Sie sind auf Seite 1von 8

People James Garfield (flip) The Republican 20th President of the United States, an ardent anti-slavery advocate.

Amongst the first to appoint African-Americans to federal positions, he ended corruption in the Post Office Department, strengthened the U.S. navy, and made a strong resurgence of presidential authority over the Senate. Chester A. Arthur (flip) The 21st President of the United States (following Garfield's assassination), with his presidency characterized around his advocacy for the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act. Grover Cleveland (flip) Both the 22nd and 24th president of the United States. Had attributes of a classical liberal and was the leader of the probusiness Bourbon Democrats. Through this, he opposed high tariffs, Free Silver, inflation, imperialism and subsidies. Benjamin Harrison (flip) The 23rd President of the United States. As a Republican, he served the Union as a Brigadier General during the the American Civil War. He is most remembered for enacting the McKinley Tariff and the Sherman Antitrust Act. William McKinley (flip) The 25th President of the United States, best known for winning fiercely fought elections and supporting the gold standard and high tariffs. He also led the nation to victory within the SpanishAmerican War. Andrew Carnegie (flip) An industrialist who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century. Merging major companies into the U.S Steel Corporation, he was firm believer in Social Darwinism and laissez-faire economic policy. William Jennings Bryan (flip) An American politician. He was a dominant force in the liberal wing of the Democratic Party. Nicknamed the "Great Commoner", he was supporter of popular democracy and prohibition, but an enemy of the Gold Standard as well as banks and railroads. J.P Morgan (flip) An American financier who dominated corporate finance and industry during his time. He was the merger of Edison General Electric and Thomson-Houston Electric Company to form General Electric. He also bought out Carnegie's steel company and merged it with others to form United States Steel Corporation. Cornelius Vanderbilt (flip) An American entrepreneur who built his wealth in shipping and railroads. He was also the patriarch of the Vanderbilt family and one of the richest Americans in history. Jay Gould (flip) A leading American railroad developer and speculator. He has long been vilified as an archetypal robber baron. His successes made him the ninth richest American in history.

Alexander Graham Bell (flip) An eminent scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone. He also did work in telecommunications, hydrofoils and aeronautics. Alexander Graham Bell was one of founding members of the National Geographic Society. Thomas Edison (flip) An American inventor and businessman, he invented many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. He holds 1,093 patents in his name. John D. Rockefeller (flip) An American oil industrialist, investor, and philanthropist. He was the founder of the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the oil industry and was the first great U.S. business trust. He also revolutionized the petroleum industry. Terence Powderly (flip) A highly visible national spokesman for the working man as head of the Knights of Labor. Yet, the disorganization of the Knights didn't allow him to have much actual power. Samuel Gompers (flip) An English-born American cigar maker who became a labor union leader and a key figure in American labor history. He founded and reigned as president over the American Federation of Labor and promoted peace within the multiple craft unions within the organization. Charles Darwin (flip) An English naturalist who forwarded the idea of natural selection as well as evolution, within his book 'On the Origin of Species', which explained the diversity of life. His idea of natural selection and 'survival of the fittest' took a political and economical impact on America. Henry W. Grady (flip) A journalist and orator who helped put back together the states of the Confederacy into the Union once more, following the Civil War. Mark Twain (flip) An American author and humorist, also known for his contribution to literature during the boom of western mining. He is most noted for his novels, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Sitting Bull (flip) a Sioux holy man who led his people as a tribal chief during years of resistance to United States government policies. Notably was killed by Indian agency police on during an attempt to arrest him and prevent him from supporting the Ghost Dance movement. George A. Custer (flip) United States Army officer, cavalry commander in America Civil War and Indian Wars. Fought in the First Battle of

Bull Run. He was killed at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in 1876, which came to be known as, Custers Last Stand. Chief Joseph (flip) Leader of Wal-lam-wat-kain band of Nez Perce during General Oliver O. Howards attempt to remove his band to an Idaho reservation. Joseph became known as a humanitarian and a peacemaker. Geronimo (flip) prominent Native American leader of Chiracahua Apache who fought against Mexico and US when they moved into the Apache tribal lands during the Apache Wars. He became a war chief, urging raids in Mexican Provinces and many American states. Helen Hunt Jackson (flip) US writer/activist on the behalf of improved treatment of Native Americans by the US government. She wrote of the governments mistreatment of Native Americans in many of her novels (A Century of Dishonor, Ramona). William F. Cody (flip) (aka Buffalo Bill) A US soldier, showman, and bison hunter. Famous for organizing cowboy-themed shows. He toured in Great Britain, Europe, and the United States. Oliver H. Kelley (flip) Father of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry. He gathered farmers and their families in an attempt to rebuild America as it was before the American Civil War, banning them all together for their economic and political wellbeing. Frederick Jackson Turner (flip) American historian who is most famous for writing The Significance of the Frontier in American History, which is known as the Frontier Thesis. This convinced Americans that a frontier following the closing was needed. Jacob S. Coxey (flip) American politician, led Coxeys Army in 1894 and 1914, which was a group of unemployed men who marched from Ohio to Washington, D.C. to present a Petition in Boots demanding Congress create more jobs. It provoked the creation of the Social Security Act of 1935. Eugene V. Debs (flip) American union leader, founding member of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World, and many time candidate of the Socialist Party for President. Terms Gilded Age (flip) era of rapid economic/population growth after the civil war and reconstruction in the 19th century populism (flip) the people against the elite; the party attempting to represent the common mans desires

grandfather clause (flip) southerners kept most blacks from voting by creating this, which stated that men could vote only if they could have voted in 1867 (or if their grandfathers had the right to vote, and slaves did not Tweed Ring (flip) Boss Tweed was a politician who created a group of men who controlled NYCs finances. They gave jobs to voters in turn for political support. Tweed was the center of many scandals, and its believed that the citys resources were drained because of his bribes. Pendleton Act (flip) US law (1883) stating government jobs should be awarded based on merit, meaning government employees had to pass competitive exams, so employment wasnt based on political affiliation. Plessy v. Ferguson (flip) 1896 Supreme Court decision that constitutionalized racial segregation under the separate but equal doctrine. Jim Crow (flip) (1876 1965) mandated racial segregation at public facilities (separate but equal) Chinese Exclusion Act (flip) US law signed by Chester A. Arthur (1882)to suspend immigration. The ban was intended to last ten years, but ended up being repealed by the Magnuson Act in 1943. Peoples Party (Populists) (flip) political party, established in 1891 that faded by the 20th century that was based among poor cotton farmers in the South (namely white men, obviously). This party endorsed Democratic presidential nominee William Jennings Bryan. McKinley Tariff (flip) (1890) raised the duty on imports nearly 50% to protect domestic industries from foreign competition. land grant (flip) gift of real estate by the government as a reward for an individual, typically for military service or a majority of the lands crop output. track gauge (flip) the distance between the inner sides of the heads of the two load bearing rails that make up a single railway line pool (flip) A temporary affiliation of two or more people formed for the purpose of attempting to manipulate a security's price and/or volume. vertical integration

(flip) when a company expands its business into areas that are at different points of the same production path. horizontal integration (flip) When a company expands its business into different products that are similar to current lines. trust (flip) A fiduciary relationship in which one party, known as a trustor, gives another party, the trustee, the right to hold title to property or assets for the benefit of a third party, the beneficiary. injunction (flip) A court order that prevents somebody from doing something specific. An injunction is used by a court when monetary restitution isn't sufficient to remedy the harm. trust-busting (flip) a term that referred to President Theodore Roosevelt's policy of prosecuting monopolies, or "trusts," that violated federal antitrust law. Roosevelt's "trust-busting" policy marked a major departure from previous administrations' policies Philanthropy (flip) etymologically means "the love of humanity"love in the sense of caring for, nourishing, developing, or enhancing; humanity in the sense of "what it is to be human," or "human potential." Conspicuous Consumption (flip) is spending on goods and services acquired mainly for the purpose of displaying income or wealth. In the mind of a conspicuous consumer, such display serves as a means of attaining or maintaining social status company town (flip) a town or city in which much or all real estate, buildings (both residential and commercial), utilities, hospitals, small businesses such as grocery stores and gas stations, and other necessities or luxuries Social Darwinism (flip) a term commonly used for theories of society that emerged in England and the United States in the 1870s, seeking to apply the principles of Darwinian evolution to sociology and politics. It especially refers to notions of struggle for existence being used to justify social policies which make no distinction between those able to support themselves and those unable to support themselves. scabs (flip) is a person who works despite an ongoing strike. Strikebreakers are usually individuals who are not employed by the company prior to the trade union dispute, but rather hired prior to or during the strike to keep the organisation running lockout (flip) a work stoppage in which an employer prevents employees from working. This is different from a strike, in which employees refuse to work.

yellow dog contract (flip) an agreement between an employer and an employee in which the employee agrees, as a condition of employment, not to be a member of a labor union blacklist (flip) is a list or register of entities who, for one reason or another, are being denied a particular privilege, service, mobility, access or recognition anarchists (flip) opposing authority and hierarchical organization in the conduct of human relations pure and simple unionism (flip) the view that the labor movement should confine itself to fighting over wages and working conditions and avoid entanglements with those seeking more fundamental social change Grange (flip) a fraternal organization for American farmers that encourages farm families to band together for their common economic and political well-being Short Haul/Long Haul early generation transportation means of designed for none transoceanic intercontinental routes operations, on the basis of time and distance Wabash, St. Louis, and Pacific Railroad Company v. Illinois a Supreme Court decision that severely limited the rights of states to control interstate commerce Standard Oil Company a predominant American integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. Established in 1870 as a corporation in Ohio, it was the largest oil refiner in the world[ Bessemer process the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from molten pig iron. The process is named after its inventor, Henry Bessemer, who took out a patent on the process in 1855 United States Steel an integrated steel producer with major production operations in the United States, Canada, and Central Europe Gospel of Wealth is an essay written by Andrew Carnegie in 1889[3] that described the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich Sherman Anti-Trust Act requires the United States federal government to investigate and pursue trusts, companies, and organizations suspected of violating the Act New South a phrase that has been used intermittently since the American Civil War to describe the American South, after 1877. Used in contrast to the Old South of the plantation system of the antebellum period

Interstate Commerce Act is a United States federal law that was designed to regulate the railroad industry, particularly its monopolistic practices. The Act required that railroad rates be "reasonable and just," but did not empower the government to fix specific rates Knights of Labor was the largest and one of the most important American labor organizations of the 1880s. Its most important leader was Terence Powderly Haymarket Square was a demonstration and unrest that took place on Tuesday May 4, 1886, at the Haymarket Square in Chicago. It began as a rally in support of striking workers. An unknown person threw a dynamite bomb at police as they dispersed the public meeting American Federation of Labor was one of the first federations of labor unions in the United States. It was founded in 1886 by an alliance of craft unions disaffected from the Knights of Labor, a national labor association. Samuel Gompers was elected president of the Federation at its founding convention. Women's Christian Temperance Union the first mass organization among women devoted to social reform with a program that "linked the religious and the secular through concerted and far-reaching reform strategies based on applied Christianity Battle of Little Bighorn also known as Custer's Last Stand, was an armed engagement between combined forces of Lakota, Northern Cheyenne and Arapaho people against the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army Ghost Dance a new religious movement which was incorporated into numerous Native American belief systems. Battle of Wounded Knee A massacre that occurred on a creek of southwest South Dakota. Some 200 Native Americans were massacred here by U.S. troops on December 29, 1890. A Century of Dishonor (1881), by Helen Hunt Jackson, chronicles the experiences of Native Americans in the United States, focusing on examples of injustices. Jackson wrote "A Century of Dishonor" in an attempt to change government ideas/policy toward Native Americans. Dawes Severalty Act enacted by the U.S. Congress regarding the distribution of land to Native Americans in Oklahoma. It was signed into law February 8, 1887 Indian Reorganization Act ("Indian New Deal") a U.S. federal legislation which secured certain rights to Native Americans, including Alaska Natives. These include a reversal of the Dawes Act's privatization of common holdings of American Indians and a return to local selfgovernment on a tribal basis Homestead Act The Homestead Act is one of two United States federal laws that gave an applicant freehold title to up to 160 acres (65 hectares or one-fourth section) of undeveloped federal land west of the Mississippi River. Granger Laws a series of laws passed in western states of the United States after the American Civil War to regulate grain elevator

and railroad freight rates and rebates and to address long- and short-haul discrimination and other railroad abuses against farmers Coxey's Army a protest march by unemployed workers from the United States, led by the populist Jacob Coxey. They marched on Washington D.C. in 1894, the second year of a four-year economic depression. Pullman Strike a nationwide conflict between labor unions and railroads that occurred in the United States in 1894. The conflict began in the town of Pullman, Illinois on May 11. Cross of Gold speech delivered by William Jennings Bryan, a former Congressman from Nebraska, at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago on July 9, 1896 Gold Standard Act established gold as the only standard for redeeming paper money, stopping bimetallism (which had allowed silver in exchange for gold). It was signed by President William McKinley. Free Silver Movement a central American policy issue in the late 19th century. Its advocates were in favor of an inflationary monetary policy using the "free coinage of silver" as opposed to the less inflationary Gold Standard