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Injection Molding

2.810 Fall 2002 Professor Tim Gutowski

Short history of plastics


1862 1866 1891 1907 1913 1926 1933 1938 1939 1957 1967 first synthetic plastic Celluloid Rayon Bakelite Cellophane PVC Polyethylene Teflon Nylon stockings velcro The Graduate

Outline
Basic operation Cycle time and heat transfer Flow and solidification Part design Tooling New developments Environment

Readings
Tadmore and Gogos
Molding and Casting pp584 -610

Boothroyd Dewhurst
Design for Injection Molding pp 319 - 359

Kalpakjian see Ch 18 Injection molding case study;Washing machine augers; see on web page

30 ton, 1.5 oz (45 cm3) Engel

Injection Molding Machine for wheel fabrication

Process & machine schematics


*

Schematic of thermoplastic Injection molding machine


* Source: http://www.idsa-mp.org/proc/plastic/injection/injection_process.htm

Process Operation
Temperature: barrel zones, tool, die zone Pressures: injection max, hold Times: injection, hold, tool opening Shot size: screw travel
Processing window
Temp. Thermal degradation Flash Shortshot

Melt

Pressure

Typical pressure/temperature cycle


* *

Time(sec)

Time(sec)

Cooling time generally dominates cycle time

tcool
* Source: http://islnotes.cps.msu.edu/trp/inj/inj_time.html

(half thickness)2 =

= 10 3 cm3 sec for polymers

Calculate clamp force, & shot size


F=P X A = 420 tons
3.8 lbs = 2245 cm3 =75 oz

Actual ; 2 cavity 800 ton

Clamp force and machine cost

Heat transfer
qx qx + qx

Note; Tool > polymer

1-dimensional heat conduction equation :

Fouriers law

q ( c p T )xy = x xy t x T q x = k x T 2T T 2T cp = k 2 or = 2 t x t x
1st kind 2nd kind 3rd kind T ( x = x' ) = constant T k ( x = x' ) = constant x T k ( x = x' ) = h (T T ) x

Boundary Conditions:

The boundary condition of 1st kind applies to injection molding since the tool is often maintained at a constant temperature

Heat transfer
Tii t TW x

Let Lch = H/2 (half thickness) = L ; tch = L2/ ; Tch = Ti TW (initial temp. wall temp.)

-L

+L

T TW x t ; = + 1; FO = 2 Non-dimensionalize: = Ti TW L L

Dimensionless equation: Initial condition Boundary condition

2 = 2 FO
FO = 0

=1 =0 =0

=0 =2

Separation of variables ; matching B.C.; matching I.C.

( , FO ) = f ( FO ) g ( )

Temperature in a slab Centerline, = 0.1, Fo = t/L2 = 1

Bi-1 =k/hL

Reynolds Number
Reynolds Number:

V2 inertia VL L Re = = V 2 viscous L

For typical injection molding

= 1 g cm3 = 103 N m 4 s 2 ; LZ = 10 3 m thickness


Part length 10 V = ; Fill time 1s
For Die casting
1

= 103 N s m 2

Re = 10 4

3 103 10 1 10 3 Re = 300 3 10

* Source: http://www.idsa-mp.org/proc/plastic/injection/injection_process.htm

Viscous Shearing of Fluids


F h 1 v

F/A

F v A h
Generalization:

v = h
v/h

Newtonian Viscosity

= &

& : shear rate


Injection molding

= (& ) &

Typical shear rate for Polymer processes (sec)-1 Extrusion Calendering Injection molding Comp. Molding 102~103 10~102 103~104 1~10

Shear Thinning ~ 1 sec-1 for PE

&

Viscous Heating
Rate of Heating = Rate of Viscous Work Rate of Temperature rise

P F v F v v = = = Vol Vol A h h

cp

dT v = dt h

or

dT v = dt c p h

Rate of Conduction out

dT k d 2T k T ~ = dt c p dx 2 c p h 2
Viscous heating v 2 = Conduction kT
Brinkman number

For injection molding, order of magnitude ~ 0.1 to 10

Non-Isothermal Flow
v

Flow rate: 1/t ~V/Lx Heat transfer rate: 1/t ~a/(Lz/2)2

Flow rate V L2 1 VLz Lz z = ~ Heat xfer rate 4 Lx 4 Lx


For injection molding

Small value => Short shot

Flow rate 1 10cm / s 0.1cm 0.1cm ~ = 2.5 3 2 Heat xfer rate 4 10 cm / s 10cm
For Die casting of aluminum

Flow rate 1 10cm / s 0.1cm 0.1cm ~ 10 2 Heat xfer rate 4 0.3cm 2 / s 10cm
* Very small, therefore it requires thick runners

Injection mold

die cast mold

Fountain Flow
*

**

* Source: http://islnotes.cps.msu.edu/trp/inj/flw_froz.html ; ** Z. Tadmore and C. Gogos, Principles of Polymer Processing

Shrinkage distributions
sample

Transverse direction

V=3.5cm/s

V=8cm/s

* Source: G. Menges and W. Wubken, Influence of processing conditions on Molecular Orientation in Injection Molds

Gate Location and Warping


Sprue 2.0 60 1.96 60.32

Shrinkage Direction of flow 0.020 in/in Perpendicular to flow 0.012

2.0

1.976

Before shrinkage

After shrinkage

Air entrapment Gate

Center gate: radial flow severe distortion

Edge gate: warp free, air entrapment

Diagonal gate: radial flow twisting

End gates: linear flow minimum warping

Effects of mold temperature and pressure on shrinkage


0.030 0.025 0.030 0.025 0.020

LDPE

PP Acetal Shrinkage Nylon 6/6

LDPE Acetal PP with flow PP across flow

Shrinkage

0.020

0.015

0.015 0.010 0.005

Nylon 6/6

0.010 0.005

PMMA
0.000 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 0.000 6000

PMMA
10000 8000 12000 14000 16000 18000

Mold Temperature (F)

Pressure on injection plunger (psi)

Where would you gate this part?

Weld line, Sink mark


Gate

Weld line

Mold Filling

Solidified part

Sink mark
* Source: http://www.idsa-mp.org/proc/plastic/injection/injection_design_7.htm

Basic rules in designing ribs to minimize sink marks

Injection Molding
*

* Source: http://www.idsa-mp.org/proc/plastic/injection/injection_design_2.htm

Where is injection molding?

Ltotal = Lmold + Lshrinkage

Effects of mold temperature and pressure on shrinkage


0.030

LDPE Acetal PP with flow

0.025

0.020

Shrinkage

0.015

PP across flow

Nylon 6/6

0.010

0.005

PMMA
6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000

0.000

Pressure on injection plunger (psi)

Tooling Basics
Sprue Nozzle Cavity Plate Core Plate

Moulding Cavity

Core

Cavity

Basic mould consisting of cavity and core plate

Gate

Runner

Melt Delivery

Tooling for a plastic cup


Nozzle

Knob Runner Cavity

Part Stripper plate Core

Tooling for a plastic cup


Nozzle Nozzle Runner Cavity Runner Part Cavity Cavity Knob

Part

Part
Stripper plate

Tooling
* * *

* * **

* Source: http://www.idsa-mp.org/proc/plastic/injection/; ** http://www.hzs.co.jp/english/products/e_trainer/mold/basic/basic.htm (E-trainer by HZS Co.,Ltd.)

Part design rules


Simple shapes to reduce tooling cost
No undercuts, etc.

Draft angle to remove part


In some cases, small angles (1/4) will do Problem for gears

Even wall thickness Minimum wall thickness ~ 0.025 in Avoid sharp corners Hide weld lines
Holes may be molded 2/3 of the way through the wall only, with final drilling to eliminate weld lines

New developments- Gas assisted injection molding

New developments ; injection molding with cores


Injection Molded Housing shown in class

Cores used in Injection Molding

Cores and Part Molded in Clear Plastic

Environmental issues
Petroleum and refining Primary processing Out gassing & energy during processing End of life

Environmental loads by manufacturing sector


Carbon Dioxide and Toxic Materials per Value of Shipments
5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0
Primary Metal Plastics and Rubber Fabricated Metal Transportation Petroleum and Coal Chemicals Machinery Electronic

Weight/Dollars

CO2 (metric ton/$10,000)

Toxic Mat'ls (lb/$1000)

Manufacturing industries

EPA 2001, DOE 2001

The estimated environmental performance of various mfg processes (not including auxiliary requirements)

*Energy per wt. normalized by the melt energy

** total raw matl normalized by the part wt.

The printer goes in the hopper

And comes out.

The problem with plastics is

Or remanufacture.

Summary
Basic operation Cycle time and heat transfer Flow and solidification Part design Tooling New developments Environment