






Bread prices

Charter of the Nobility


Ciompi Revolt


City of Florence


Civic Humanism Civil Constitution of then Clergy Coalitions Columbus' Voyage Committee of Public Safety

Inspired by PETRARCH. In Florence. Used their classical education for the public good. Embittered relations between French church and state by making church a secular branch of the state A bunch of these secret unions were set up against Napoleon


Decembrist Revolt



Occurred as a result of Tsar Alexander I's death, and Nicholas I was named the new tsar...he forced army to take oath of allegiance and they refused. People attacked. FIRST REBELLION IN MODERN RUSSIAN HISTORY WHOSE INSTIGATORS HAD SPECIFIC POLITICAL GOALS Statement of broad POLITICAL PRINCIPLES published by NATIONAL ASSEMBLY. Men "born free and remain free in rights". Did NOT apply to women. Belief in a RATIONAL GOD who created the universe but then stepped back and let it function WITHOUT His interference EDITOR of a 17-volume ENCYCLOPEDIA. "Freedom and Economic Improvement" France/Austria ally. Britain/Prussia ally.

42. 31.

1492. Landed in SAN SALVADOR. Marked beginning of SPANISH EMPIRE in Americas This committee was established by the Convention to carry out the government's executive duties. Almost all the dictatorial power in France. The arrangement for major powers to consult with each other to maintain a balance of power and to resolve foreign policy issues Napoleon had a _____ with the Roman Catholic Church in which he pronounced Roman Catholicism the majority of French religion. Secretly placed church inferior to state Assembled in Vienna to get rid of Napoleon. Britain, Austria, Russia, Prussia.


Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Deism



Concert of Europe Concordat


Denis Diderot Diplomatic Revolution of 1756 Directory





Congress of Vienna (Quadruple Alliance) Conservatism

A five-person council established during the Thermidorian Reaction to curtail monarchial power. Dutch farming, advanced shipping, unified political leadership, profitable banking, seaborne empire, religious toleration all factors for success. Decline due to death of William III (stadtholder), decline of naval and fishing industry. Marriage before twenty. Wives older than husbands. Serfs cultivated land. 1598. By Henry IV. Assured RELIGIOUS TOLERATION for HUGUENOTS in France within their own territories. Catholics disapproved. "Long hot war" --> "Long cold war". British writer who attacked the Revolution as application of blind rationalism that ignored historic realities of political development. Elizabethan Era Tudor queen. Established MODERATE PROTESTANTISM in Church of England (39 Articles), avoiding Catholic/Protestant extremism. Naval wars with SPAIN led to defeating SPANISH ARMADA in 1588. Aristocrats who left France for counterrevolutionary reasons

Dutch Golden Age


Support for the established order of church and state. Implied legitimate monarchies, landed aristocracies, established churches and organic change only.



The French government established by Napoleon in which he dominated from 17991804


Eastern European Household Edict of Nantes


Continental System

Napoleon's attempt to cut off British trade and make them SUFFER. The British, with control of the seas and industrialization, didn't. Established by church to ADDRESS CATHOLIC DOGMA and make necessary reforms. Important reforms regarded INTERNAL CHURCH DISCIPLINE. Curtailed simony, rules established for bishops, required seminaries etc. CounterReformation. Frequently interrupted by war, plague, politics. People born in the NEW WORLD of SPANISH DESCENT
52. 50.


Council of Trent

Edmund Burke Elizabeth I






Emperor Charles V

Holy Roman Empire. SACKED ROME in 1527, ending Italian Renaissance. Called Martin Luther to the Diet of Worms, directed Diet of Augsburg, and proclaimed the Peace of Augsburg. Basically, he ended the Italian Renaissance and tried to stop the Reformation but eventually made peace with the Lutherans Replaced the OPEN FIELD method in ENGLAND. Lands FENCED to increase PRODUCTION and COMMERCIAL PROFITS. Charles I's CAVALIERS vs. Parliament's ROUNDHEADS. Ended with execution of Charles I, the CROMWELL Puritan republic. 1588. PHILIP II (Spain) vs. ELIZABETH I (England) on England's Protestantism. Defeat marked DECLINE of SPAIN'S GOLDEN AGE. 1671-1831. English NOBILITY got exclusive right to hunt what they wanted. CAPITAL OFFENSE for non-nobles, but black market/illegal poaching of game ensued. MONARCHIAL government in which absolutist power was STRENGTHENED at the cost of others. Mainly SPONSORED SALONS for philosophe discussion. Argued for higher women's EDUCATION since they were stuck in DOMESTIC gender spheres. Northern Renaissance HUMANIST. Criticized corruption in the church. Translated New Testament into Greek and Latin. Inspired religious reform (Martin Luther) Ancient institution in FRANCE. Called during eve of French Revolution to discuss new taxes. First Estate--clergy. 2nd--nobles. 3rd--everyone else Basic structure of PRODUCTION and CONSUMPTION in PRE-INDUSTRIAL Europe. Everybody worked, but the dad was the chief artisan. "FATHER OF HUMANISM" First person to study actual literary classics and NOT their secondary commentaries. Experimental EMPIRICAL METHOD. Using sensory EXPERIMENTS and OBSERVATIONS to construct scientific theories and philosophy. Backbone for modern scientific method.


Frederick the Great Frederick William the Great Elector French Civil War

PRUSSIA. Enlightened monarch. Promotion through merit, religious toleration, administrative and economic reforms. Formed the PRUSSIAN lands into a MODERN STATE. HIs son FREDERICK I made Prussian into a KINGDOM STRUGGLE FOR POWER between 3 noble families led to ST. BARTHOLOMEW'S DAY MASSACRE, initiating War of the Three Henrys (French civil war) in which HENRY IV of Navarre (Bourbon) emerged victorious 1789-99. POLITICAL revolution in which the lesser citizens of France sought to REFORM the gov't and establish a CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY. Ripple effect through Europe. Both coveted spots in N. AMERICA. Major rivalry in the WEST INDIES and INDIA. 1649-1652. French noble REVOLTS against MAZARIN. The humiliation forced Louis XIV to carefully control nobility. Mathematician, astronomer. Laws of MOTION, created telescope, Discovered the moon was rough, the EARTH MOVED, and PROVED COPERNICUS' HELIOCENTRIC THEORY. Findings conflicted with Catholic church until 1992. Peasants demanded the end of SERFDOM in the TWELVE ARTICLES and cited MARTIN LUTHER, which really pissed him off since Luther was SOCIALLY CONSERVATIVE Assumed leadership of Legislative Assembly, opposed counterrevolution 3 major economic components: mining, agriculture, and shipping. Also exchanged sugar, gold, silver, slaves, tobacco, disease, spices, religion etc. Movement that swept through French COUNTRYSIDE that royal TROOPS were coming...encouraged peasant DEFIANCE to nobility. Led to AUGUST 4, which Nat'l Assembly RENOUNCED their feudal rights, declaring selves equal to lower classes. Reformed British house of Commons and expanded electorate to include wider variety of propertied classes. Laid groundwork for further reforms in British constitution The _____ Revolution of 1821 from the Ottomans drew attention because liberals saw it as democracy rightfully being restored to its birthplace.



Enclosure Method



English Civil War English defeat of Spanish Armada English Game Laws


French Revolution



FrenchBritish Rivalry Fronde




Enlightened absolutism Enlightenment Women


Galileo Galilei





German Peasants' Revolt Girondins Goods in the Atlantic Exchange Great Fear



Estates General



Family Economy



Francesco Petrarch Francis Bacon



Great Reform Bill Greek



HabsburgValois Wars Habsburgs

France vs. Habsburgs. France tried keeping GERMANY DIVIDED. Led to slow unification of German states. Powerful ROYAL FAMILY in Austria, the Holy Roman Empire, and Spain. Fought in a bunch of wars and owned huge territory. Huge impact. This dude was the most important philosopher of history in Romanticism. His beliefs lie in the fact that history is a repeating cycle of the thesis and the antithesis clashing to form a synthesis French Bourbon king. A POLITIQUE. Converted from Calvinism to Catholicism to support his country. ("Paris is worth a Mass"). Proclaimed the EDICT OF NANTES. LAID FOUNDATION FOR FRANCE TO BECOME THE STRONGEST EUROPEAN POWER IN THE 17TH CENTURY This guy emphasized the necessity of having distinct culture. Revived German folk culture The exclusive "club" that the patriarch of a noble British family got in. FRENCH CALVINISTS. French Civil War: Conflict/oppression from Catholics. St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. A renewed Renaissance and SCHOLARLY INTEREST in Greek and Roman CLASSICS. Advocates the LIBERAL ARTS. Inspired secularism, individualism, and humanist religious reform Name given to the 3 months that Napoleon escaped his first exile, returned to France, and attempted to rule. Founder of the JESUITS,a Counter-Reformation movement that was PRO-CATHOLIC, and taught Catholics to fully obey higher church authorities. Emphasis on education. MECHANIZATION and INDUSTRIALIZATION of European ECONOMY beginning with BRITAIN in late 1700s. Were DISPLACED out of domestic tasks by MECHANIZATION. Turned to DOMESTIC COTTAGE INDUSTRIES or were DOMESTIC SERVANTS. DISTINCT GENDER SPHERES. Passed by British PARLIAMENT for AMERICAN colonies. Closed BOSTON port, allowed QUARTERING of troops etc. Valuable resources for British industrialization English scientist who discovered the LAWS OF GRAVITATION AND ATTRACTION


Islam in Enlightenment Thought Ivan the Terrible

Christians HOSTILE to Islam and viewed it as rivaling Christianity Aggressive Russian ruler who had a very violent "TIME OF TROUBLES". His death marked the beginning of the ROMANOV DYNASTY. Radical Republican party in French Revolution that displaced Girondins in Legislative Assembly Louis XVI's minister of FINANCE who suggested the situation wasn't so bad if nobles didn't hoard money. Fired, rehired, fired again the second marking beginning of revolution Teachings of St. Augustine. Success with Paris' noble families until suppressed it. Louis XIV's FINANCE MINISTER who changed French economy by establishing MERCANTILISM and the FRENCH EAST INDIA COMPANY for international trade. Jews faced much OPPRESSION from Europeans in Russia/Habsburgs etc. Forced to live in separate GHETTOS. Based on RELIGIOUS PREJUDICE. A few of them, "COURT JEWS", worked with royal finance. Invented the PRINTING PRESS and MOVABLE TYPE, one of human history's biggest inventions, leading to the increase in EDUCATION and spread of IDEAS. First printed BIBLE. Used Tycho Brahe's data for 3 laws of planetary motion; ELLIPTICAL ORBITS Genevan Reformation. Theocracy established in Geneva--a haven for Protestant exiles. Calvinist beliefs--PREDESTINATION, transubstantiation is symbolic Scientific Revolution thinker. Criticized absolutism and advocated rights of LIFE, LIBERTY, and PROPERTY. Viewed humans as creatures of REASON and GOODWILL. Theory of "TABULA RASA": the mind at birth is a blank slate to be influenced by education and environment Enlightened monarch. Austria. Centralized Authority, ecclesiastical policies, economic and agrarian reform German/Prussian noble landlords








Henry IV (of Navarre)


Jacques Necker


Jansenism Jean Baptiste Colbert


Herder House of Lords Huguenots





Jewish Ghettos





Hundred Days Ignatius Loyola

Johannes Gutenberg



Johannes Kepler John Calvin



Industrial Revolution Industrial Women



John Locke


Intolerable Acts Iron, Coal, Steel Isaac Newton



Joseph II






Immanuel ____ believed all humans possessed reasoning called categorical imperative. Created by National Assembly to face challenges of Civil Constitution of the Clergy, king's flight to Varennes, and Declaration of Pillnitz French Revolution's conscription of all males into the army; economy for war production Support for representative government dominated by propertied classes and a laissez-faire economy Wars of ________ fought by Napoleon's conquered countries to LIBERATE themselves from his power. French ABSOLUTIST king. Believed in DIVINE RIGHT of kings. In his 75-yr reign, France became a huge EUROPEAN POWER with HIGH CULTURE and POPULATION. Lived at VERSAILLES. Ruled HABSBURG Empire under PRAGMATIC SANCTION. Said to have PRESERVED the Habsburg state. Allowed Magyar nobility autonomy. War of AUSTRIA SUCCESSION. Monk at Univ. of Wittenberg. Posted 95 THESES against indulgences on Oct. 31, 1517. Diet of Worms. Lutheran beliefs--justification by FAITH ALONE, 2 sacraments (baptism and communion), transubstantiation (only Christ's SPIRIT in bread/wine), no papal authority, Bible is most important, clergy can marry. "Bloody Mary". Super-Catholic. Married PHILIP II of Spain. KILLED PROTESTANTS, or exiled them. Woman Enlightenment thinker who defended EQUALITY FOR WOMEN and EDUCATION FOR WOMEN. CLOSE GOVERNMENT CONTROL OF ECONOMY that seeks to MAXIMIZE EXPORTS and accumulate as much precious metals (bullion) as possible for the state to defend its economic and political interests. Belief that RESOURCES ARE LIMITED; expansion through CONQUEST. Founded by John Wesley during Romantic movement. Emphasized emotion in Christianity and Christian perfection



Epitomized 19th century conservatism. Fought hard to keep Austria as conservative as possible. First of the Romanov dynasty. Brought STABILITY and BUREAUCRATIC CENTRALIZATION to Russia. "Spirit of the Laws" Believed BRITISH had the best government and the best political system depended on various FACTORS about the country. (Size, culture etc). Believed in DIVISION OF POWER in gov't...judicial/executive/legislative. The name for the Jacobins who had seats high up in the assembly hall in the National Convention Army general who rose to become Emperor of France and conquered more the half of Europe. Established a Consulate, Concordat with the church, and Civil Code. Defeated 1815 at Waterloo. Established by Napoleon in which he reformed French law and imposed it in all his conquered lands. Forbid guilds, primogeniture, gave fathers control, etc. members of THIRD ESTATE broke away from Estates General, and with some of the other Estates members, formed this new legislative body French radical legislative body called to write a democratic constitution. Belief that one is part of a distinct nation that has its own language, culture and history. This nation is the primary source of a person's loyalty and sense of identity. Spread through the print culture Emphasized a RETURN TO THE PAST with MORAL THEMES and ideas from CLASSIC GREEK/ROMAN stuff. The practice of MOVING AWAY FROM HOME to start your own family. A Renaissance Italian political theorist. His major theory is that rulers are most successful when they inspire FEAR in the subjects. Wanted to urge rulers to use ruthless methods to keep out foreign conquerors of Italy. Polish astronomer who developed the HELIOCENTRIC THEORY, challenging the Ptolemaic and Aristotelian worldview. Theories condemned by Catholic church. Influenced scientific study of astronomy by Kepler, Galileo etc.


Legislative Assembly


Michael Romanov Montesquieu



Leve en Masse Liberalism








Louis XIV

Napoleon Bonaparte



Maria Theresa

Napoleonic Code


National Assembly


Martin Luther


National Convention nationalism



Mary I


Neoclassical Art Neolocalism Niccol Machiavelli


Mary Wollstonecraft Mercantilism





Nicolaus Copernicus




Nobles of the Robe Nobles of the Sword Northwestern European Household

FRENCH aristocracy whose nobility came from serving in the BUREAUCRACY or BUYING their title FRENCH aristocracy whose nobility came from MILITARY SERVICE Kids lived in households until teens, then moved out for job, then left home and got their own families, having kids ASAP. Servants lived with them and was very important. Nicholas I's program for Russian Orthodox church to provide basis for morality, education, and intellectual life. Brainwashed Russian children. The ancient SOCIAL ORDER embraced by most of Europe. Privileged NOBILITY at the top (all the land, no taxes), and everyone else INFERIOR (no land, all taxes) Led ARMY for Parliament during ENGLISH CIVIL WAR. Established himself as head of a PURITAN REPUBLIC . Added the word "woman" to DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN Allowed EUROPEAN CONQUEST in the Americas. Portugal/Great Britain/Spain/France. Spanish domination in the Americas. Atlantic Exchange of crops, slaves, diseases, valuables etc. MERCANTILISM/ The Ottomans and the Europeans fought often for territory. Their relationship was often tense, as the Ottomans were the LARGEST and most STABLE empire to rise after the fall of the Roman Empire Expansion to EUROPE. Went all the way into VIENNA. TREATY OF CARLOWITZ forced Ottomans to relinquish their European empire. These people marched to Versailles with weapons to protest bread prices and brought King Louis XVI back to Versailles French noble councils that regulated the legislation of the king Poland divided by RUSSIA, AUSTRIA, and PRUSSIA. It is better to wager everything on God's existence than to be a skeptic. Believing results in greater benefits than not believing. 1555. (Age of Religious Wars) The RULER of a land determines its RELIGION. Granted for LUTHERANS, but not for Calvinists until end of the 30 Years' War.


Peninsulares Peter the Great

People born in SPAIN but worked in the NEW WORLD Russian tsar changed Russia FOREVER (*dundun*) by taming streltsy and boyars, developing a NAVY, expanding Russia to the BALTIC (war w/Sweden) and founding ST. PETERSBURG. The king of Spain during their GOLDEN AGE. Pro-Catholic. Married to Mary I ENLIGHTENMENT WRITERS AND CRITICS who forged attitudes favoring CHANGE. Championed REFORM Enlightenment ECONOMIC reformers The Polish DIET (the legislative kind, not the one involving food). Led to EGREGIOUS (ahaha, one of the DVHS vocab words) government in Poland A ruler who puts the interests of his or her COUNTRY before his or her personal needs. Examples: Henry IV (France) or Elizabeth I (England) Africa and Indian Ocean





Philip II Philosophe



Official Nationality

150. 151.

Physiocrats Polish Sejm


Old Regime


Oliver Cromwell Olympe de Gouges Opening of the Atlantic






Portuguese Age of Exploration Pragmatic Sanction Preindustrial Urbanization Print Culture Protestant Reformation - Economic Causes Protestant Reformation - Political Causes Protestant Reformation - Religious Causes Protocol of Troppau Public Opinion


Allowed lands of HABSBURG EMPIRE to pass to Empress MARIA THERESA, who was not a MALE HEIR Growth of CAPITALS and PORTS, emerging new CITIES and growth of SMALL TOWNS. increased POPULATION The spread of printed materials influencing the general public Large gap between lower and upper classes/domination by lords. Invented PRINTING PRESS spread ideas. Rising nation-states, Black Death diminished population



Ottoman Empire and Europe




Ottoman Expansion



Parisian Women Parlements Partition of Poland Pascal's Wager Peace of Augsburg




SALE OF INDULGENCES, church CORRUPTION, growing anticlericalism, the Renaissance encouraged secularism/humanism Stable governments could intervene to restore order in countries experiencing revolution A force that arose from PRINT CULTURE. Influential and social.






Pugachev Rebellion Putting-out system

Largest PEASANT REVOLT in Russian history. Other similar revolts in Europe during this time. TEXTILE PRODUCTION. Agents brought raw materials to HOUSEHOLDS that spun/wove thread and cloth, and the agents sold those as finished products Charles X's (France) policies were very __________. During the July Revolution he staged a coup d'etat and restored primogeniture The time when Robespierre/Committee of Public Safety. Non-radicals instantly guillotined. Stringent policies repressing women, de-Christianization, Revolutionary Tribunals More SECULAR themes, a focus on naturalistic things, study of PERSPECTIVE, CHIAROSCURO. Developed FRESCOES and OIL paints. HUMANISTIC ideals and EMOTION. PATRONIZATION by Renaissance merchants. Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael, Albrecht Drer etc. Women had to make themselves pleasing to men. Marriages more on ROMANCE...more prostitution. POOR had NUCLEAR FAMILIES while RICH had EXTENDED FAMILIES. DOWRIES IMPORTANT. Privileged ones received more EDUCATION, with humanist influence. Some women gained ruling POWER during Renaissance. LEGAL STATUS DECLINED--WORSE than Middle Ages. French philosopher/mathematician. Advocated DEDUCTIVE REASONING. Invented analytical geometry. Divided all existence into MIND and BODY. Dominant radical Jacobin figure of the Committee of Public Safety who embraced a "Republic of Virtue". Depicted FRENCH NOBILITY, and was PASTEL AND PLAYFUL. Post-Baroque This Russian dynasty lasted until until 1917 with the Anastasia thing and all. Began with Michael ROMANOV (*coughcough*) Coleridge, Wordsworth, Schlegel, Goethe were ______ writers. _______ art was emotional and idealized nature and rural life.




Reaction in literature, philosophy, religion against the rationality and scientific narrowness of the Enlightenment. Was emotional, fantastical, and full of Sturm und Drang. Inspired German nationalism. DEMOCRATIC and EGALITARIAN (but evil w/women). Was rather emo and HATED THE WORLD. " THE SOCIAL CONTRACT" states that people should work towards helping all society not just themselves. Napoleon invaded this country but their clever citizens had a scorched earth policy, and finally he faced the winter. Began with 600000 men --> 160000 Sponsored by wealthy women, it was where the philosophes could gather and discuss opinions freely. Working class and lower/middles classes during the French Revolution who sought immediate relief from food shortages and rising prices through price controls Formed by newly Protestant/Lutheran princes to DEFEND THEMSELVES against HRE's Charles V's efforts to Catholicize Germany. [Augsburg Confesstion/Schmalkaldic Articles stated their beliefs] Changing views of the universe in the 16th and 17th centuries. SECULAR SCIENTIFIC THOUGHT in astronomy, philosophy etc. Bacon's and Descartes' INDUCTIVE and DEDUCTIVE reasoning. The theories of HOBBES and LOCKE. Also, PASCAL and his wager. Increased SECULARISM from interest in the sciences. Pascal and his famous WAGER. Only NOBLEWOMEN and women from the ARTISAN CLASS could dabble slightly in science. Changed 17th and 18th century by making it more SECULAR, advancing EXPLORATION, and advocating EDUCATION. Rousseau advocated this, that men and women be kept in different areas of work and life. Paris Commune killed people in prisoners for no apparent reasons other than the fact they believed they were counterrevolutionaries Russia was the formal protector of this Slav state during its revolution from Ottomans








Reign of Terror




Renaissance Art





Renaissance artists Renaissance Family Life

Schmalkaldic League



Scientific Revolution Scientific Revolution Philosophy Scientific Revolution Religion Scientific Revolution Women Scientific Revolution Worldview Separate Gender Spheres September Massacres Serbia


Renaissance Women



Ren Descartes







Rococo Art Romanov








Seven Years' War Simon Bolivar Slave Life

Frederick II gets aggressive and starts attacking countries left and right. Fought in NORTH AMERICA and INDIA Liberated Venezula. Firmly advocated republic and independence. Process called SEASONING upon arrival to new life, tried to group according to LANGUAGE and CULTURE, and forced to CONVERT to Christianity. Europeans HATED them. Rule of PHILIP II. Riches from NEW WORLD. Increased POPULATION.--> Triggered INFLATION. Efficient bureaucracy and MILITARY. Ended with Spanish ARMADA DEFEAT. National agency established by monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella to MONITOR CONVERTED Jews and Muslims. Those who refused to convert faced terrible consequences. This kept Spain under a UNIFIED RELIGION and kept Reformation movement out of Spain. Jewish Enlightenment writers 1) Initial European discovery and conquest 2) Mercantile empires and slavery 3) Empires in Asia/Africa etc. 4) Decolonization This invention allowed INDUSTRIALIZATION to grow on itself and EXPAND. Invented by JAMES WATT and used in PUMP WATER for MINES. The major CROP in the WEST INDIES. Became a STAPLE in European life. SLAVE LABOR used for maximum PRODUCTIVITY. Established by PETER THE GREAT to draw NOBILITY INTO STATE SERVICE. Equated social status with rank in bureaucracy/military instead of lineage. The French monarchy needed this desperately following the 7 Yrs' War An oath taken by the NATIONAL ASSEMBLY when they were forced to write a CONSTITUTION for France in a TENNIS COURT.


Thermidorian Reaction


Reaction against the radicalism of the French Revolution associated with the end of the Reign of Terror establishment of the Directory Last and most destructive RELIGIOUS WAR. Began with a failing Peace of Augsburg, religious division, and a fragmented German nation. 4 phases. Began as religious war but ended as a POLITICAL one. Ended 1648 with TREATY OF WESTPHALIA. France emerged dominant while Spain/Habsburgs lost power. Scientific Revolution thinker. Believed that human nature was BRUTAL and CORRUPT. Advocated ABSOLUTIST government as "necessary" to control subjects. Northern HUMANIST. Wrote UTOPIA, describing a PERFECT world which mixes civic humanism with religious ideals. Pamphlet COMMON SENSE motivated American colonists to separate from Britain. __________ L'Ouverture began the revolt that eventually led to Haitian independence. Haiti becomes the first successful assault on colonial gov't. Prussia formally GAINED SILESIA. Austrian throne saved. Prussia becomes one of "Europe's Great powers". Spain/Britain renew slave imports from Treaty of Utrecht. 1763. Prussia gets Silesia. Britain gains ALL of France's North American COLONIES. 1713. Ended WAR OF SPANISH SUCCESSION. Maintained BALANCE OF POWER in Europe. BRITAIN received huge gains. AUSTRIA got BELGIUM. 1648. ENDED 30 YEARS' WAR. Restated Peace of Augsburg and made CALVINISM acceptable religion. FRANCE emerged afterward as the dominant European power. Swiss and Dutch lands INDEPENDENT. Slaves in W. AFRICA --> New World COLONIES (W. Indies and Brazil, mostly) where SUGAR --> Europe where GOODS -> Back to Africa Leader of SWISS REFORMATION. Established THEOCRACY in ZURICH. Only the EUCHARIST was symbolic. LITERAL interpretation of Scripture.



Thirty Years' War


Spain's Golden Age.


Thomas Hobbes


Spanish Inquisition


Thomas More


Thomas Paine


Spinoza and Mendelssohn Stages of Mercantilism Steam Engine






Treaty of Aixla-Chapelle




Treaty of Paris Treaty of Utrecht


Table of Ranks



Taxes Tennis Court Oath


Treaty of Westphalia


212. 201.

Test Act

Civil/military officials of crown to swear OATH against TRANSUBSTANTIATION. CATHOLICS banned from serving as officials or in military

Triangular Trade

Ulrich Zwingli


Urban Social Classes Versailles. Voltaire Voting War of the Austrian Succession War of the Roses War of the Spanish Succession Waterloo William Shakespeare William the Pitt the Younger Witch Hunts

The upper class who controlled town's gov't and economy, the middle class (bourgeoisie) who tried to break into the upper class and worked aggressively/ambitiously for it, the ARTISANS (largest group) in their guilds The fancy-schmancy PALACE outside Paris built by LOUIS XIV. A shrine to the "SUN KING". Louis tried keeping NOBILITY there so he could spy on them and exert his INFLUENCE on them. Prominent PHILOSOPHE advocating religious toleration. The Estates General debated over this conflict. The 1st/2nd Estates wanted ______ by order but 3rd Estate wanted ______ by head Prussia's Frederick II seized SILESIA, violating PRAGMATIC SANCTION, and it grew into a huge WAR with Austria gaining ALLIES from all over the place. Led to SEVEN YEARS' WAR. 1455-85. Great Britain. House of LANCASTER vs. House of YORK. Won with the TUDORS. Spanish Habsburg king Charles II gave Spanish territories to Louis XIV's grandson, and the other countries feared European domination by Louis XIV. French poorly equipped in war against England. The location of Napoleon's final defeat in 1815 Elizabethan era PLAYWRIGHT. Works widely read and reflects many RENAISSANCE CONCEPTS. Suppressed reform in Britain that possibly resulted from the French Revolution


216. 217.




221. 222.



80% were single, widowed, 40+ WOMEN. Up to maybe 100,000 people sentenced to burn for witchcraft. Accused of doing perverted stuff with the devil. Bad reputation from CLERGY. Ended partly because SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION reduced SUPERSTITION.