Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6
®
®

EEvveenn FFaaiillssaaffee IIss SSuubbjjeecctt ttoo CChhaannggee

By Wayne Colonna Technical Editor

I believe it is “safe” to say that the 41TE (A604) was the first to have a “limp-in mode” (also re-

ferred to as “failsafe”) in which the strategy of the transmission control module (TCM) was to place the transaxle into a specific gear (2nd) after it detected a fault. The E4OD transmissions were on the road at that time, and Ford’s strategy was to elevate line pres- sure (FMEM - Failure Mode Effect Management) rather than placing the transmission into one specific gear. Since then, technology has leaped forward at a vicious pace, not breaking for breath. And with this technological race among the “Big 3” manufacturers (U.S., Japan and Europe) comes the need for various computer strategies. Failsafe is one of those strategies that has experienced a change. For example, in the August 2002 issue of Transmission Digest I wrote an article called “Howzetwerks” pertaining to the Mercedes 722.6 transmission. In that article I presented the shift se- quence of the solenoids through an ON/OFF application chart, as you can see in this article in Figure 1. Shift solenoids 1-2/4-5, 2-3 and 3-4 are toggled off- on-off in mak- ing their respective shifts. While the transmission is in gear they re- main in the off state. This type of strategy allows the computer to

30

failsafe the transmission in whichever gear it was in at the time the computer system ob- served a fault. Not until after the vehicle is brought to a stop and the ignition is cycled will the transmission default to second gear (using the equivalent trans-

mission with the W5A 580 desig- nation, this strategy remains the same in Jaguar’s V-8 XJ8 and XK8 models). Another manufacturer that in- corporates a slight twist in its fail- safe strategy is ZF Industries in its ZF-4HP-18 FLE and FLA transmis-

1
1

722.6 Solenoid Application Chart

Gear

 

Solenoid

Shifts

1-2/4-5

2-3

3-4

Mod PC

Shift PC

First

Off

Off

Off

PWM

Off

Shift

On

Off

Off

PWM

PWM

Second

Off

Off

Off

PWM

Off

Shift

Off

On

Off

PWM

PWM

Third

Off

Off

Off

PWM

Off

Shift

Off

Off

On

PWM

PWM

Fourth

Off

Off

Off

PWM

Off

Shift

On

Off

Off

PWM

PWM

Fifth

Off

Off

Off

PWM

Off

1-/4-5 Solenoid is pulsed during ignition crank.

3-4 Shift solenoid is pulsed continuously while in Park and during selector lever movement (Garage Shifts).

A) It is pulsed constantly while idling in Park or Neutral at approximately 40% Duty cycle.

B) Voltage observed varied with throttle opening as well as during selector

lever movement.

A) It is pulsed constantly while idling in Park or Neutral at approximately 33% Duty cycle.

B) Voltage observed varied with throttle opening during each gear shift only.

The TCC solenoid not listed here is also Pulse Width Modulated and duty cycles to apply the clutch.

Transmission Digest

®
®

ZF-4HP-18FLE(2WD Version) ZF-4HP-18FLA (AWD Version)

(2WD Version)
(2WD Version)
ZF-4HP-18FLA (AWD Version)
ZF-4HP-18FLA
(AWD Version)

sions (see Figure 2). Vehicles in the United States that would have

this style of transmission are 1991-

97

Audi 100 Quatro and A6, 1994-

96

Audi A8 and 1991-94 Porsches.

Before we enter the explanation of this failsafe strategy, it is im- portant to note that this particular unit has a 3-4 clutch called the E clutch that is driven through the damper plate in the converter similar to that of a Ford AOD or VW/Audi’s Phase 0 and 1 trans- missions. This means that there is no converter-clutch operation and that 3rd and 4th gears basically are driven off the crankshaft. This piece of information will enter

into the failsafe strategy in just a little while. Figure 3 illustrates both a clutch and solenoid application chart. A careful observation of this chart reveals that the MV1 and MV3 solenoids are the two shift solenoids that shift this transmission through its four

ZF-4HP-18FLE SOLENOID AND COMPONENT APPLICATION CHART 

 
 

MV-1

MV-2

MV-3

EDS-1

A

B

2-4

C

D

E

Range

Solenoid

Solenoid

Solenoid

Solenoid

Clutch

Clutch

Band

Clutch

Clutch

Clutch

Park/Neut

 

ON

ON

**

           

Reverse

 

ON

*

**

 

ON

   

ON

 

Drive-1st

   

ON

**

ON

         

Drive-2nd

ON

 

ON

**

ON

 

ON

ON

   

Drive-3rd

ON

   

**

ON

   

ON

 

ON

Drive-4th

     

**

   

ON

ON

 

ON

Manual-1st

   

ON

**

ON

     

ON

 

"Failsafe"

***

     

Max.

ON

 

ON

ON

   
 

* ON For Reverse Inhibit Feature.

 

** Pressure Regulating.

 

*** Electrical failure while in 4th gear, vehicle remains in 4th gear until engine is turned off. When vehicle is once again started, transaxle will be in Failsafe 2nd gear.

 

January 2003

31

®
®
4 Normal Safety Mode Valve Operation Suction To SV-2 Output To SV-1 Safety Mode Valve
4 Normal Safety Mode
Valve Operation
Suction
To SV-2
Output
To SV-1
Safety Mode
Valve
To SV-3
To SV-3
To SV-2
1/R Valve
To MOD.
Valve
MV
MV
MV
1
2
3
EDS 1
x
OFF
OFF
OFF

To SV-2

1/R Valve

X

X

X

Park Position Engine Off

5 Limp In While Driving Safety Mode Valve Operation Suction To SV-2 Output To SV-1
5 Limp In While Driving
Safety Mode Valve
Operation
Suction
To SV-2
Output
To SV-1
Safety Mode
Valve
To SV-3
To SV-3
To SV-2
1/R Valve
To MOD.
Valve
MV
MV
MV
1
2
3
EDS 1
x
OFF
OFF
OFF

To SV-2

1/R Valve

X

X

X

D 4th Gear - All Off

32

6 Normal Safety Mode Valve Operation Suction To SV-2 Output To SV-1 Safety Mode Valve
6 Normal Safety Mode
Valve Operation
Suction
To SV-2
Output
To SV-1
Safety Mode
Valve
To SV-3
To SV-3
To SV-2
1/R Valve
To MOD.
Valve
MV
MV
MV
1
2
3
EDS 1
x
OFF
ON
ON

To SV-2

1/R Valve

X X

X

Park Position Engine OnMV-1 Off MV-2 On MV-3 On

7 Limp In Before Engine Start Up Now After The Engine Is Started The Safety
7 Limp In Before Engine Start Up
Now After The Engine Is Started
The Safety Mode Valve Is Held
To The Right By The Spring
Suction
To SV-2
Output
To SV-1
Safety Mode
Valve
To SV-3
To SV-3
To SV-2
1/R Valve
To MOD.
Valve
MV MV
MV
1 2
3
EDS 1
x
OFF
OFF
OFF

To SV-2

1/R Valve

X X

X

D 2nd Gear - All Off

Transmission Digest

®
®
8 .070" ORIFICE XX TO CONVERTER 1NRP D 23 TORQUE MANUAL (LUBRICATION) LIMIT CONVERTER VALVE
8
.070"
ORIFICE
XX
TO CONVERTER
1NRP
D
23
TORQUE
MANUAL
(LUBRICATION)
LIMIT CONVERTER
VALVE
VALVE
SUCTION
OUTPUT
.060"
ORIFICE
.030".030"
"C" CLUTCH
MAIN LINE
CHECK
PORT
A
x
"B" CLUTCH
"D" CLUTCH
ONE-WAY
SV-1
x
.068"
CHECK VALVE
x
050"
.
C
.020" ORIFICE
C' BAND
"D"
2-4 BAND
ACCUMULATOR
x
x
068"
.
x
470U
D
E
"A" CLUTCH
x
SV-2
C'
x
x
ACCUMULATOR
x
"E" CLUTCH
SAFETY MODE
VALVE *
1st & REVERSE
VALVE
x
x
"D" CLUTCH
MODULATING
x
F
PORTPRESSURE
.068"
SV-3
x
LEGEND
"E"
ACCUMULATOR
MODULATING PRESSURE
x
x
MAIN LINE PRESSURE
PUMP SUCTION
.020"
.
030"
CONVERTER PRESSURE
3-4
.050"
CUTBACK PRESSURE
TRACTION
4-3 TRACTION
068"
EDS1 PRESSURE
VALVE
.
MV1-3 REDUCING PRESSURE
.050"
x
.030"
CONNECTED CIRCUIT
"A"
ACCUM-
.030"
"A" CLUTCH PREFILL
ULATOR
x
B
ORIFICE
I.D.
.030"
.030"
A
.046"
.040"
.050"
MAIN REGULATOR
VALVE
B
C
.029"
.029"
"C" CLUTCH
D
.029"
TRACTION VALVE
E
.099"
"A" CLUTCH
030"
.025"
.030".030"
.
.029"
CHECK VALVE
.030"
x
F
* NOTE: MV2 IS INITIALLY ENERGIZED
EDS1
SCREEN
xx
FILTER
x
MV
1
MV
2
MV
3
EDS 1
x
OFF
OFF
OFF
x
xx
IN PARK/NEUTRAL TO STROKE THE
SAFETY MODE VALVE
DRIVE POSITION
4th GEAR
SUMP
PRESSURE
REDUCING
x
PRESSURE
REDUCING
MODULATING
VALVE
FOR
MV1-3
VALVE
FOR
EDS1
Copyright
© 2001 ATSG
VALVE
XXX

January 2003

33

® 9 .070" ORIFICE XX TO CONVERTER 1NRP D 23 TORQUE MANUAL (LUBRICATION) LIMIT CONVERTER
® 9 .070" ORIFICE XX TO CONVERTER 1NRP D 23 TORQUE MANUAL (LUBRICATION) LIMIT CONVERTER

®

9 .070" ORIFICE XX TO CONVERTER 1NRP D 23 TORQUE MANUAL (LUBRICATION) LIMIT CONVERTER VALVE
9
.070"
ORIFICE
XX
TO CONVERTER
1NRP
D
23
TORQUE
MANUAL
(LUBRICATION)
LIMIT CONVERTER
VALVE
VALVE
SUCTION
.060"
OUTPUT
ORIFICE
.030".030"
"C" CLUTCH
MAIN LINE
CHECK
PORT
A
x
"B" CLUTCH
"D" CLUTCH
ONE-WAY
SV-1
x
.068"
CHECK
VALVE
x
.050"
.020"
ORIFICE
C
C' BAND
"D"
2-4 BAND
ACCUMULATOR
x
x
.068"
x
E
"A" CLUTCH
SV-2
x
C'
x
x
ACCUMULATOR
x
"E" CLUTCH
SAFETY MODE
VALVE *
1st & REVERSE
VALVE
x
x
"D" CLUTCH
MODULATING
x
F
PRESSURE
PORT
.068"
SV-3
x
LEGEND
"E"
ACCUMULATOR
MODULATING PRESSURE
x
x
MAIN LINE PRESSURE
PUMP SUCTION
.020"
.030"
CONVERTER PRESSURE
3-4
.050"
CUTBACK PRESSURE
TRACTION
4-3 TRACTION
.068"
EDS1 PRESSURE
VALVE
MV1-3 REDUCING PRESSURE
.050"
x
.030"
CONNECTED CIRCUIT
"A"
ACCUM-
ULATOR
.030"
"A" CLUTCH PREFILL
B
ORIFICE
I.D.
.030"
.030"
A
.040"
x
.050"
.046"
MAIN REGULATOR
VALVE
B
C
.029"
.029"
"C" CLUTCH
TRACTION VALVE
D
.029"
E
.099"
"A" CLUTCH
.025"
.030"
.030".030"
CHECK VALVE
.030"
x
.029"
EDS1
F
* NOTE:
MV2 IS INITIALLY
ENERGIZED
SCREEN
x
IN PARK/NEUTRAL
TO STROKE
THE
xx
SAFETY
MODE
VALVE
FILTER
x
DRIVE POSITION
MV
MV
MV
1
2
3
EDS 1
x
2nd GEAR (LIMP-IN)
OFF
OFF
OFF
xx
SUMP
PRESSURE
REDUCING
x
PRESSURE
REDUCING
MODULATING
VALVE FOR
MV1-3
VALVE FOR
EDS1
VALVE
Copyright
© 2001 ATSG
XXX

34

Transmission Digest

®
®

gears. You also can see that both these solenoids are off for 4th gear and for 2nd-gear failsafe. So the question arises: How can all the solenoids be off to make 4th gear yet also all be off to make 2nd-gear failsafe? This task is achieved via the MV2 solenoid, the pump and the safety-mode valve. Figure 4 provides a partial hy- draulic diagram in the Park posi- tion with the engine off. Without hydraulic pressure and with all solenoids off, the spring is hold- ing the safety-mode valve to the right. If you look carefully, you will see that pump pressure is routed to and blocked by the land of the safety-mode valve closest to the spring. You will notice that pump pressure is routed to the right side of the valve as well. But when the ignition is cycled, the MV2 solenoid turns on. As soon as the engine starts and there is pressure in the system, MV2 solenoid oil strokes the safety- mode valve to the left. Once the valve is stroked, the pump pres- sure routed to the left side of the valve holds it to the left and the pump pressure on the right side of the valve is blocked. And that is exactly what Figure 5 illustrates with the vehicle start- ed in Park. With the safety-mode valve now stroked to the left, it becomes a gateway for the MV3 solenoid oil to act on shift valves (SV) 2 and 3. In short, with the safety-mode valve stroked to the left, the MV1 and MV3 solenoids can work to- gether, directing oil to the appro- priate band or clutches. When both solenoids are turned off and the safety-mode valve is held to the left by pump pressure, both shift valves 2 and 3 are held closed by spring tension and fourth gear is achieved (see Figure 6).

January 2003

Now, if the computer system detects a fault while the vehicle is being driven, it can shut the solenoids off and the vehicle will be in fourth gear. But it cannot come to a stop in fourth gear. If you remember from just a few paragraphs ago, 3rd and 4th gears basically are driven off the crankshaft via the E clutch through the damper plate in the converter. Coming to a stop in fourth gear would stall the en- gine. So the transmission can fail- safe to fourth while the vehicle is being driven, but when it comes to a stop, the computer will com- mand second gear electronically by energizing both shift solenoids, which strokes both shift valves. This action will pre- vent a stall from occurring. Figure 7 illustrates what hap- pens now when the vehicle is turned off and pump pressure stops. The safety-mode valve is forced to the right by spring ten- sion. When the vehicle is started, the computer will not cycle any of the solenoids, especially the MV2. Without stroking the safety-mode valve, the pump pressure going to the right end of the valve is able to be directed to and stroke both shift valves, placing the ve- hicle in 2nd-gear failsafe with both solenoids off. Now that you have this under- standing, illustrated in Figure 8 is a full hydraulic schematic of both solenoids off in fourth gear. Figure 9 shows both solenoids off in 2nd-gear failsafe. You can use these two figures for comparison. This concept of the safety- mode valve with ZF is not unique. The new 5L40-E trans- mission in some late-model 3 and 5 Series BMWs and Cadillac’s CTS vehicles employs a similar strategy in that it too uses a safe- ty-mode valve to determine dif- ferent failsafe modes. During

driving conditions it will failsafe to 5th gear, but after an ignition cycle, it will be in failsafe 4th gear. Admittedly, though, the ZF strategy is a bit more involved be- cause of the direct link from the crankshaft into the transmission when the vehicle is in third or fourth gear. This type of configu- ration adds another dimension to the computer’s failsafe shift strat- egy. It also means that if loss of power to the solenoids occurred while you were driving a vehicle with one of these ZFs, it would dump to fourth and when you came to a stop would stay in fourth and stall the engine. If you didn’t know this unit’s operation, it would be reasonable to think that failure of the converter-clutch solenoid was the problem. How surprising it would be when you tried to order one and learned that it does not exist! Many thanks to Jim Dial for all the ZF illustrations used in this article! Full, complete oil schematics and valve-body map- ping for this ZF transmission and VW/Audi 01M transmission are available in ATSG’s online book- store at www.atsgmiami.com.

TD
TD

THE BOTTOM LINE:

Tell us your opinion of this article:

Circle the corresponding number on the free information card.

96 Useful information.

97 Not useful information.

98 We need more information.

Lubegard Platinum is a new and unique universal ATF protectant that offers unsurpassed heat transfer
Lubegard Platinum is a new and unique
universal ATF protectant that offers
unsurpassed heat transfer and decrease
of wear to parts. Containing the patented
LXE and Synergol technology, Platinum
is compatible with all popular
formulations of ATF.
800-333-LUBE
www.lubegard.com

35