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RA II

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SPRING 2012

Article 1 APA Style Review


Text by Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University

APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within
the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of
the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text
citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please
consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition,
second printing.
Next you will find the format for the type of sources you will use on your Research
Manuscript: Books, Periodicals (Journals, Magazines or Newspapers), Electronic Sources
(Newspaper Article, Online Encyclopedias and Dictionaries, Nonperiodical Web
Document, Web Page, or Report, Electronic Books)

Books
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location:
Publisher.
Example:
Duncan, G. & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York,
NY: Russell Sage Foundation

Periodicals (Journals, Magazines or Newspapers)


Author, A. A., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number
(issue number), pages.
Example:
Article in a Magazine:
Henry, W. A., III. (1990). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.

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Article in a Newspaper:
Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in
APA style. Single pages take p., e.g., p. B2; multiple pages take pp., e.g., pp. B2, B4 or pp.
C1, C3-C4.
Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The
Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A.

Electronic Sources:
Newspaper Article
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved (date) from:
http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/
Example:
Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York
Times. Retrieved (date) from http://www.nytimes.com

Online Encyclopedias and Dictionaries


Often encyclopedias and dictionaries do not provide bylines (authors' names). When no
byline is present, move the entry name to the front of the citation. Provide publication
dates if present or specify (n.d.) if no date is present in the entry.
Example:
Feminism. (n.d.). In Encyclopedia Britannica online. Retrieved (date) from:
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/724633/feminism

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Nonperiodical Web Document, Web Page, or Report


List as much of the following information as possible you sometimes have to hunt around
to find the information; don't be lazy.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved (date)
From: http://Web address
Example:
Angeli, E., Wagner, J., & Brizee, A. (2010, May 5). General format. Retrieved (date) from:
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/

Electronic Books
Electronic books may include books found on personal websites, databases, or even in
audio form. Use the following format if the book you are using is only provided in a digital
format or is difficult to find in print
Example:
De Huff, E. W. (n.d.). Taytays tales: Traditional Pueblo Indian tales. Retrieved (date) from:
http://digital.library.upenn.edu/women/dehuff/taytay/taytay.html

Motion Picture
Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of
motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio or distributor.
Example:
Spielberg, S. (Producer), & Abrahams, J. (Director). (2010). Super 8 [ Motion picture].
United States: Paramount Pictures.

Purdue University (2011) Purdue Online Writing Lab. Retrieved 29 Nov 2011 from:
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/

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Activity 1: APA REVIEW


I. Instructions: Choose from the table shown below the proper answer according to APA Style
Format.
1. Brand, M. & Harnish, R. M. (1986). The representation of knowledge and belief.

Tucson,

AZ: ___________________.
2. Loftus, E. F. (1993). The reality of repressed memories. American Psychologist, ______________,
518-537.
3. Steinberg, J. A. (1991, March). Putting your business on the map. __________, 7, 158-163.
4. Delaney, K. J. & Guth, R. A. (2008, May 5). Microsoft ends pursuit of Yahoo, reassesses its online
options. _____________, pp. 1, 2.
5. Central Statistics Office of the United States. (2008). _______________ (Data file). Retrieved 13 Nov
2010 from: http://aspe.hhs.gov/poverty
6. ______________ & _____________ (2001). Roma [Motion picture]. United States: MGM Home
Entertainment.
7.____________________. (2008) In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved May 6, 2008, from:
http://search.eb.com

University of Arizona
Press
Pasteurization

48
National Poverty
Index

MacUser Magazine
Vasile, T. (Producer),

USA Today
Newspaper
Fellini, F. (Director).

Instructions: Answer True or False the following statements (T OR F)


1. Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the name of the article of each work____.
2. Authors' names are inverted (last name first) ____.
3. When referring to any work, such as a book, article, or Web page, capitalize ALL the firsts
letters of each word of the title. ____.
4. All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half
inch from the left margin____.

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Article 2
A text by Indiana University Writing Tutorial Services Department
How to Recognize Unacceptable and Acceptable Paraphrases
Heres the ORIGINAL text, from page 1 of Lizzie Borden: A Case Book of Family and Crime in the
1890s by Joyce Williams et al.:
The rise of industry, the growth of cities, and the expansion of the population were the three great
developments of late nineteenth century American history. As new, larger, steam-powered
factories became a feature of the American landscape in the East, they transformed farm hands
into industrial laborers, and provided jobs for a rising tide of immigrants. With industry came
urbanization the growth of large cities (like Fall River, Massachusetts, where the Bordens lived)
which became the centers of production as well as of commerce and trade.
Heres an UNACCEPTABLE paraphrase that is plagiarism:
The increase of industry, the growth of cities, and the explosion of the population were three large
factors of nineteenth century America. As steam-driven companies became more visible in the
eastern part of the country, they changed farm hands into factory workers and provided jobs for
the large wave of immigrants. With industry came the growth of large cities like Fall River where
the Bordens lived which turned into centers of commerce and trade as well as production.
What makes this passage plagiarism?
The preceding passage is considered plagiarism for two reasons:
the writer has only changed around a few words and phrases, or changed the order of the
originals sentences.
the writer has failed to cite a source for any of the ideas or facts.
If you do either or both of these things, you are plagiarizing.
NOTE: This paragraph is also problematic because it changes the sense of several sentences (for
example, "steam-driven companies" in sentence two misses the originals emphasis on factories).
Heres an ACCEPTABLE paraphrase:
Fall River, where the Borden family lived, was typical of northeastern industrial cities of the
nineteenth century. Steam-powered production had shifted labor from agriculture to
manufacturing, and as immigrants arrived in the US, they found work in these new factories. As a
result, populations grew, and large urban areas arose. Fall River was one of these manufacturing
and commercial centers (Williams 1).

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Why is this passage acceptable?


This is acceptable paraphrasing because the writer:
Accurately relays the information in the original uses its own words.
Lets her reader know the source of her information.
Heres an example of quotation and paraphrase used together, which is also ACCEPTABLE:
Fall River, where the Borden family lived, was typical of northeastern industrial cities of the
nineteenth century. As steam-powered production shifted labor from agriculture to
manufacturing, the demand for workers "transformed farm hands into industrial laborers," and
created jobs for immigrants. In turn, growing populations increased the size of urban areas. Fall
River was one of these hubs "which became the centers of production as well as of commerce and
trade.

Why is this passage acceptable?


This is acceptable paraphrasing because the writer:
Records the information in the original passage accurately.
Gives credit for the ideas in this passage.
Indicated which part is taken directly from her source by putting the passage in quotation
marks and citing the page number.

Indiana University (2004) Plagiarism: What It is and How to Recognize and Avoid It. Retrieved
24 November 2011 from: http://www.indiana.edu/~wts/pamphlets/plagiarism.html

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Activity 2:
Instructions: Read the next passages paraphrase and quote them in APA format. It should
contain the author's main ideas and it should be written in your own words.

Passage 1:
In 1610, Galileo Galilei published a small book describing astronomical observations that he had
made of the skies above Padua. His homemade telescopes had less magnifying and resolving
power than most beginners telescopes sold today, yet with them he made astonishing
discoveries: that the moon has mountains and other topographical features; that Jupiter is orbited
by satellites, which he called planets; and that the Milky Way is made up of individual stars.
Owen, D. (2007) The Dark Side: Making War on Light Pollution, The New Yorker. 28 (1) 56-58.
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Passage 2:
In American society, Introverts are outnumbered about three to one. As a result, they must
develop extra coping skills early in life because there will be an inordinate amount of pressure on
them to shape up, to act like the rest of the world. The Introvert is pressured daily, almost from
the moment of awakening, to respond and conform to the outer world. Classroom teachers
unwittingly pressure introverted students by announcing that One-third of your grade will be
based on classroom participation.
Kroeger, O & Thuesen, J. (1989) Type Talk: The 16 Personality Types that Determine How We Live,
Love and Work. New York: Dell Publishing
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Passage 3:

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Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse
quotations in the final research paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should
appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact
transcribing of source materials while taking notes.
Lester, J. (1976) Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. London: Longman Edition.
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Passage 4:
Matt Groening, the creator of "The Simpsons", did not have much interest in academics; he was
truly driven towards the arts. Although he always did well in school, he found himself extremely
bored. In order to keep himself amused, he would draw during class. In fact, he got so good at
drawing that he could sketch without looking, so that the teacher would think he was paying
attention. Matt found his true inspiration in the work of other artists whose drawings combined
art with storytelling. Matts teachers and parents suggested that he go to college and find a solid
profession. He found only one teacher that truly inspired him and that was his first grade teacher
Elizabeth Hoover, whom he later named a character on "The Simpsons" after. Matt was surprised
to find out many years after leaving school that Mrs. Hoover had saved the paintings that Matt did
in class.
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Activity 3
Instructions: Read carefully the next text called: Bullying on the bus on the rise by
Angela Dice
At a glance, the jostle of kids at the back of the bus looks like any horseplay of active middle
schoolers. But as the recording of one day in late October continues, a Bremerton mother says to
look closely at the half moon of hair barely rising above one of the seats.That's her son, and as the
after-school ride progresses for the next 15 minutes, two older boys, nearly a foot taller, taunt,
then punch and kick him. Her son tried to get up once, but was blocked in, and at one point, he
looked to see if he could crawl beneath the seat in front of him. He couldn't. This boy's story, while
not the norm for every kid, isn't rare either on the nations' estimated 480,000 buses.
In a survey of school transportation directors and bus drivers, nearly 72 percent of them say
bullying from repeated name-calling to physical assault is a serious problem on their buses,
according to the National Association for Pupil Transportation."Over the years (behavior) seems to
get worse and worse," said Ron Lee, who has had 30 years of experience with students on buses
and directs transportation for North Kitsap School District. "Why, I don't know. Or we're just
becoming more aware of it. It's kind of hard to say whether it's been going on for a really long time
or now it's on the radar."
In the past few years, bus-related violence has captured headlines, with stories of kids assaulting
other kids to parents arrested for boarding buses and confronting bullies themselves. Bullying,
which experts say can cause kids to be so afraid of school they miss days or cause them to become
bullies themselves, has been called a national epidemic.
A third of Kitsap secondary students say they've been bullied at least once, mirroring what
students across the state reported in a 2010 statewide Healthy Youth survey of sixth to 12th
graders. The same holds true for students nationwide, and though any parent, teacher or bus
driver could tell you this, surveys show kids in middle school or junior high have it the
worst."Everybody I'm talking to is so tired of this bullying," the Bremerton mother said. She lauded
Mountain View Middle School's quick response to catch the offenders, but said it wasn't enough.
She took her son to the hospital for the large bruises on his arms and side, called police, got
restraining orders against two boys, and has talked with the school district about finding new ways
to protect kids on buses.

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All schools districts in the state are required to have clear procedures to deal with bullying, and
many host anti-bullying assemblies and programs. Multiple schools in Kitsap adopted Rachel's
Challenge, a program founded by the family of Columbine High School shooting victim Rachel
Scott that encourages kids to spread acts of kindness. But bullying can be difficult to control,
particularly in places like buses where it's easy to hide behind seats and the adult in charge has to
focus on the road.
Though most bullying happens inside schools, according to a 2007 survey of students by the U.S.
Department of Justice, about 8 percent of it happens on buses, though among sixth graders, who
report being bullied the most, it happens about 15 percent of the time on buses.
Every driver has a different method of controlling students, said Marco DiCicco, transportation
supervisor for Bremerton School District. One assigns seats, others temporarily assign students to
the front when they misbehave. Disruptive behavior will mean a phone call to parents and a kid
may be written up. Fighting, bringing a weapon on the bus or other serious behavior will mean a
meeting with parents, principals and suspension from the bus if not school, DiCicco said. In most
school districts, consequences for that kind of misbehavior are the same whether a kid is on a bus
or in school. But most of the 2,000 kids who ride Bremerton's buses are good, DiCicco said.
During the 2010-2011 school year, Bremerton School kids were suspended or expelled 89 times,
representing about represent 43 percent of all suspensions or expulsions for bullying and
intimidating throughout the district."It's a tough decision to suspend somebody (from the bus) ...
because it affects the parents. Sometimes it gets to the point where they're just not going (to
school) and we don't want that either ... each situation has to be handled a little differently.".
Many districts have turned to technology. North Kitsap, Central Kitsap, South Kitsap and
Bremerton buses have cameras that record when the buses are running. The oldest buses in some
districts may not have cameras, but newer buses may have three cameras mounted in front, side
and rear. Lee said for future bus purchases, he's been looking at buses with four-camera systems.
Some bus companies offer the option of up to seven cameras. But kids can often forget the
cameras are there or, as the boy beat up on a Bremerton bus said, some kids don't even think
they're on. A Bremerton police officer watched the video of the bus assault, and based on what he
saw, referred the case to Kitsap County Prosecutor's Office. One boy was charged with fourthdegree assault he has a December hearing and the second was sent to a diversion program.

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During the hearing for the restraining order, one boy's grandfather said he wouldn't contest the
demand that his grandson stay 500 feet away from his victim and his home. The boy had already
been expelled from school. DiCicco said he's exploring options to control bullying, such as
coordinating adult volunteers to ride some routes, asking more experienced drivers to take routes
in tougher parts of town and making sure drivers have accurate lists of students assigned to buses.
Later in the year, he hopes to link students' school pictures with rider lists.
Dice, A. (2011) Bullying on the bus on the rise, according to surveys. Retrieved 25 Nov 2011
from: http://www.kitsapsun.com/news/2011/nov/19/bullying-on-the-bus-on-the-rise-accordingto/#ixzz1ejYsGoBg

After reading the text, make a summary paraphrasing and using at least 2 quotes
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Activity 4
Instructions: Define your Problem Statement & Delimit the topic you are going to
research this semester.

General Topic:____________________________________________________________________

Delimited Topic:
What? __________________________________________________________________________
Where?__________________________________________________________________________
When?__________________________________________________________________________
Who?___________________________________________________________________________

Justification: (Use at least 2 quotes to backup your statement)


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Final Research Question


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Activity 5- Objectives & Hypothesis


Instructions: Based with the information you have from last semester or if you decided to
continue with a new topic write down the Objectives of your Research, as well describe your
Work and Alternative Hypothesis with its variables.

1. General Objective:
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2. Specific Objectives:
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3. Work Hypothesis:
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Independent Variable: ________________________


Dependent Variable: __________________________

4. Alternative Hypothesis:
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Independent Variable: ________________________


Dependent Variable: __________________________

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Theoretical Framework Review


How to develop the theoretical framework
To develop the theoretical framework, here is a useful guide for you:
1. Examine your topic and research problem.
Example: Students comprehension of recycling programs
2. Brainstorm on what you consider to be the key variables in your research. Answer the
question: What factors (independent variables) contribute to the presumed effect
(dependent variable)?
3. Read and review related literature to find answers to your research question.
4. Design your tentative hypothesis and group variables into independent and dependent
variables
5. Based on those variables, Review the social science theories (books, magazines,
journals, newspapers, internet documents, etc) and choose the theory that can best
explain the relationships between the key variables in your study.
6. Discuss the assumptions or propositions of this theory and point out their relevance to
your research.
Some tips
Read the theories carefully and make sure they make sense to your proposed research.
Consult your RA II teacher.
Remember that the theoretical framework is not a copy and paste operation where you
Google the theory and just like that you copy and paste what wikipedia gives you out. A
theory is selected on the basis of how best it can explain the relationships among the
variables.

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Activity 6-Theoretical Framework


Instructions: Write down the key concepts (variables) described in your Theoretical Framework
in order to try to answer your research question.

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Once you have your key concepts design a conceptual framework in order to understand the
relationship between them in your research paper.

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