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The definite article can be used before singular or plural .

nouns whether countable or uncountable

:The definite article is used i) Before a noun .that is to be particularized by a defining relative clause) .e.g. This is the book that I promised to lend you

With the meaning: the only one (2) .e.g. The sun. rises in the east and sets in the west

With the meaning: The one we have just spoken about (3) .e.g. Once upon a time there was a little boy who lived in a cottage .The cottage was in the country and the boy had lived there all his life

Before a noun which is followed by a defining prepositional phrase (4) ;e.g. the Palace of Westminster, the house With green shutters

Before ordinals in titles (5 ) .(e.g Queen Elizabeth (Queen Elizabeth the Second

Before a common noun followed by a proper noun which identifies it (6) .e.g. the planet Mercury; the poet Byron; the play King Lear

;Nouns expressing trades or professions often follow the proper noun (7) they are preceded by the .e.g. Jackson, the butcher; Brown, the General Manager; Lizzie the cook

:Similarly with nouns in apposition .Rome, the capital of Italy

,Before the name of a country that is a union of smaller entities (8) .e.g. The United Kingdom; the U.S.S.R ,or one that is plural in form .e.g. The Netherlands; the United States and in cases where a common noun which usually accompanied ,the geographical name has been dropped .(e.g. The Sahara (desert); the Crimea (peninsula

Before groups of Islands (9) .e.g. The West Indies, the Hebrides, the Bahamas

Before the names of rivers, chains of mountains and oceans (10) .e.g. The Thames, the Danube, the Atlantic, the Alps, the Andes

Before the names of ships, trains and aero planes (11) .The Queen Mary, the Flying Scotsman, the Comet

Before the names of hotels shops, institutions, etc (12) e.g. The Ritz Hotel, the Army and Navy Stores, the Midland .Bank, the Odeon Cinema

Before a singular countable noun to make a generalization about a species (13) ,e.g. The horse is being replaced by the tractor

:Before the names of musical instruments used in a general sense (14)

Mrs. Priestley plays the piano

,Before superlatives used attributively (15 ) .e.g. This is the oldest building in Canterbury

,before superlatives used adverbially e.g. I like Shakespeare but it is modem drama that interests me the most .People who have those seats in the theatre will pay the least

,and before superlatives used as nouns .e.g. This is the best I can do . The most he can get is a fine of

:Before adjectives used as nouns denoting a whole class (16) .(The rich (= rich people) should help the poor (= poor people .The French cook better than the English

:The definite article is not used

,Before abstract nouns used in a general sense (1) (.e.g. Life is very hard for some people. (NOT: the life (.We will have freedom or death. (NOT: the freedom s etc

,But we use the before abstract nom that are limited or qualified .e.g The life we live here is hard

.The freedom of the seas The work we do

,Before names of materials used in a general sense (2) (.e.g. Butter is made from cream. (Not: the butter .. the cream .Wheat is grown in Canada

,Before plural nouns used in a general sense (3) ,e.g. Books are my best friends

B UT .The books that are on the table are mine In the second sentence we are referring not to books in general .but to some particular books

,Before names of meals used in a general sense (4) .e.g. Come to dinner/lunch/tea with me :but ?Are you coming to the dinner that we are having in London next week

.Before most proper nouns, e.g (5) (.I walked in Hyde Park. (NOT: the Hyde Park

:Before Lake, Cape, Mount (6) ,Lake Superior, Loch (= Scottish Lake ) Lomond. Cape Wrath .Cape Cod, Mount Everest, Mount Vesuvius

,except when these words are followed by of

.e.g .the Lake of Lucerne; the Cape of Good Hope; the Mount of Olives

,Before titles followed by a proper noun(7) .e.g ;King George; Doctor Livingstone; Professor Russell; Lord Byron

.With the names of languages, e.g. She speaks Spanish (8)

,With words like school, church, prison (9) ,when the idea expressed concerns the use made of the building .e.g .(He has gone to school (to learn

:but .(He has gone to the school (just to see the place

,l0) Before the names of seasons and festivals) .e.g .Winter is the best time for reading

With words like cook, nurse, teacher when they have the (11) ,meaning our cook/teacher .e.g Cook has made mince-pies for Christmas Teacher was very pleased with my work

,Sometimes before predicative superlatives (12)

eg .The sea is deepest about twenty miles from the coast .He is happiest when he is working .Your help was most valuable

.In various stock phrases (13)



PM 01:10 ,2007- 12-31



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