Sie sind auf Seite 1von 13

TERM PAPER

DYNAMICS OF MACHINE
MEC-302
GYROSCOPIC EFFECT ON THE MILLING MACHINE
SUBMITTED BY

RAVINDER SINGH AHUJA RB4803B55 10806064

Acknowledgement:-

I am thankful to my teachers and colleagues for their support in making this project assigned by lovely professional university. I have tried my level best for this project. This is an original work and neither is it copied but takes help and some ideas from net nor is any of its part taken from any other work of such kind.

Thanks

Introduction:
Gyroscope is very useful in many applications. To choose the right rate gyro sensor, some features, such as power consumption, weight, dimension, etc., must be taken into consideration. its play very vital role in imparting right amount of force in right direction, so in mechanical industry it`s gain ample respect and application. Its uses approx everywhere but some very specific fields are aerospace, automobile, manufacturing industry and robots etc. In case of milling machine its play role in reduce chattering sound and make it more precise.

Gyroscope history:
The earliest known gyroscope instrument was made by German Johann Bohnen berger, who first wrote about it in 1817. In 1832, American Walter R. Johnson developed a similar device that was based on a rotating disk. The French mathematician Pierre-Simon Laplace, recommended the machine for use as a teaching aid, and thus it came to the attention of Lon Foucault. In 1852, Foucault used it in an experiment involving the rotation of the Earth. It was Foucault who gave the device its modern name, in an experiment to see (Greek skope in, to see) the Earth's rotation (Greek gyros, circle or rotation), which was visible in the 8 to 10 minutes before friction slowed the spinning rotor. In the 1860s, electric motors made the concept feasible, leading to the first prototype gyrocompasses; the first functional marine gyrocompass was patented in 1908 by German inventor Hermann Anschtz-Kaempfe. In the first several decades of the 20th century, other inventors attempted (unsuccessfully) to use gyroscopes as the basis for early black box navigational systems by creating a stable platform from which accurate acceleration measurements could be performed (in order to bypass the need for star sightings to calculate position). Similar principles were later employed in the development of inertial guidance systems for ballistic missiles. During World War Two, the gyroscope became the prime component for aircraft and antiaircraft gun sights

What is Gyroscope?
A gyroscope is a device for measuring or maintaining orientation, based on the principles of conservation of angular momentum. A mechanical gyroscope is essentially a spinning wheel or disk whose axle is free to take any orientation. This orientation changes much less in response to a given external torque than it would without the large angular momentum associated with the gyroscope's high rate of spin. Since external torque is minimized by mounting the device in gimbals, its orientation remains nearly fixed, regardless of any motion of the platform on which it is mounted. Gyroscopes based on other operating principles also exist, such as the electronic, microchip-packaged MEMS gyroscope devices found in consumer electronic devices, solid state ring lasers, fibre optic gyroscopes and the extremely sensitive quantum gyroscope.

How gyroscopic couple work

Instead of a complete rim, four point masses, A, B, C, D, represent the areas of the rim that are most important in visualizing how a gyro works. The bottom axis is held stationary but can pivot in all directions. When a tilting force is applied to the top axis, point A is sent in an upward direction and C goes in a downward direction. FIG 1. Since this gyro is rotating in a clockwise direction, point A will be where point B was when the gyro has rotated 90 degrees. The same goes for point C and D. Point A is still traveling in the upward direction when it is at the 90 degrees position in FIG 2, and point C will be

traveling in the downward direction. The combined motion of A and C cause the axis to rotate in the "precession plane" to the right FIG 2. This is called precession. A gyro's axis will move at a right angle to a rotating motion (In this case to the right). If the gyro were rotating counterclockwise, the axis would move in the precession plane to the left. If in the clockwise example the tilting force was a pull instead of a push, the precession would be to the left. When the gyro has rotated another 90 degrees FIG 3, point C is where point A was when the tilting force was first applied. The downward motion of point C is now countered by the tilting force and the axis does not rotate in the "tilting force" plane. The more the tilting force pushes the axis, the more the rim on the other side pushes the axis back when the rim revolves around 180 degrees. Actually, the axis will rotate in the tilting force plane in this example. The axis will rotate because some of the energy in the upward and downward motion of A and C is used up in causing the axis to rotate in the precession plane. Then when points A and C finally make it around to the opposite sides, the tilting force ( being constant) is more than the upward and downward counter acting forces. The property of precession of a gyroscope is used to keep monorail trains straight up and down as it turns corners. A hydraulic cylinder pushes or pulls, as needed, on one axis of a heavy gyro. Sometimes precession is unwanted so two counter rotating gyros on the same axis are used.

MILLING PROCESS

Milling is the process of machining flat, curved, or irregular surfaces by feeding the work piece against a rotating cutter containing a number of cutting edges. Milling is a process where material is removed by a spinning tool, which has several cutting teeth. The main

difference between modeling the milling and the turning process is that the chip thickness in milling is not constant, but periodic. Some process parameters are shown: Feed per tooth f,. Axial depth-of-cut up Spindle speed w

A schematic representation of the milling process.

Several types of milling exist: Upmilling, where the entry angle is zero and the exit angle is non-zero,
Down-milling, where the entry angle is nonzero and the exit angle is zero, Face milling, where the entry angle PHI,, and exit angle PHI,, of the milling cutter relative to the workpiece are nonzero, Slotting, where the entry angle is zero and the exit angle is 180'.

MILLING CUTTERS

Based on mounting
o Arbour mounted o Shank mounted o Nose mounted

Base on rotation
o Right hand rotation (Counter clockwise) o Left hand rotation (Clockwise)

Based on helix
o Right hand helix o Left hand helix

GYROSCOPIC EFFECT ON MILLING MACHINE

The process of milling is used widely in many sectors of industry. The milling of large structures is done in e.g. the airplane building industry, where large amounts of material are removed. To make the process the most efficient, the speed of the process should be as high as possible while maintaining a high quality level. During the milling process chatter can arise at certain combinations of spindle speed and depth-of-cut. This behavior is usually undesired, because in such a case a nonsmooth surface of the workpiece is caused by heavy vibrations of the cutter. In addition the machine and cutting tool wear out rapidly. Several studies have been done to understand and model the phenomenon chatter. Both linear and nonlinear models have been developed, where nonlinearities are modeled in several different ways. Early studies have shown that the border between stable and unstable cuts in terms of the depth-of-cut can be visualized as a function of spindle speed. This results in a Stability Lobe Diagram (SLD). With the help of these diagrams it is possible to find the point with a combination of spindle speed and depth-of-cut which has the largest metal removal rate while avoiding chatter.

GYROSCOPIC EFFECT AS A FUNSTION OF SPINDLE SPEED


For low spindle speeds (100-400 rpm) a stability analysis is applied, where the mean chip thickness is measured. The model is validated by experiments. Experiments and simulations done are down milling of 30' helix angle end mill set at an radial depth-of-cut of 1.5 mm and an axial depth of cut of 6,4 mm. In the experiments, three parameters are varied at a spindle speed of 135 rpm: Radial depth of cut; Number of flutes. The federate per minute is held constant, so the feed per tooth f, increases if the number of flutes decreases; Federate per minute. Note that on the vertical axis, the average chip thickness is shown. Chip thicknesses above the line result in an unstable cut, whereas chip thicknesses below the line result in a chatter-free cut.

Figure shows the limit of stability decreases with an increasing feed. If the federate is 70 mm/min, the chip thickness is above the stability border. If the federate decreases then chip thickness also decreases, this increases the stability of milling machine spindle.

Gyroscopic couple in case of milling machine spindle:

A new dynamic milling model of a rotating spindle is developed and the gyroscopic effect of the spindle on the stability characteristics of the milling system is investigated for the first time. The results show that although the gyroscopic effect of the rotating spindle does not change the instability regions in milling, it increases the real parts of the Eigen values of the system or reduces the critical axial depth of cut. In other words, it makes the stability prediction less conservative. Its pure application of gyroscopic effect, because when the cutting done with help of tool, there are certain force which directly work on spindle, which bound it to some short of motion, so for avoiding that , and avoiding such important disturbance which enhance productivity gyroscopic effect is very important.

For the milling process aided by AMB, shown in Fig. 6, the cutting force, Fc, is mainly determined by the axial cut depth, a, feed rate, f, and spindle speed, . However, at normal operation mode, the spindle speed and feed rate are generally retained constants. Therefore, the axial cut depth, a, is, in fact, the key factor to determine the pattern of cutting dynamics. In order to counterbalance the cutting force and regulate the spindle position deviation, d, the models of the subsystems, shown in Fig. 6, are to be constructed by experiments at first. In Fig. 6a, the lateral force to the spindle, Fm, represents the magnetic force exerting on the spindle by the AMB while the cutting process is not engaged at all. The spindle model at idle operation mode, shown in Fig. 6a, is constructed in order to explore the link of the shaft position deviation, d, against the corresponding exerted force, i.e., the magnetic force, Fm. Similarly, the dynamic model shown in Fig. 6b represents the spindle position deviation, d, against the axial cut depth, a. By comparison of the two dynamic models in Fig. 6, the resulted cutting force, due to milling process, can be estimated for a given axial cut depth and the available measurement of spindle position.

Conclusion
Several researchers have studied and modeled the phenomenon chatter. Chatter is the result of several causes. Primary chatter is the consequence of friction effects between the tool and the chip, mode coupling or thermodynamics of the cutting process. Secondary chatter is caused by regeneration of waviness of the surface of the workpiece. Both linear and nonlinear models have been developed in different ways. The friction force can be modeled as a nonlinear function of the cutting parameters. Partial tool jump-out can be modeled. Also the gyroscopic effect of the spindle speed has been modeled. Experiments are performed to study chatter and to validate the models. Several researchers conclude that nonlinearities should be modeled for a more accurate prediction of chatter. They show that the milling process contains phenomena which cannot be modeled using linear models. Gyroscope is very important and powerful arrangement for removing directional alignment and for maintain balancing, its device which used in balance the specimen like milling machine spindle and lots more.

References
Research papers

Research work on Investigation of the phenomenon "chatter" in the milling process by R.P.H. Faassen. Research work on Non-contact measurements and modeling of milling machine tool vibrations by Matti Rantatalo.

Internet websites www.gyroscope.com/Gyroscopes/ www.wikipedia.org www.scribd.com