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DOCENTE: Juan Fernando Madrigal


TRABAJO DE COMPRENSION DE LECTURA (INGLES) OBJETIVOS Realizar la lectura e interpretacin de un documento en ingles Conocer el funcionamiento de una vlvula de control Diferenciar algunos tipos de vlvulas de control CONTROL VALVES Control valves are the most common final control elements. They perform the action function of the control system by adjusting the flows that affect the controlled variables. the most important aspects of control valves: the selection of their action and fail position, their capacity and sizing, their flow characteristics, their gain, and their transfer function. A control valve acts as a variable restriction in a process pipe. By changing its opening, it changes the resistance to flow and thus the flow itself. Throttling flows is what control valves are all about. The controller output signal positions the valve, determining the valv position that in turn valve determines the degree of restriction to flow. Therefore, the controller output signal is the input to the valve, and the flow is the output of the valve.

1. THE CONTROL VALVE ACTUATOR Figure 1.a shows the instrumentation schematic of a control valve. Even with electronic instrumentation, an air pressure actuator is the most common means of adjusting the position of control valves; this is because of the high reliability and low maintenance requirements of air, or pneumatic, actuators. When the signal from the controller is a 4- to 20-mA signal, a current-to-pressure transducer, pressure labeled I/p in Fig. 1.a, is required to convert the current to an air pressure. The transducer, however,

does not change the signal, and it can be omitted in a conceptual diagram such as Fig. 1.b. In this diagram, the controller signal m(t) is in percent controller output (%CO), as opposed to mA or psig. The control valve actuator consists of a diaphragm and a spring, with the diagram attached to the stem, which positions the flow restriction in the valve body. The actuator, as shown in Fig. 1.b, converts the controller output, m(t), into the valve position, vp(t). The valve position is usually expressed as a fraction that varies between zero and unity. When the valve position is zero, the valve is closed and the flow is zero. At the other extreme, the valve position is unity, the valve is fully opened, and the flow is maximum. For a full-range valve actuator, a 1% change in controller output results in a 0.01 change in fraction valve position. Most control valves use a full-range actuator. The first question to answering when a control valve is chosen is What do I want the valve to do when the energy supply fails? This question concerns the fail position or action of the valve. The main consideration in answering this question is, or should be, safety. When the safest position of the valve is the closed position, the engineer must specify a fail-closed (FC) valve. Such a valve requires energy to open and is also called an air-to-open (AO) valve. The other possibility is a failopen (FO) valve. Fail-open valves require energy to close and are called air-to-close (AC) valves. To illustrate the selection of the action of control valves, let us consider the flash drum shown in Fig. 2. Steam is condensed in a coil to partially vaporize the liquid feed and separate its components into the vapor and liquid products. There are three valves in this example: one on the steam line to the coil and one on each of the liquid and vapor products. The valve on the liquid product controls the level in the tank, and the valve on the vapor product controls the pressure in the tank. The question is what we want each of these valves to do if the electrical power or air supply were to fail. As previously explained, each valve must move to its safest position when either the electric power or the air pressure fails. The safest position for the steam valve is closed, because this prevents a high steam flow that could vaporize all of the liquid and overheat the coil. Therefore, we select a fail-closed, or air-to-open, valve for the steam valve. For the liquid product valve, a fail-closed, or air-to-open, valve would keep the liquid stored in the tank. This action gives the operator time to shut down the feed to the tank and correct the cause of the failure. It is seldom safe for the liquid product to flow uncontrolled to the process downstream. Finally, a fail-open, or air-to-close, valve on the vapor product line would allow the vapor to flow out of the tank and prevent the tank from pressurizing. In this example we have considered only the safety conditions around the flash drum, but doing so does not necessarily result in the safest operation of the process. The safety of the entire process requires that we also consider the effect of each flow on the downstream and upstream equipment. For example, when the vapor product valve fails opened, an unsafe condition may result in the process that receives the vapor. If this is so, the valve must fail closed. The engineer must then

provide a separate pressure relief valve to route the vapors to an appropriate disposal system. The selection of the fail position of control valves is part of the procedure known as Hazard Analysis (HazAn). Such a procedure is performed by teams of engineers at process design time. It is important to realize that safety is the only consideration in selecting the action of the control valve. As we shall see in the next section, the action of the control valve directly affects the action of the feedback controller. The action of the valve determines the sign of the gain of the valve. An air-toopen valve has a positive gain, and an air-to-close valve has a negative gain. 2. CONTROL VALVE CAPACITY AND SIZING The purpose of the control valve is to regulate the manipulated flow in the control system. To regulate flow, the flow capacity of the control valve varies from zero when the valve is closed to a maximum when the valve is fully opened-that is, when the fraction valve position is one. Following a convention adopted by all control valve manufacturers, the flow capacity of a control introduced in 1944 by Masoneilan valve is determined by its capacity factor or flow coefficient International, Inc. (Masoneilan Handbook). By definition, the coefficient is the flow in U.S. gallons per minute (gpm) of water that flows through a valve at a pressure drop of 1 psi (lb per square inch) across the valve. For example, a valve with a coefficient of 25 can deliver 25 gpm of water when it has a l-psi pressure drop. Liquid Service A control valve is simply an orifice with a variable area of flow. The coefficient and the basic principles that regulate flow through an orifice provide the following formula for the liquid flow through the valve. f = liquid flow, U.S. gpm Ap, = pressure drop across the valve, psi Gf = specific gravity of liquid at flowing conditions Compressible Flow Different manufacturers have developed different formulas to model the flow of compressible fluidsgases, vapors, and steam-through their control valves. We present the compressible flow formulas of one of them manufacturers, Masoneilan. This is hardly one of the manufacturers of control valves. Several manufacturers produce good valves, including Fisher Controls, the Crane Company, DeZurik, Foxboro, and Honeywell. We chose Masoneilan because their equations and methods are typical of the industry. Although the equations for compressible flow look quite different from the equation for liquids, it is important to realize that they derive from the equation for liquids. They simply contain the units conversion factors and density corrections for temperature and pressure. It is important to realize coefficient of a valve is the same whether the valve is used for liquid or gas service. that the Masoneilan proposes the following set of equations. For gas or vapor flow in cubic feet per hour, at the standard conditions of 1 atm and 60F For gas or vapor mass flow

For steam flow


fs = gas flow, scfh (scfh = ft3/h at standard conditions of 14.7 psia and 60 F)

G = gas specific gravity with respect to air, calculated by dividing the molecular weight of the gas by 29, the average molecular weight of air T = temperature at the valve inlet, (= + 460) R F = critical flow factor. The numerical value for this factor ranges between 0.6 and 0.95. There are some factors for different valve types. P1 = pressure at the valve inlet, psia w = gas flow, lb/h TSH = degrees of superheat, F

The term y expresses the compressibility effects on the flow and is defined by Where pv = p1 p 2 pressure drop across the valve, psi; p2 = pressure at valve exit, psia 3 CONTROL VALVE CHARACTERISTICS The coefficient of a control valve depends on the valve position. It varies from zero when the when the valve is fully opened, that is, when the valve is closed, vp = 0, to a maximum value, fraction valve position is unity. It is this variation in the that allows the valve to regulate the flow continuously. The particular function relating the coefficient to the valve position is known as the inherent valve characteristics. Valve manufacturers can shape the valve characteristics by arranging the way the area of the valve orifice varies with valve position. Figure 3 shows three common valve characteristics: A. The quick-opening. As is evident from its shape, the quickopening characteristic is not suitable for regulating flow, because most of the variation in the valve coefficient takes place in the lower third of the valve travel. Very little variation in coefficient takes place for most of the valve travel. Quick-opening valves are appropriate for relief valves and for on-off control systems. Relief valves must allow a large flow as quickly as possible to prevent over-pressuring of process vessels and other equipment. Onoff control systems work by providing either full flow or no flow. They do not regulate the flow between the two extremes. B. Linear, and Equal Percentage characteristics are the two normally used to regulate flow The function for linear characteristics is and that for equal percentage characteristics is , where is the rangeability parameter, which has a value of 25, 50, or 100, with 50 being the most common. The actual equal percentage characteristic does not fit the last equation, all the way down to the closed position, because the exponential function cannot predict zero flow at zero valve position. In fact, it predicts a coefficient of , at vp = 0. Because of this, the actual characteristic curve deviates from the exponential function in the lower 5% of the travel.

The linear characteristic produces a coefficient proportional to the valve position. At 50% valve position, the flow through the valve is 50% of its maximum flow. The exponential function has the property that equal increments in valve position result in equal relative or percentage increments in the valve coefficient-hence the name. That is, when the valve position increases by 1% in going from 20% to 21% valve position, the flow increases by the same fraction of its value as when the valve position increases by 1% in going from 60% to 61% position, but the flow has a higher value at the 60% position than at the 20% position. What makes such a function useful for regulating flow? To achieve uniform control performance, the control loop should have a constant gain. A linear valve characteristic may appear to be the only one that provides a constant gain. For such processes, the equal percentage characteristic, having a gain that increases as the valve opens (see Fig. 3), compensates for the decreasing process gain. As far as the controller is concerned, it is the product of the gains of the valve, the process, and the sensor/transmitter, that must remain constant. Selecting the correct valve characteristics for a process requires a detailed analysis of the characteristics or personality of the process. However, several rules of thumb, based on previous experience, help us in making the decision. Briefly, we can say that valves with the linear flow characteristic are used when the process is linear and the pressure drop across the valve does not vary with flow. Equal percentage valves are probably the most common. They are generally used when the pressure drop across the valve varies with flow and with processes in which the gain decreases when the how through the valve increases. 4. VALVE RANGEABILITY Closely associated with the valve characteristics is the valve rangeability, or turn-down ratio. The valve rangeability is the ratio of the maximum controllable flow to the minimum controllable flow. It is therefore a measure of the width of operating flows the valve can control. Because the flow must be under control, these flows cannot be determined when the valve is against one of its travel limits. A common way to define the maximum and minimum flows is at the 95% and 5% valve positions-that F is, . Another definition uses the 90% and 10% valve positions. FL

5. FLASHING AND CAVITATION The presence of either flashing or cavitation in a control valve can have significant effects on the operation of the valve and on the procedure for sizing it. It is important to understand the meaning and significance of these two phenomena. Figure 4 shows the pressure profile of a liquid flowing through a restriction (possibly a control valve). To maintain steady-state mass flow, the velocity of the liquid must increase as the cross-sectional area for flow decreases. The liquid velocity reaches its maximum at a point just past the minimum cross-sectional area (the port area for a control valve). This point of maximum velocity is called the vena contracta. At this point, the liquid also experiences the lowest pressure. What happens is that the increase in velocity (kinetic energy) is accompanied by a decrease in pressure energy. Energy is transformed from one form to another.

As the liquid passes the vena contracta, the flow area increases and the fluid velocity decreases and, in so doing, the liquid recovers part of its pressure. Valves such as butterfly valves, ball valves, and most rotary valves have a high-pressure recovery characteristic. Most reciprocating stem valves show a low-pressure recovery characteristic. The flow path through these reciprocating stem valves is more tortuous than through rotary type valves. Looking again at Fig. 4, let us suppose that the vapor pressure of the liquid at the flowing temperature is P. When the pressure of the liquid falls below its vapor pressure, some of the liquid starts changing phase from the liquid phase to the vapor phase. That is, the liquid flashes, and it can cause serious erosion damage to the valve plug and seat. Aside from the physical damage to the valve, flashing tends to lower the flow capacity of the valve. As bubbles start forming, this tends to cause a crowding condition at the valve, which limits the flow. Furthermore, this crowding condition may get bad enough to choke the flow through the valve. That is, beyond this choked condition, increases in pressure drop across the valve will not result in an increased flow. 6. VALVE TYPES Although many different types of valves are used to control the flow and pressure of fluids. Other valves are identified by names that indicate their general function, such as thermostatic or recirculating valves. Stop valves are used to shut off or, in some cases, partially shut off the flow of fluid. Stop valves are controlled by the movement of the valve stem. Stop valves can be divided into four general categories: globe, gate, butterfly, and ball valves. Plug valves and needle valves may also be considered stop valves. 6.1 GLOBE VALVES. Globe valves are probably the most common valves in existence. The globe valve derives its name from the globular shape of the valve body. However, positive identification of a globe valve must be made internally because other valve types may have globular appearing bodies. Globe valve inlet and outlet openings are arranged in several ways to suit varying

6.2 GATE VALVES. Gate valves are used when a straight-line flow of fluid and minimum restriction is desired. Gate valves are so named because the part that either stops or allows flow through the valve acts somewhat like the opening or closing of a gate and is called, appropriately, the gate. The gate is usually wedge shaped. When the valve is wide open, the gate is fully drawn up into the valve, leaving an opening for flow through the valve the same size as the pipe in which the valve is installed. Therefore, there is little pressure drop or flow restriction through the valve. Gate valves are not suitable for throttling purposes since the control of flow would be difficult due to valve design and since the flow of fluid slapping against a partially open gate can cause extensive damage to the valve. Except as specifically authorized, gate valves should not be used for throttling. Gate valves used in steam systems have flexible gates. The reason for using a flexible gate is to prevent binding of the gate within the valve when the valve is in the closed position. When steam lines are heated, they will expand, causing some distortion of valve bodies. If a solid gate fits snugly between the seat of a valve in a cold steam system, when the system is heated and pipes elongate, the seats will compress against the gate, wedging the gate between them and clamping the valve shut. This problem is overcome by use of a flexible gate (two circular plates attached to each other

with a flexible hub in the middle). This design allows the gate to flex as the valve seat compresses it, thereby preventing clamping

6.3 BUTTERFLY VALVES The butterfly valve is used in a variety of systems aboard ship. These valves can be used effectively in freshwater, saltwater, lube oil, and chill water systems aboard ship. The butterfly valve is light in weight, relatively small, relatively quick-acting, provides positive shut-off, and can be used for throttling. The butterfly valve has a body, a resilient seat, a butterfly disk, a stem, packing, a notched positioning plate, and a handle. The resilient seat is under compression when it is mounted in the valve body, thus making a seal around the periphery of the disk and both upper and lower points where the stem passes through the seat. Packing is provided to form a positive seal around the stem for added protection in case the seal formed by the seat should become damaged. To close or open a butterfly valve, turn the handle only one quarter turn to rotate the disk 90 Some larger butterfly valves may have a handwheel that . operates through a gearing arrangement to operate the valve. This method is used especially where space limitation prevents use of a long handle. Butterfly valves are relatively easy to maintain. The resilient seat is held in place by mechanical means, and neither bonding nor cementing is necessary, because the seat is replaceable, the valve seat does not require lapping, grinding, or machine work. 6.4 BALL VALVES As the name implies, are stop valves that use a ball to stop or start the flow of fluid. The ball performs the same function as the disk in the globe valve. When the valve handle is operated to open the valve, the ball rotates to a point where the hole through the ball is in line with the valve body inlet and outlet. When the valve is shut, which requires only a 90-degree rotation of the handwheel for most valves, the ball is rotated so the hole is perpendicular to the flow openings of the valve body, and flow is stopped. Most ball valves are of the quick-acting type (requiring only a 90degree turn to operate the valve either completely open or closed), but many are planetary gear operated. This type of gearing allows the use of a relatively small handwheel and operating force to operate a fairly large valve. The gearing does, however, increase the operating time for the valve. Some ball valves contain a swing check located within the ball to give the valve a check valve feature. Ball valves are normally found in the following systems aboard ship: seawater, sanitary, trim and drain, air, hydraulic, and oil transfer. Diaphragm Valves Swing Check/Non Return Check Valve