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# Injection Molding

## Short history of plastics

1862 1866 1891 1907 1913 1926 1933 1938 1939 1957 1967 first synthetic plastic Celluloid Rayon Bakelite Cellophane PVC Polyethylene Teflon Nylon stockings velcro The Graduate

Outline
Basic operation Cycle time and heat transfer Flow and solidification Part design Tooling New developments Environment

Molding and Casting pp584 -610

Boothroyd Dewhurst
Design for Injection Molding pp 319 - 359

Kalpakjian see Ch 18 Injection molding case study;Washing machine augers; see on web page

*

## Schematic of thermoplastic Injection molding machine

* Source: http://www.idsa-mp.org/proc/plastic/injection/injection_process.htm

Process Operation
Temperature: barrel zones, tool, die zone Pressures: injection max, hold Times: injection, hold, tool opening Shot size: screw travel
Processing window

Melt

Pressure

* *

Time(sec)

Time(sec)

## Cooling time generally dominates cycle time

tcool
* Source: http://islnotes.cps.msu.edu/trp/inj/inj_time.html

(half thickness)2 =

## Calculate clamp force, & shot size

F=P X A = 420 tons
3.8 lbs = 2245 cm3 =75 oz

Heat transfer
qx qx + qx

## 1-dimensional heat conduction equation :

Fouriers law

q ( c p T )xy = x xy t x T q x = k x T 2T T 2T cp = k 2 or = 2 t x t x
1st kind 2nd kind 3rd kind T ( x = x' ) = constant T k ( x = x' ) = constant x T k ( x = x' ) = h (T T ) x

Boundary Conditions:

The boundary condition of 1st kind applies to injection molding since the tool is often maintained at a constant temperature

Heat transfer
Tii t TW x

Let Lch = H/2 (half thickness) = L ; tch = L2/ ; Tch = Ti TW (initial temp. wall temp.)

-L

+L

T TW x t ; = + 1; FO = 2 Non-dimensionalize: = Ti TW L L

2 = 2 FO
FO = 0

=1 =0 =0

=0 =2

## Separation of variables ; matching B.C.; matching I.C.

( , FO ) = f ( FO ) g ( )

## Temperature in a slab Centerline, = 0.1, Fo = t/L2 = 1

Bi-1 =k/hL

Reynolds Number
Reynolds Number:

V2 inertia VL L Re = = V 2 viscous L

## = 1 g cm3 = 103 N m 4 s 2 ; LZ = 10 3 m thickness

Part length 10 V = ; Fill time 1s
For Die casting
1

= 103 N s m 2

Re = 10 4

3 103 10 1 10 3 Re = 300 3 10

* Source: http://www.idsa-mp.org/proc/plastic/injection/injection_process.htm

## Viscous Shearing of Fluids

F h 1 v

F/A

F v A h
Generalization:

v = h
v/h

Newtonian Viscosity

= &

## & : shear rate

Injection molding

= (& ) &

Typical shear rate for Polymer processes (sec)-1 Extrusion Calendering Injection molding Comp. Molding 102~103 10~102 103~104 1~10

## Shear Thinning ~ 1 sec-1 for PE

&

Viscous Heating
Rate of Heating = Rate of Viscous Work Rate of Temperature rise

P F v F v v = = = Vol Vol A h h

cp

dT v = dt h

or

dT v = dt c p h

## Rate of Conduction out

dT k d 2T k T ~ = dt c p dx 2 c p h 2
Viscous heating v 2 = Conduction kT
Brinkman number

## For injection molding, order of magnitude ~ 0.1 to 10

Non-Isothermal Flow
v

## Flow rate V L2 1 VLz Lz z = ~ Heat xfer rate 4 Lx 4 Lx

For injection molding

## Small value => Short shot

Flow rate 1 10cm / s 0.1cm 0.1cm ~ = 2.5 3 2 Heat xfer rate 4 10 cm / s 10cm
For Die casting of aluminum

Flow rate 1 10cm / s 0.1cm 0.1cm ~ 10 2 Heat xfer rate 4 0.3cm 2 / s 10cm
* Very small, therefore it requires thick runners

Injection mold

Fountain Flow
*

**

## * Source: http://islnotes.cps.msu.edu/trp/inj/flw_froz.html ; ** Z. Tadmore and C. Gogos, Principles of Polymer Processing

Shrinkage distributions
sample

Transverse direction

V=3.5cm/s

V=8cm/s

* Source: G. Menges and W. Wubken, Influence of processing conditions on Molecular Orientation in Injection Molds

## Gate Location and Warping

Sprue 2.0 60 1.96 60.32

2.0

1.976

Before shrinkage

After shrinkage

## Effects of mold temperature and pressure on shrinkage

0.030 0.025 0.030 0.025 0.020

LDPE

Shrinkage

0.020

0.015

## 0.015 0.010 0.005

Nylon 6/6

0.010 0.005

PMMA
0.000 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 0.000 6000

PMMA
10000 8000 12000 14000 16000 18000

## Weld line, Sink mark

Gate

Weld line

Mold Filling

Solidified part

Sink mark
* Source: http://www.idsa-mp.org/proc/plastic/injection/injection_design_7.htm

## Basic rules in designing ribs to minimize sink marks

Injection Molding
*

* Source: http://www.idsa-mp.org/proc/plastic/injection/injection_design_2.htm

0.030

## LDPE Acetal PP with flow

0.025

0.020

Shrinkage

0.015

PP across flow

Nylon 6/6

0.010

0.005

PMMA
6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000

0.000

## Pressure on injection plunger (psi)

Tooling Basics
Sprue Nozzle Cavity Plate Core Plate

Moulding Cavity

Core

Cavity

Gate

Runner

Melt Delivery

Nozzle

## Tooling for a plastic cup

Nozzle Nozzle Runner Cavity Runner Part Cavity Cavity Knob

Part

Part
Stripper plate

Tooling
* * *

* * **

## Part design rules

Simple shapes to reduce tooling cost
No undercuts, etc.

## Draft angle to remove part

In some cases, small angles (1/4) will do Problem for gears

Even wall thickness Minimum wall thickness ~ 0.025 in Avoid sharp corners Hide weld lines
Holes may be molded 2/3 of the way through the wall only, with final drilling to eliminate weld lines

## New developments ; injection molding with cores

Injection Molded Housing shown in class

## Cores and Part Molded in Clear Plastic

Environmental issues
Petroleum and refining Primary processing Out gassing & energy during processing End of life

## Environmental loads by manufacturing sector

Carbon Dioxide and Toxic Materials per Value of Shipments
5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0
Primary Metal Plastics and Rubber Fabricated Metal Transportation Petroleum and Coal Chemicals Machinery Electronic

Weight/Dollars

## Toxic Mat'ls (lb/\$1000)

Manufacturing industries

## EPA 2001, DOE 2001

The estimated environmental performance of various mfg processes (not including auxiliary requirements)

## The problem with plastics is

Or remanufacture.

Summary
Basic operation Cycle time and heat transfer Flow and solidification Part design Tooling New developments Environment