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April 1987

Engineman 1 & C


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DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

Although the words “he,” “him,” and
“his” are used sparingly in this course to
enhance communication, they are not
intended to be gender driven or to affront or
discriminate against anyone.

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

PENSACOLA, FL 32509-5237

ERRATA #1 12 Mar 1991

Specific Instructions and Errata for

Training Manual and
Nonresident Training Course

1. No attempt has been made to issue corrections for errors in typing,

punctuation, etc., that do not affect your ability to answer the question or
2. To receive credit for deleted questions, show this errata to your local
course administrator (ESO/scorer). The local course administrator is
directed to correct the course and the answer key by indicating the question
3. Assignment Booklet

Delete the following questions, and leave the corresponding spaces blank
on the answer sheets:
Questions Questions
3-69 8-46
7-32 9-21
7-40 9-22

Make the following changes:
Question Change
2-23 In the question, line 2, change the words
"ship-to-ship" "to ship-to-shop."
3-35 In the question, line 4, delete the word
4-35 In choice 1, change the word "pressure"
to read "presence" and delete the word
"the" before "oil."
5-42 In choice 2, change the word "tapped" to
read "tappet."
8-4 In the question, line 1, change the words
"an air" to read "A."

In the instructions for Change figure numbers "9-4" and

answering questions "9-5" to read "7-4" and "7-5."
9-55 through 9-58
4. Textbook, Engineman 1 & C
Make the following changes:
Page Column Par. Change

2-4 Right 2 Change "feed" to "feet."

8-14 Right 1 Change "chapter 63" to
"chapter 631."

9-13 Left 3 Delete repeat sentence

starting from "a few lights
ending to switchboards."
By enrolling in this self-study course, you have demonstrated a desire to improve yourself and the Navy.
Remember, however, this self-study course is only one part of the total Navy training program. Practical
experience, schools, selected reading, and your desire to succeed are also necessary to successfully round
out a fully meaningful training program.

COURSE OVERVIEW: In completing this nonresident training course, you will demonstrate a
knowledge of the subject matter by correctly answering questions on the following: maintenance of
engines, reduction gears, air-conditioning equipment, and additional auxiliary machinery; the performance
and efficiency of an engine; engineering casualty control; engineering records and reports; and ship
inspections and trials.

THE COURSE: This self-study course is organized into subject matter areas, each containing learning
objectives to help you determine what you should learn along with text and illustrations to help you
understand the information. The subject matter reflects day-to-day requirements and experiences of
personnel in the rating or skill area. It also reflects guidance provided by Enlisted Community Managers
(ECMs) and other senior personnel, technical references, instructions, etc., and either the occupational or
naval standards, which are listed in the Manual of Navy Enlisted Manpower Personnel Classifications
and Occupational Standards, NAVPERS 18068.

THE QUESTIONS: The questions that appear in this course are designed to help you understand the
material in the text.

VALUE: In completing this course, you will improve your military and professional knowledge.
Importantly, it can also help you study for the Navy-wide advancement in rate examination. If you are
studying and discover a reference in the text to another publication for further information, look it up.

1983 Edition Prepared by

ENC Kenneth L. Butts

Published by

NAVSUP Logistics Tracking Number


Sailor’s Creed

“I am a United States Sailor.

I will support and defend the

Constitution of the United States of
America and I will obey the orders
of those appointed over me.

I represent the fighting spirit of the

Navy and those who have gone
before me to defend freedom and
democracy around the world.

I proudly serve my country’s Navy

combat team with honor, courage
and commitment.

I am committed to excellence and

the fair treatment of all.”


1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

2. Administration, Supervision, and Training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1

3. Engine Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1

4. Reduction Gears and Related Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1

5. Engine Performance and Efficiency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1

6. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1

7. Auxiliary Machinery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1

8. Environmental Pollution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1

9. Engineering Casualty Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1

INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1

Nonresident Career Course follows Index

The illustrations indicated below are included in this edition of Engineman
1 & C through the courtesy of the designated sources. Permission to use these
illustrations is gratefully acknowledged. Permission to reproduce illustrations
and other materials in this publication should be obtained from the source.

Sources: Figures:

Bacharach Industrial Instrument 3-1, 3-2, 3-3



ASSIGNMENTS assignments. To submit your assignment

answers via the Internet, go to:
The text pages that you are to study are listed at
the beginning of each assignment. Study these
pages carefully before attempting to answer the
questions. Pay close attention to tables and Grading by Mail: When you submit answer
illustrations and read the learning objectives. sheets by mail, send all of your assignments at
The learning objectives state what you should be one time. Do NOT submit individual answer
able to do after studying the material. Answering sheets for grading. Mail all of your assignments
the questions correctly helps you accomplish the in an envelope, which you either provide
objectives. yourself or obtain from your nearest Educational
Services Officer (ESO). Submit answer sheets

Read each question carefully, then select the COMMANDING OFFICER

BEST answer. You may refer freely to the text. NETPDTC N331
The answers must be the result of your own 6490 SAUFLEY FIELD ROAD
work and decisions. You are prohibited from PENSACOLA FL 32559-5000
referring to or copying the answers of others and
from giving answers to anyone else taking the Answer Sheets: All courses include one
course. “scannable” answer sheet for each assignment.
These answer sheets are preprinted with your
SUBMITTING YOUR ASSIGNMENTS SSN, name, assignment number, and course
number. Explanations for completing the answer
To have your assignments graded, you must be sheets are on the answer sheet.
enrolled in the course with the Nonresident
Training Course Administration Branch at the Do not use answer sheet reproductions: Use
Naval Education and Training Professional only the original answer sheets that we
Development and Technology Center provide—reproductions will not work with our
(NETPDTC). Following enrollment, there are scanning equipment and cannot be processed.
two ways of having your assignments graded:
(1) use the Internet to submit your assignments Follow the instructions for marking your
as you complete them, or (2) send all the answers on the answer sheet. Be sure that blocks
assignments at one time by mail to NETPDTC. 1, 2, and 3 are filled in correctly. This
information is necessary for your course to be
Grading on the Internet: Advantages to properly processed and for you to receive credit
Internet grading are: for your work.

• you may submit your answers as soon as COMPLETION TIME

you complete an assignment, and
• you get your results faster; usually by the Courses must be completed within 12 months
next working day (approximately 24 hours). from the date of enrollment. This includes time
required to resubmit failed assignments.
In addition to receiving grade results for each
assignment, you will receive course completion
confirmation once you have completed all the

PASS/FAIL ASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES For subject matter questions:

If your overall course score is 3.2 or higher, you E-mail:

will pass the course and will not be required to Phone: Comm: (850) 452-1001, Ext. 1826
resubmit assignments. Once your assignments DSN: 922-1001, Ext. 1826
have been graded you will receive course FAX: (850) 452-1370
completion confirmation. (Do not fax answer sheets.)
If you receive less than a 3.2 on any assignment NETPDTC N314
and your overall course score is below 3.2, you 6490 SAUFLEY FIELD ROAD
will be given the opportunity to resubmit failed PENSACOLA FL 32509-5237
assignments. You may resubmit failed
assignments only once. Internet students will For enrollment, shipping, grading, or
receive notification when they have failed an completion letter questions
assignment--they may then resubmit failed
assignments on the web site. Internet students E-mail:
may view and print results for failed Phone: Toll Free: 877-264-8583
assignments from the web site. Students who Comm: (850) 452-1511/1181/1859
submit by mail will receive a failing result letter DSN: 922-1511/1181/1859
and a new answer sheet for resubmission of each FAX: (850) 452-1370
failed assignment. (Do not fax answer sheets.)
After successfully completing this course, you PENSACOLA FL 32559-5000
will receive a letter of completion.
If you are a member of the Naval Reserve,
Errata are used to correct minor errors or delete you may earn retirement points for successfully
obsolete information in a course. Errata may completing this course, if authorized under
also be used to provide instructions to the current directives governing retirement of Naval
student. If a course has an errata, it will be Reserve personnel. For Naval Reserve retire-
included as the first page(s) after the front cover. ment, this course is evaluated at 22 points.
Errata for all courses can be accessed and Points will be credited in units as follows:
viewed/downloaded at:
Unit 1: 12 points upon satisfactory completion of assignments 1 through 5.

STUDENT FEEDBACK QUESTIONS Unit 2: 10 points upon satisfactory

completion of assignments 6 through 11.
We value your suggestions, questions, and
criticisms on our courses. If you would like to (Refer to Administrative Procedures for Naval
communicate with us regarding this course, we Reservists on Inactive Duty, BUPERSINST
encourage you, if possible, to use e-mail. If you 1001.39, for more information about retirement
write or fax, please use a copy of the Student points.)
Comment form that follows this page.

Student Comments
Course Title: Engineman 1 & C

NAVEDTRA: 14075 Date:

We need some information about you:

Rate/Rank and Name: SSN: Command/Unit

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NETPDTC 1550/41 (Rev 4-00


At this stage in your naval career, you are well to the occupational requirements of the
aware that training on a continuous basis is essen- Engineman rating.
tial if you are to reach your desired goals, and You will find that your responsibilities for
if the mission of the Navy is to be successfully military leadership are about the same as those
accomplished. The purpose of this manual is to of petty officers in other ratings, since every
serve as one of many sources of information as petty officer is a military person as well as a
you continue your training to become proficient technical specialist. Your responsibilities for
in the tasks you will be required to perform at the technical leadership are specific to your rating and
E-6 and E-7 levels of your rating. A knowledge are directly related to the nature of your work.
of the information in this manual, combined with Operating and maintaining the machinery and
the everyday practical experience, should help you equipment for which an Engineman is responsi-
learn to perform assigned tasks and accept greater ble is a job of vital importance. It is a teamwork
responsibilities. job which requires that special kind of supervisory
ability that can only be developed by personnel
who have a high degree of technical competence
RESPONSIBILITIES AND REWARDS and a deep sense of personal responsibility.
Certain practical details that relate to your
responsibilities for administration, supervision,
As you attain each higher promotional level and training are discussed in subsequent chapters
in your rating, you, as well as the Navy, benefit. of this training manual. At this point, let’s con-
The fact that you are using this training manual sider some of the broader aspects of your ever
indicates that you have found personal satisfac- increasing responsibilities for military and
tion in developing your skills, increasing your technical leadership.
knowledge, and getting ahead in your chosen
career. The Navy has benefited, and will continue YOUR RESPONSIBILITIES WILL EX-
to do so as you become more valuable as a TEND BOTH UPWARD AND DOWNWARD.
technical specialist in your rating and as a per- Officers and Supervisors will expect you to carry
out their orders. Enlisted personnel will expect you
son who can supervise and train others, thus to translate the general orders given by officers
making far reaching and long lasting contributions
to the success of the Navy. into detailed, practical on-the-job language that
In large measure, the extent of your contribu- can be understood and followed even by relatively
inexperienced personnel. In dealing with your
tion to the Navy depends upon your willingness
juniors, it is up to you to see that they perform
and ability to accept increasing responsibilities as
their work properly. At the same time, you must
you advance. When you assumed the duties of an be able to explain to officers any important needs
EN3, the Navy rewarded you with an increase in
or problems pertaining to the enlisted personnel.
pay and responsibility, a responsibility not only
for yourself but for the work of others. With each YOU WILL HAVE REGULAR AND CON-
advancement, you accept an increasing respon- TINUING RESPONSIBILITIES FOR TRAIN-
sibility in military matters and in matters relating ING. Even if you are fortunate enough to have


a highly skilled and well trained group, you will Engineman rating will enable you to exchange
still find that additional training is necessary. For ideas with other personnel of the same rating. Per-
example, you will always be responsible for sonnel who do not understand the precise mean-
training lower rated personnel to perform their ing of terms used in connection with the work of
assigned tasks. Occasionally, some of your best their own rating are at a disadvantage when they
workers may be transferred and replaced by in- try to read official publications relating to their
experienced or poorly trained personnel. Also, work. They are also at a great disadvantage when
some particular job may call for skills that none taking written examinations for advancement.
of your personnel have. These and similar prob- Although it is always important to use technical
lems will require you to be a training specialist terms correctly, it is particularly important when
who can train individuals and groups in the you are dealing with lower rated personnel. Slop-
effective execution of assigned tasks. piness in the use of technical terms may be
extremely confusing and frustrating to an inex-
YOU WILL HAVE INCREASING perienced person.
OTHERS. You will find that many of your plans YOU WILL HAVE INCREASED RESPON-
and decisions affect a large number of people, SIBILITIES FOR KEEPING UP WITH NEW
some of whom are not in your division and some DEVELOPMENTS. Practically everything in the
of whom are not even in the engineering depart- Navy—policies, procedures, equipment, publica-
ment. It becomes increasingly important, tions, systems—is subject to change and develop-
therefore, to understand the duties and respon- ment. As an EN1, and even more as an ENC, you
sibilities of personnel in other ratings. Every must keep yourself informed about all changes
petty officer in the Navy is a technical specialist and new developments that might affect your
in his/her own field. Learn as much as you can rating or your work.
about the work of other ratings, and plan your Some changes will be called directly to your
own work so that it will fit in with the overall mis- attention; others you will have to look for. Try
sion of the organization. to develop a special kind of alertness for new in-
formation. Keep up to date on all sources of
AS YOUR RESPONSIBILITIES IN- technical information. Information on sources of
CREASE, YOUR ABILITY TO COM- primary concern to the Engineman is given later
in this chapter.
MUST ALSO INCREASE. The basic require-
ment for effective communication is a knowledge As you prepare to assume increased respon-
of your own language. Use correct language in sibilities at a higher level, you need to be familiar
speaking and in writing. Remember that the basic with (1) the military requirements and occupa-
function of all communication is understanding. tional standards given in the Navy Enlisted
To lead, supervise, and train others, you must be Manpower and Personnel Classifications and
able to speak and write in such a way that others Occupational Standards, NAVPERS 18068 (with
can understand exactly what you mean. You must changes); (2) the Personnel Advancement
be able to convey information accurately, Requirement (PAR), NAVPERS 1414/4; (3)
simply, and clearly. appropriate rate training manuals; and (4) any
A second requirement for effective com- other material that may be required or recom-
munication in the Navy is a sound knowledge of mended in the most current edition of the
the Navy way of saying things. Some Navy terms Bibliography for Advancement Examination
have been standardized for the purpose of ensur- Study, NAVEDTRA 10052. These materials and
ing efficient communication. When a situation their use are discussed more thoroughly in Military
calls for the use of standard Navy terminology, Requirements for Petty Officers 1 & C, NAVED-
use it. TRA 10057 (current edition), and Engineman
Still another requirement for effective com- 3 & 2, NAVEDTRA 10541 (current edition).
munication is precision in the use of technical Other sources of information will be described
terms. Command of the technical language of the later in this chapter.


THE ENGINEMAN—YOUR JOB 3. Performing overhaul and repair work on

internal combustion engines, using established
procedures for disassembly, replacement, and
Since you first became a rated person you have reassembly.
mastered basic skills, became familiar with much 4. Conducting routine tests and inspections
of the terminology applicable to internal combus- of all engineroom machinery.
tion engines and other equipment, and learned to 5. Operating and making repairs to auxiliary
answer many of the technical questions asked by boilers and to refrigeration, air conditioning, and
lower rated personnel. Along with this increase distilling systems.
in knowledge, you have gradually assumed greater 6. Using lathes and other machine shop
responsibilities. The rate for which you are now equipment.
preparing demands more knowledge and skill, a 7. Using measuring instruments needed in
willingness to assume greater responsibility, and engine overhaul, such as micrometers, feeler
the ability to lead people. gages, and inside and outside calipers.
8. Reading accurately such instruments as
As an EN1 or ENC, you must be familiar with thermometers, pressure gages, and pressure
all the functions of the engineering department indicators.
and be proficient in a wide variety of tasks. Your
duties will include using proper procedures for Probably you can already do many of these
troubleshooting, maintenance and repair, plan- jobs. Others you will have to learn from addi-
ning, organizing, and carrying out the work tional practical experience and through study.
involved in these procedures. You will maintain Although you will be learning many new jobs as
records and submit reports; you will supervise the an EN1, and especially as a ENC, you will be con-
stowage of supplies and repair parts; and you will cerned principally with directing and observing
take an active part in the training of lower rated the work of personnel assigned to you. You will
personnel. In brief, you will be a technical be responsible for their performance and their
specialist and a military leader. training in all of the jobs required of an
MILITARY DUTIES AND In addition to the duties already mentioned,
RESPONSIBILITIES you will compile necessary data for the prepara-
tion of engineering reports and records. It will be
your duty to make frequent tours of assigned
Information related to the military spaces, and to inspect equipment for proper
requirements for advancement is included in train- operation. You will check the auxiliary watch for
ing manuals specifically prepared to cover such performance of duty in accordance with standing
requirements. These manuals are listed and orders. You will be responsible for the use of the
described briefly later in this chapter. correct operating procedure for all equipment
under your jurisdiction. You will be accountable
TECHNICAL DUTIES AND for daily routine inspections, tests, and reports
RESPONSIBILITIES on all equipment that require daily maintenance
and testing.
You may be held responsible to the division
A petty officer must become a technical officer for the proper setting and standing of all
specialist in his/her rating. Technical duties which watches during your duty period. You may be
an Engineman must learn to perform efficiently required to post the daily watch list in the
include: engineroom and may be responsible for instruct-
ing and training watchstanders in their duties.
1. Operating internal combustion engines and You will instruct lower rated personnel in the
auxiliary engineroom machinery. correct procedures to be used for casualties
2. Maintaining internal combustion engines involving the engineroom. It will be your
and related accessories and equipment. responsibility to see that personnel under your


supervision learn about the capabilities and limita- in their specialties. This duty includes assisting in
tions of the equipment with which they work, and the assignment of watch stations and other duties.
the procedures to follow should casualties occur. Every watch in the engineering department is
Safety is a responsibility of all Navy person- a vital part of the ship’s maintenance and opera-
nel. As an EN1 or ENC, you will instruct your tion program. The engineer officer is responsible
personnel in shipboard safety precautions, par- for the operation and maintenance of the main
ticularly those that are applicable to your division, engines and auxiliary machinery. However, the
and will ensure that copies of these precautions EN1s or ENCs and the personnel they supervise
are posted in conspicuous places. Most impor- on the various watches actually do most of the
tantly, you will watch for careless methods of work. Therefore, it is very important that the petty
work—the frequent source of accidents. You will officers in charge learn and understand the
be expected to set a good example for following extent of their responsibility to the engineer
safety practices. The example you will set will have officer.
a great influence on your people and other per-
sonnel. You will watch for and report all unsafe Engineering Officer
conditions. of the Watch
To successfully perform your duties, you
should know the duties performed in other divi-
sions, and how the various shops can help you The following excerpts from chapter 10 of
get a job done. While it is true that many Navy Regulations describe some of the duties of
maintenance and repair jobs occurring in your the officer of the engineroom watch:
own division can be properly handled from start
to finish without the aid of any outside rating, “Status, Authority, and Responsibil-
other jobs may be more extensive and may require ity. The engineering officer of the watch
special skills or equipment not available within is the officer on watch in charge of the
your division. Although you and the personnel main propulsion plant of the ship, and of
under your supervision may be able to do the bulk the associated auxiliaries. He shall be
of the work, certain portions of a job may require responsible for the safe and proper opera-
the skill of an Electrician’s Mate, a Machinist’s tion of such units, and for the perform-
Mate, a Machinery Repairman, a Hull ance of the duties prescribed in these
Maintenance Technician, or people in other regulations and by other competent
ratings. Therefore, you must know what equip- authority.”
ment is used by other ratings in the engineering
department, and what kind of work can be done “Directing and Relieving the
with that equipment. Familiarize yourself with the Engineering Officer of the Watch. The
work performed and equipment used in other divi- engineer officer, or in his absence, the
sions by observing them at work and by talking main propulsion assistant may direct the
to leading petty officers in other ratings. There engineering officer of the watch con-
is no excuse for using unskilled personnel and un- cerning the duties of the watch, or may
satisfactory procedures when the skill of other assume charge of the watch, and shall do
ratings and the equipment they use are already so should it, in his judgment, be
available. necessary.”
“Relation with the Officer of the
WATCH DUTIES AND Deck. The engineering officer of the
RESPONSIBILITIES watch shall ensure that all orders re-
ceived from the officer of the deck are
As a first class or chief petty officer aboard promptly and properly executed. He shall
ship, you may be required to assist the division not permit the main engines to be turned
officer in organizing, supervising, and instructing except as authorized or ordered by the
other personnel in their military duties as well as officer of the deck.”


“Reports by the Engineering Officer department duty officer, assigned by the engineer
of the Watch. The engineering officer of officer, must be a qualified engineering officer of
the watch shall report promptly to the the watch. On some ships, chief petty officers may
officer of the deck and the engineer be assigned as the engineering department duty
officer any actual or probable derange- officer.
ment of machinery, boilers, or auxiliaries In the temporary absence of the engineer
which may affect the proper operation of officer, the duties of the engineer officer may be
the ship.” performed by the engineering department duty
officer. If the engineer officer is on board, the
“Reports to the Engineering Officer duty officer reports the condition of the depart-
of the Watch. The engineering officer of ment to him/her prior to the eight o’clock reports.
the watch shall be promptly informed of In the absence of the engineer officer, the duty
any engineering work or change in officer makes the eight o’clock reports for the
disposition of machinery which may department to the executive officer (or command
affect the proper operation of the plant duty officer).
or endanger personnel, or which is re- The engineering duty officer, in addition to
quired for entry in the record of his such other duties as may be properly assigned to
watch.” him/her, is responsible for:

“Inspection and Operation of 1. The alertness and proper performance of

Machinery. The engineering officer of the all personnel of the engineering watches.
watch shall cause frequent inspections to 2. The safe and economical operation of all
be made of the engines, boilers, and their engineering machinery and systems in use.
auxiliaries; and shall ensure that pre-
scribed tests, methods of operation, and 3. The elimination of fire and flooding
instructions pertaining to the safety of per- hazards and the prevention of sabotage.
sonnel and material are strictly observed.” 4. The security of all engineering spaces. In
order to determine the actual conditions that
“Records and Logs. The engineering exist in the engineering space and to evaluate the
officer of the watch shall ensure that the performance of watch personnel, the duty officer
engineering log, engineer’s bell book, and must make frequent inspections of the engineer-
prescribed operating records are properly ing spaces.
kept. On being relieved, he shall sign the 5. The proper maintenance of all machinery
engineering log and the engineer’s bell operating logs, and for writing and signing the
book for that watch.” engineering log for the period he/she is on duty.

Engineering Department The engineering department duty officer

Duty Officer makes reports in the same manner as the engineer-
ing officer of the watch, except that when acting
in place of the engineer officer, he/she is respon-
In ships not underway, the commanding sible for making the reports required of that
officer may authorize the standing of a day’s officer. Engineering watch supervisors and the
duty in lieu of the continuous watch of the duty petty officers of the engineering divisions
engineering officer of the watch. When author- report to the duty officer during the performance
ized, the duties of the engineering officer, of the of their duties.
watch are assigned in port to the engineering A chief petty officer who is a qualified
department duty officer. However, when not at engineroom watch supervisor underway may be
the station of the engineering officer of the watch, assigned a watch as the engineering department
the duty officer must always be ready for duty duty chief petty officer to assist the engineering
the moment he/she is summoned or notified that department duty officer. The duty chief petty
his/her presence is required. The engineering officer is normally assigned duty for the same


period as the duty office, and reports to that and that the prescribed pressure is maintained in
officer. the firemain.
Except in emergencies, the engineroom aux-
Standing Watches iliary watch does not make any changes such as
stopping, starting, or shifting ship’s service
As a watchstander, you will be the “eyes” of generators without first notifying the Electrician’s
the engineering department. You will be respon- Mate and the petty officer in charge of the watch.
sible for the orderly appearance and cleanliness A watch going off duty will not be considered
of your assigned station. Prior to standing watch, relieved until the floor plates are wiped, the
you should thoroughly inspect all existing condi- engineroom is clean, all operating logs and records
tions, such as the operating condition of are correct, and information concerning the status
machinery and firefighting equipment. You of the machinery in operation, orders, special
should also check your assigned area for leaks and orders, and non-completed orders have been given
potential fire hazards. If a casualty occurs, you to the relief.
should take immediate steps to control it, as well
as promptly notify the proper authority. COLD-IRON WATCHES.—Under certain
While on watch, you should strictly observe prescribed conditions (such as when a ship moves
all operating instructions, regulations, and alongside a repair ship or tender, or into a naval
safety precautions. You should never leave your shipyard, and is receiving power from these
station unless you have permission from proper activities) a security and fire watch is usually set
authority to do so, or are properly relieved. You by each division. This security watch is commonly
should promptly execute all standing or special known as a cold-iron watch. Each cold-iron watch
orders. When relieved, you should pass on to the makes frequent inspections of the assigned area
relieving watch all information concerning existing and checks for fire hazards, flooding, or other
conditions and special orders. unusual conditions throughout the area. The cold-
There are several watches that you may stand iron watch keeps bilges reasonably free of water
or for which you may be responsible. The stations in accordance with applicable instructions. Hourly
and duties of some of the watches commonly reports on existing conditions are made to the
stood by Enginemen are discussed in the follow- officer of the deck.
ing paragraphs. All unusual conditions are immediately
reported to the officer of the deck and to the
ENGINEROOM AUXILIARY WATCH.— engineering duty officer, so that the proper divi-
Auxiliary watches are maintained underway and sion or department can be notified to take the
in port to supply light, power, steam, and other necessary corrective measures. When welding or
services. The engineroom auxiliary watch main- burning is to be performed in the area, the cold-
tained in port includes a petty officer in charge iron watch checks to see that a fire watch is
and one or more Firemen. The petty officer in stationed.
charge is responsible for seeing that an efficient If the ship is in drydock, the watch must check
and economical watch is being stood. All all sea valves, after working hours, to see that the
machinery not in operation must be checked to valves are secured or blanked off. The watch must
see that it has been properly secured. make sure that oil or water is not being pumped
The petty officer in charge of the auxiliary into the drydock and that weights such as fuel oil,
watch is responsible for the proper operation of feedwater, or potable water are not shifted
the ship’s service generator and associated without permission of the engineer officer.
machinery; however, the operation of the elec-
trical equipment is the responsibility of an Elec- DUTY ASSIGNMENTS
trician’s Mate. The petty officer in charge checks
to see that all operating machinery is lubricated As an Engineman, you will be assigned duty
as prescribed by the operating instructions. aboard various types of ships, ranging from air-
He/she makes sure that the fire and flushing craft carriers to the smallest of river patrol boats.
pumps are inspected for satisfactory operation You will also be assigned shore duty. Your specific


duties will depend on the type and size of ship or It must be satisfactorily completed before
station to which you will be assigned. you can advance to EN1 or ENC, whether you
Aboard an aircraft carrier or a cruiser, you are in the Regular Navy or in the Naval Reserve.
may be assigned to the “A” division. As a
member of the “A” gang, you will be responsi- It is NOT designed to give you informa-
ble for a wide variety of tasks including the tion on the military requirements for advancement
operation, maintenance and repair of internal to PO1 or CPO. Rate training manuals that are
combustion engines, and the operation and specially prepared to give information on the
maintenance of auxiliary, refrigeration, and air military requirements are discussed in the section
conditioning equipment. of this chapter that deals with sources of
On diesel-driven ships, you may be assigned information.
to the “M” division or the “A” division. Your
responsibility will vary depending on the size of It is NOT designed to give you informa-
the ship. You may have charge of one of the tion that is related primarily to the qualifications
engineering spaces or the “A” gang and, on some for advancement to EN3 and EN2. Such infor-
small ships, you may act as the “M” division mation is given in Engineman 3 & 2, NAVED-
officer. TRA 10541 (current edition).
On a repair ship or tender, you may be as-
signed to the repair department. As an EN1 or
ENC, you may be in charge of one of the repair The occupational qualifications that were
shops such as the engine overhaul shop or the used as a guide in the preparation of this train-
governor and fuel injector shop, or you may be ing manual were those promulgated in the Navy
in charge of one of the repair gangs. You may Enlisted Manpower and Personnel Classifications
also be selected to attend Diesel Inspector’s school and Occupational Standards, NAVPERS 18068-D
and become a Navy diesel engine inspector. (1981). Therefore, changes in the Engineman
qualifications that may have occurred after the
Duty at most shore stations will depend on
your training and your field of specialization. You D edition became effective may not be reflected
may also be assigned as an instructor either at one in the information given in this training manual.
of the Engineman schools or at a recruit training
station, or a canvasser recruiter. To qualify for This training manual includes information
instructor duty, you must successfully complete that is related to both the knowledge and the Oc-
a course in instructor training. cupational Standards for advancement to EN1
As an Engineman, you may perform duty at and ENC. However, no training manual can take
the Naval Education and Training Program and the place of actual on-the-job experience for
Development Center, Pensacola, FL. Personnel developing skill in the practical factors. This train-
assigned to this activity are involved in either the ing manual can help you understand some of the
preparation of service-wide examinations for whys and wherefores, but you must combine
advancement or the preparation and revision of knowledge with practical experience before you
rate training manuals and other training materials. can develop the required skills. The Personnel Ad-
vancement Requirement, NAVPERS 1414/4,
should be utilized in conjunction with this training
SCOPE OF THIS manual whenever possible.
Before studying any book, it is a good idea Subsequent chapters in this training
to know the purpose and the scope of that book. manual deal with the technical subject matter of
Here are some things you should know about this the Engineman rating. Before studying these
training manual: chapters, study the table of contents and
note the arrangement of information. You will
It is designed to give you information on find it helpful to get an overall view of the
the occupational qualifications for advancement organization of this training manual before you
to EN1 and ENC. start to study it.


SOURCES OF INFORMATION Center. Each revised edition is identified by a

letter following the NAVEDTRA number. When
It is very important for you to have an exten- using this publication, be SURE you have the
sive knowledge of the references to consult for most recent edition.
detailed, authoritative, up-to-date information on In NAVEDTRA 10052, the required and
all subjects related to the military requirements recommended references are listed by pay grade
and to the occupational qualifications of the level. It is important to remember that you are
Engineman rating. responsible for all references used at lower levels,
Some of the publications discussed here are as well as those listed for the pay grade to which
subject to change or revision from time to time— you are seeking advancement.
some at regular intervals, others as the need arises.
When using any publication that is subject to Rate training manuals that are marked with
change or revision, be sure you have the latest edi- an asterisk (*) in NAVEDTRA 10052 are MAN-
tion. When using any publication that is kept cur- DATORY at the indicated levels. A mandatory
rent by means of changes, be sure you have a copy training manual may be completed by (1)
in which all official changes have been entered. passing the appropriate Enlisted Correspondence
Course based on the mandatory training manual,
(2) passing locally prepared tests based on the in-
NAVAL EDUCATION AND formation given in the mandatory training
TRAINING (NAVEDTRA) manual, or (3) in some cases, successfully
PUBLICATIONS graduating from an appropriate Navy school.
Originally, training manuals were developed It is important to note that all references,
by the Chief of Naval Training and carried the whether mandatory or recommended, listed in
designation NAVTRA followed by a number. In NAVEDTRA 10052, may be expected to be used
1973, the Naval Education and Training Produc- as source material for the written examinations
tion Development Center (NETPDC) came di- at the appropriate levels. In addition, references
rectly under the command of the Chief of Naval listed in a rate training manual may also be used
Education and Training (CNET). Training as source material for examination questions.
materials published by NETPDC after the above
date are designated NAVEDTRA in lieu of NAV- Rate Training Manuals
TRA; however, the numbers remain as originally
assigned for most publications. The designators
of publications printed prior to 1973 will be Most rate training manuals are written for the
changed as each publication is revised. specific purpose of helping personnel prepare for
The naval training publications described here advancement. Some manuals are general in nature
include some which are absolutely essential for and are intended for use by more than one rating;
anyone seeking advancement and some which, others (such as this one) are specific to a particular
although not essential, are extremely helpful. rating.
Rate training manuals are revised from time
NAVEDTRA 10052 to time to bring them up to date. The revision of
a rate training manual is identified by a letter
The Bibliography for Advancement Examina- following the NAVEDTRA number. You can tell
tion Study, NAVEDTRA 10052 is a very impor- whether or not a rate training manual you are
tant publication for anyone preparing for using is the latest edition by checking the NAVED-
advancement. This publication lists required and TRA number and the letter following it in the
recommended rate training manuals and other most recent edition of the List of Training
reference material to be used by personnel Manuals and Correspondence Courses, NAVED-
working for advancement. NAVEDTRA 10052 TRA 10061 (revised).
is revised and issued once each year by the Naval There are three rate training manuals that are
Education Training and Program Development specially prepared to present information on the


military requirements for advancement. These Engineman 3 & 2, NAVEDTRA 10541 (cur-
manuals are: rent edition), must be satisfactorily completed for
advancement to EN3 and EN2. If you have met
Basic Military Requirements, NAVEDTRA this requirement by satisfactorily completing
10054 (current edition) earlier editions of training manuals prepared for
Enginemen, you should at least become familiar
Military Requirements for Petty Officer with Engineman 3 & 2, NAVEDTRA 10541 (cur-
3 & 2, NAVEDTRA 10056 (current edition) rent edition). Much of the information given in
this edition of Engineman I & C is based on the
Military Requirements for Petty Officer assumption that you are familiar with the con-
I & C, NAVEDTRA 10057 (current edition) tents of Engineman 3 & 2, NAVEDTRA 10541
(current edition).
Each of the military requirements manuals is Rate training manuals prepared for other
mandatory at the indicated pay grade levels. In Group VII (Engineering and Hull) ratings are
addition to giving information on the military often a useful source of information. Reference
requirements, these three books give a good deal to these training manuals will broaden your
of useful information on the enlisted rating struc- knowledge of the duties and skills of other per-
ture; on how to prepare for advancement; on how sonnel in the engineering department. The train-
to supervise, train, and lead other people; and on ing manuals prepared for Machinist’s Mates,
how to meet increasing responsibilities as you ad- Boiler Technicians, and Machinery Repairmen are
vance in rating. likely to be of particular interest to you.
Some of the rate training manuals that may For a complete listing of rate training manuals,
be useful to you when you are preparing to meet consult the List of Training Manuals and Cor-
the occupational qualifications for advancement respondence Courses, NAVEDTRA 10061 (latest
are discussed briefly in the following paragraphs. revision).

Tools and Their Uses, NAVEDTRA 10085 Correspondence Courses

(current edition), contains a good deal of useful
information on the care and use of all types of Most rate training manuals and officer texts
handtools and portable power tools commonly are used as the basis for correspondence courses.
used in the Navy. Credit for the completion of a mandatory train-
ing manual is earned by passing the cor-
Blueprint Reading and Sketching, NAVED- respondence course that is based on that training
TRA 10077 (current edition), chapters 1 through manual. You will find it helpful to take other cor-
4 and chapter 7, recommended reading in prepar- respondence courses, as well as those that are
ing for advancement to EN2. The remainder of based on mandatory training manuals. A cor-
the training manual contains additional informa- respondence course helps you to master the in-
tion that may be of value to you as you prepare formation given in the training manual or text.
for advancement to EN1 and ENC. It also gives you a good idea of how much you
have learned.
Mathematics, Vol. 1, NAVEDTRA 10069
(current edition), and Mathematics, Vol. 2, NAVSEA PUBLICATIONS
NAVEDTRA 10071 (current edition), may be
helpful if you need to brush up on your
mathematics. Volume 1 contains basic informa- A number of publications issued by the Naval
tion that is needed for using formulas and for Sea Systems Command (NAVSEA) will be of in-
making simple computations. Volume 2 contains terest to you. While you do not need to know
more advanced information than you will need everything that is given in the publications men-
for most purposes. However, occasionally, you tioned here, you should have a general idea of
may find the information in this book to be where to find information in NAVSEA
helpful. publications.


The Naval Ships’ Technical Manual is a basic on operation, maintenance, and repair of
doctrine publication of NAVSEA. To allow the machinery and equipment. The manufacturers’
ship to distribute copies to the working spaces technical manuals for internal combustion engines
where information is required, chapters are now and associated equipment are usually given
issued as separate paper-bound volumes. Chapters NAVSEA numbers.
are kept up to date by means of yearly revisions.
Chapters are reviewed less frequently where yearly
revisions are not necessary. In chapters where TRAINING FILMS
intra-year changes are required, either an intra-
year edition or a NAVSEA Notice is distributed Training films which are available to naval
as a temporary supplement for use pending issue personnel are a valuable source of supplementary
of the new edition of the chapter. information on many technical subjects. Films
You will find chapters in Naval Ships’ that may be of interest to you are listed in the
Technical Manual of particular importance to the Department of the Navy Catalog of Audiovisual
Engineman referenced in this training manual. Production Products, OPNAVINST 3 157.1.
For a list of all chapters in the manual, see When selecting a film, note its date of issue
appendix A, chapter 001. in the film catalog. As you know, procedures
The Deck Plate is a monthly publication which sometimes change rapidly. Thus some films
contains interesting and useful information on all become obsolete rapidly. If a film is obsolete
aspects of shipboard engineering. This magazine only in part, it may sometimes be shown effec-
is particularly useful because it presents informa- tively if before or during its showing you carefully
tion which supplements and clarifies information point out to trainees the procedures that have
contained in the Naval Ships’ Technical Manual changed. When you plan to show a film to train
and because it presents information on new equip- personnel, take a look at it in advance if possible
ment, policies, and procedures. so that you may spot material that may have
Manufacturers’ technical manuals that are fur- become obsolete, then verify current procedures
nished with most machinery units and many types by looking them up in the appropriate sources
of equipment are valuable sources of information before showing the film.


The higher you go in the Navy, the more ADMINISTRATION AND
responsibility you will have for administration, SUPERVISION
supervision, and training. This chapter deals
briefly with some of your administrative and As an Engineman, you will have ad-
supervisory responsibilities and then takes up cer- ministrative and supervisory responsibilities in
tain aspects of your responsibility for training connection with engineroom and auxiliary opera-
others. tions and with equipment maintenance and repair.
Although it is possible to consider administra-
tion, supervision, and training as three separate OPERATIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES
areas of responsibility, it is important to
remember that the three cannot be totally The engineering department administrative
separated. Much of your work requires you to ad- organization is set up to provide a means for the
minister, supervise, and train, all at the same time. proper assignment of duties and for the proper
For example, consider a pump overhaul job. As supervision of personnel. However, no organiza-
an administrator, you will schedule the job, check tion can run itself. Personnel—including you—
on the history of the pump, and see that the are needed to see that all pertinent instructions
required forms and reports are submitted. are carried out; that all machinery, equipment,
and piping systems are operated in accordance
As a supervisor, you will actually oversee the with good engineering practice; that operating
work and make sure it is done correctly. As a instructions and safety precautions are posted by
trainer, you will provide information and instruc- the machinery and obeyed by all engineroom
tion on repair parts, repair procedures and personnel; that all watchstanders are properly
policies, safety precautions, and other matters. supervised; that records and reports are filled-in
These administrative, supervisory, and train- correctly and submitted as required; and that the
ing tasks have a direct relationship to the job at entire engineering plant is operated with max-
hand—namely, the overhaul of the pump. But the imum reliability, efficiency, and safety.
pump overhaul job can’t even get started unless In order for you to monitor and record your
a variety of administrative, supervisory, and train- plant’s status and performance, you need to know
ing functions are performed on a continuing basis. which engineering records and reports for the
Materials, repair parts, and tools must be administration, maintenance, and repair of naval
available when they are needed; jobs must be ships are prescribed by directives from such
scheduled with due regard to the urgency of other authorities as the Type Commander, Naval Ship
work; records must be kept and reports must be Systems Command (NAVSHIPS), and Chief of
submitted; and personnel must be in a continuous Naval Operations (CNO). These records must be
state of training so that they can assume increas- accurate and up to date in accordance with cur-
ingly important duties and responsibilities. The rent instructions.
only way to keep things running smoothly is to As an EN3 and EN2, you have been primarily
take your administrative, supervisory, and train- concerned with operating logs and similar records.
ing responsibilities seriously. As an EN1 or ENC, you will have new supervisory


duties which will require that you have a greater Entries in the Engineering Log must be made
knowledge of engineering paperwork and the in accordance with instructions given (1) on the
associated administrative procedures. Supervisory log sheet (NAVSEA 3120/2), (2) in chapter 10 of
duties and responsibilities require a knowledge of U.S. Navy Regulations, (3) in Naval Ships’
engineering records as well as of such items as Technical Manual, chapter 9004, and (4) in direc-
inspections, administrative procedures, training, tives of the type commander.
preventive maintenance, and repair procedures. Remarks written in the Engineering Log must
Information on the most common engineer- include (1) boilers in use, (2) engine combination
ing records and reports is given in this chapter. in use, (3) major speed changes (such as 1/3, 2/3,
These standard forms are prepared by the various standard, and full), (4) all injuries to personnel
systems commands and CNO. The forms are for occurring within the department, (5) casualties
issue to forces afloat and can be obtained as occurring to material under the cognizance of the
indicated in the Navy Stock List of Forms and engineering department, and (6) such other mat-
Publications, NAVSUP 2002. Since these forms ters as may be specified by competent authority.
are revised as conditions warrant, personnel order- Each entry must be a complete statement and
ing forms must be sure that the most current employ standard phraseology. The type com-
forms are obtained. When complementary forms mander’s directives contain other specific
are necessary for local use, make certain that an requirements pertaining to the “remarks” section
existing standard form will not serve the purpose of Engineering Logs for ships of the type; the
before having complementary forms prepared and engineer officer must ensure compliance with
printed. these directives.
The original Engineering Log, prepared neatly
Legal Engineering Records and legibly in ink or pencil, is the legal record.
The remarks should be prepared—and must be
The Engineering Log and the Engineer’s Bell signed—by the engineering officer of the watch
Book are the only legal records compiled by the (EOOW) (underway) or the engineering depart-
engineering department. The Engineering Log is ment duty officer (in port). No erasures are per-
a midnight-to-midnight record of the ship’s mitted in the log. When a correction is deemed
necessary, a single line is drawn through the
engineering department. The Engineer’s Bell Book
original entry so that the entry remains legible and
is a legal record of any order regarding change
in the movement of the propellers. the correct entry is inserted in such a manner as
to ensure clarity and legibility. Corrections,
ENGINEERING LOG.—The Engineering additions, or changes are made only by the per-
Log, NAVSEA 3120/2 (figure 2-1), and the Log son required to sign the log for the watch and are
Continuation Sheet, NAVSEA 3120/2A, are initialed by him on the margin of the page.
used to record important daily events and data The engineer officer verifies the accuracy and
pertaining to the engineering department and the completeness of all entries and signs the log
operation of the engineering plant. A table is pro- daily. The commanding officer approves the log
vided in the log for recording the hourly average and signs the log on the last calendar day of each
rpm (to the nearest tenth) of all shafts and the month and on the date he relinquishes command.
resultant speed, in knots. Additional tables and The engineer officer should require that the log
spaces are provided for recording the ship’s draft sheets be submitted to him in sufficient time to
and displacement (upon getting underway and allow him to check and sign them prior to noon
anchoring or mooring); the total engine miles of the first day following the date of the log
steamed for the day and the distance traveled sheet(s).
through water; the number of days out of dock; When the commanding officer (or engineer
the amount of fuel, water, and lubricating oil on officer) directs a change or addition to the
hand, received, and expended; the name of the Engineering Log, the person concerned must
ship, the date, and the location or route of the comply unless he believes the proposed change or
ship; and remarks chronicling important events. addition to be incorrect; in this event the


Figure 2-1.—Engineering Log—All ships.


commanding officer (or engineer officer) enters B2/3 — back 2/3 speed
such remarks over his signature as he deems ap- BF — back full speed
propriate. After the log has been signed by the BEM — back emergency speed
commanding officer, no change is permitted
without his permission or direction. 4. The number of revolutions corresponding
Completed Engineering Log sheets are filed to the major speed change ordered is entered in
in a post-type binder. Pages of the log are column 3. (NOTE: When the order received is
numbered consecutively with a new series of page recorded as rpm in column 2 (minor speed
numbers commencing with the first day of each changes), no entry is made in column 3.)
calendar year. 5. The shaft revolution counter reading (total
rpm) at the time of the speed change is recorded
ENGINEER’S BELL BOOK.—The in column 4. The shaft revolution counter
Engineer’s Bell Book, NAVSEA 3120/ 1 (figure reading—as taken hourly on the hour, while
2-2), is a record of all bells, signals, and other underway—also is entered in column 4.
orders received by the throttleman regarding
movement of the ship’s propellers. Entries are Ships and craft equipped with controllable
made in the Bell Book by the throttleman (or an reversible pitch propellers record in column 4 the
assistant) as soon as an order is received. Entries propeller pitch in feed and fractions of feet set
may be made by an assistant when the ship is in response to a signaled speed change, rather than
entering or leaving port, or engaging in any the shaft revolution counter readings. The entries
maneuver which is likely to involve numerous or for astern pitch are preceded by the letter B. Each
rapid speed changes. This procedure allows the hour on the hour, entries are made of counter
throttleman to devote his undivided attention to readings, thus facilitating the calculation of engine
answering the signals. miles steamed during those hours when the
The Bell Book is maintained in the following propeller pitch remains constant at the last value
manner: set in response to a signaled order.
Before going off watch, the EOOW signs the
1. A separate bell sheet is used for each shaft Bell Book on the line following the last entry for
each day, except where more than one shaft is his watch and the next EOOW continues the
controlled by the same throttle station, in which record immediately thereafter. In machinery
case the same bell sheet is used to record the orders spaces where an EOOW is not stationed, the bell
for all shafts controlled by the station. All sheets sheet is signed by the watch supervisor.
for the same date are filed together as a single The Bell Book is maintained by bridge per-
record. sonnel in ships and craft equipped with con-
2. The time of receipt of the order is recorded trollable reversible pitch propellers, and in which
in column number 1 (figure 2-2). the engines are directly controlled from the bridge.
3. The order received is recorded in column When control is shifted to the engineroom,
number 2. Minor speed changes (generally re- however, the Bell Book is maintained by the
ceived via revolution telegraph) are recorded by engineroom personnel. The last entry made in the
entering the number of rpm ordered. Major speed Bell Book on the bridge indicates the time that
changes (normally received via engine order control is shifted; and the first entry made in the
telegraph) are recorded using the following Bell Book in the engineroom indicates the time
symbols: that control is taken by the engineroom.
Similarly, the last entry made by engineroom per-
1/3 — ahead 1/3 speed sonnel indicates when control is shifted to the
2/3 —ahead 2/3 speed bridge. When the Bell Book is maintained by the
I —ahead standard speed bridge personnel, it is signed by the officer of the
II —ahead full speed deck (OOD) in the same manner as prescribed for
III —ahead flank speed the EOOW.
Z —stop Alterations or erasures are not permitted in
B1/3 — back 1/3 speed the Bell Book. An incorrect entry is corrected by


Figure 2-2.—Engineer’s Bell Book, NAVSEA 3120/1.


drawing a single line through the entry and the record are immediately reported to the
recording the correct entry on the following line. engineer officer and the record is sent to the
Deleted entries are initialed by the EOOW, the engineer officer for approval.
OOD, or the watch supervisor, as appropriate.
Operating Records and Reports maintenance of daily diesel fuel, lubricating oil,
and water accounts is vital to the efficient opera-
tion of the engineering department. Forms and
Engineering operating records are meant to procedures necessary to account for and preserve
ensure regular inspection of operating machinery a limited supply of freshwater and fuel are
and to provide data for performance analysis. generally prescribed by the type commanders.
Operating records are not intended to replace fre- Principally, the accounts inform the engineer
quent inspections of operating machinery by officer of the status of the ship’s liquid load and
supervisory personnel and are not to be trusted form the basis of reports submitted to higher
implicitly to provide warning of impending authority by the engineer officer.
casualties. Personnel who maintain operating It is fundamental to all naval operations that
records must be properly indoctrinated. They the ship and unit commanders know the exact
must be trained to correctly obtain, interpret, and amount of burnable fuel on hand. When com-
record data, and to report any abnormal condi- puting the amount of burnable fuel on board,
tions noted. consider only the fuel in the service and storage
The type commander’s directives specify tanks. All the fuel below the fuel suction line is
which engineering operating records will be main- to be considered not burnable.
tained and prescribe the forms to be used when
no standard record forms are provided. The FUEL AND WATER REPORTS.—The Fuel
engineer officer may require additional operating and Water Report, NAVSEA 9255/9 (figures 2-5
records when (all factors considered—including and 2-6), is a report submitted daily to the com-
the burden of added paperwork) he deems them manding officer. This report indicates the amount
necessary. of fuel oil and water on hand as of midnight, the
The operating records discussed in this chapter previous day. The Fuel and Water Report also
are generally retained on board for a period of includes the previous day’s feed and potable water
2 years, after which time they may be destroyed performance and results of water tests. The
in accordance with current disposal regulations. original and one copy are submitted to the OOD
Completed records must be stowed where they will in sufficient time for submission to the command-
be properly preserved, and in such a manner as ing officer or command duty officer with the
to ensure that any one of the records can be 1200 reports. The copy is retained by the OOD.
easily located.
DIESEL ENGINE OPERATING Summary of Fuel Inventory and Steaming Hours
RECORD.—The Diesel Engine Operating Report is a comprehensive monthly report of
Record-all Ships, NAVSEA 9231/2 (figures 2-3 engineering data from which the operating effi-
and 2-4), is a daily record maintained for each ciency and general performance of the ship’s
operating diesel engine. In ships with more than engineering plant can be calculated (see figure
one main engine in the same engineroom, a 2-7). Requirements for this report are contained
separate record sheet is maintained for each in Fleet Commander Instructions. This report is
operating engine. prepared by the engineer officer and verified, as
The watch supervisor enters the remarks and to fuel receipts, by the supply officer. Then, it
signs the record for his watch. The petty officer is approved and forwarded by the commanding
in charge of the engineroom or the senior officer directly to the fleet commander. A copy
engineman checks the accuracy of the record and is retained on board in the files of the engineer-
signs the record in the space provided on the back ing department. An additional copy of the report
of the record. Any unusual conditions noted in may be provided to the type commander.

Page 2-7

Figure 2-3.—Diesel Engine Operating Record—All ships.

Page 2-8

Figure 2-4.—Diesel Engine Operating Record—All ships (Back).


Figure 2-5.—Fuel and Water Report (Front).


Figure 2-6.—Fuel and Water Report (Back).


Figure 2-7.—Monthly Summary of Fuel and Steaming Hours Report, CINCLANT FLT Report 3100-4.


The Monthly Summary includes the ship’s fuel certified by the engineer officer as being true
receipts data, fuel consumption and steaming copies for the ship’s files.
hours necessary to establish monthly financial At regular intervals, such as each quarter, the
obligations, and fuel requirements data for budget parts of those records that are over 3 years old
justification. It also generates management are destroyed. When a ship that is less than 3 years
reports for fuel receipts by operational and type old is decommissioned, the current books are re-
commanders. This report includes all fuel data as tained. If a ship is scrapped, the current books
of 2400 hours of the last day of the month and are forwarded to the nearest Naval Records
must be forwarded within 5 days of completion Management Center.
of the reporting month. Fleet Commander All reports forwarded to, and received from,
Instructions contain detailed instructions for com- NAVSEA or other superior command may be
pleting the forms, as well as the definitions of the destroyed when 2 years old, if they are no longer
terms used. required.
In addition to data on fuel inventory, the Only those reports which are required or serve
report contains space for fuel consumed under- a specified purpose should be maintained on
way, fuel consumed not underway, and fuel con- board ship. However, any report or record which
sumed by boats. Space is also provided for total may assist personnel in scheduling or making
steaming hours broken down as underway and not repairs and which will supply personnel with
underway. information which is not contained in publications
or manuals should also be kept on board.
Most engineer officers prefer to compile the
necessary data for this summary on a daily basis Trend and Spectrographic
rather than wait until the end of the month and Analysis
make computations from the various records. The
mathematical accuracy of the computations must Two types of inspections and tests that can be
be observed when the report is being prepared to used to “spot” impending trouble in an internal
avoid the necessity of resubmitting a corrected combustion engine before it can seriously affect
form later. its operation are called trend and spectrographic
analyses. We will now discuss and explain their
Disposal of Engineering importance and use in detecting problems in
Records and Reports internal combustion engines.


Before any of the engineering department maintenance receives a great deal of attention
records are destroyed, the Disposal of Navy and from everyone in the field of diesel engine opera-
Marine Corps Records, USN and USNS Vessels, tion, since the idea of letting an engine run as long
SECNAVINST P5212.5 (revised), should be as it will run and fixing it only after a breakdown
studied. This publication informs ships of the occurs is not only foolish, but extremely costly.
Navy of the procedures used for disposing of On the other hand, it would be just as foolish to
records. For each department aboard ship, these be constantly tearing down an engine for inspec-
instructions list the permanent records which must tion. It is a known fact that vital parts of an engine
be kept, and the temporary records which may last longer and operate better if they are not
be disposed of in accordance with an established tampered with unnecessarily. Therefore an
schedule. attempt must be made to find a happy medium
Both the Engineering Log and Engineer’s Bell between these two forms of maintenance.
Book must be preserved as permanent records on One way is to determine the condition of an
board ship for a 3-year period unless they are re- engine is by monitoring its operation. This is done
quested by a Naval Court or Board, or by the by regularly obtaining certain engine operating
Navy Department. In such case, copies (preferably data and by studying, and analyzing, and com-
photostatic) of such sheets or parts of these paring it with previous data. This information is
records that are sent away from the ship are then reduced to a form which all engineering


personnel can interpret and, based on the findings, These data are then plotted on 10 × 10 lines
decide whether or not the engine needs to be per inch graph paper as shown on the examples
overhauled in order to ward off serious and costly (figures 2-8 through 2-15). For convenience, the
damage or just be temporarily shut down for some first points are located at zero time for an engine
simple maintenance. that has just been overhauled or at the number
The key to utilizing engine performance data of hours on the engine since the last overhaul (0,
as a tool is to make graphs from the data which 400, 1000, 1600 hours, etc.). The first point for
show at a glance the signs of impending distress. lube oil consumption occurs at 200 engine hours.
Analysis of this graphical display is commonly This is done because it is easier to start with a full
called trend analysis. engine sump and monitor the amount of oil
In order to get a good indication of the engine added each 200 hours to obtain the consumption
condition, the following specific items are rate. Once the initial points have been plotted, all
recorded. that is required is to record and plot the same
information each 200 hours and observe the trends
1. Cylinder compression pressures. that develop. (NOTE: remember to always take
2. Cylinder firing pressures. data under the same controlled conditions!)
3. Fuel pump rack or governor power piston
position. A close look at the sample graphs will reveal
4. Cylinder exhaust temperature. how they can be used to determine engine condi-
5. Crankcase vacuum. tion. For purposes of illustration, the ideal trend
6. Lubricating oil pressure at engine inlet or of each graphed value is shown for a hypothetical
upper header. engine. Unfortunately, the Navy does not have
7. Manifold air or scavenging air pressure. too many ideal engines so some samples of
problem indications that may be expected are also
To produce meaningful graphs, all data must included.
be plotted under the same conditions, and be ob- On figures 2-8 and 2-9, a high, average, and
tained at some readily duplicated condition. It is low value is plotted for both firing and compres-
not important that the engine be under full load sion pressures. Under normal conditions these
at full speed when taking data, but it is impor- curves will remain flat until the engine is
tant that all data be obtained under similar con- approaching the time of overhaul, then the curves
ditions. For example: will start to fall off. The high and low firing
pressures will remain at about ± 50 psi (100 psi
1. Always obtain data from generator sets at spread) from the average firing pressure for a well-
80% load and 100% speed. balanced engine. If you look at figure 2-8 you can
2. Always obtain data from propulsion see that a decided drop in firing pressure has oc-
engines; for example, standard or full. curred at 1600 hours (point A). This failure in the
compressing pressures indicates that the rings are
Data need not be plotted daily. In most cases, either sticking, broken, or beginning to wear; that
a set of readings should be plotted every 200 hours the valves are not functioning properly; or that
of operation. In some cases it may be prudent to the liner is beginning to score or possibly that a
repeat a set of readings when a large change in piston has cracked. Remember that any change
operating characteristics has apparently occurred. in a curve (beyond normal limits) indicates that
The first step in preparing the graphs for trend immediate attention is required. At this point, it
analysis is to collect the data. This is done by should be pointed out that more than one
observing and recording the above items with the indicator will usually reveal the same distress
engine operated at a selected type of condition for signal. Therefore, before any corrective action is
a sufficient time, prior to taking data, to allow taken, it is best to make a study of other curves
pressures and temperatures to stabilize. (It can be to deny or confirm the problem. In this case check
assumed that conditions have stabilized when lube the lube oil consumption, crankcase vacuum, and
oil and freshwater temperatures are within ± 5° exhaust temperature curves. In figures 2-9, 2-10,
of the normal operating temperatures. and 2-15 the typical indications for this problem


Figure 2-8.— Firing Pressure Graph.

Figure 2-9.—Compression Pressure Graph.


Figure 2-10.—Crankcase Vacuum Graph.

Figure 2-11.—Exhaust Temperature Graph.


Figure 2-12.—Lube Oil Pressure Graph.

Figure 2-13.—Scavenging Pressure Graph.


Figure 2-14.—Rack Setting Graph.

Figure 2-15.—Lube Oil Consumption Graph.


are marked as point A. All indications point to deterioration or a decrease in engine combustion
a definite internal problem in one cylinder. No efficiency.
rise in lube oil consumption is indicated (point A The lubrication oil consumption graph (figure
on figure 2-15) because a slightly worn set of rings 2-15) is for the lubricating oil consumption in
or liner probably would not cause a measurable gallons per 200 hours operation. It should be
increase in lube oil consumption. The logs should noted that the values on this curve are initially
now be consulted to find the problem cylinder and very high. They decrease and then remain nearly
initiate appropriate repairs. constant until the engine is approaching its
If only firing pressures and exhaust overhaul time. The initial high consumption is due
temperature are low, the fuel system should be to unseated piston rings. As rings become seated,
checked on the problem cylinder. the consumption will decrease to a normal value
The crankcase vacuum graph (figure 2-10) and remain nearly constant until the rings or liners
indicates ring, piston, or liner condition. As long begin to wear. Any significant increase in lube oil
as everything is normal, this curve will also be flat. consumption must be carefully evaluated to deter-
A cracked piston, worn rings, or liner will increase mine if the oil is really being consumed in the
blow-by, causing decreased crankcase vacuum. If engine or is being lost because of external leaks.
crankcase vacuum decreases with no change in Too many times an engine is assumed to be at
other indicators, the crankcase scavenging system fault when lube oil is really being lost due to
should be checked for proper operation. An leakage.
increase in crankcase vacuum may be caused by
a clogged intake screen. Review of figures 2-8 through 2-15 will also
indicate other problems that are not discussed in
The exhaust temperature graph (figure 2-11) this text. Each sample problem is marked on the
indicates general cylinder conditions and engine various graphs at the appropriate engine hours so
balance, although this item is not necessarily a a study of the samples can be made.
definite indication of trouble itself. Any abnor-
mal temperature with no accompanying change In conclusion, operational graphs show the
in the various other indicators can usually be condition of the engine. They show what is hap-
attributed to a faulty pyrometer. The pyrometer pening, what needs to be done, and what has to
in question should then be carefully inspected and be planned for in advance. The life expectancy
tested before any other inspections or adjustments of vital parts can be determined from these curves,
are accomplished. and the parts can be renewed before they reach
The lube oil pressure graph (figure 2-12) the point of failure.
indicates the engine bearing condition, lube oil The trend analysis program must be followed
pump condition, piping conditions, by-pass relief closely, especially during the initial period of the
valve conditions, etc. Lube oil pressure obtained program when care must be taken to ensure that
at the upper header of Fairbanks Morse opposed the data gathered are meaningful. However, if the
piston engines is particularly useful in monitor- condition of any particular engine indicates that
ing the condition of the internal portion of the an overhaul is required to maintain it operational,
lube oil system. this should be accomplished at the earliest possi-
The manifold pressure graph (figure 2-13) ble time.
indicates the condition of the scavenging system.
Increasing air box pressures indicate port ENGINE LUBE OIL ANALYSIS.—
clogging, while reduced air box pressures indicate Spectrometric oil analysis is another valuable tool
some abnormality in the air intake systems, which can be used to determine the extent of
blower, or turbocharger. Both of these cases re- accelerated wear in internal combustion engines
quire immediate attention. and other machinery which use closed lube oil or
The fuel rack or governor power piston posi- hydraulic oil systems. By the use of spectrometric
tion graph (figure 2-14) indicates the general con- oil analysis, the accelerated wear in machinery can
dition of the fuel system. Increased rack settings be detected without disassembling the equipment
for a given power output indicate fuel pump long before there is any other indication of


immediate trouble. As a result of this type of Element Concentration In

analysis, skilled maintenance personnel have been
able to pinpoint wear areas early, and to take Standard Reference Specimen Standard Deviation
corrective and preventive maintenance action (Range in PPM) (Maximum in PPM)
during an emergency or on a pre-planned basis
as determined by the type of accelerated wear 3- 9 1.5
detected. By replacing worn out minor parts a 10 - 19 2
major failure can be prevented, and the require- 20 - 49 3
ment for costly parts replacements of complete 50 - 99 5
overhaul of the equipment can be eliminated. 100 - 199 8
200 - 500 15
Ships shall maintain accurate records of
operating hours since major overhauls, oil Figure 2-16.—Element Concentrations.
changes, and samplings in order to provide the
testing facility with the information requested in
the sampling kit. (COMNAVSURFLANT uses following elements in parts per million (ppm). (See
the services of the Charleston Naval Shipyard and figure 2-16.)
COMNAVSURFPAC uses Intermediate
Maintenance Activities (IMA) for analyzing oil Iron (Fe) Nickel (Ni) *Sodium (Na)
samples from machinery employing closed lube Lead (Pb) Silver (Ag) Phosphorus (P)
oil/hydraulic systems.) In addition, a record of Copper (Cu) Tin (Sn) Zinc (Zn)
conditions found and repairs effected as a result Chromium (Cr) Silicon (Si) Calcium (Ca)
of inspections conducted following recom- Aluminum (Al) Boron (B) Barium (Ba)
mendations of the laboratory must also be
maintained. *Only when evidence of water is present.

When the shipyard or IMA laboratory receives Testing will be done for all the above elements.
the oil sample, a physical test and a spectrometric
analysis are performed. The physical test consists The sensitivity and reliability of the equipment
of the following: used for the test will be such that the standard
deviation obtained in the analysis for each
1. All samples are tested for fuel dilution, and specified element must not exceed the appropriate
a report is provided to all concerned by percent value shown in figure 2-16.
volume as per requirements of ASTM D92057. Additional information on trend analysis and
oil spectrometric analysis is contained in COM-
2. All samples are tested for solids by NAVSURFLANTINST 9000.1 or COMNAV-
centrifuge to show the amount of suspended
particles separately from precipitated solids. The
test must differentiate between those fine particles
suspended by the active compounds in the oil and RESPONSIBILITIES
those that can settle out of the oil spontaneously
to give a ratio of colloidal/precipitated solids.

3. Allowable “use limits” are tested and In order to fulfill your maintenance and repair
responsibilities along with your administrative and
recorded. supervisory responsibilities you must plan your
work ahead of time.
When the physical test is completed the You must determine all the work that must
shipyard/IMAs should make a spectrometric be done and prepare a schedule to ensure that it
analysis of each used oil sample, then record and is done. You must also keep your schedule flexi-
report to all concerned the concentrations of the ble enough to allow unexpected maintenance and


repair work to be done whenever the need for such The fact that materials and repair parts are
work arises. not specified in the instructions accompanying a
Review the Maintenance and Material job does not mean that you are free to use your
Management (3-M) Manual, OPNAVINST own judgment in selecting parts and materials to
4790.4, it will make your planning and schedul- accomplish a job. Instead, it usually means that
ing considerably easier. you must know where to look for information on
the type of material or repair parts needed, then
locate and requisition them in order to complete
Materials and Repair Parts the assigned job.
There are several shipboard sources of infor-
The responsibility for maintaining adequate mation that will be useful to you in identifying
stocks of engineroom repair parts and repair the equipment and/or the repair parts needed.
materials belongs at least as much to you as it does They include the Coordinated Shipboard
to the supply department. The duties of the supply Allowance List (COSAL); nameplates on the
officer are to procure, receive, stow, issue, and equipment; manufacturer’s technical manuals;
account for the support of the ship. However, the and ships’ plans, blueprints, and other drawings.
supply officer is not the prime user of repair parts
and repair materials; the initiative for maintain- COORDINATED SHIPBOARD ALLOW-
ing adequate stocks of repair materials, parts, and ANCE LIST (COSAL).—The COSAL is
equipment must come from the personnel who are both a technical and a supply document prepared
going to use such items. Namely You! for an individual ship. It lists the equipment or
Basic information on supply matters is given components required for the ship’s operation; the
in Military Requirements for PO 3 & 2, NAVED- repair parts and special tools required, the
TRA 10056 (current edition), Military Re- overhaul and repair equipment, and the
quirements for PO 1 & C, NAVEDTRA 10057 miscellaneous portable items necessary for the
(current edition), and OPNAVINST 4790.4, care and upkeep of the ship.
volume II. For your purpose, the COSAL is the basic
source of information on repair parts and
materials needed for a job. A COSAL gives you
Identification of Repair information on such items as the noun name of
Parts and Materials a system (engine, pump, ejector, etc.), the
manufacturer’s name and the I.D. number
Identification of repair parts and materials is (General Motors Corporation #3255), the
not usually a great problem when you are deal- technical manual number for the system, the
ing with familiar equipment on your own ship; manufacturer’s drawing numbers, and the
but it may present problems when you are doing Allowance Parts List (APL) numbers for related
repair work for other ships, as you would if systems (governor’s, starters, transmissions, etc.).
assigned to the machine shop on a repair ship or In addition, COSAL provides specific informa-
tender. tion about National Stock numbers (NSNs), units
The materials and repair parts to be used are of issue, costs, and the number of items needed.
specified for many repair jobs but not for all. It may also include lists of part numbers and
When materials or parts are not identified in the Federal Stock Numbers (FSNs) for crossover
instructions accompanying a job, you will either checks.
have to use your own judgment or do research To request materials and repair parts from the
to find out just what material or part should be supply department aboard ship, you must fill out
used. When you must make the decision yourself, and submit a NAVSUP Form 1250, a single item
select materials on the basis of the service condi- consumption/management document. If the item
tions they must withstand. Operating pressure and is not stocked aboard ship, the supply department
operating temperature are primary considerations will requisition the material from a supply activity,
in selecting materials and parts for most using the identifying information that you have
engineroom repair work. given on the NAVSUP Form 1250. However, if


all the information you have available is a 2. Work informally with the supply depart-
manufacturer’s part number, then you must also ment personnel who are actually responsible for
fill out and submit, along with the NAVSUP identifying and requesting material. You have the
Form 1250, a DD-1348-6 Form, NON-NSN REQ- technical knowledge, and you know what you
UISITION. For information on how to fill out need. If you cannot find the correct stock number,
these supply forms, review Military Requirements however, your job is to give enough standard iden-
for PO 3 & 2, volume II of OPNAVINST 4790.4, tification information, such as manufacturer part
or ask your ship’s supply personnel for assistance. numbers, and Allowance Parts List/Component
Whenever you find it necessary to request Identification Description (APL/CID) numbers,
materials or repair parts, remember two things: so that supply personnel on board ship or ashore
can identify the item you want. Experienced
1. If at all possible, find the correct NSN for supply personnel are familiar with identification
each item requested. All materials now in the publications and can help you to locate the cor-
supply system have been assigned an NSN, and rect stock numbers and other important identi-
you should be able to locate them by using the fying information.
COSAL and the other sources of information
available to you such as the following: SHIP EQUIPMENT CONFIGURATION
a. NAMEPLATES on equipment supply structure or composition of either the ship or a
information regarding the characteristics of the particular system or equipment on board a ship
equipment. Nameplate data seldom, if ever, is modified, this modification must be
include the exact materials required for repairs; documented. This action will ensure proper ac-
however, the information given on the counting of configuration changes, and will help
characteristics of the equipment and on pressure improve supply and maintenance support
and temperature limitations may provide useful technical manuals, PMS coverage, updated
clues for the selection of materials. COSAL, etc., to your ship. SECAS is the
b. MANUFACTURERS’ TECHNICAL designated system responsible for maintaining the
MANUALS are furnished with all machinery and configuration status reported by your ship.
equipment aboard ship. Materials and repair parts Although the responsibility for identifying and
are sometimes described in the text of these reporting these changes rests at all levels of the
technical manuals; more commonly, however, command, the work center supervisor is respon-
details of materials and parts are given on the sible for ensuring that the proper documentation
drawings. Manufacturers’ catalogs of repair parts is completed and processed as described in volume
are also furnished with some shipboard equip- II of OPNAVINST 4790.4.
ment; when available, these catalogs are a valuable
source of information on repair parts and OPNAV Form 4790/CK, Ship’s Configura-
materials. tion Change Form, is used to report configura-
tion changes at the individual equipment level.
OTHER DRAWINGS available on board ship are SHIP-TO-SHOP WORK.—Many repair jobs
excellent sources of information on materials and are designated by the ship or approved by the
parts to be used in making various kinds of repair activity as “ship-to-shop” jobs. In this type
repairs. Many of these plans and blueprints are of job, the ship’s force does a large part of the
furnished in the regular large sizes; but lately, repair work. For example, the repair or renewal
microfilm is being used increasingly for these of a damaged pump shaft might well be written
drawings. Information obtained from plans, up as a ship-to-shop job. The ship’s force will
blueprints, and other drawings should always be disassemble the pump and remove the shaft. Then
checked against the information given on the the shaft and any necessary blueprints or technical
ship’s COSAL to be sure that any changes made manuals are delivered to the designated shop of
since the original installation have been noted on the repair activity. After the shaft has been
the drawings. repaired, or a new one has been made, it is


picked up and brought back to the ship by the completion of specific PMS requirements; to
ship’s force. The pump is reassembled, inspected, request repair of equipment or services from
and tested by the ship’s force to make sure that IMAs or shipyards; or can be used to describe
it is operating satisfactorily. equipment malfunctions. OPNAV Form 4790/2L
An important thing to remember is that while is a supplemental form which you use to provide
the repair facility is responsible for ensuring that amplifying information relating to a maintenance
its personnel repair or manufacture this shaft to action described on a corresponding 4790/2K. The
the manufacturer’s specifications, perform all OPNAV 4790/2L may also be used to list: Multi-
tests required by Quality Assurance (QA), and fill ple item serial numbers and locations for which
out properly all the required forms, it is your identical maintenance requirements exist from an
responsibility to witness any test required by QA, outside activity; and Drawings and sketches.
to monitor the status of the job at all times, and OPNAV Form 4790/2Q is an automated work
to reassemble and test operate the equipment request produced by an IMA with computer
properly, so that the end results will produce a capabilities. The “2Q” is produced from the
reliable operating piece of equipment. original 4790/2K which is in your Current Ships
Maintenance Project (CSMP) suspense file. For
EQUIPMENT TESTS.—As an EN1 or ENC, more detailed information about these forms and
you have the responsibility for scheduling and per- schedules, and how to fill them out, review OP-
forming various tests on your equipment. The NAVINST 4790.4, volumes I and II.
purpose of those tests is to determine how your Some of the proven uses you should follow
equipment is performing and if there are any when scheduling maintenance and repair work are
equipment malfunctions. These tests are per- listed below:
formed at various times, such as (1) before going
to the shipyard for overhaul, (2) after post deploy- 1. Size up each job before you let anyone start
ment, (3) during a tender availability, or (4) as working on it. Check the applicable Maintenance
required by PMS. The tests are performed by the Requirement Cards (MRCs) so that you will know
ship’s force, IMA personnel, shipyard personnel, exactly what needs to be done. Also, check all
or by an inspection team (such as the Board of applicable drawings and manufacturer’s technical
Inspection and Survey (INSURV Board)). manuals.
Detailed types of inspections are described in
COMNAVSURFLANT Inst. 9000.1 or COM- 2. Check on materials before you start. Be
NAVSURFPAC Inst. 4700.1A. sure that all required materials are available before
your personnel start working on any job. Do not
overlook small items—nuts, bolts, washers, pack-
Scheduling Work ing and gasket materials, tools, measuring devices,
and so forth. A good deal of labor can be saved
Careful planning is required to keep up with by the simple process of checking on the availabil-
all auxiliary maintenance and repair work in the ity of materials before a job is actually started.
enginerooms. You should already have in your An inoperable piece of machinery may be useless,
work center the necessary items which can help but it can become a nuisance and a safety hazard
you in scheduling your work. These items are (1) if it is spread around the engineroom in bits and
the Quarterly PMS Schedule, which is the visual pieces while you wait for the arrival of repair parts
display of your work center’s PMS requirements or materials.
for a specific 3-month period; (2) the weekly
schedule (taken from the quarterly schedule), 3. Check the priority of the job and that of
which displays all your work center’s PMS all other work that needs to be done.
schedule for completion in a given week; and (3)
the Maintenance Data Collection Subsystem 4. When assigning work, carefully consider
(MDCS) forms, such as the OPNAV 4790-2K, the capabilities and experience of your personnel.
OPNAV 4790-2L, and OPNAV 4790-2Q. Of As a rule, the more complicated jobs should be
these, OPNAV Form 4790.2K is used to show given to the more skilled and more experienced


people. When possible, however, less experienced officer asks for estimates. When you give an
people should be given difficult work to do under estimate to someone in authority over you, you
supervision so that they may acquire skill in such cannot tell how far up the line this information
jobs. will go. It is possible that an estimate you give
to your division officer could ultimately affect the
Be sure that the person who is going to do a operational schedule of the ship; it is essential,
job is given as much information as necessary. therefore, that such estimates be as accurate as
An experienced person may need only a drawing you can possibly make them.
and a general statement concerning the nature of Many of the factors that apply to the schedul-
the job. A less experienced person is likely to ing of all maintenance and repair work apply also
require additional instructions and, as a rule, to estimating the time that will be required for
closer supervision. a particular repair job. You cannot make a
reasonable estimate until you have sized up the
5. Keep track of the work as it is being done. job, checked on the availability of materials,
In particular, check to be sure that proper checked on the availability of skilled personnel,
materials and parts are being used, that the job and checked on the priority of the various jobs
is properly laid out or set up, that all tools and for which you are responsible. In order to make
equipment are being used correctly, and that all an accurate estimate of the time required to com-
safety precautions are being observed. plete a specific repair job, you must also consider
(1) what part of the work must be done by other
6. After a job has been completed, make a shops, and (2) what kinds of interruptions and
careful inspection to be sure that everything has delays may occur. Although these factors are also
been done correctly and that all final details have important in the routine scheduling of
been taken care of. Check to be sure that all maintenance and repair work, they are particu-
necessary records and reports have been prepared. larly important when estimates of time that may
These job inspections serve at least two very affect the operational schedule of the ship are
important purposes: first, they are needed to make made.
sure that the work has been properly performed; If part of the job must be done by other shops,
and second, they provide for an evaluation of the you must consider not only the time actually
skills and knowledge of the person who has done required by these shops but also time that may
the work. Do not overlook the training aspects be lost if one of them holds up your work, and
of a job inspection. When your inspection of a the time spent to transport the material between
completed job reveals any defects or flaws, be sure shops. Each shop should make a separate
to explain what is wrong, why it is wrong, and estimate, and the estimates should be combined
how to avoid similar mistakes in the future. in order to obtain the final estimate. Do NOT at-
tempt to estimate the time that will be required
by other personnel. Attempting to estimate what
Estimating Work someone else can do is risky because you can’t
possibly have enough information to make an ac-
You will often be required to estimate the curate estimate.
amount of time, the number of personnel, and Consider all the interruptions that might cause
the amount of material that will be required for delay, over and above the time required for the
specific repair jobs. Actually, you are making work itself. Such things as drills, inspections, field
some kind of estimate every time you plan and days, and working parties can have quite an
start a repair job, as you consider such questions effect on the number of people who will be
as: How long will it take? Who can best do the available to work on the job at any given time.
job? How many people will be needed? Are all Estimating the number of personnel who will
necessary materials available? be required for a certain repair job is, obviously,
However, there is one important difference closely related to estimating time. You will have
between the estimates you make for your own use to consider not only the nature of the job and the
and those that you make when your division number of people available but also the maximum


number of people who can work EFFECTIVELY nature and theory of engineroom operations;
on a job or on part of the job at the same time. operational troubleshooting; engineering casualty
Doubling the number of personnel will not cut control; engineroom maintenance and repair;
the time in half; instead, it will result in confu- characteristics of metals and alloys; tests and
sion and aimless milling around. inspections of main engines; characteristics and
The best way to estimate the time and the tests of lube oil; and records, reports, and other
number of personnel needed to do a job is to administrative requirements.
divide the total job into the various phases or steps
that will have to be done, and then estimate the As you well know, this is only a partial list
time and the personnel required for each step. of the skills and knowledge you must have in order
Estimating the materials required for a repair to qualify as an expert Engineman. But even a
job is often more difficult than estimating the time very wide range of abilities and an extensive
and labor required for the job. Although your theoretical knowledge will not, in themselves,
own past experience will be your best guide for guarantee your success as an instructor.
this kind of estimating, a few general considera-
tions should be noted: TRAINING RESPONSIBILITIES

1. Keep accurate records of all materials and You must be technically competent before you
tools used in any major repair job. These records can teach others, but your technical competence
serve two purposes: first, they provide a means must be supplemented by the ability to organize
of accounting for materials used; and second, they information, to present it effectively, and to
provide a guide for estimating materials that will arouse and keep the interest of your trainees.
be required for similar jobs in the future. You will find excellent general information on
how to plan, carry out, and evaluate an instruc-
2. Before starting any repair job, plan the job tional program in Military Requirements for Petty
carefully and in detail. Make full use of manufac- Officer 3 & 2, NAVEDTRA 10056 (current edi-
turers’ technical manuals, blueprints, drawings, tion) and in Military Requirements for Petty
and any other available information, and find out Officer 1 & C, NAVEDTRA 10057 (current edi-
in advance all the tools and materials that will be tion). The present discussion does not include
required for the accomplishment of each step of basic information of the type given in these
the job. references; instead, it deals with some of the dif-
ficulties peculiar to the training of engineroom
3. Make a reasonable allowance for waste and auxiliary personnel and some of the ways in
when calculating the amount of material you will which you can overcome or minimize these
need. difficulties.
What kinds of things cause special problems
in the training of engineroom personnel? For one
TRAINING thing, the interrelationship of propulsion plant
operations. Each person must be trained to per-
By the time you have reached the E-5 or E-6 form not only as an individual but also as a
level, you have acquired many skills and a large member of a team. Take for instance the duties
amount of theoretical knowledge. Among other of the watchstanders. They are very closely
things, you have learned about— related, and the actions taken by one person de-
pend in some way upon the actions taken by other
Construction details, operating principles, and persons. From a long-range point of view,
operating characteristics of all types of naval however, the teamwork required for engineroom
propulsion plants and associated engineroom aux- operations can actually be turned to a training
iliary machinery; propulsion plant layout and pip- advantage. As a person is being trained for one
ing system arrangement; theory of combustion, specific duty, he must of necessity be learning
theory of energy transformations, and factors something about the other duties. As a rule,
governing engineroom and fireroom efficiency; therefore, the first part of a person’s engineroom


training may take quite a while, but the last part satisfied that the trainee is completely qualified
will be comparatively fast. for this duty.
The procedures for training a new person in In training engineroom personnel who have
engineroom operations vary considerably, not had previous engineroom experience,
depending upon such factors as the ship’s steam- remember than an engineroom can be a com-
ing schedule, the condition of the engineroom plicated and confusing place to someone who
machinery, the number of experienced personnel walks into it for the first time. A lot of equip-
available to assist in the training, and the amount ment is crammed into a small space, and a lot of
of time that can be devoted to the training. In complex actions are going on at once. When train-
general, however, you will probably begin to train ing new personnel, try to think back to the time
a person to act as messenger. Then before the when you first went into an engineroom. What
trainee is assigned to any actual duty, of course, aspects of engineroom operations were most con-
the trainee should be introduced to the fusing to you at first? What kind of training
engineroom and become familiar with the loca- would have made your learning easier and faster?
tion of all machinery, equipment, piping, and By analyzing your own early experience and reac-
valves. The trainee must also be instructed in cer- tions, you get a bearing on what a new person may
tain basic safety precautions and be specifically be experiencing and you may be able to provide
warned about the dangers of turning valve wheels more effective training.
or tampering with machinery. “IF IN DOUBT, When you are training new personnel,
ASK QUESTIONS!” is a pretty good rule for any remember that they vary widely in their methods
new person in the engineroom to follow. of learning and in their rates of learning. Some
A person ready to be trained in the duties of people will learn most effectively if you give them
messenger should be shown all the gages that are an overall view of main engine operations,
in use, told about what the gages indicate and including a certain amount of theory, before
shown how to take readings. The reason why the going into the details of the hardware and the
readings are important should be explained. The manual operations. Others will learn most effec-
trainee should understand exactly how often each tively if they are taught some manual skills before
gage must be read and how to make accurate getting too much involved with theory. Some
entries in the engineroom log. When you are sure people learn manual skills rapidly but take a long
the trainee understands everything about time to absorb the theory; for others, the reverse
gages, teach the trainee how to check lube oil is true. And, of course, some people learn
levels and how to clean metal edge type filters and everything slowly. Some trainees benefit from pa-
basket-type strainers. tient, almost endless repetition of information;
For a while you will have to keep a close watch others may become bored and restless if you go
on the trainee’s performance of these duties. over the same point just once too often. The
When the trainee becomes proficient in the duties important thing to remember is that your train-
of messenger, start the training in throttleman’s ing efforts will be most successful if you are able
duties, First, let the trainee observe the throt- to observe and allow for the individual differences
tleman. Then, if conditions permit, let the trainee that are bound to exist. Closely related to this
start and secure machinery. point is another: Don’t make snap judgments
As far as manual skills are concerned, the about people’s abilities until they have had a
throttleman’s job is probably easier than the chance to DEMONSTRATE them. You may turn
messenger’s job. But the throttle watch requires out to be very wrong if you make snap judgments
the utmost vigilance and reliability, and a new per- on the basis of a general impression, such as
son will have a lot to learn before being trusted appearance, or the rate at which they learn when
to stand the throttle watch alone. Personnel they first come into the engineroom.
should always be started out under the supervi- When training personnel who have already
sion of an experienced throttleman, and should had some engineroom experience but who have
remain under this supervision until the petty been on some other type ship, you may find that
officer in charge of the engineroom is fully a certain amount of retraining is needed before


the individual can qualify as an engineroom Most Standards are divided into four sections:
watchstander on your ship. No two enginerooms Fundamentals, Systems, Watchstations, and a
are precisely alike in all details, and no two main Qualification Card. The Fundamentals section
engines that appear to be identical behave in contains the facts, principles, and fundamentals
precisely the same way under all conditions. Each concerning the subject for which a person is quali-
engine has its own individuality, and operating fying. The Systems section deals with the major
personnel must adjust to the engine in order to working parts of the installation, organization,
obtain the best results. Practically all Enginemen or equipment with which the PQS is concerned.
learn this sooner or later; you can speed up the The Watchstation section defines the actual
learning process by encouraging engineroom per- duties, assignments, and responsibilities needed
sonnel to notice and to discuss differences between for qualification. The Qualification Card has
engines. questions that match those in the Watchstation
section and provides a space for the supervisor’s
Because of the necessity for strict observance or the qualifying officer’s signature.
of safety precautions, all engineroom operational
training must be rigidly controlled and supervised. Not only your work center personnel must
On-the-job training is necessary if an individual qualify under PQS but also you must qualify on
is to acquire the actual skills needed for main all equipment under your control, in addition to
engine operation; however, the person must not the Maintenance and Material Management (3-M)
be allowed to learn by trial and error, since er- System, and General Damage Control. Let’s look
rors could be too dangerous and too costly. Safety at one of the requirements for an EN1 or ENC
precautions should be taught from the very begin- under PQS and the Engineman Occupational
ning and should be emphasized constantly Standards, NAVPERS 18068-D. The requirement
throughout the training program. calls for you to supervise a damage control
party. As an engineer you will probably be
TRAINING PROGRAMS assigned to Repair 5 (propulsion repair) for a
general quarters station. Repair 5 usually has an
engineering department officer or the chief petty
As an EN1 or ENC you are required to officer in charge. The damage control party you
establish or maintain a training program for your must supervise is composed of an electrical
work center personnel. In this program you are officer (or senior Electrician’s Mate) and a broad
required to teach the proper methods of equip- cross section of engineering ratings. Emphasis on
ment operation, repair, and safety. You should assignment of personnel to Repair 5 is placed on
use all the materials available to you including fireroom and engineroom takeover qualifications
teaching aids (manufacturer’s technical manuals, rather than damage control qualifications. On
instructions, or rate training manuals). In addi- larger ships, Repair 5 may be split. Each half of
tion, you should know what schools are available the party is assigned one-half of the engineering
to your workers and should try to get quotas for plant so that maximum use of manpower and
them (i.e., EN “A” or “C”, or A/C&R). equipment, and greater dispersal of personnel may
In recent years, one of the best ways to check be realized. Each section of the repair party is
on how well personnel retain the information be- assigned sufficiently qualified engineering casualty
ing taught in your training program has been the control and damage control personnel.
use of the Personnel Qualification Standard
Although your main function is for
PQS). engineroom and fireroom takeover, your repair
A PQS is a written list of knowledge and skills party must still be able to function as a damage
that are required to qualify for a specific watch- control repair party if the need arises. Being the
station, maintain a specific equipment or system, leader, you must be familiar with all the equip-
or perform as a team member within an assigned ment used and the function of each. You must
unit. The PQS program is a method for qualify- train your personnel in the use of the equipment
ing personnel to perform their assigned duties. and the functions of a repair party. Following is


a list of functions which are common to all repair Some of the specific functions for which
parties: Repair 5 is responsible in its own assigned area
are listed below:
1. Each party must be capable of making
repairs to electrical and sound-powered telephone 1. Maintenance of stability and buoyancy—
circuits. members of the repair party must be:
2. Each party must be capable of giving first a. Stationed so that they can reach all
aid and transporting injured personnel to battle parts of their assigned area with a minimum open-
dressing stations without seriously reducing the ing of watertight closures.
damage control capabilities of the repair party.
3. Each party must be capable of detecting, b. Able to repair damage to structures,
identifying, and measuring dose and dose-rate closures, or fittings that are designed to maintain
intensities from radiological involvement, and of watertight integrity, by shoring, plugging,
surveying and decontaminating contaminated per- welding, caulking the bulkheads and decks, reset-
sonnel and areas, except where specifically as- ting valves, and blanking or plugging lines through
signed to another department as in the case of watertight subdivisions of the ship.
nuclear weapons accident/incident. c. Be prepared to sound, drain, pump,
4. Each party must be capable of sampling counterflood, or shift liquids in tanks, voids, or
and/or identifying biological or chemical agents, other compartments; and be thoroughly familiar
and of decontaminating areas and personnel with the location and use of all equipment and
affected as a result of biological or chemical at- methods of action.
tack, except where this responsibility is assigned
to the medical department. d. Maintain two status boards for accurate
5. Each party must be capable of controlling evaluation of underwater damage: the Stability
Status Board (Flooding Effects Diagram) to be
and extinguishing all types of fires.
used for visual display of all flooding, flooding
6. Each party must be organized to evaluate boundaries, corrective measures taken, and effects
and report correctly the extent of damage in its on list and trim; the Liquid Load Status Board
area. This will include maintaining: to show the current status of all fuel and water
tanks and the soundings of each tank in feet and
Deck plans showing locations of NBC con- inches.
tamination, battle dressing and personnel clean-
ing stations, and safe routes to them. 2. Maintenance of ship’s propulsion—the per-
sonnel in the repair party must be able to:
A casualty board for visual display of a. Maintain, make repairs, or isolate
structural damage. damage to main propulsion machinery and
A graphic display board showing damage
and action taken to correct disrupted or b. Operate, repair, isolate, and modify the
damaged systems. The use of standard control segregation of vital systems.
symbology and the accompanying preprinted
message format are recommended to facilitate c. Assist in the operation and repair of the
recording transmitted damage control informa- steering control systems.
tion. Use the standard control symbology shown
in figure 2-17 to read the message format in figure d. Assist in the maintenance and repair of
2-18. In reading this message you should have communications systems.
come up with the following information: An
8-inch hole, 4 feet up from the deck at frame 38, e. Assist Repairs 1, 2, 3, and 4 and the
starboard side of compartment 2-35-0-L. crash and salvage team when required.


Figure 2-17.—Navy Standard Damage Control Symbology.


Figure 2-17.—Navy Standard Damage Control Symbology—Continued.


Figure 2-17.—Navy Standard Damage Control Symbology—Continued.

Engineering Operational each class of ship is built and joins the fleet.
Sequencing System Increased complexity requires increased engineer-
ing skills for proper operation. Ships that lack the
To help make the job of supervision and train- required experienced personnel have had material
ing easier and more effective, and enhance the casualties which jeopardized their operational
operational capability of shipboard engineering readiness. In addition, the rapid turnover of the
personnel, the Navy has developed a system engineering personnel who man and operate the
known as the Engineering Operational Sequenc- ships further compounds the problem of develop-
ing System (EOSS). Essentially, the EOSS is to ing and maintaining a high level of operator and
the operator what the PMS is to the maintainer. operating efficiency.
The Navy has been increasingly aware of these
OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS.—The main problems and has undertaken studies to evaluate
propulsion plants in the ships of the modern day the methods and procedures presently used in
Navy are becoming more technically complex as operating complex engineering plants. The results


procedures not only between adjoining spaces but

also between watch sections within the same

The posted operating instructions often do

not apply to the installed equipment. They were
conflicting or incorrect. No procedures were pro-
vided for aligning the various systems with other

The light-off and securing schedules were

prepared by each ship and were not standardized
between ships. The schedules were written for
general, rather than specific, equipment or system
values and did not include shifts between all the
existing modes of operation.

Following these studies, NAVSEA developed

the EOSS, designed to help eliminate operational
problems. EOSS involves the participation of all
personnel from the department head to the watch-
stander on watch. The EOSS consists of a set of
systematic and detailed written procedures which
utilize charts, instructions, and diagrams
developed specifically for the operational and
casualty control function of a specific ship’s
engineering plant and configuration.
EOSS is designed to improve the operational
readiness of the ship’s engineering plant by
increasing its operational efficiency, providing
better engineering-plant control, reducing opera-
tional casualties, and extending the equipment
Figure 2-18.—Preprinted message format. life. These objectives are accomplished by first
defining the levels of control and operating within
the engineering plant and then providing each
of these studies have shown that in many instances supervisor and operator with the information
sound operating techniques were not followed. needed—in words they could understand—at their
Some of the circumstances found to be prevail- watch station.
ing in engineering plants are described below: The EOSS is comprised of three basic parts:

The information needed by the watch- The User’s Guide

stander was usually scattered throughout publica-
tions which were generally not readily available. The Engineering Operational Procedures
The bulk of the publications were not
systems oriented. Reporting engineering person- The Engineering Operational Casualty
nel had to learn specific operating procedures Control (EOCC)
from “old hands” presently assigned. Such prac-
tices could ultimately lead to misinformation or EOSS USER’S GUIDE.—The User’s Guide
degradation of the transferred information. They is a booklet which explains the EOSS package and
were costly and resulted in non-standard operating how it is used to the ship’s best advantage. It


contains document samples and explains how they Stage I is considered as the total engineering
are used. It provides recommendations for plant level under the direct cognizance of the plant
introducing the EOSS system and the methods for supervisor (EOOW). The officer coordinates the
training the ship’s personnel in utilizing the pro- placing in operation and securing of all systems
cedures set forth in this system. and components normally controlled by the
various space supervisors. The EOOW also super-
EOSS documentation is developed using vises those functions which affect conditions ex-
work-study techniques. All existing methods and ternal to the engineering plant such as jacking,
procedures for plant operation and casualty con- testing, and spinning main engines. The EOP
trol procedures are documented, including the documentation assists you, the plant supervisor,
actual ship procedures as well as those procedures in ensuring optimum plant operating efficiency,
contained in available reference sources. properly sequencing of events in each operational
evolution, and the training of newly assigned per-
Each action taken is subjected to a critical sonnel. During a plant evolution, you will con-
examination to evaluate the adequacy of the trol and designate the operation of the following
present procedures. At the completion of this systems and components:
analysis phase new procedural steps are developed
into an operational sequencing system, and
step-by-step time-sequenced procedures and con- Systems that interconnect one or more
figuration diagrams are prepared to show the engineering plant machinery spaces and the elec-
plant layout in relation to operational com- trical system.
ponents. The final step in the development phase
of an EOSS is a validation on board ship check Major components such as boilers, main
conducted to ensure technical accuracy and ade- engines, and electrical generators.
quacy of the prepared sequencing system. All
required corrections are made and then incor- Systems and components required to sup-
porated into the package before installation port the engineering plant or other ship functions
aboard ship. such as distilling plants, air compressors, steam
system to catapults, and thrust blocks which are
The resulting sequencing system provides the placed in operation or secured in response to
best tailored operating and engineering opera- demand upon their services.
tional casualty control procedures available per-
taining to a particular ship’s propulsion plant.
Each level is provided with the information re- To assist you the plant supervisor with these
quired to enable the engineering plant to respond operations, the EOP section provides you with the
to any demands placed upon it. following documents:

ENGINEERING OPERATIONAL PRO- Index pages listing each document in the

CEDURES (EOP).—The operational portion of Stage I station book by identification number and
the EOSS contains all the information necessary title.
for the proper operation of a ship’s engineering
plant. It also contains guides for scheduling, con- Plant procedure charts (figure 2-19) pro-
trolling, and directing plant evolutions through viding step-by-step procedures for each engineer-
operational modes from receiving shore services, ing plant evolution. (NOTE: At the time this
to various modes of inport auxiliary plant steam- publication was prepared for printing, EOSS
ing, to underway steaming. diagrams illustrating specific equipment for which
the Engineman is responsible were not available;
The EOP documentation is prepared for the example used, in this section, however, il-
specifically defined operational stages. These are lustrates the types of EOSS diagrams used
defined as Stages I, II, and III. regardless of equipment .)


Figure 2-19.—Sample plant procedure Chart.

Plant status boards (figure 2-20) providing current plot of systems alignment and equipment
a systematic display of the major systems and operating status.
cross-connect valves as well as a graphic presen-
tation of the major equipment in each machinery A diagram for plant steaming conditions
space. These boards are used to maintain a versus optimum generator combinations


Figure 2-20.—Sample Plant Status Diagram.

delineating the preferred electric power generator A diagram for equipment versus speed
combinations for the various plant operating con- requirement delineating the equipment normally
ditions. This diagram is also provided in the Stage required for various ship speeds.
II electrical documentation.
A diagram for shore services connection
System alignment diagrams (figure 2-21) locations delineating the location of shore service
delineating the preferred initial and final align- connections for steam, electrical power, feed-
ment for each engineering plant. water, potable water, and saltwater, and fuel oil.


Figure 2-21.—Sample preferred alignment diagrams.

Training diagrams (figure 2-22) delineating each engineroom and fireroom, and the electrical
each major piping system to aid in plant plant supervisor (electrical load dispatcher). In
familiarization and training of newly assigned per- Stage II, the space supervisor accomplishes the
sonnel. These diagrams indicate the relative loca- tasks delegated by the plant supervisor. The EOP
tions of lines, valves, and equipment. documentation assists the space supervisor in
properly sequencing the events, controlling the
Stage II is considered as the system compo- operation of equipment within the machinery
nent level supervised by the space supervisor in space or electric-power complex in maintaining


Figure 2-22.—Sample Training Diagrams.


an up-to-date status of the operational condition required valves, switches, and controllers. Stage
of the assumed equipment assigned and in train- III documents include:
ing newly assigned personnel. To assist the space
supervisor in this effort, the EOP section provides Index pages listing each document by iden-
the following Stage II documents: tification number and title for each specified
system such as fuel-oil service system, lube oil
Index pages listing each document by service system, etc.
identification number and title for each specified
operating group such as engineroom, fireroom, Component procedure cards providing
electrical, etc. step-by-step procedures for systems alignment or
component operation.
Space procedure charts (similar to the plant
procedure chart) providing the step-by-step pro- Component procedure cards as required to
cedure to be accomplished within a space to satisfy
support each operation or alignment.
and support the requirements of the plant pro-
cedure charts.
Alignment diagrams (figure 2-23) ampli-
Space status board providing a schematic fying the written procedure to assist the
of major systems and a tabular listing of the component operator in proper systems alignment.
major equipment within the individual machinery Alignment diagrams are provided whenever two
spaces for maintaining a plot of systems or more alignment conditions exist for a given
alignments and equipment operating status. This system or component.
board is similar in configuration to that provided
for the Stage I documentation (figure 2-20). The operational use of EOP documentation
is of primary importance at all levels in con-
Diagram for Electrical Plant Status (DLS) trolling, supervising, and operating the evolutional
delineating generators, switchboards, and shore- functions of the engineering plant.
power connections within the electrical distribu-
tion systems. The DLS is provided in both the ENGINEERING OPERATIONAL
electrical operating group and in the Stage I CASUALTY CONTROL (EOCC).—The casu-
(EOOW) documentation for maintaining a plot alty control portion of EOSS contains informa-
of the system alignment. tion relative to the recognition of casualty
symptoms and their probable causes and effects.
Diagram for plant steaming conditions ver- In addition, it contains information on preven-
sus optimum generator combinations provided in tive action to be taken to preclude a casualty and
the electrical operating group documentation on procedures for controlling single and multi-
delineating the preferred electric power generator ple source casualties.
combination. This diagram is the same as that
provided in the Stage I documentation. Casualty prevention must be the concern of
everyone on board. Proper training of all person-
Training diagrams of each major piping nel must provide for adequate knowledge and
system developed for Stage I, plus diagrams of experience in effective casualty prevention. The
such systems as fuel-oil service, and main engine EOCC manual contains efficient, technically cor-
lube oil that are normally located within the rect casualty control and prevention procedures
machinery spaces. which relate to all phases of an engineering plant.
The EOCC documents elaborate on possible
Stage III is considered as the system compo- casualties caused by error, material failure, and
nent level attended by the component operators. battle. The EOCC manual describes tried and
The component operators place equipment in and proven methods for the control of a casualty and
out of operation, align systems, and monitor and prevention of further damage to the component,
control their operation by manipulating the the system, or the engineering plant concerned.


Figure 2-23.—Sample Component/System Alignment Diagram.

The EOCC manuals are available to the per- techniques for all watchstanders. The manual con-
sonnel in their own machinery space so that they tains the documentation required to effectively
can be used as a means of self-indoctrination for assist engineering personnel in developing and
newly assigned personnel and as an instrument maintaining maximum proficiency in controlling
with which to improve casualty control procedure casualties to the ship’s propulsion plant.


Proficiency in EOCC procedures is maintained master copy of this list, in addition to posting the
through a well-administered training program. individual operating instructions and safety
Primary training concentrates on controlling precautions throughout the engineering spaces. If
single-source casualties—those which may be any of the posted operating instructions and safety
attributed to the failure or malfunction of a single precautions are damaged or lost, a duplicate copy
component or the failure of piping at a specific can be readily made up from the master list.
point in a system. Advanced training concentrates For ships in commission and in service, plastic
on controlling multiple casualties or on conduct- laminated operating instructions and safety
ing a battle problem. An effective and well- precautions are available; they are listed in the
administered EOOW training program must Navy Stock List of Forms and Publications,
contain, as a minimum, the following elements: NAVSUP Publication 2002.

Recognition of the symptoms.

Probable causes.
A naval ship must be inspected from time to
Probable effects. time to ensure that its operation, administration,
and equipment reflect a high standard of readiness
Preventive actions that may be taken to for war. The frequency with which the various
reduce, eliminate, or control casualties. types of inspections are held are determined by
the CNO, the fleet commander, and the type com-
An EOSS package is not intended to be forgot- mander. As far as the ship is concerned, the type
ten once it is developed and installed aboard a commander usually designates the type of inspec-
ship. It offers many advantages to the ship’s tion and when it will be held.
operational readiness capabilities, providing A ship is frequently notified some time in
detailed step-by-step sequencing of events for all advance when an inspection will take place, but
phases of the engineering-plant operation. Its pro- preparation for an inspection should not be
cedures are tailored to each specific ship and postponed until the notice of inspection is re-
are prepared for each level of management and ceived. It is a mistake to think that a poorly
operation. Because it is work-studied and system- administered division or department can, by a
oriented, the EOSS provides the basic informa- sudden burst of energy, be prepared to meet the
tion for the optimum utilization of equipment and inspector’s eagle eye. By using proper procedures,
systems by specifying correct procedures tailored and keeping up to date on such items as repair
for a specific plant configuration. work, maintenance work, operating procedures,
The EOSS is not intended to eliminate the training of personnel, engineering casualty con-
need for skilled plant operators. No program or trol drills, maintenance records and reports, you
system can achieve such a goal. The EOSS is a will always be ready for an inspection.
tool for better utilization of manpower and skills Since your ship may be required to furnish an
available. Although the EOSS is an excellent tool inspecting party to make an inspection on another
for shipboard training of personnel, it is primarily ship, you as a CPO or PO1 may be assigned the
a working system for scheduling, controlling, and duty as an assistant inspector. Therefore, you
directing plant operations and casualty-control should know something about the different types
procedures. of inspections and how they are conducted.



A master list of all the engineering department Administrative inspections cover

operating instructions and safety precautions is administrative methods and procedures normally
kept in the log room. When a ship is commis- employed by the ship. Each inspection is divided
sioned, the building yard normally provides a into two general categories—the general


administration of the ship as a whole, and the 2. Cleanliness, sanitation, smartness, and ap-
administration of each department. In this discus- pearance of the ship as a whole.
sion we will consider the engineering department 3. Adequacy and condition of clothing and
only. equipment of personnel.
The purpose of the administrative inspection 4. General knowledge of personnel in regard
is to determine whether or not (1) the department to the ship’s organization, ship’s orders, and ad-
is being administered in an intelligent, sound, and ministrative procedures.
efficient manner; and (2) the organizational and 5. Dissemination of all necessary information
administrative methods and procedures are among the personnel.
directed toward the objective of every naval 6. Indoctrination of newly reported
ship-namely, being prepared to carry out its personnel.
intended mission. 7. General education facilities for individuals.
8. Comfort and conveniences of living spaces,
Inspecting Party including adequacy of light, heat, ventilation, and
It is a routine procedure for one ship to con- 9. Economy of resources.
duct an inspection of a similar division on another
ship. General instructions for conducting the Engineering Department Inspection
inspection are usually given by the division com-
mander; however, the selecting and organizing of
The engineering department administrative
the inspecting party is done aboard the ship that
must conduct the inspection. inspection is primarily the inspection of the
engineering department paper work, which
The chief inspector, usually the commanding
officer of the ship, will organize the assisting includes publications, bills, files, books, records,
board. The organization of the assisting board, and logs. Additionally, this inspection includes
in general conformance with the departmental other items with which the chief and first class
must be concerned. Some of these items are the
organization of the ship, is divided into ap- cleanliness and preservation of machinery and
propriate groups, each headed by an inspector
engineering spaces; the training of personnel; the
with as many assistant inspectors as necessary.
assignment of personnel to watches and duties;
Chief petty officers and petty officers first class
the proper posting of operating instructions and
may be assigned as assistant inspectors.
safety precautions; the adequacy of warning signs
The engineering department inspecting group
and guards; the marking and labeling of lines and
(or party) is organized and supervised by the valves; and the proper maintenance of operating
engineer officer. The manner in which an
individual inspection is carried out depends to a logs.
great extent upon the knowledge and ability of
the members of the group (or party). Administrative Inspection
Checkoff Lists
General Inspection of
the Ship as a Whole Administrative inspection checkoff lists are
usually furnished to the ships by the type
One of the two categories of administrative commander. These lists are used as an aid for
inspection is the general administration of the ship inspecting officers and chiefs, to assist them in
as a whole. Items of this inspection that will have ensuring that no important item is overlooked.
a direct bearing on the engineering department, However, inspecting personnel should not accept
and for which the report of inspection indicates these lists as being all-inclusive, since usually
a grade, are as follows: during an inspection, additional items develop
that must be considered or observed.
1. Appearance, bearing, and smartness of As a petty officer, you should be familiar with
personnel. the various checkoff lists used for inspections.


These checkoff lists will give you a good (4) Are personnel concerned properly
understanding of how to prepare for an inspec- instructed and trained to handle casualties to
tion as well as how to carry out your daily super- machinery?
visory duties. You will find it helpful to obtain
copies of the various inspection checkoff lists (5) Are personnel properly instructed
from the log room and to carefully look them and trained in damage control?
over. They will give detailed information about
what type of inspection you may expect for your (6) Are training films available and
type of ship. used to the maximum extent?
Following is an abbreviated sample of an
engineering department checkoff list. You should (7) Are training records of personnel
get a better understanding of the scope and pur- adequate and properly maintained?
pose of administrative inspections by reviewing
a. Is necessary information disseminated
a. Inspect the following, among others, within the department and divisions?
for completeness, correctness, and adequacy:
b. Are the means of familiarizing new per-
(1) Department Organization. sonnel with department routine orders and regula-
tions considered satisfactory?
(2) Watch, Quarter, and Station Bills.

(3) Engineering Casualty Bill. 4. ASSIGNMENT OF PERSONNEL TO

(4) Fueling Bill.
a. Are personnel properly assigned to bat-
2. ADMINISTRATION AND EFFEC- tle stations and watches?
b. Are sufficient personnel aboard at all
a. Administration and effectiveness of times to get the ship under way?
training of personnel for current and prospective
duties. c. Are personnel examined and qualified
for important watches?
(1) Are sufficient nonrated personnel
in training to replace anticipated losses? d. Does it appear that personnel on watch
have been properly instructed? (Question person-
(2) NAVEDTRA training courses: nel at random.)

(a) Number of personnel enrolled. 5. OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS,

(b) Percentage of personnel in CHECKOFF LISTS:
department enrolled.
a. Inspect completeness of the following:
(c) Number of personnel whose
courses are completed. (1) Operating instructions posted near
(3) Are personnel concerned familiar
with operating instructions and safety precau- (2) Posting of necessary safety
tions? (Question personnel at random.) precautions.


b. Are PMS schedules properly posted and (2) Bell Book.

maintained in the working spaces?
(3) Operating Records.
c. Is the Master PMS Schedule posted and (4) Maintenance Records.
up to date?
(5) Alteration and Improvement
d. Are responsible personnel familiar with Program.
current instructions regarding routine testing and (6) Daily Oil and Water Records.
(7) Engineering Reports.
e. Are lighting-off and securing sheets
properly used? (8) Training Logs and Records.
(9) Work Books for Engineering
a. Is an adequate procedure in use for
replacement of repair parts? a. Engineering Blueprints Recommended:
(1) Ship’s Plan Index (SPI).
b. Are there adequate measures used to
prevent excessive waste of consumable supplies? (2) Proper indexing of blueprints.

c. Is there proper supervision in the (3) Completeness and condition.

proper supply of, care of, and accountability for b. Manufacturers’ Instruction Books:
(1) Proper indexing.
d. Are inventories taken of repair parts
(2) Completeness and condition.
which are in the custody of the engineering
department? c. Type Commanders Material Letters.
e. How well are repair parts preserved and d. NAVSEA Technical Manual.
stowed? e. General Information Book.
f. What type of system is used to locate f. Booklet Plans of Machinery.
a repair part carried on board? (Have a chief or
first class petty officer explain to you how a repair 9. CLEANLINESS AND PRESERVATION:
part for a certain piece of machinery is obtained.) a. Preservation and cleanliness of space
g. Are custody cards properly maintained (including bilges.)
for accountable tools and equipment? b. Preservation and cleanliness of
machinery and equipment.
LOGS: c. Neatness of stowage.

a. Inspect the following for compliance d. Condition of ventilation.

with pertinent directives, completeness, and e. Condition of lighting.
proper form:
f. Compliance with standard painting
(1) Engineering Log. instructions.



The operational readiness inspection is con- In this discussion we will consider the battle
ducted to ensure that the ship is ready and able problem from the viewpoint of the observer, and
to perform the operations which might be required present some general information on the
of it in time of war. requirements and duties of a member of the
engineering department observing party. The
This inspection consists of the conduct of a knowledge of the viewpoint and duties of an
battle problem and of other operational exercises. observer should help you prepare yourself and
A great deal of emphasis is placed on AA and sur- your personnel for a battle problem and other
face gunnery, damage control, engineering casu- appropriate exercises.
alty control, and other appropriate exercises.
Various drills are held and observed, and the ship PREPARATION OF A BATTLE
is operated at full power for a brief period of time. PROBLEM.—The degree of perfection achieved
in any battle problem is reflected in the skills and
The overall criteria of performance include: applications of those who prepare it. A great deal
depends upon the experience of officers and chief
1. Can the ship as a whole carry out her opera- petty officers.
tional functions? The primary purpose of a shipboard battle
problem is to provide a medium for testing and
2. Is the ship’s company well trained, well in- evaluating the ability of all divisions of the
structed, competent, and skillful in all phases of engineering department to function together as
the evolutions? a team in simulated combat operations.
Battle problems are the most profitable and
3. Is the ship’s company stationed in accord- significant of all peacetime training experience,
ance with the ship’s Battle Bill, and does the Battle since they demonstrate a department’s readiness
Bill meet wartime requirements? * for combat. The degree of realism of this test
determines their value: the more nearly it approx-
Observing Party imates actual battle conditions, the more valuable
it is.
Another element in the conduct of a battle
The personnel and organization of the opera- problem which significantly increases the value
tional readiness observing party are similar to of these tests to the ship’s company is the element
those of the administrative inspection party. of surprise.
However, more personnel are usually required for
the operational readiness observing party. These CONDUCT OF A BATTLE PROBLEM.—
additional personnel are very often chiefs and first Before a battle problem is to be conducted, the
class petty officers. ship is furnished specific information such as that
listed below:
The observing party members are briefed in
advance of the scheduled exercises and about the 1. Authority for conducting the inspection.
drills that are to be conducted. They must have 2. Time of boarding of the inspecting party.
sufficient training and experience so that they can 3. Time the ship is to get underway.
properly evaluate the exercises and drills that are 4. Time for setting the first material readiness
to be held. Each observer is usually assigned to condition.
a specific station, and should be well qualified in 5. Time for conducting the inspection to zero
the procedure of conducting drills and exercises problem time conditions.
for that station. That each observer be familiar 6. Zero problem time.
with the type of ship to be inspected is also highly 7. End of problem time.
desirable. 8. Time of critique.


Observers must be proficient in the proper An inspection should be made to see that the
methods of introduction of information. In engineering plant is properly split in accordance
general, when practical, the information delivered with current directives. Fire hazards such as paint,
to ship’s personnel should be verbal, and should rags, or oil, and missile hazards such as loose gear,
contain only that information which would help loose floor plates, tool boxes, and repair parts
the ship’s personnel develop adequate procedures boxes should be noted. The condition of
for the search and investigation of the imposed firefighting, damage control, and remote control
casualty. In the event the ship’s personnel fail to gear should be carefully inspected.
locate the casualty, the observer may resort to
coaching, but a notation should be made on the ANALYSIS OF THE BATTLE PROB-
observer’s form as to the time allowed before LEM.—The maximum benefit obtained from
coaching and information were furnished. Special conducting a battle problem lies in pinpointing
precautions should be taken to give the symptoms existing weaknesses and deficiencies, and in the
of casualty the same degree of realism that they resulting recommendations for improvement in
would have if the casualty were actual rather than organization and training. Every effort should be
simulated. made by the observers to emphasize strong points
In order to impose casualties, valves may have as well as deficiencies. Knowledge of existing
to be closed, switches opened, or machinery strong points is helpful to boost the morale of the
stopped. In each case the observer should inform ship’s personnel.
responsible ship’s personnel of the action desired, Analysis of the battle problem affords the
and the ship’s personnel should operate the observers an opportunity to present to the ship
designated equipment. A casualty should be their opinion of its performance, and for the ship
simulated, or omitted entirely, if there is danger to comment on the observers’ remarks as well as
that personnel injury or material damage might to consider suggested improvements.
result because of lack of preparation or the Analysis is conducted in two steps: the critique
experience of personnel. The supply of lubricating and the observers’ reports.
oil to the main engines or the supply of feedwater
to the boilers MUST NOT be stopped to simulate A critique of the battle problem is held on
casualties. board the observed ship before the observing
An emergency procedure should be set up, by party leaves, in order that the problems and the
the observing party and ship’s company, to actions taken may be reviewed when they are fresh
ensure proper action in case actual casualties— in the minds of all concerned. The critique is
as distinguished from simulated or problem attended by all the ship’s officers, appropriate
casualties—should occur. chief and first class petty officers, the chief
Although the general announcing system (the observer, and all senior observers. The various
1MC circuit) may be used by the ship, observers, points of interest of the battle problem are dis-
normally, have priority in its use. The problem cussed, and the chief observer comments on the
time announcer uses the general announcing overall conduct of the problem after the senior
system to announce the start of the battle observers complete their analysis of the battle
problem, the problem time at regular intervals, problem as reported in their observers’ reports.
the conclusion of the problem, and the restora- The observers’ reports are prepared in the
tion of casualties. The general announcing system form prescribed by the type commander, and
is kept available at all times for use in case of ac- include any additional instructions given by the
tual emergency. All other announcing system cir- chief observer. The reports of the observers are
cuits and other means of interior communications collected by the senior observer for each depart-
are reserved for the use of the ship. ment and are submitted to the chief observer. All
Engineering telephone circuits should be observers’ reports are reviewed by the senior
monitored by one or more observers. A check observers before the critique is held.
should be made for proper procedure and circuit The observers’ reports provide the inspected
discipline, and for the proper handling of infor- ship with detailed observations of the battle
mation or casualties. problem which, because of time limitations, may


not have been brought out during the critique. The i. Were proper doctrine and procedures
inspected ship receives a copy of all observers’ used?
reports; in this way, each department is given the
opportunity to review the comments and set up j. Were prompting and additional infor-
a training schedule to cover the weak points. mation given by observer?
Following is a example of an engineering k. Were proper reports made?
observer’s report.
1. Readiness of standby units.
Engineering observer. . . . . . . . . . . . .
m. Readiness of alternate and emergency
Location. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lighting and power.
1. The engineering department’s evaluation is n. Were proper safety precautions ob-
based on: (a) extent of the department’s prepara- served?
tion and fulfillment of the ordered conditions of
readiness as appropriate to the problem, (b) o. Material deficiencies.
extent of correct utilization of the engineering
damage control features built into the ship, (c) p. Coordination of personnel.
extent to which proper engineering casualty con-
trol is accomplished, (d) extent to which on sta- q. Coordination of engineering spaces.
tion personnel take corrective action for control
of damage, (e) adequacy of reports and dissemina- 3. Main engine control. Receipt of vital
tion of information, and (f) the general handling interior communications, origination and
of the plant in accordance with good engineering transmission of required reports to Conn, Damage
practice, and the ability of the department to en- Control Central, and other stations.
sure maximum mobility and maneuverability of
the ship and to supply all necessary services to 4. Action taken by main engine control:
other departments in fighting the ship.
a. Correct action.
2. Hit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . b. Sound judgment based on good
Exercise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . practice.

a. Preparation and status of the plant. c. Assurance.

d. Speed.
b. Fulfillment of proper conditions of
readiness. 5. Recommendations
c. Fire and missile hazards. The blank parts of the observers’ report forms
are filled in as applicable to the individual
d. Condition of firefighting and damage
observer’s station. Items that were not observed
control gear.
are either left blank or crossed out. Additional
e. Condition of personnel clothing and information, if required for a certain exercise or
protection. condition, may be written on the reverse side of
the form. A separate form or sheet is used for each
f. Stationing and readiness of personnel. exercise or drill. Remarks or statements made by
the observer should be clear and legible.
g. Investigation and interpretation of

h. Promptness and effectiveness in taking The purpose of material inspection is to deter-

care of casualty. mine the actual material condition of the ship. On


the basis of what the inspection discloses, it may Preparation for the
be necessary to recommend repairs, alterations, Material Inspection
changes, or developments which will ensure the
material readiness of the ship to carry out the mis- At an appropriate time prior to the date of
sion for which it was designed. In addition, the the inspection, the chief inspector will furnish the
material inspection determines whether or not ship with advance instructions. These instructions
proper procedures are being carried out in the care will include:
and operation of machinery and equipment.
Administrative procedures and material records 1. List of machinery and major equipment to
which are inspected include maintenance records be opened for inspection. The limit that a unit
and routine tests, and inspections. of machinery or equipment should be opened is
The requirements prescribed for material that which is necessary to reveal known or
readiness are as follows: probable defects. The units selected to be
opened should be representative and, in case of
1. Established routines for the conduct of in- a multiple-shaft ship, should not disable more
spections and tests, schedule for preventive than one-half of the propulsion units. Proper con-
maintenance, and a system which will ensure sideration must be given to the ship’s operational
timely and effective repairs. schedule and safety.
2. Adequate material maintenance records, 2. List of equipment to be operated. Auxiliary
kept in accordance with current directives that give machinery such as the anchor windlass, winches,
the history and detailed description of the condi- and steering gear are normally placed on this list.
tion of the machinery and the equipment. 3. Copies of the condition sheets. These are
3. Planned and effective utilization of the checkoff lists which are used for the material
ship’s facilities for preservation, maintenance, and inspection.
4. Correct allocation of necessary work to the 4. Any additional instructions considered
following categories: (a) the ship’s force, (b) the necessary by the type commander or other higher
tenders and repair ships, and (c) the naval authority.
shipyards or other shore repair activity.
Each department must prepare work lists
The scope of the material inspection is similar showing the items of work to be accomplished and
to that of the inspection made by the Board of the recommended means for accomplishment
Inspection and Survey. (These inspections are (shipyard, tender or repair ship, or ship’s force
discussed later in this chapter.) These inspections during an overhaul or upkeep period.) The items
should be thorough and searching, and cover, in are arranged in the recommended order of impor-
detail, maintenance and repair rather than general tance and numbered. A list of the outstanding
appearance. The distinction between ad- alterations is also made up for the inspection.
ministrative inspections and material inspections Work lists usually consist of 5 by 8 cards, with
should be readily recognized, and there should be one repair or alteration item on each card. The
as little duplication as possible. Examination of work list should include all maintenance and
the material maintenance records and reports repair items, because if material deficiencies are
should be made to determine the material condi- found during the inspection they will be checked
tion of machinery and equipment. General ad- against the work list. If the item does not appear
ministrative methods, general appearance, on the work list, a discrepancy in maintaining the
cleanliness of compartments, and cleanliness of required records will be noted by the inspector.
machinery are not part of this inspection, except
in cases where they have a direct bearing on CONDITION SHEETS.—Condition sheets
material condition. are made up in accordance with the needs of the
The composition of the inspecting party for different material groups. The engineering depart-
the material inspection is similar to that of the ment is primarily concerned with the machinery,
administrative. inspection party. the electrical, the damage control, and the hull


condition sheets. Condition sheets contain Ship’s company should have portable exten-
checkoff sheets and material data sheets, and con- sion lights rigged up and in readiness for the units
sist of a large number of pages. Items for data of machinery opened up for inspection. The
and checkoff purposes are listed for all parts of lighting of the space should be in good order. The
the ship, and for all machinery and equipment on inspectors should be furnished flashlights,
board ship. chipping hammers, file scrapers, and similar
In advance of inspection, the ship to be items. Precision measuring instruments should be
inspected must fill in a preliminary copy of the readily available.
condition sheets. In order to do this, detailed data
is obtained from the maintenance records and
An entry for any known fault or abnormal REPORTS.—The material inspection also
condition of the machinery or equipment is made includes an inspection of various material records
in the proper place on the condition sheets. Details and reports. These documents are assembled so
and information are given, as necessary, to as to be readily available for inspection. Records
indicate the material condition to the inspecting must be kept up to date at all times; it is a good
party. If corrective work is required in connec- idea to check over all records to make sure that
tion with a unit or space, a reference is made to they ARE up to date and that nothing has been
the work list item. Data and information overlooked. The individual records should be
requested in the condition sheets should be filled out and maintained in accordance with cur-
furnished whenever possible. The preliminary rent directives. Where applicable, the petty officer
copy, if properly filled out, represents the best in charge of an engineering space should check
estimate of the existing material condition of the all records or reports that concern the material
ship. or the maintenance procedures of that space.
When the condition sheets have been com-
pleted, they are turned over to the respective
members of the inspecting party upon their Conduct of the Inspection
arrival on board ship. During the inspection, the
inspectors fill in the various checkoff sections of The inspecting group for the engineering
the condition sheets. These sheets are then used department should conduct a critical and
to prepare the final inspection report on the thorough inspection of the machinery and equip-
condition of the ship. ment under the cognizance of the department. The
For more detailed information concerning a condition sheets supplied by the type commander
ship, you should obtain a copy of the applicable serve as a guide and a checkoff list in making the
condition sheets from the engineering log room. inspection. Appropriate remarks, comments, and
recommendations are entered on the condition
OPENING MACHINERY FOR INSPEC- sheets for any particular unit of machinery or
TION.—The ship will open machinery as equipment.
previously directed by the chief inspector, in order
to obtain the inspector’s opinion concerning The inspectors should conduct the inspection
known or probable defects. The information given together with the ship’s personnel. No attempt
in Naval Ship’s Technical Manual, chapter 090, must be made to follow a predetermined inspec-
is used as a guide in opening particular machinery tion schedule, but different units should be
units. More detailed information on opening inspected as they are made available by the ship’s
machinery for material inspections is found in the company. If the ship is prepared for the inspec-
administrative letters of the type commander. tion, there should be no delay between the inspec-
A list of machinery, tanks, and major equip- tion of the different units of machinery. It is not
ment opened, and the extent of opening, should necessary that all machinery of one type be
be supplied to the inspecting party on its arrival. inspected simultaneously nor is it necessary to
Test reports on samples of lubricating oil should complete the inspection of one space before
be furnished to the machinery inspector. going to another.


Important items to be covered by the inspec- group, and such other personnel as may be
tion are indicated below: designated from the inspected ship.
The inspectors, after receiving data from the
1. All opened machinery and equipment is assistant inspectors, submit reports of their inspec-
carefully inspected, especially where the need of tions to the chief inspector. These reports provide
repair work is indicated on the work list. the inspected ship with those observations that
2. Investigations are made to locate any may not be fully discussed during the critique but
defects, in addition to those already known, that are of interest to the ship’s officers concerned.
may exist in material condition or design. The inspector’s reports include evaluations and
3. Operational tests of machinery and equip- any recommendations for the items inspected or
ment conducted in accordance with the furnished observed. These reports are used by the ship as
list. checkoff lists for corrective action and material
4. Electrical equipment is not endangered by improvement.
saltwater from hatches, doors, or ventilation
outlets. Possible leaks in piping flanges are The chief inspector, after receiving the reports
checked. from the inspectors, makes up a report on
5. Currently required firefighting and evaluating and grading the inspection. The chief
damage control equipment in the engineering inspector discusses, with appropriate comment,
space is installed and properly maintained in the following items.
accordance with current directives.
6. Supports and running gear of heavy 1. Those conditions requiring remedial action
suspended material are inspected. which should be brought to the attention of the
7. Hold-down bolts, plates, and other commanding officer of the ship inspected, and to
members of machinery foundations are inspected. higher authority.
Hammers may be used for sounding, and file 2. Those conditions of such excellence that
scrapers may be used for removing paint in order their dissemination will be of value to other ships.
to disclose any condition of metal corrosion.
8. Condition sheets are checked to see that 3. Those suggestions or recommendations
all the required information has been filled in by which merit consideration by higher authority.
the ship being inspected, and that all items have
been checked off and filled in by the inspector. The final smooth report is written up in a
9. Routine tests of mechanical and electrical detailed procedure in accordance with the type
safety devices are observed to ensure that they are commander’s directives.
being conducted according to current directives.
10. Maintenance records and reports are care- BOARD OF INSPECTION
fully inspected to see that they are maintained in AND SURVEY INSPECTION
accordance with prescribed procedures. A check
is made to ensure that all known repair re-
quirements are listed. The Board of Inspection and Survey is under
the administration of CNO. This board consists
of a flag officer, as president, and of such other
Analysis and Reports senior officers as may be required to assist the
president in carrying out the duties of the board.
Regional boards and sub-boards are established,
A critique is held on board the inspected ship, as necessary, to assist the Board of Inspection and
at a convenient time after the completion of the Survey in the performance of its duties. In this
material inspection, in order that the ship may discussion we will consider shipboard inspections
derive the greatest benefit from the inspection. It that are made by the sub-boards. These sub-
is attended by the ship’s commanding and boards consist of the chief inspector and about
executive officers, the heads of departments, the 10 or more members, depending upon the type
chief inspector, and inspectors of each inspection of ship that is to be inspected.


Material Inspections made correction of defects and deficiencies. The Board

by the Board also recommends any changes in design which it
believes should be made on the ship itself or other
The inspection made by the Board of Inspec- ships of its type. These recommendations are
tion and Survey is in several respects similar to made to the Secretary of the Navy.
the material inspection that has just been dis- Unless war circumstances prevent it, an
cussed. In fact, the Board of Inspection and acceptance trial takes place at sea over an
Survey’s inspection procedures, condition sheets, established trial course. The tests include full
and reports are used as guidelines in establishing power runs ahead and astern, quick reverse, boiler
directives for the material inspection. The primary overload, steering, and anchor engine tests.
difference, in regard to material inspections, is During the trial, usually the builder’s personnel
that the material inspection is conducted by Forces operate the ship and its machinery. Ship’s per-
Afloat, usually a sister ship, and the Board of sonnel who are on board to observe the trial
Inspection and Survey inspection is conducted by carefully inspect the operation and material con-
a specially appointed board. This distinction, dition of machinery and equipment. They note
however, refers only to routine shipboard material all defects or deficiencies and bring them to the
inspection. It must be remembered that the Board attention of the division or engineer officer, so
of Inspection and Survey conducts other types of that each item can be discussed with the
inspections. appropriate members of the Board of Inspection
Inspections of ships are conducted by the and Survey.
Board of Inspection and Survey, when directed
by CNO, to determine their material condition. Survey of Ships
Their inspection usually takes place 4 to 6 months
prior to regular overhaul. Whenever practicable, Survey of a ship is conducted by the Board
such inspections are held sufficiently in advance of Inspection and Survey whenever a ship is
of a regular overhaul of the ship so as to include deemed by CNO to be unfit for further service,
in the overhaul all the work recommended by the because of material condition or obsolescence.
Board following the inspection. Upon the com- The Board after a thorough inspection, renders
pletion of its inspection, the Board reports the an opinion to the Secretary of the Navy as to
general condition of the ship and its suitability whether the ship is fit for further naval service,
for further naval service, together with a list of or can be made so without excessive cost.
the repairs, alterations, and design changes which, When the Board believes that the ship is
in its opinion, should be made. unfit for further naval service, the Board makes
appropriate recommendations as to the ship’s
Acceptance Trials and Inspections disposition.
Trials and inspections are conducted by the
Board of Inspection and Survey on all ships prior There are a number of different types of trials
to final acceptance for naval service, to determine which are carried out under specified conditions.
whether or not the contract and authorized A list comprising most of them is given here:
changes there to have been satisfactorily fulfilled.
The builder’s trials and acceptance trials are 1. Builder’s trial.
usually conducted before a new ship is placed in 2. Acceptance trials.
commission. After commissioning, a final con- 3. Final contract trials.
tract trial is held. Similar inspections are made 4. Post repair trials.
on ships that have been converted to other types. 5. Laying up or pre-overhaul trial.
All material, performance, and design defects and 6. Recommissioning trials.
deficiencies found, either during the trials or as 7. Standardization trials.
a result of examination at the completion of trials, 8. Tactical trials.
are reported by the Board, together with its 9. Full power trials.
recommendations as to the responsibility for 10. Economy trials.


The trials that are considered to be routine technicians carefully inspect it to determine the
ship’s trials are numbers 3, 9, and 10 of the above cause of unsatisfactory operation.
list. Post repair, full power, and economy trials
are the only ones discussed in this chapter, but Full Power and Economy Trials
information on the other types of trials can be
found in Naval Ships’ Technical Manual, chapter Trials are necessary to test engineering
094. readiness for war. Except while authorized to
disable or partially disable, ships are expected to
Post Repair Trial be able to conduct prescribed trials at any time.
Ships normally should be allowed approximately
The post repair trial should be made whenever a 2-week period after tender overhaul, and a
the machinery of a vessel has undergone exten- 1-month period after shipyard overhaul, to per-
sive overhaul, repair, or alteration which may mit final checks, tests, and adjustments of
affect the power or capabilities of the ship or the machinery before being called upon to conduct
machinery. A post repair trial is usually made competitive trials.
when the ship has completed a routine naval Trials are also held from time to time to deter-
shipyard overhaul period; the trial is OPTIONAL mine machinery efficiency under service condi-
whenever machinery, has undergone only partial tions, the extent, if any, of repairs necessary, the
overhaul or repair. The object of this trial is to sufficiency of repairs, and the most economical
ascertain if the work has been satisfactorily com- rate of performance under various conditions of
pleted and efficiently performed, and if all parts service.
of the machinery. are ready, for service.
The post repair trial should be held as soon INSPECTIONS AND TESTS PRIOR TO
as practicable after the repair work has been com- TRIALS.—The full power and the economy
pleted, the preliminary dock trial made, and the trials, as discussed in this chapter, are considered
persons responsible for the work are satisfied that in the nature of competitive trials. It is assumed
the machinery is in all respects ready for a full that the ship has been in full operational status
power trial. The conditions of the trial are for sufficient time to be in a good material con-
largely determined by the character of the work dition and to have a well-trained crew.
that has been performed. The trial should be con- Prior to the full power trial, inspections and
ducted in such manner as the commanding officer tests of machinery and equipment should be made
and commander of the shipyard may deem to ensure that no material item will interfere with
necessary. In cases where repairs have been slight the successful operation of the ship at full power.
and the commanding officer is satisfied that they The extent of the inspections and the tests will
are satisfactorily performed and can be tested largely depend upon the recent performance of
without a full power trial, such trial may be the ship at high speeds, the material condition of
dispensed with. the ship, and the time limits imposed by opera-
tional commitments.
Any unsatisfactory, conditions found to be Not later than one day before a trial, the
beyond the capacity of the ship’s force should be engineer officer must report to the commanding
corrected by the naval shipyard. When necessary, officer the condition of the machinery, stating
machinery should be opened up and carefully whether or not it is in proper condition and fit
inspected to determine the extent of any injury, to proceed with the trial.
defect, or maladjustment which may have
appeared during the post trial. GENERAL RULES FOR TRIALS.—During
A certain number of naval shipyard all full power trials, and during other machinery
personnel—technicians, inspectors, and trials, the following general rules should be
repairmen—accompany the ship on a post repair observed:
trial. They check the operation of machinery that
has been overhauled by the yard. If a unit of 1. Prior to commencing a power trial, the
machinery does not operate properly, the yard machinery should be thoroughly warmed up; this


can be accomplished by operating at a high frac- As far as reports are concerned, full power
tional power. trials are of 4 hours duration. The usual procedure
2. The speed of the engines should be gradu- is to operate the ship at full power for a suffi-
ally increased to the speed specified for the trial. cient length of time until all readings are
3. The machinery should be operated constant, and then start the official 4-hour trial
economically, and designed pressures, period. Economy trials are of 6 hours duration,
temperatures, and number of revolutions must not a different speed being run at each time a trial
be exceeded. is made.
4. The full power trial should not be con- Once scheduled, trials should be run unless
ducted in SHALLOW WATER, which is con- prevented by such circumstances as:
ducive to excessive vibration, loss of speed, and
overloading of the propulsion plant. 1. Weather conditions which might cause
5. A full power trial should continue beyond damage to the ship.
the length originally specified, and all observa-
tions should be continued until the trial is finished. 2. Material troubles which force the ship to
6. The trial should be continuous and without discontinue the trial.
interruption. If a trial at constant rpm must be 3. Any situation where running or completing
discontinued for any reason, that trial should be the trial would endanger human life.
considered unsatisfactory and a new start made.
7. No major changes of the plant set-up or If a trial performance is UNSATISFAC-
arrangement should be made during economy TORY, the ship concerned will normally be
trials. required to hold a retrial of such character as the
type commander may consider appropriate.
UNDERWAY REPORT DATA.—Reports of The fact that a ship failed to make the required
trials include all the attending circumstances, rpm for any hour during the trial, and the amount
especially draft forward, draft aft, mean draft, by which it failed, should be noted in the trial
and corresponding displacement of the ship at the report.
middle of the trial; the condition of the ship’s bot-
tom; the last time drydocked; the consumption
of fuel per hour; the average speed of the ship OBSERVATION OF TRIALS.—When full
through the water; and the average revolutions power trials are scheduled, observing parties are
of the propelling engines. The methods by which appointed from another ship whenever
the speed was determined should also be practicable. When a ship is scheduled to conduct
described. a trial while proceeding independently between
Reports should also include tabulations of ports, or under the other conditions where it is
gage and thermometer readings of the machinery considered impractical to provide observers from
in use, and the revolutions or strokes of pertinent another ship, the ship under trial may be directed
auxiliaries. The auxiliaries in use during the trial to appoint the observers.
should be stated. Each report should state whether The number of personnel assigned to an
the machinery is in a satisfactory condition. If the observing party vary according to size and type
machinery’s condition is found to be unsatisfac- of ship. The duties of the observing party are
tory, all defects and deficiencies should be fully usually as follows:
described and recommendations made for correct-
ing them. 1. The chief observers organize, instruct, and
station the observing party. They check the ship’s
TRIAL REQUIREMENTS.—Trial require- draft, either at the beginning of the trial or before
ments for each ship cover the rpm for full power leaving port; supervise the performance of the
at various displacements and injection engineroom observers; check the taking of counter
temperatures. They are furnished to commanders readings; render all decisions in accordance with
and units concerned, by the Chief of Naval Opera- current directives; and check and sign the trial
tions (Operations Readiness Division). reports.


2. The assistant chief observers assist the chief manner of conducting full power and economy
observers as directed; supervise the performance trials are as follows:
of the observers; check the taking of fuel oil
soundings and meter readings; and make out the 1. Unless otherwise ordered, a full power trial
trial reports. may be started at any time on the date set.
3. Assistant observers take fuel soundings, 2. The trial should be divided into hourly
meter readings, counter readings, the ship’s draft, intervals, but readings should be taken and
and collect all other data that may be required recorded every half hour. Data are submitted as
for the trial reports. hourly readings in the trial report.
3. Fuel expenditures for each hourly interval
The following items should be accomplished of the trial should be determined by the most ac-
or considered before starting the trial: curate means practicable, normally by meter
readings corrected for meter error and verified by
1. When requested by the observing party, the soundings.
ship under trial should provide or designate a 4. The appropriate material condition of the
suitable signaling system so that fuel soundings ship should be set during the different trials.
and the readings of counters and meters may be 5. During all trials the usual “housekeeping”
taken simultaneously. and auxiliary loads should be maintained and the
2. The ship under trial should furnish the minimum services provided should include nor-
chief observer with a written statement of the date mal operation of the distilling plant, air com-
of last undocking, and the authorized and actual pressor, laundry, galley, ventilation systems,
settings of all main machinery safety devices and elevators (if installed), and generators for light and
dates when last tested. power under load conditions similar to those re-
3. The ship should have its draft, trim, and quired for normal operations at similar speeds
loading conform to trial requirements. In case a under the prescribed material condition.
least draft is not specified, the liquid loading 6. All ships fitted with indicators, torsion-
should equal at least 75% of the full load capacity. meters, and other devices for measuring shaft or
indicated horsepower should make at least two
4. The chief observer should determine draft observations during the full power trial to deter-
and trim before and after the trial, verify the mine the power being developed.
amount of fuel on board and correct this amount 7. The chief observer’s report of the trial
of the time of beginning the trial. The draft should state whether all rules for the trial have
observer should also determine the rpm required been complied with.
for the full power trial, at the displacement and
injection temperature existing at the start of the SOME HINTS IN REGARD TO FULL
trial. POWER TRIALS.—There are special forms
5. The observing party should detect and used for full power and economy trial reports.
promptly correct any errors in recording data, Illustrations of these forms are not given in this
since it is important that the required data be cor- training manual, but you can obtain copies from
rect within the limits of accuracy of the shipboard your log room, and in this way get an idea of the
instruments. data and readings that are required for full power
6. The chief observer should instruct members and economy trials.
of the observing party to detect any violation of Trial forms, and such items as tachometers,
trial instructions, of instructions in the Naval stop watches, and flashlights, should be available
Ships’ Technical Manual, or of good engineering to the observing party and to the personnel who
practice, and then verify any such report and pro- take readings. Any gages or thermometers which
vide the commanding officer or a detailed account are considered doubtful or defective should be
of each violation. replaced before trials are held. A quartermaster
must check and adjust all clocks in the engineer-
MANNER OF CONDUCTING TRIALS.— ing spaces and on the bridge before any trials are
Some of the requirements in regards to the held.


It is important to make careful inspections and 3. Quantity and quality of fuel injected.
tests of equipment and items of machinery that 4. Firing pressures.
may cause difficulties during full power opera- 5. Inlet valve timing and lift.
tion, since it is possible that unknown defects or
conditions may go undetected during operation 6. Exhaust valve timing and lift.
at fractional powers—the normal operating con- 7. Exhaust gas temperatures.
dition of the ship most of the time.
Before a trial run is made, the main engines
should be inspected to make sure that the power A common practice among many com-
output of the individual cylinders is equal; this manding officers, when making full power trials,
ensures a balanced, smooth-operating engine, at is first to bring the ship up to a speed of one or
maximum speed and power. Equal load distribu- more knots below the trial run speed of the ship
tion between the individual cylinders depends on and then turn the control of the speed (except in
the following factors being as nearly equal as cases of emergency nature) over to the engineer
possible for all cylinders. officer. The control engineroom, under the super-
vision of the engineer officer, brings the speed up
1. Compression pressures. slowly, depending upon the conditions of the
2. Fuel injection timing. plant, until the specified speed has been reached.


Keeping an internal combustion engine (diesel adaptable to all models. However, there are
or gasoline) in good operating condition demands several general rules which apply to all engines.
a well-planned procedure of periodic inspection, They are:
adjustments, maintenance, and repair. If inspec-
tions are made regularly, many malfunctions can 1. Detailed repair procedures are listed in
be detected and corrected before a serious casualty manufacturers’ instruction manuals and in
results. A planned maintenance program will help maintenance pamphlets. Study the appropriate
to prevent major casualties and the occurrence of manuals and pamphlets before attempting any
many operating troubles. repair work. Pay particular attention to tolerance
The Maintenance and Material Management limits, and adjustments.
(3-M) System provides a logical and efficient 2. Observe the highest degree of cleanliness
approach to many maintenance problems. It pro- in handling engine parts during overhaul.
duces a large reservoir of information about 3. Before starting repair work, be sure that
equipment disorder and indicates what corrective all required tools and replacements for known
steps must be taken to prevent them. defective parts are available.
Another aspect that must be considered in 4. Keep detailed records of repairs. Such
connection with maintenance problems is the records should include the measurements of parts,
safety requirement aboard ship. On some ships, hours in use, and the names of the new parts in-
the 3-M System includes safety requirement cards. stalled. Analyses of such records will indicate the
A safety requirement card provides guidelines and hours of operation that may be expected from the
periodicity for the inspection of selected areas not various engine parts. This knowledge is helpful
covered in the regular maintenance schedule. as an aid in determining when a part should be
Complete information about the 3-M System renewed in order to avoid a failure.
is contained in the Maintenance and Material
Management (3-M) Manual, OPNAVINST Since maintenance cards, the manufacturers’
4790.4. maintenance manuals, and the various types of
There may be times when service requirements instructions discuss repair procedures in detail,
will interfere with a planned maintenance pro- this chapter will be limited to general informa-
gram. In such event, routine maintenance must tion on engine inspections, adjustments, and
be performed as soon as possible after the maintenance, as well as some of the troubles
specified interval of time has elapsed. All encountered during overhaul, the causes of such
necessary corrective measures should be troubles, and the methods of repair to be used.
accomplished as soon as possible. Repair jobs
should not be allowed to accumulate, otherwise
hurried and inadequate work will result. INSPECTIONS
Since the Navy uses many models of internal
combustion engines, it is impossible to specify a Inspections and maintenance are vital in order
detailed overhaul procedure that would be to maintain engines (diesel and gasoline) in


proper operating condition and to minimize the corrected in order to avoid repeated failure of the
occurrence of casualties caused by material same or similar components. Prompt inspection
failure. may eliminate a wave of repeated casualties.
A comparatively minor engine malfunction, Strict attention must be paid to the proper
if not recognized and remedied in its early stages, lubrication of all equipment, including frequent
might well develop into a major casualty. You and inspection and sampling to ensure that the cor-
your work center personnel must be able to rect quantity of the proper lubricant is in the unit.
recognize the symptoms of any developing It is good practice to make a daily check of
malfunction by using your senses of sight, samples of lubricating oil in all auxiliaries. Such
hearing, smell, or even touch or feel samples should be allowed to stand long enough
(heat/vibration). for any water to settle. When auxiliaries have been
Your personnel must be trained to pay idle for several hours, particularly overnight, a
particular and continuous attention to the follow- sufficient sample to remove all settled water
ing indicators of oncoming malfunctions: should be drained from the lowest part of the oil
sump. Replenishment with fresh oil to the nor-
1. Unusual noises mal level should be included in this routine.
2. Vibrations The presence of saltwater in the oil can be
3. Abnormal temperatures detected by drawing off the settled water by means
4. Abnormal pressures of a pipette and by running a standard chloride
5. Abnormal operating speeds test. A sample of sufficient size for the test can
be obtained by adding distilled water to the oil
All operating personnel should thoroughly sample, shaking it vigorously, and then allowing
familiarize themselves with the specific the water to settle before draining off the test sam-
temperatures, pressures, and operating speeds of ple. Because of its corrosive effects, saltwater in
equipment that are required for normal operation, the lubricating oil is far more dangerous to a unit
so that any departure from the normal will than is an equal amount of freshwater. Saltwater
become more readily apparent. is particularly harmful to units containing oil-
If a gage, or other instrument for recording lubricated ball bearings.
operating conditions of machinery, gives an The information given so far relates to the
abnormal reading, the cause of the malfunction inspections that Enginemen make on operating
must be fully investigated. Normally the installa- engines (either diesel or gasoline). Since the Navy
tion of a spare instrument, or a calibration test, uses more diesel than gasoline engines the
will quickly indicate whether the abnormal reading remainder of this chapter will deal with diesel
is due to instrument error. Any other cause must engines and with the inspection and maintenance
be traced to its source. procedures that are required by the planned
Because of the safety factor commonly incor- maintenance system (PMS) and the manufac-
porated in pumps and similar equipment, con- turers’ technical manuals.
siderable loss of capacity can occur before any
external evidence is apparent. Changes in the COMPRESSION AND FIRING
operating speeds (from those normal for the
existing load) of pressure-governor-controlled
equipment should be viewed with suspicion. Most
variations from normal pressures, lubricating oil Readings of the compression and firing
temperatures, and system pressures indicate either pressures must be taken every 200 hours for the
inefficient operation or poor condition of trend analysis graphs. They may also be taken at
machinery. other times when engine operating conditions
When a material failure occurs in any unit, require additional monitoring such as when an
a prompt inspection should be made of all similar engine misfires, fires erratically, or when any one
units to determine whether there is any danger that cylinder misfires regularly. There can be many
a similar failure might occur in other units. The reasons for an engine to misfire, some of these
cause of the failure must also be determined and are a clogged air cleaner/filter, an engaged fuel


cutout mechanism, or a loss of compression. If, being tested is cut out, the cylinder test cock is
after checking the air cleaner, the filter, and the opened, and the spring tension on the indicator
fuel cutout mechanism, you determine that the is adjusted. The tension of the spring is reduced
problem is due to loss of compression, then you by rotating the vulcanized handle
must perform a compression check with a cylinder counterclockwise until the maximum cylinder
pressure indicator. pressure barely offsets the spring pressure. At this
There are several different types of indicators point, the latch mechanism of the indicator trips
that may be used. Most indicators used with and locks the handle firmly in position, giving a
diesel-cylinder engines are either of the spring direct and exact reading of the pressure in pounds
balanced type or the trapped pressure type. They per square inch (psi). To reset the lock mechanism
are manufactured by various companies such as for a new reading, the handle must be rotated
Kiene, Bacharach, and Kent-Moore. Some of counterclockwise one-fourth turn. When this in-
these indicators measure only compression dicator is stowed for future use, the indicator
pressure, others measure both compression and spring must be unloaded by rotating the handle
firing pressures. counterclockwise until a zero pressure reading is
Spring Balanced Indicator
Trapped Pressure Indicators
A spring balanced indicator, such as the one
manufactured by Bacharach (figure 3-1), employs In this type of indicator, the cylinder gases
a spherical ball piston, which is held on its seat enter past a valve into a chamber which leads to
by the force of a helical spring actuated by the a gage. When the pressure above the valve equals
cylinder pressure which acts against the bottom that of the cylinder, the valve seats and traps the
of the ball piston to oppose the spring tension. gas above the valve at its highest pressure, then
Before the indicator is attached to the engine, the this pressure is read on the gage. There are several
vulcanized handle must be rotated clockwise other types of indicators. The one pictured in
until the reading on the counter is greater than figure 3-2 is used to take compression readings
the maximum cylinder pressure expected. The
amount of this pressure is listed in the engine
manufacturer’s technical manual. When the
indicator is installed, the operator must make sure
that it is placed as near the cylinder as possible
and position it so that it can be read easily. After
the indicator is installed the engine is operated at
the specified rpm, then the fuel to the cylinder

75.238X 75.238X
Courtesy of Bacharach, Inc., USA Courtesy of Bacharach, Inc., USA

Figure 3-1.-Spring balanced Pressure Indicator. Figure 3-2.—Trapped Pressure Indicator (small boat).


only on engines installed on small boats. Engines flow from the engine into the chamber until the
like the GM-6-71 do not have indicator cocks pressures are equalized. This gage is attached to
installed. the chamber and the pressure is read directly. The
check valve is an inverted piston seating on a seat
When taking compression readings on a 6-71 piece. The valve moves up and down in a guide.
engine, you will perform the following steps: A stop nut is used to adjust the travel of the check
1. Check the manufacturer’s technical manual
for the minimum compression pressure required Most of you should become familiar with this
for the engine. indicator since it is widely used to check both the
2. Start the engine and run it at approximately compression and firing pressures on main diesel
one-half the rated load until normal operating engines and emergency generator diesel engines.
temperatures are reached. Review figure 3-4A and B. It is a PMS situation
requirement to be performed when the engine
3. Stop the engine and remove the fuel pipes operating conditions indicate problems.
from the injector and the fuel connectors on the
cylinder to be tested.
4. Remove the injector and install the EXHAUST AND CYLINDER
indicator adapter, with pressure gage attached, TEMPERATURES
and use the crab nut to hold the adapter in place.
5. Use a space fuel pipe to fabricate a jumper One of the most useful tools that the engine
connection between the fuel inlet and the return operator has for monitoring an engine’s perform-
manifold connectors to by-pass fuel to and from ance is the thermocouple pyrometer. The prin-
the injector. cipal use of this device is in the exhaust system
6. Start the engine again and run it at approx- (but it can also be used for other purposes) where
imately 600 rpm. it is used to measure the exhaust gas temperatures
7. Observe and record the compression at each cylinder or the common temperature in
pressure as indicated on the gage. the exhaust manifold. By comparing the exhaust
gas temperatures of each cylinder, the operator
Another type of trapped pressure indicator is can determine if the load is balanced throughout
the Kiene indicator (figure 3-3). This indicator is the engine.
basically a Bourdon gage connected to a cylin-
The two types of pyrometers in use are the
drical pressure chamber. The pressure chamber
contains a check valve which allows the gas to fixed installation and the portable hand-held
instrument (figure 3-5). Both types use a ther-
mocouple unit, such as the one shown in figure
3-5, installed in the exhaust manifold.
In its simplest form, a thermocouple consists
of two dissimilar metal wires, usually iron and
constantan (55% copper and 45% nickel) that are
joined at both ends to form a continuous circuit.
When the temperatures at the junctions are dif-
ferent an electrical current is produced and flows
in the circuit. The greater the temperature dif-
ference, the greater the voltage produced.
One junction, known as the hot junction, is
contained in a closed-end tube, installed in the ex-
75.238X haust manifold of each cylinder. The other junc-
Courtesy of Bacharach, Inc., USA tion called the cold junction, is exposed to room
Figure 3-3.—Trapped Pressure Indicator.
temperature, and is located at the pyrometer wire

Page 3-5

Figure 3-4A.—MRC-for measuring compression and firing Figure 3-4B.—MRC-for measuring compression and firing
pressures (front). pressures (back).

Figure 3-6.—Sectional view of a thermocouple.

tell you how your engine is performing and what

is happening inside the engine. Graphic records
indicate the overall condition of an engine and
75.170 warn you when certain parts are beginning to wear
Figure 3-5.—Pyrometers used in diesel exhaust systems. out so that you may take prompt corrective ac-
tions and prevent major casualties.

terminals (see figure 3-6). A pyrometer (millivolt

meter) measures the voltage produced and shows ADJUSTMENT AND MAINTENANCE
the results on a scale which has been calibrated
to read in degrees of temperature. In fixed installa- An internal combustion engine is a com-
tion pyrometers, if the connecting wires are of the plicated machine, built with a high degree of preci-
same type as those of the thermocouples, the ther- sion throughout and capable of long dependable
mocouple element becomes, in effect, extended service if it is kept in good operating condition.
to the pyrometer terminals and the temperature To keep an engine in good operating condi-
at the meter (now the cold junction) becomes the tion you must perform all the adjustments and
reference temperature. Then the selector switch maintenance prescribed in your installed PMS and
can be rotated to any cylinder and contact can the manufacturers’ technical manuals. In this sec-
be made between the pyrometer and the hot junc- tion you will read about the adjustment and
tion. A reading can then be obtained for that par- maintenance of various components of an inter-
ticular point. nal combustion engine.
The hand-held pyrometer consists of an
indicator and a pair of pointed prods attached to AUTOMATIC REGULATING VALVE
a sub-base and supported by a handle. To obtain
a reading, the prod points are pressed against the In many engines, freshwater temperature is
exposed thermocouple terminals. The reading is regulated by an automatic regulating valve which
taken from the scale. A point to remember is that maintains the freshwater temperature at any
the zero adjuster must be set to indicate room desired value by bypassing a portion of the water
temperature rather than 0° temperature. around the freshwater cooler. An automatic
temperature regulator of the type commonly
GRAPHIC RECORDS used in the cooling systems of marine engines is
shown in figure 3-7. Even though these regulators
As you read in chapter 2, graphic records play are automatic (self-operated), provisions are in-
an important part in keeping an engine in proper cluded in most installations for manual operation
operating condition. When used properly they can in the event that the automatic feature fails.


Figure 3-7.—Automatic temperature regulator.


The temperature regulator consists of a valve temperature for which the regulator is set, the
and a thermostatic control unit mounted on the regulator actuates a valve to increase the flow of
valve. The thermostatic control unit consists of seawater through the coolers. On the other hand,
a temperature-control element and a control when the freshwater temperature is below the
assembly. temperature for which the regulator is set, the
The temperature-control element is essentially regulator actuates the valve and decreases the flow
two sealed chambers consisting of a bellows con- of seawater through the coolers.
nected by a flexible armored capillary tube to a In installations where the regulator is in the
bulb mounted in the engine cooling-water freshwater circuit, water is directed to the cooler
discharge line. One chamber is formed by the when the temperature of the water is above the
bellows and cap, which are sealed together at the maximum setting of the regulator. After passing
bottom; the other chamber is in the bulb. The through the cooler where the temperature of the
entire system (except for a small space at the top water is lowered, the water returns to the suction
of the bulb) is filled with a mixture of ether and side of the freshwater pump to be recirculated.
alcohol which vaporizes at a low temperature. When the temperature of the water is below the
When the bulb is heated, the liquid vaporizes and maximum setting of the regulator, the water
the pressure within the bulb increases. This forces bypasses the cooler and flows directly to the suc-
the liquid out of the bulb and through the tion side of the pump. Bypassing the cooler per-
capillary tube to the bellows. As the bellows is mits the water to be recirculated through the
moved down, it operates the valve. engine; in this way, the temperature of the water
The control assembly consists of a spring- is raised to the proper operating level.
loaded mechanical linkage which connects the Regardless of whether the regulator is in the
temperature-control element to the valve stem. fresh or seawater circuit, the bulb which causes
The coil spring in the control assembly provides the regulator to operate is located in the
the force necessary to balance the force of the freshwater discharge line of the engine.
vapor pressure in the temperature-control Temperature regulators not only control the
element. temperature of the freshwater but also control
Thus, the downward force of the temperature- indirectly the temperature of the oil discharged
control element is balanced, at any point, by the from the lubricating oil cooler. Control of the
upward force of the spring. This permits the valve lubricating oil temperature is possible because the
to be set to hold the temperature of the engine water (freshwater or saltwater) that is passed
cooling water within the allowed limits. through the regulator and the freshwater cooler
The regulator operates only within the is also the cooling agent for the lubricating oil
temperature range marked on the nameplate; it cooler. When the lubricating oil is cooled by
may be adjusted for any temperature within this seawater, two temperature regulators are installed
range. The setting is controlled by the range- in the seawater circuit. The temperature regulator
adjusting wheel, located under the spring seat. A bulb of the regulator that controls the temperature
pointer attached to the spring seat indicates the of the freshwater is installed in the freshwater cir-
temperature setting on a scale which is attached cuit; the bulb of the regulator that controls the
to the regulator frame. The scale is graduated temperature of the lubricating oil is installed in
from 0 to 9, representing the total operating range the lubricating oil system.
of the regulator.
The location of a temperature regulator Maintenance
may be located in either the seawater
or freshwater circuit. In most engines, the To allow proper operation of a temperature
regulator is located in the freshwater regulator, the valve stem must not bind in the
circuit. stuffing box, but must move freely. The valve
When located in the seawater circuit, the stem must be lubricated frequently where it enters
regulator controls the amount of seawater flow- the stuffing box and also around the threaded
ing through the coolers. As the temperature of sleeve used for the manual control. A small
the freshwater becomes greater than the amount of grease should also be used on the bevel


Figure 3-8.—Figure Removed.

gears. The valve packing nut should be kept only not stuck in the COOLER CLOSED (minimum
finger tight and should be lubricated occasionally cooling) position.
with a drop of oil. Should it become necessary 3. Check the water lines for other causes of
to renew the packing, you will need to remove the the difficulty. If this check does not reveal the
nut, take out the packing gland, clean the stuff- cause of the trouble, it is probable that the
ing box, and repack it with asbestos wicking temperature control element is inoperative, and
saturated with oil. that it should be checked.
Should the temperature of the freshwater
leaving the engine be too high when the regulator If undercooling occurs when the temperature
is set on the lowest adjustment setting you should regulator is set on the highest adjustment setting,
do the following: check for a sticking valve in the BY-PASS
CLOSED (maximum cooling) position. Sticking
1. Ensure that the manual pointer is set at the may be caused by a tight stuffing box or by dirt
THERMOSTATIC position. under the lower valve seat. If the temperature at
2. Ensure that the packing gland is not the bulb is lower than the set temperature and the
binding the valve stem and that the valve stem is valve position indicator shows COOLER


CLOSED, excessive leakage is indicated. In such 9. Secure the packing gland nut finger tight.
case you will have to regrind the valve using the 10. Insert the bulb into the ship’s piping in
following procedure: either a horizontal or vertical position, as shown
in views A and B of figure 3-9. When the bulb
1. Disconnect the valve from the piping. is installed in the vertical position, the nut must
2. Remove the packing nut and the packing. be at the top; when it is installed in the horizon-
3. Disconnect the valve stem and remove the tal position, the arrow on the indicator disk must
locknut from the thermostatic stem. point upward. NEVER INSTALL THE BULB
4. Remove the thermostatic control unit WITH THE NUT AT THE BOTTOM (as shown
from the valve. in view C of figure 3-9) because in this position
5. Clean the valve stem until it is smooth. the liquid would be below the end of the internal
If necessary, polish it with fine emery cloth. capillary tube and would have little or no effect
6. Grind the valve seats until a perfect seal on the bellows of the temperature regulator valve.
is obtained; then remove all grinding compound 11. Adjust the regulator.
from the valve and the seats.
7. Reassemble the valve and the control unit. Adjustment
8. Repack the stuffing box and lubricate it
with engine oil. A closeup of the adjusting and indicating
features of the temperature regulator is shown in
figure 3-10. The procedure for adjusting a
temperature regulator is as follows: Rotate the
manual crank pin until the indicator pointer is in

Figure 3-10.—Scale and Indicator plates of temperature

Figure 3-9.—Bulb installation. regulator.



adjusting wheel until the pointer is opposite 2 on DEFINITIONS
the scale plate. Loosen the locknut and unscrew
the valve stem until it is free of the thermostatic Problems with the cooling system of an engine
stem. Then turn the adjusting wheel until the may prevent the cooling system from keeping the
pointer is opposite 8 on the scale plate. (Note: The engine parts and working fluids at safe operating
preceding steps should be performed with the ther- temperatures. Failure of the system may lead to
mostatic bulb removed from the ship’s piping and several of the troubles and casualties that have
when the bulb temperature is below 100°F.) been discussed earlier.
Again rotate the manual crankpin until the In marine installations, lubricating oil and
lower end of the seating sleeve is flush with the most of the engine parts are cooled by the circula-
lower end of the thermostatic stem. With the tion of seawater, freshwater, or both. When the
seating sleeve and the indicator pointer in this cooling of an engine part is mostly by oil spray
position, loosen the screws in the indicator plate or oil circulation, the oil is cooled by circulation
and slide the plate up or down as needed to align through an oil cooler. Figure 3-11 illustrates a
the THERMOSTATIC mark in the center of the cooling system in which both freshwater and
plate with the indicator pointer. Then retighten seawater serve as coolants.
the screws. (The marks COOLER CLOSED and When maintaining engine cooling water
COOLER BY-PASS on the indicator plate are temperatures within specified limits, the principal
only approximate.) Screw the valve stem into the difficulties you may encounter are in maintain-
thermostatic stem and turn it until the cooler pop- ing circulating pumps in operating condition;
pet valve seats firmly. Turn the adjusting wheel preventing corrosion; reducing the cause of scale
until the pointer is opposite 2 on the scale plate. formation in water jackets and heat exchangers;
Turn the valve stem one full turn into the ther- cleaning jackets and heat exchangers according
mostatic stem and retighten the locknut. to proper procedures; and in preventing leaks in
the various parts of the system.
With the manual control on the THER- The coolers (or heat exchangers) which remove
MOSTATIC position, turn the adjusting wheel the heat from the cooling water of an engine may
in a direction to bring the pointer to number 9 vary considerably in design. Those used in cool-
on the scale plate. Run the engine at warmup ing systems may be classified basically as the
speed until the temperature of the fluid, as radiator type and the tubular type. The radiator
indicated by the thermometer in the line with the is sometimes referred to as the strut or the Har-
thermostatic bulb, rises to the desired rison type, while the tubular is identified as the
temperature. (The desired temperature must be Ross or shell-and-tube type. A heat exchanger of
determined in advance from applicable both types is shown in figure 3-12. The heat ex-
instructions.) changer on the top of the picture is a radiator type
With the engine running at warmup speed and heat exchanger; the one on the bottom is a
the temperature at the thermostatic bulb at the tubular-type heat exchanger. In heat exchangers
desired value, turn the adjusting wheel until the of the radiator type, the freshwater passes through
cooler poppet just begins to leave its seat. This the tubes and the seawater passes around them.
action is shown by the movement of the mark on In the tubular type, the freshwater surrounds the
the valve stem downward from the COOLER tubes and the seawater passes through them.
CLOSED mark on the valve position indicator.
Valves adjusted in accordance with this procedure CASUALTIES
will normally maintain the temperature of the
fluid at the thermostatic bulb between the desired Although heat exchangers vary in design, they
value and a temperature approximately 20° are all subject to similar casualties. The principal
higher, under any conditions of engine load or difficulties which may prevent heat exchangers
injection temperature. This 20° difference is the from functioning properly are excessive scale
temperature rise required to cause the poppet deposits on the cooler element, clogged cooler
valve to move through the necessary travel. elements, or cooler leakage.


Figure 3-11.—A cooling water system.

A gradual increase in the freshwater closed cooling systems must be as pure as

temperature is usually an indication of EX- possible. Distilled water is recommended for a
CESSIVE SCALE on a cooler element. As scale freshwater cooling system, but since distilled water
formation increases, there is a gradual increase is not absolutely pure, additional steps must be
in the pressure difference between the inlet and taken to control acidity and alkalinity. The treat-
outlet of the heat exchanger. Scale deposits ment used to control these factors will not remove
generally form faster on the saltwater side than scales already formed, but it will prevent further
on the freshwater side, because of the greater precipitation of scale-forming slats. You will find
amount of dissolved salt present in the water. details for water treatment in closed water systems
Complete prevention of scale formation is not in chapter 233, NAVSHIPS Technical Manual,
possible, but steps can be taken to reduce its for- and in most engine instruction manuals.
mation by using proper cleaning methods and pro- Not only the hard deposits chemically
cedures. Seawater discharge temperature should precipitated from the circulating water, but also
be maintained below a specified limit (130°F), such items as marine life, grease, and debris of
because the rate of scale formation is increased various types may CLOG OR RESTRICT
as the temperature increases. The water used in COOLER ELEMENTS. The principal causes of


Figure 3-12.—Types of heat exchanges.

cooler clogging by loose foreign matter are faulty soon as possible. Obviously, the use of dirty
seawater strainers, dirty freshwater, excessive freshwater will hasten the clogging of a cooler ele-
lubrication of the pumps, and leaking oil coolers. ment. Grease and oil may enter the cooling system
To prevent the entry of sea debris, a punctured and the film deposited on the cooler element will
screen in a seawater strainer must be replaced as reduce the capacity of the cooler. Grease may


come from grease cups which are used on some (radiator and tubular) differ in some respects.
water pumps to lubricate bearings. If the cups are Radiator-type heat exchangers are cleaned by
turned down too much or too often, grease is chemical means because mechanical cleaning is
forced into the circulating water. A hole in the not satisfactory for this type heat exchanger.
element of an oil cooler permits oil to flow into Chemical cleaning of radiator-type units is
the cooling system. Any source of oil or grease discussed in Engineman 3 & 2, NAVEDTRA
should be located and repairs made as soon as 10541 (current edition). Tubular heat exchangers,
possible. on the other hand, are cleaned by mechanical
Corrosion or erosion of the element in a heat means.
exchanger, as well as operation at excessive In both types of heat exchangers, loose foreign
pressure, may cause LEAKS. These leaks can matter such as seaweed, sand, and dirt may be
develop either in the element or in the casing. removed by blowing steam through the element
Leakage from the cooler casing can usually be in a direction opposite to the normal flow of
detected by inspection. Element leaks, however, water. When an element is badly clogged, care
are more difficult to detect. Any noticeable decline must be exercised not to admit steam at a pressure
or rise in the freshwater tank level, with the exceeding the maximum specified for the element.
temperature remaining normal, usually indicates If a film of oil or grease is evident, the element
leakage. should be cleaned like an oil cooler element.
A hole made by corrosion in a cooler element Leakage from the CASING of a radiator-type
indicates that corrosion probably exists heat exchanger may be caused by a damaged
throughout the element, and a thorough inspec- gasket. If so, the heat exchanger should be re-
tion should be made. Corrosion can be prevented moved from the piping in order that flange faces
to a large extent by using the prescribed freshwater may be tightened evenly after a new gasket is
treatment, inspecting as necessary and venting the installed. If there is any reason to suspect that
cooler to remove entrapped air. there are leaks in a heat exchanger element, the
Holes due to erosion are usually caused by best method for locating them is by an air test.
particles of grit (sand, dirt, etc., resulting This test may be accomplished as follows:
usually from operation in shallow water) striking
an element at high velocity. Grit is for the most 1. Remove the element from the casing.
part so fine that it passes easily through the 2. Block off the discharge side of the element.
strainer. If the strainer is defective, even the larger 3. Attach a pressure gage to the inlet line of
particles of grit may enter the cooler. the element.
Erosion by water at high velocity may also 4. Supply low-pressure air to the inlet side of
result in holes in a cooler element. This occurs the element. Remember: Air pressure must
when water flow has to be increased above the NEVER exceed design pressure for the
rated capacity in order to maintain a desired element.
freshwater temperature. Whenever it is found 5. Immerse the element in a tank of water.
necessary to greatly increase the water flow, the 6. Check for bubbles.
cooler should be cleaned.
If the designed maximum operating pressure An element of a heat exchanger may also be
(indicated on the exchanger name plate) is ex- tested hydrostatically by filling the element with
ceeded, leaks are apt to result. Excessive pressure water under pressure and checking for leaks.
is likely to occur in conjunction with clogging, Emergency repair of leaks in the element of
because additional pressure is necessary to force a radiator-type heat exchanger can be made as
a given quantity of water through a clogged shown in figure 3-13. When emergency repairs to
element. the radiator-type heat exchanger are necessary,
they may be made with the use of soft solder and
MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR a small torch or soldering iron. Extreme care must
be taken to prevent the surrounding area from
Because of the difference in their construction, being overheated, thus causing the existing solder
methods of cleaning both types of heat exchangers to melt. Small radiator-type heat exchangers


further corrosion. Removing the tarnish will also

reduce the tube wall thickness and over a period
of time and a number of cleanings, could suffi-
ciently reduce tube strength, resulting in tube
failure. For the proper procedures for cleaning
shell and tube type heat exchangers and the
safety precautions, use the PMS maintenance
requirements cards, the manufacturer’s technical
manual and Naval Ships’s Technical Manual,
chapter 254.


To ensure that all the parts of an engine receive

adequate lubrication, it is essential that all parts
of the lubricating oil system be properly main-
tained at all times. Some parts which may be a
source of trouble are considered in this section.
For other information on lubricating systems, see
Engineman 3 & 2, NAVEDTRA 10541 (current


Pumps used in engine lubricating systems are

of the positive displacement type. In some pumps
pressure control is maintained by pressure
121.33 regulating or pressure relief valves built directly
Figure 3-13.—Emergency repair of a tube leak in a radiator into the pump; in other pumps, valves exterior
type heat exchanger. to the pump are used for this purpose. Most
regulating devices recirculate excess lube oil back
to the suction side of the pump, but some pumps
should be replaced as soon as a leak develops, if discharge excess oil directly into the engine sump.
a replacement is available. The presence of one Pump casualties, as well as many other lube
leak, unless caused by dropping or accidental systems failures, are indicated by the loss of lube
puncture, indicates that other areas in the heat oil pressure. The loss of oil pressure can be
exchanger may be eroded. recognized by checking the pressure gages at
In shell-and-tube heat exchangers, a leaking prescribed intervals, or by means of an electrical
tube must be replaced as soon as possible. In an alarm system. Most lube oil pump failures are
emergency, a faulty tube may be blocked off by generally due to wear, and develop gradually.
inserting a special plug at each end, until the tube Failures may also occur abruptly if a drive shaft
can be replaced. An air lance or water lance breaks, or some parts suffer physical deforma-
should be used to clean the tubes of a shell-and- tion. Such failures are usually indicated by ab-
tube heat exchanger. If the scale has hardened in normal noise in the pump and by sounding of the
the tubes, a round bristle brush or soft rubber low-pressure lube oil alarm.
plugs may be used to clean the tubes. When clean- The warning system should be tested at
ing the tubes by mechanical means, avoid specified intervals, usually when an engine is
damaging the protective coating inside the tubes. being started or secured. Warning systems do not
These tubes should never be polished, as the tar- excuse personnel from their responsibility for
nish on the tubes acts as insulation to prevent keeping a vigilant and accurate watch on engine


instruments. The instruments give the most maintenance and repair of the various systems are
reliable indication as to what an engine is doing also similar.
and what adjustments should be made. Let’s review briefly not only the function of
a fuel system but also the various types of fuel
OIL LINES AND PASSAGES systems. As you know the function of a fuel
injection system is to deliver fuel to the engine
cylinders under specific conditions: at a high
Troubles occurring in the oil passages and oil pressure, at the proper time, in the proper quan-
lines are usually in the form of plugged or tities, and properly atomized. This function may
cracked lines. The former is generally the result be carried out by either one of two types of
of carelessness, while the latter is usually a result systems: the air injection type or the solid injec-
of improper support of the line. tion type. Since there are few air injections systems
Even though clogged passages may be now in use, we will consider only the solid
indicated by increased pressure gage readings, it (mechanical) injection type systems.
is dangerous to rely wholly on such indications, Solid injection systems may be classified as
since stoppage occurring beyond the pressure jerk pump systems and common rail systems.
regulating valve and pressure gage may cause very Variations are to be found in each of these
little, if any, pressure increase on the gage. You systems. The following examples show some of
can best determine if a bearing is receiving oil by the basic differences between the various solid
inspecting it occasionally, just after engine injection systems.
shut-down. There should be plenty of oil in the Systems of the JERK PUMP type may be
vicinity of the parts being lubricated. Another identified as either individual pump systems or
method for checking bearing lubrication is to note unit injection systems. Some jerk pump systems
the temperature of the bearings by feeling them use a separate pump and fuel injector for each
with the hand after engine shut-down. You should cylinder, while the unit injection systems combine
be able to keep your hand on them for at least the pump and injector into a single unit.
a few seconds.
You can help prevent most oil line stoppage The Bosch system is an example of an in-
by observing the following rules: dividual pump system. The pump is a cam-
actuated, constant stroke, lapped plunger and
barrel pump. The pump times, meters, distributes,
1. Never use cotton waste or paper towels for and provides the necessary pressure to inject the
cleaning an engine. They may leave lint or small fuel into the cylinder through a separate nozzle.
bits of material which later may collect in the lines. The General Motors unit injector is an exam-
2. Service the oil filters at specified intervals. ple of a unit injection system. It embodies a cam-
Clean the case properly and when the lines are actuated, constant stroke, lapped plunger and
removed, blow them out with compressed air. bushing, a high pressure pump, and an injection
nozzle, all in one unit.
In the Cummins injection system, a cam-
FUEL INJECTION EQUIPMENT actuated injector and nozzle assembly is mounted
AND CONTROLS in each cylinder. This system employs a common
metering device that distributes a measured quan-
The fuel system is one of the most complicated tity of fuel to each of the injectors. The
of all engine systems; therefore, special care must Cummings injection system embodies
be exercised when making adjustments and characteristics of the unit injector and is
repairs. Even though manufacturers have sometimes classified as such, although it is also
designed many different fuel systems, the basic called a distributor system.
principle involved is the same in all of them. If The Fairbanks-Morse injection system is
you understand the basic principle for one system, another example of a jerk pump system.
you will have no difficulty in becoming familiar The injection system known as the COMMON
with other systems. The procedures for the RAIL system includes two types: the basic


common rail system and the modified common jerk pump or common rail type, or the pressure
rail system. pump and the injector may be separate or
The fuel injection systems used on Atlas combined.)
engines and some older models of Cooper-
Bessemer engines are of the basic type. In this Damaged Plunger
system one untimed, high-pressure pump supplies
fuel at injection pressure to a main header (com- In the plunger and barrel assembly of a high-
mon rail). The fuel flows from the header to the pressure pump and in the plunger and bushing
injector valves and nozzles at each cylinder. The assembly of a unit injector, the symptoms and
injector valves are cam-operated and timed. causes of damage are similar.
Metering of the fuel is controlled by the length Damage may become apparent through erratic
of time the nozzle remains open and by the engine operation. Symptoms vary widely and may
pressure maintained by the high-pressure pump include failure of the engine to develop full power,
in the common rail. low exhaust temperature, low firing pressure for
The modified common rail system (constant the affected cylinder, difficulty in balancing
pressure), found on newer models of Cooper- (calibrating) the pumps or injectors, and failure
Bessemer engines, uses a high-pressure pump to of one or more cylinders of the engine to fire.
maintain fuel at the injection pressure in an Damage to a plunger and the part in which it slides
accumulator bottle. The fuel is metered by may also be recognized by testing the unit on a
individual valves mounted on the side of the test stand. However, the best way to determine
engine; it then flows to the pressure-operated the extent of damage is to disassemble the unit,
nozzles in the cylinder head, to be atomized and clean it thoroughly, and then carefully inspect
distributed in the cylinder. each part.
Since complete details for the maintenance and Cleaning of the units can be best accomplished
repair of each of the various fuel systems in serv- by use of an approved solvent. Clean diesel fuel
ice are beyond the scope of this book, specific may be used when more effective cleaners are not
information on a particular fuel injection system available. A brush must be used with diesel fuel
must come from the appropriate manufacturer’s and even then, removal of gummy deposits is dif-
technical manual. ficult. Keep each plunger and barrel (bushing)
together during the inspection to avoid improper
assembly, as they are manufactured in matched
The use of a magnifying glass during the
examination of a plunger will facilitate the detec-
In any discussion of a fuel system, the impor- tion of damage. Inspect for fine scratches, dull
tance of each of its parts cannot be overlooked. surface appearance, cracks, pit marks (usually
The first requirement for trouble-free operation accompanied by dark discoloration), and erosion
of a fuel system is clean fuel. Accordingly, the and roughness at the edge of the helix or at the
filters, the strainers, the tanks, the transfer pumps, end of the plunger. An example of a badly scored
and the lines must be maintained according to plunger is illustrated in A of figure 3-14.
prescribed instructions. Even when these parts A plunger with the lapped surface and helix edge
function properly, the principal elements of the in good condition is shown in B of figure 3-14.
injection system—pressure pump, injection Surface irregularities in the region illustrated are
valves, and injection nozzles—are subject to serious because they affect metering and, conse-
troubles. The following discussion covers some quently, engine operation.
of these troubles, their symptoms and causes, and When examining a barrel or bushing, search
provides general information concerning for erosion of the ports or scoring of the lapped
maintenance and repair of this equipment. As you surfaces. Pay particular attention to the lapped
study this information, keep in mind the dif- plane surface at the end of a pump barrel. Rust
ferences which may exist between the various or pit marks on this surface must be removed by
systems. (A system, for example, may be of the lapping before reassembly.


During the overhaul of fuel injection equip-

ment, a spotlessly clean working space is essen-
tial for the protection of all parts. Ideally, the area
should also be air conditioned. All air should be
thoroughly filtered before it enters the space.
Benches should have smooth tops. Metal-topped
benches should be covered with linoleum or lint-
free rags. Ample quantities of approved cleaning
solvent, of clean fuel oil, and of compressed air
to blow parts dry, should be used to help ensure
cleanliness during overhaul. Never use rags or
waste to clean injectors, as lint particles from them
may damage the injector parts.

From the time a unit is removed from the

engine until it is replaced on the engine, extreme
care must be exerted to keep dust and dirt away
from all its parts. Before any connections are
Figure 3-14.—A damaged and serviceable plunger. loosened, all dirt should be removed from the
unit, tubing, and fittings by washing. After
removal of the unit from the engine, all opening
Damage to the plunger of a fuel injection (pump, nozzle, tubing, or injectors) should be
pump or injector may be caused by such different covered with approved caps or coverings.
factors as entry of dirt into the equipment, careless
handling while the equipment is disassembled, Because many surfaces of the parts of pumps
corrosion, and improper assembly and and injectors are lapped to extremely accurate
disassembly procedures. finishes, it is essential that they be HANDLED
WITH GREAT CARE. Parts that are dropped
Dirt and water are responsible for practically
may be bent, nicked, dented, or otherwise
all trouble encountered with fuel injection equip-
ment. If the units are not properly protected, they ruined. All work should be done well over the
can be damaged beyond repair within a very short center of the bench. The use of a linoleum cover-
period of operation. Remember that the ing will reduce casualties caused by dropping parts
on the bench. Never leave parts uncovered on the
clearances between the lapped surfaces are so
bench, but keep them immersed in diesel fuel until
small that occasionally extremely fine particles,
such as dust from the atmosphere, are capable of handled. Never handle lapped surfaces when they
scoring these surfaces. Then small amounts of are dry, as the perspiration on your hands may
water that may collect from condensation will cor- cause corrosion. Before a lapped surface is
rode these surfaces. handled, it should be immersed in clean diesel
fuel, and the hands rinsed in clean fuel. Since the
An engine should never be operated unless the mating parts of pumps and injectors are fitted to
fuel has been properly filtered before reaching the one another, such parts as plunger and barrel
injection equipment. Although regular filters and should be kept together to avoid interchanging.
strainers are present in all fuel systems, in some
systems special safety filters or screens are incor- Since water in the fuel, or improper storage
porated to further reduce the possibility of foreign of parts, can also cause CORROSION of the parts
matter mixing with the fuel as it reaches the pump of a pump or an injector, all fuel should be cen-
and the injector. The location of these additional trifuged, and filter and strainer cases drained
safety devices depends upon the system. In one periodically to prevent excessive collection of
system a screen is placed between the fuel transfer water. Information on proper stowage procedures
pump and the fuel distributor, while in another should be obtained from the appropriate technical
a filter is mounted directly on the pump. manual.


Special care must be exercised in is stuck. Misfiring may occur intermittently if the
DISASSEMBLING and ASSEMBLING the parts plunger sticks and releases at intervals. Upon
of a fuel injection system, since any damage to disassembly, it may be difficult to remove the
these finely finished surfaces will necessitate plunger. Sometimes the plunger may stick when
replacement of the parts. When work is being the pump or the injector is assembled, but will
done on any part of a fuel injection system, the work smoothly when the unit is disassembled. At
procedure outlined in the engine technical manual, times, the plunger will not stick until some time
or the manufacturer’s fuel system technical after the unit has been removed from the engine.
manual, must be followed. This is particularly true when the plunger and
Remember that the damage to a plunger and mating part have been stored under conditions
barrel assembly of a fuel pressure pump or to the that cause corrosion, or when the parts have been
plunger and bushing assembly of a unit injector mishandled after removal.
generally requires replacement of the parts. A unit injector may be checked, after removal
A damaged part may not be replaced individually. from the engine, by performing the binding
A plunger and its mating part (barrel, bushing, plunger test. This test is performed by depress-
or bore) must be installed as a complete assembly. ing the plunger, either by hand or by using the
“popping” fixture of a test stand, and noting the
External Leakage return action of the plunger. The plunger should
return with a definite snap. This test should be
Trouble caused by external leakage from an performed at three successive rack settings. A
injection pump or an injector may become suffi- sluggish return action indicates a sticky plunger.
ciently serious to cause an engine to misfire. It A sticking plunger may be caused by dirt,
is of extreme importance that signs of external gummy deposits in the unit, or distortion of the
leakage be detected as soon as possible. Leakage plunger and its adjacent part.
outside of the combustion space may be suffi- The movement of a plunger may be restricted
ciently large not only to affect engine operation or entirely prevented by small particles of dirt
but also to create a fire hazard. External leakage which may lodge between the plunger and its
of a unit injector can cause fuel dilution of the mating surface. Lacquer-like deposits, from fuel,
engine lube oil, reduce lubrication, and increase will also interfere with the movement of the
the possibility of a crankcase explosion. plunger.
In general, external leakage from pumps and The greatest care must be taken when
injectors is caused by improper assembly, loose handling the parts of a pump or injector. Because
connections, faulty gaskets, damaged threads and of the extremely close clearances between plunger
sealing surfaces, broken springs, or cracked hous- and mating surfaces, a slight distortion of either
will cause binding. Distortion may result from
ings or bodies. While leakage from pumps is
generally visible during engine operation, leakage dropping, from striking the plunger and a mating
from an injector may not become apparent until part, or from improper assembly.
Stuck plungers in fuel pumps or injectors
appropriate tests are performed. should be freed or replaced. Sometimes a little
You can stop the external leakage from a
pump or injector either by tightening loose con- cleaning may eliminate the need for a replace-
nections or by replacing the damaged parts. ment. The plunger and barrel or bushing assembly
Before the equipment is inspected for leakage, should be soaked in an approved cleaning fluid.
thoroughly clean all parts. On some equipment, The assembly should be soaked overnight, or
you may eliminate mild roughness or discolora- longer if necessary. Cleaning fluids approved for
tion of the sealing surfaces by lapping. this purpose will immediately soften and remove
any paint or enamel with which they come in con-
tact. These fluids should be used with care, since
Stuck Plunger they will damage rubber gaskets.
The specific procedures for cleaning fuel
When the cylinder of an engine fails to fire, injection equipment, although similar, vary to
it is an indication that the injection pump plunger some degree, depending upon the unit involved


and the manufacturer. The following brief Broken plunger springs must be replaced. Also
description of the procedures for equipment made they should be replaced when there is evidence of
by two different manufacturers emphasizes some cracking, chipping, nicking, weakening of the
of these similarities, and further emphasizes the spring, excessive wear, or when the condition of
need for following only the procedures indicated the spring is doubtful.
in the appropriate manufacturer’s technical
manual. Jammed Fuel Control Rack
A plunger of a Bosch fuel injection pump can
be loosened by cleaning. However, if the plunger
does not slide freely in the barrel, both the plunger If an engine is to operate satisfactorily, the fuel
and barrel should be cleaned with an approved control rack must be completely free to move.
cleaning fluid, rinsed in clean fuel oil, and blown Since the rack controls the quantity of fuel
dry with compressed air. A small quantity of mut- injected per stroke, any resistance to motion will
ton tallow should then be placed on the plunger. result in governing difficulties. When this occurs,
Working the plunger back and forth and rotating the engine speed may fluctuate (decreasing as the
it in the barrel should remove all gummy deposits. engine is loaded; racing as the load is removed),
Instructions for Bosch fuel injection equipment or the engine may hunt continuously or only when
state that such items as hard or sharp tools or the load is changed. If the fuel control rack
abrasives of any kind should never be used in becomes jammed, it may become impossible to
cleaning the pumps. control the engine speed with the throttle. The
engine may even resist securing efforts under such
Freeing the sticking plunger in a GM unit in- conditions. Since a sticking fuel control rack can
jector may be done in much the same manner as cause serious difficulty, especially in an emer-
in a Bosch pump. gency, every effort should be made to prevent its
Stains on plungers may be removed by the use occurrence. The best way to check for a sticking
of a limited quantity of jewelers’ rouge on a piece fuel control rack is to disconnect the linkage to
of soft tissue paper. It is important to remember the governor and attempt to move the rack by
that the plunger should not be lapped to the hand. There should be no resistance to movement
bushing with an abrasive such as jewelers’ rouge. of the rack when all springs and linkages are
After a plunger has been cleaned with jewelers’ disconnected.
rouge, it must be cleaned thoroughly with diesel A fuel control rack may stick or jam as a result
fuel before being placed in the bushing. If after of a stuck plunger, dirt or paint in the rack
repeated cleanings, the plunger still does not slide mechanism, a damaged rack or gear, or improper
freely, you may assume that either the plunger or assembly. When this jamming or sticking occurs,
the bushing is distorted. it is necessary to determine the cause of binding.
The principal difference in the cleaning pro- If it is due to damage, the damaged parts must
cedures for these two units of equipment is in the be replaced; if the stickiness is due to the presence
use of abrasives. If the recommended cleaning of dirt, a thorough cleaning of all parts will prob-
procedure for these units fails to loosen the ably correct the trouble. Avoid errors in
plunger so it will slide freely, the plunger and its reassembly and adjustment by carefully studying
mating part will have to be replaced. the instructions.

Broken Plunger Spring Backlash in the Control Rack

A pump of an injector will fail when the Backlash, looseness, or play in the fuel con-
plunger spring breaks and fails to return the trol rack, like sticking or binding of the rack, will
plunger after injection has occurred. influence governing of the engine. Proper
Factors which contribute to broken plunger governing is based on the theory that for every
springs are failure to inspect the springs change in speed of the engine, there will be a cor-
thoroughly and careless handling. responding change in the quantity of fuel injected.


This is impossible if backlash, looseness, or play usually causes overheating, high exhaust
exists in the control system. Continuous or inter- temperatures, loss of power, and smoky exhaust.
mittent movement of the rack may indicate ex- Although, usually, improper fuel injection
cessive looseness. Engine speed variations are also timing is caused by failure to follow the manufac-
indicative of this problem. Note that even though turer’s instructions for timing, there may be other
these symptoms are characteristic of a loose rack, causes for the difficulty, depending upon design
a governor which is dirty or out of adjustment of the particular systems. For example, fuel
will present similar symptoms. injection time in the injection pump of a Bosch
Backlash in a fuel control system is generally system may get out of time because of a worn
due to a wornout gear, rack, or control sleeve. pump camshaft. The same problem may occur
When you disassemble a pump or injector for when the adjusting screw on the injector control
overhaul be sure to inspect all parts of the con- rack of a GM system becomes loose. Either of
trol system for signs of excessive wear. If the rack these conditions will change fuel injection timing.
may be moved more than a prescribed amount Faulty calibration and improper timing are
without moving the plunger, find the parts that generally due to failure to follow instructions
are worn, and replace them. given in the engine technical manual and the fuel
injection equipment maintenance manual. These
manuals should always be consulted and fol-
Improper Calibration lowed whenever timing or calibration difficulties
When improper calibration (balance) of fuel
injector pumps or injectors occurs, there is a dif- GOVERNORS
ference in the amount of fuel injected into each
of the cylinders. If some pumps or injectors
deliver more fuel per stroke than others, the To control an engine means to keep it run-
engine will be UNBALANCED; that is, some ning at a desired speed, either in accordance with,
cylinders will carry a greater load than others. This or regardless of, the changes in the load carried
condition may be detected by differences in by the engine. The degree of control required
cylinder exhaust temperatures and firing depends on two factors: The engine’s performance
pressures, and by smoky exhaust from the characteristics and the type of load which it drives.
overloaded cylinders. Roughness in operation and In diesel engines the speed and power output of
engine vibration are also indicators of an the engine is determined by varying the amount
unbalanced condition. of fuel that is injected into the cylinders to con-
trol combustion. There are two principal types of
It is important to remember that many other governors: hydraulic and mechanical.
types of engine difficulties may cause engine
symptoms identical with those due to unbalance.
So when unbalance is suspected, consider first a Hydraulic Governors
few of the other faults that may be present such
as poor condition of piston rings, inaccurate It is beyond the scope of this training manual
exhaust pyrometers and thermocouples, mistimed to list all of the possible troubles which may be
or faulty engine exhaust or inlet valves. encountered with a hydraulic governor. This sec-
tion deals only with the most common ones. Poor
Improper Timing regulation of speed may be due to the faulty ad-
justment of the governor or to faulty action of
an engine, a generator, a synchronizing motor,
Improper timing of a fuel system will result a voltage regulator, or any piece of equipment
in uneven operation or vibration of the engine. which has a direct bearing on the operation of the
Early timing may cause the engine to detonate and engine.
lose power. Cylinders which are timed early may Manufacturers state that 50% of all governor
show low exhaust temperatures. Late timing troubles are caused by dirty oil. For this reason,


Table 3-1.—Troubleshooting Chart-Governor

Trouble Probable Cause Corrective Action

Engine hunts or surges Compensating needle valve ad- Make needle valve adjust-
justment incorrect ment; ensure that the op-
posite needle valve is closed
Dirty oil in governor Drain oil; flush governor;
Low oil level Fill to correct level with clean
Foamy oil in governor Drain oil; refill
Lost motion in engine governor Repair linkage and realign
linkage or fuel pumps pumps

Governor worn or incorrectly Remove governor and make

adjusted internal checks for
clearances according to ap-
plicable instructions
Engine misfiring Test and replace injectors
External fuel linkage sticking or Disconnect fuel rack from
binding governor and manually
move linkage and pro-
gressively disconnect fuel
pump links until binding
area is found (dirt, paint,
and misalignment are the
usual causes of binding)
Governor rod end jiggles Rough engine drive Check alignment of gears;
inspect for rough gear teeth;
check backlash of gear
Governor base not bolted down Loosen bolts; realign and
evenly secure

every precaution should be taken to prevent the governors with oil are clean, and that only clean,
oil from becoming contaminated. Most hydraulic new, or filtered oil is being used. You should also
governors use the same type of oil that is used in check the oil level frequently to ensure the proper
the engine crankcase, provided it is absolutely level is maintained and that the oil does not
clean and does not foam. You should change the foam. Foaming of the oil is usually an indication
oil in the governor at regular intervals, depending that water is present in the oil. Water in the oil will
upon the type of operation, and at least every six cause serious damage to the governor. After
months regardless of the operation. You must installing a new governor or one that has been
ensure that the containers used to fill the overhauled, adjust the governor compensating


needle valve even though it has previously been on GM 71 engines. One type, known as the
done at the factory or repair facility. This adjust- constant-speed governor, is used on generator sets
ment must be made with the governor installed and is designed to hold the speed of the engine
and controlling an engine with a load. If this is at a predetermined operating speed. The other
not done, high overspeeds and low underspeeds type is similar in construction and is used primar-
after load changes will result and the return to ily for propulsion engines. It has a throttle plate
normal speeds will be slowed. Maintenance and so designed that speeds intermediate between idl-
repair of each unit must be in accordance with ing and full speeds may be obtained by manual
the manufacturer’s maintenance manual and the adjustment. The following description applies to
PMS. both types of governors. Do note, however, that
on the constant-speed governor, there is no buf-
NOTE: When governor troubles are fer spring adjustment.
suspected, before performing any maintenance or In the idling speed range, control is effected
adjustments, always disconnect the governor fuel by centrifugal force of two sets of flyweights
rod end from the fuel control rack and ensure that (figure 3-15), large and small, acting against a light
there is no sticking or binding of the rack. This
procedure is necessary to determine if the trou-
ble is actually in the governor.
The chart in table 3-1 lists some of the
probable causes of trouble which are common to
most hydraulic governors. This chart should be
used for training purposes only; it must NOT be
used to troubleshoot a governor. Always use the
applicable manufacturer’s instruction manual for
troubleshooting. Following are the definitions of
the terms used in the chart.
HUNT: A rhythmic variation of speed which
can be eliminated by blocking the fuel linkage
manually, but which will reappear when returned
to governor control.
SURGE: A rhythmic variation of speed always
of large magnitude which can be eliminated by
blocking the fuel linkage and which will not reap-
pear when returned to governor control unless the
speed adjustment of the load changes.
JIGGLE: A high frequency vibration of the
governor fuel rod end or engine linkage. Do not
confuse jiggle with normal regulating action of
the governor.
Mechanical Governors
Mechanical governors used in the Navy are
generally of the spring-loaded flyball type. All
mechanical governors have a speed droop. This
means that as the load is increased at a constant
throttle setting, the speed of the engine will drop
or droop slightly, rather than remain constant.
Consequently, mechanical governors are never
used where absolute constant speeds are necessary.
There are several types of mechanical gover- 121.22
nors. Two of the most common types are used Figure 3-15.—GM mechanical governor.


(low speed) spring. Maximum speed control is ef- Adjustment procedures for the replacement of
fected by the action of the high speed (small) any governor are listed in the manufacturer’s
flyweights acting against a heavy (high speed) instruction manual and should be followed with
spring. (See figure 3-16.) particular attention given to the precautions listed.
Mechanical governor faults usually manifest
themselves in speed variations; however, not all OVERSPEED SAFETY DEVICES
speed variations indicate governor faults. When
improper speed variations appear do the Mechanical overspeed trips depend on the cen-
following: trifugal forces developed by the engine and should
be maintained in good working condition. A
1. Check the load to be sure that speed faulty overspeed device can endanger not only the
changes are not the result of load fluctuations. engine but also personnel if the engine explodes
or flies apart because of uncontrolled speed.
2. If the load is found to be steady, check the The engine instruction manual contains infor-
engine to be sure all cylinders are firing properly. mation as to the speed at which the overspeed is
supposed to function. Most overspeed trips are
3. Make sure there is no binding in the gover- adjustable. Prior to making any change in the ad-
nor mechanism or operating linkage between justment of the overspeed trip, determine if the
governor and engine, and that no binding exists engine did not trip out for some reason other than
in the injector control rack shaft or its mounting the action of the element of the overspeed trip.
brackets. If you find no binding anywhere and It is highly advisable that you first check the ac-
the governor still fails to control the engine prop- curacy of the tachometer and then test the
erly, you may assume the governor is worn or overspeed trip. All spring tension adjustments and
unfit for further service until the unit has been linkage adjustments to an overspeed trip are
completely disassembled, inspected, and rebuilt critical. Instructions given for making these ad-
or replaced. justments are found in the manufacturer’s instruc-
tions manual and must be followed.
Hydraulic overspeed trips are extremely sen-
sitive to dirt. Dirt or lacquer-like deposits may
cause a trip to bind internally. The speed sensitive
element must be kept clean and so should all parts
of the linkage and mechanisms incorporated in
this speed sensitive element. When painting
around the engine, the painter should be cau-
tioned against allowing paint to fall on joints,
springs, pins, and other critical points in the
All linkage binding should be eliminated. If
parts are bent, badly worn, improperly installed,
dirty, or if their motion is restricted by some other
part of the engine, the trip will not function
properly. On occasion the drive shaft of the
overspeed trip may be broken and prevent rota-
tion of the flyweight and the overspeed trip.
Insufficient oil in the hydraulic trip may be
another source of this problem. Oil should be
maintained at the level specified in the instruc-
tion manual.
The cause of any malfunction should be deter-
121.23 mined and eliminated. This will involve cleaning
Figure 3-16.—Mechanical governor control mechanism. the trip and its linkage, removing the source of


binding, replacing faulty parts, adding oil to overhaul periods the engine should be protected
hydraulic type trips, or adjusting the speed sen- when sandblasting is occurring in areas adjacent
sitive element, always in accordance with the in- to the ship.
struction manual. If the trip has been damaged, 2. Before starting repair work, make sure that
it is advisable to install a spare overspeed trip and all required tools and spare parts are available.
completely rebuild or overhaul the damaged one. Plan ahead for repair periods so everything
needed is available to ensure successful and ex-
REPAIR OF INTERNAL peditious completion of the work.
The Navy uses so many models of diesel
engines that it is not possible to describe in any Never attempt to jack the engine over by hand
detail all the overhaul procedures used by the without first disabling the starter circuit.
Navy. Detailed repair procedures are listed in the
manufacturers’ technical manuals and in your 3. Disable the starter circuit and tagout the
PMS. Always consult the manuals and the starter before you start working, particularly when
maintenance requirement cards (MRCs) before the jacking gear is to be engaged.
starting any type of repair work. Pay particular 4. Keep detailed records of repairs, including
attention to installation tolerances, wear limits, measurements of worn parts (with hours in use),
adjustments, and safety procedures. Also be sure and the new parts installed. Later, an analysis of
to follow the general rules, listed below, which these records will indicate the number of hours
apply to all engines. of operation that may be expected from the
various parts and will facilitate prediction as to
1. Observe the highest degree of cleanliness when they should be renewed before a failure
in handling engine parts. Engines have been com- occurs. Measurement of new parts are needed to
pletely wrecked by the presence of abrasives and determine whether or not they come within the
various objects which have been carelessly left in tolerances listed in the manufacturers’ instruction
the engines after overhaul. Make sure that any books or the wear limit charts. In addition, before
engine assembled for post-repair running is installation, all replacement parts should be com-
scrupulously free of foreign matter prior to run- pared with removed parts to ensure that they are
ning. Too much emphasis cannot be given to the suitable.
necessity for maintaining engines clean both in- 5. Do not test an overhauled diesel engine at
ternally and externally. Since dirt entering the 125% of full load or any other overload before
engine during overhaul causes increased wear and the engine is returned to service. It has been
poor operation, it is essential that all repair work reported that some overhauled diesel engines
be done under clean conditions. When overhaul used for driving generators are being tested at
or repair of precision parts and surfaces is re- 125% of full load before being returned to serv-
quired, the parts and the surface should be ice. The original purpose for this test was to
thoroughly cleaned and wrapped in a clean cloth demonstrate a 25% overload capability for a
or suitable paper. The parts should then be stored 2-hour period to absorb occasional electrical peak
in a dry place until reinstalled. During installa- loads. The nameplate rating of many of the older
tion, parts should be wiped with a cloth free of generator sets indicates a 25% temporary overload
lint and coated, where applicable, with clean capacity. (More recent generator sets have a single
lubricating oil. When removing or installing parts rating with no stated overload requirement.) The
such as pistons, connecting rods, camshafts, and earlier practice was a reasonable approach since
cylinder liners, make sure that these parts are not the engine was frequently capable of substanti-
nicked or distorted. Take precautions to keep dirt ally greater power than could be absorbed by the
and other foreign material in the surrounding generator and the 125% test was not likely to be
atmosphere from entering the engine while it is detrimental to the engine. Now that these engines
being overhauled. As an example, during shipyard have aged, the margin of excess power available


is less and the overload test is neither required nor

Another important point to remember is that Troubles Possible Causes
if you cannot overhaul an engine due to lack of
space, manpower, or expertise, you may request Undue piston Insufficient lubrication
outside help by using an OPNAV Form 4790.2K. wear; crown Improper cooling water
This form, when used as a work request, will be and land temperatures
sent to a Ship Intermediate Maintenance Activ- dragging Overload
ity (SIMA). The SIMA will then accept or reject Unbalanced load
the work request. If the work request is accepted, Improper fit
the SIMA will order all repair parts, overhaul the Dirty intake air cleaner
Dirty oil
engine, and perform an operational test in accord- Improper starting procedures
ance with manufacturers’ technical manuals and
NAVSHIPS Technical Manual, chapter 233. Cracks
As stated earlier in this section, since Faulty cooling
maintenance cards, manufacturers’ maintenance Loose piston
manuals, and various other instructions discuss Crown Obstruction in cylinder
repair procedures in detail, this chapter will be Faulty nozzle spray
limited to general information on some of the
troubles encountered during overhaul, the causes Insufficient lubrication
of such troubles, and the methods of repair. Cocked piston
Insufficient ring groove
Lands Excessive wear of piston
Broken ring
Piston assemblies may have the trunk-type or Improper installation or
the crosshead-type pistons. The majority of removal
engines in use by the Navy have trunk-type
pistons. Since the troubles encountered with Piston seizure Inadequate lubrication
crosshead pistons are very similar to those en- Excessive temperatures
countered with the trunk type, only the latter is Improper cleaning
discussed here.
Piston pin Insufficient lubrication
PISTONS bushing wear Excessive temperatures
Unbalanced load
Trunk-type pistons are subject to such forces
as gas pressure, side thrust, inertia, and friction.
These forces, together with overheating and the
presence of foreign matter, may cause such 121.1
troubles as piston wear, cracks, piston seizure, and Figure 3-17.-Piston troubles and their causes.
piston pin bushing wear (see figure 3-17).
Piston wear is characterized by an excessive
clearance between the piston and the cylinder. occurs, allowing lubricating oil to pass and be
Symptoms of excessive clearance between a piston burned in the cylinder. This results in the
and cylinder are piston slap and excessive oil con- accumulation of excessive carbon deposits on the
sumption. Piston slap occurs just after top dead piston, the combustion chamber, and the engine
center and bottom dead center, as the piston shifts exhaust valves or ports. This accumulation of car-
its thrust from one side to the other. As the bon deposits will cause erratic operation and
cylinder taper increases with wear, oil consump- greatly reduce engine efficiency.
tion increases. Since taper causes the rings to flex Occasionally pistons and liners become suffi-
on each stroke of the piston, excessive ring wear ciently worn to permit the piston to cock over in


the cylinder. This allows the crown and ring lands While insufficient lubrication and uneven
to drag on the cylinder wall. The results of drag- cooling may cause ring land failure, excessive oil
ging can be determined by visually inspecting the temperatures may cause piston seizure. An
parts of the piston in question. However, most increase in the rate of oxidation of the oil may
of the pistons now in use in the Navy are free from result in clogged oil passages or damage to piston
this trouble, since the crown and ring lands are pin bushings.
of smaller diameter than the skirt and do not con-
Seizure and excessive wear of pistons may be
tact the cylinder wall. caused by improper fit. New pistons or liners must
Some piston wear is normal in any engine; the be installed with the piston-to-cylinder clearances
amount and rate depends on several controllable specified in the manufacturer’s technical manual.
factors. The causes of excessive piston wear are If clearance is insufficient, a piston will NOT wear
also the causes of other piston troubles. in and will probably bind. The resulting excess
One of the factors controlling wear is lubrica- surface temperatures may lead to seizure or
tion. An adequate supply of oil is essential to pro- breakage.
vide the film necessary to cushion the piston and Binding increases wear and shortens piston life
other parts within the cylinder and prevent metal- by scuffing the liner or galling the piston skirt.
to-metal contact. Inadequate lubrication will not Scuffing roughens the liner so that an abrasive
only cause piston wear but the extra friction may action takes place on the piston skirt, thus
also cause piston seizure, land breakage, and generating additional heat which may distort or
piston pin bushing wear. crack the piston or liner. Galling, especially on
Lack of lubrication is caused either by a lack aluminum pistons, causes the metal to be wiped
of lube oil pressure or by restricted oil passages. in such a manner that the rings bind in the
The pressure-recording instruments usually give grooves.
warning of low oil pressure before any great harm A loose fitting piston may be just as destruc-
occurs. However, clogged passages offer no such tive as one which is too tight. A loose piston may
warnings. Only by inspecting and cleaning the cause dragging and cocking of the piston, which
piston and connecting rod assembly may you in turn may cause broken or cracked ring groove
insure adequate lubrication. lands.
Another controllable factor that may be Excessive wear on the piston and piston pin
directly or indirectly responsible for many piston bushing may be caused by either an overload or
troubles is improper cooling water temperatures. by an unbalanced load. Overloading an engine
If an engine is operated at higher than the increases the forces on the pistons and subjects
specified temperature limits, lubrication troubles them to higher temperatures, thus increasing their
will develop. High cylinder surface temperatures rate of wear. There should be a load balance on
will reduce the viscosity of the oil. As the cylinder all pistons at all times. Balance of an engine is
lubricant thins, it will run off the surfaces. The determined by checking the exhaust gas
resulting lack of lubrication leads to excessive temperature at each cylinder, the rack settings,
piston and liner wear. On the other hand, if the and the firing and compression pressures.
engine is operated at temperatures that are below
those specified, viscosity will be increased, and Cracking of the lands of a piston is caused by
the oil will not readily reach the parts requiring insufficient ring groove clearance. For correct
lubrication. piston ring operation, proper clearance must be
Oil plays an important part in the cooling of maintained between the ring and the land, and
the piston crown. If the oil flow to the underside also between the ends of the ring. This is necessary
of the crown is restricted, deposits caused by in order that the ring may be free to flex at all
oxidation of the oil will accumulate and lower the temperatures of operation. The clearance depends
rate of heat transfer. For this reason, the under- upon the ring and the materials involved.
side of each piston crown should be thoroughly After installing a ring, check the clearance be-
cleaned whenever pistons are removed. tween the ring and the land. This check is made


Excessive Wear Sticking Breakage

A. Symptoms: C. Symptoms: E. Symptoms:

1. Low compression (Other factors 1. Low compres- 1. Hard starting
which may cause sion
2. Hard starting low compression
pressure: 2. Loss of power 2. Loss of power
3. Loss of power
a. Leaking cylinder 3. Smoky exhaust 3. Excess oil
4. Smoky exhaust valves consumption
b. Faulty injector
5. Waste of fuel gasket 4. Excessive oil 4. Possible emis-
c. Faulty head consumption sion of smoke
6. Excess oil gasket from crank-
consumption d. Leaking after- 5. Blow-by forcing case breather
chamber valves fumes from
7. Poor engine e. Clogged intake crankcase
operation ports
f. Intake air header
g. Faulty blower
h. Clogged air
Other factors which
may cause excessive
oil consumption:
a. Loose bearings
b. High lube oil
c. Oil line leakage D. Causes
d. Improper oil) 1. Improper ring-
B. Causes: to-land clear- F. Causes:
1. Inadequate lubrication ance 1. Cylinder liner
2. Excessive piston heat 2. Insufficient ring ridge
3. Rings damaged during installation pressure 2. Cylinder port
4. Ring- to-land clearance insufficient 3. Excessive oper- damage
5. Dust or dirt in intake air ating tempera- 3. Insufficient gap
6. Dirt in lube oil or fuel ture clearance
7. Rings stuck in grooves 4. Improper oil 4. Insufficient
8. Worn cylinder liners 5. Improper in- clearance be-
stallation hind ring

Figure 3-18.—Piston ring troubles, their symptoms and causes. 121.2

with a thickness gage, and must be made com- PISTON RINGS

pletely around the piston.
The troubles to which piston rings are subject
Replace most damaged or excessively worn and their symptoms and causes are listed in figure
pistons. Since replacement of damaged pistons is 3-18.
usually necessary, shipboard repair parts should All symptoms and causes shown for ring wear
always be maintained at full allowance. are either directly and indirectly related to


other ring and piston troubles. In addition to A bright spot found on each end of a broken
symptoms and causes of piston ring troubles, ring indicates insufficient gap clearance. Sufficient
there are other factors that may also be responsi- gap clearance must exist at both the top and the
ble either for low compression or for excessive oil bottom of the cylinder bore when rings are
consumption. installed.
When a cylinder with a low compression Sticking and binding of the ring may result
pressure is located, the possibility of the cause be- from insufficient ring pressure. The tendency of
ing some factor other than excessive wear should the ring to return to its original shape pushes it
be eliminated before the pistons rings are against the cylinder wall, and makes the initial
disassembled or replaced. Look at figure 3-18. Of seal. The pressure of the combustion gases behind
the causes listed under “Other factors which may the rings reinforces this seal. Pressures (compres-
cause low compression pressure” are a, b, c, d, sion and combination) within the cylinder force
and there are causes that would affect the pressure the combustion rings down and cause a seal be-
in only one cylinder assembly of a multicylinder tween the bottom side of the rings and the upper
engine. Causes f, g, and h may affect a group of side of the lands; therefore, properly wearing rings
cylinders, or possibly all cylinders. Therefore, will appear shiny on the outer face and bottom
when symptoms indicate compression ring wear side. Any discoloration (usually appearing as
consider first other possibilities. Excessive oil con- black lines) indicates the leakage of gases past the
sumption is generally associated with worn oil rings. Extended use and overheating may weaken
rings, but there are other factors which may cause rings to the point where they do not seat
abnormal oil usage, and these should be checked properly, and the rings are then likely to bind in
before replacement of oil rings is undertaken. the grooves. A check of the free gap for a piston
Oxidation of the lube oil leaves carbon ring will indicate the ring’s condition with respect
deposits on the rings and in the grooves. It is to sealing qualities. If the instruction manual does
caused by excessive operating temperatures. The not give a prescribed dimension for free gap, com-
carbon buildup limits movement and expansion pare the gap with that of a new ring.
of the rings, prevents the rings from following the Conditions which cause piston rings to stick
cylinder contour and sealing the cylinder, and may in the grooves, wear excessively, or break are often
cause sticking, excessive wear, or breakage. the result of using improper lube oil. Some lube
Proper clearance must exist between the ring oils cause a resinous gumlike deposit to form on
and land as well as behind the ring, since insuffi- engine parts. Trouble of this nature can be
cient ring groove clearance can cause the rings to avoided by using Navy-approved oils, or oil
stick. It is not the function of the rings to sup- recommended by the manufacturer.
port or position the piston in the cylinder bore, Probably the greatest factor affecting the
but if the proper clearance does not exist, the rings wearing of piston rings is a worn cylinder liner.
are likely to become loaded by inertia forces and Therefore, when new rings are installed, surface
by side thrust on the piston—forces which should condition, amount of taper, and out-of-roundness
be borne solely by the skirt of trunk-type pistons. of the liner must all be considered. The ring is in
Two factors that cause improper ring the best position to make allowance for cylinder
clearance are: wear if the ring gaps are in line with the piston
bosses. Gaps of adjacent rings should be staggered
1. Abnormal amount of carbon deposits on 180° to reduce gas leakage.
rings and in grooves. With the wearing away of material near the
2. Improper dimensions. New rings must have top of a cylinder liner, a ridge will gradually be
the proper thickness, width, diameter, and formed. When a piston is removed, this ridge must
gap. also be removed, even though it has caused no
damage to the old set of rings. The new rings will
One cause of undue loads on a ring could be travel higher in the bore by an amount equal to
insufficient gap clearance. This condition would the wear of the old rings, and the replacement of
cause the ring to be forced out and into a port the connecting rod bearing inserts will also in-
of a ported cylinder, and possibly result in crease piston travel. As the top piston ring will
breakage. strike the ridge because of this increase in travel,


breakage of the ring and perhaps of the land is will result. The fact that a rod is misaligned is
almost certain if the ridge is not removed. usually indicated by uneven wear of the piston pin
and bushing and by piston skirt wear. Misalign-
PISTON PINS AND PIN BEARINGS ment may be caused by improper reaming of the
bushing for proper clearance.
Piston pins are made of hardened steel alloy,
and their surfaces are precision finished. Piston CONNECTING RODS
sleeve bearings or bushings are made of bronze
or a similar material. These pins and pin bear-
ings require very little service and total failure Connecting rod troubles usually involve either
seldom occurs. the connecting rod bearing or the piston pin bear-
Wear, pitting, and scoring are the usual ing. Some of these troubles, such as misalignment,
troubles encountered with piston pins and piston defective bolts, cracks, or plugged oil passages,
pin bearings. can be avoided by performing proper maintenance
Wear of a pin or bearing is normal, but the and by following instructions in the manufac-
rate of wear can be unnecessarily increased by turer’s technical manual.
such factors as inadequate and improper lubrica- Misalignment causes binding of the piston,
tion, overloading, misalignment of parts, or piston pin, and the connecting rod journal bear-
failure of adjacent parts. ing. This binding is likely to result in breakage
Every time a piston assembly is removed from and in increased wear of the parts, leading to total
an engine, the complete assembly should be failure and possible damage to the entire engine
checked for wear. Piston pins and bushings should structure. Connecting rods must be checked for
be measured with a micrometer to determine if proper alignment before being installed in an
wear is excessive. Do NOT measure areas that do engine, and after any derangement involving the
not make contact, such as those between the con- piston, cylinder, or crankshaft.
necting rod and piston bosses, and the areas under
the oil holes and grooves. The correct and limiting Defective bolts are often the result of over-
values for measurements may be found in the tightening. Connecting rod bolts should be
manufacturer’s technical manual for the par- tightened by using a torque wrench, or an
ticular engine. elongated gage to ensure that a predetermined
Excessive wear of pins, bushings, or bearings turning force is applied to the nut. Defective
is often the result of insufficient or improper threads can cause considerable trouble by allow-
lubrication. (These parts are usually pressure ing the connecting rod to be loosened and cause
lubricated.) The failure of a pressure lubricating serious damage to the engine. Whenever rod bolts
system is usually detected before piston pins, are removed they should be carefully inspected
bushings, or bearings are seriously damaged. for stripped or damaged threads and elongation.
Insufficient lubrication of these parts is usually Cracked rods are usually the result of
caused by obstructions blocking the oil passages overstressing caused by overloading or
of the connecting rods. If the bushings have been overspeeding or because defective material was
installed so that the oil holes do not line up, used at the time of manufacture. It is of prime
lubrication may be restricted. Such misalignment importance to discover the cracks before they have
of oil holes may also be caused by a bushing com- developed to the point where the failure of the
ing loose and revolving slightly out of position. rod will take place. No attempts should be made
Also interchanging the upper and lower connect- to repair cracked rods. They should be replaced;
ing rod bearings ON SOME ENGINES may serious damage may result if breakage occurs
obstruct the flow of oil to the upper end of the
during operation.
rod. Always check the manufacturer’s technical
manual for information on interchangeability of Restricted oil passages are often the result of
parts. improper assembly of the bushing and the con-
If there is misalignment of the connecting necting rod bearing inserts. They may also be due
rods, uneven loading on piston pins and bearings to foreign matter lodging in the oil passages.


SHAFTS AND BEARINGS Operation of an engine at critical torsional

speeds and in excess of the rated speed will lead
The principal shafts (crankshafts and cam- to engine shaft and bearing difficulties. Each
shafts) and associated bearings (journal bearings multicylinder engine has one or several critical
and antifriction bearings) of an internal combus- speeds which must be avoided in order to prevent
tion engine are all subject to several types of trou- possible breakage of the crankshaft, camshaft,
ble. Some of the troubles may be common to all and gear train.
of these parts; others may be related to only one A critical speed of the first order exists when
part. Causes of troubles common to all parts are impulses due to combustion occur at the same rate
metal fatigue, inadequate lubrication, and opera- as the natural rate of torsional vibration of the
tion of the engine at critical speeds. shaft. If the crankshaft receives an impulse from
Metal fatigue in crankshafts, camshafts, and firing at every other natural vibration of the shaft,
bearings may lead to shaft breakage or bearing a critical speed of the second order occurs. Opera-
failure; however, you must keep in mind that tion at these speeds for any length of time may
metal fatigue is only one of several possible causes cause the shaft to break. If critical speeds are not
which may lead to such troubles. avoided, torsional vibrations may not only cause
Fatigue failure of journal bearings in internal shaft breakage but may also cause severe damage
combustion engines is usually caused by cyclic to the entire gear train assembly.
peak loads. Such failures are accelerated by
improper or loose fit of the bearing shell in its In some engines, critical speeds fall within the
housing, and by the lack of adequate priming of normal operating range; the instruction manual
the lubricating oil system before the engine is for the specific engine will warn against engine
started. operation for any length of time within the critical
Severe overloading or overspeeding of an speed range. If the critical speed range falls within
engine increases fatigue failure. Some indication the normal operating range, it must be con-
of the cause of the failure may be obtained by spicuously marked upon the engine tachometer,
noting which half of a bearing failed. Overloading and every effort should be made to keep the
of the engine will cause failure of the lower halves engine from operating in the range. If this is not
of main journal bearings, while overspeeding may possible, the critical speed should be passed over
cause either the upper or the lower halves to fail. as fast as possible.
Crankshaft or camshaft failure does not Overspeeding of an engine must be avoided.
occur too often. When it does occur, it may be If the rated speed is exceeded for any extended
due to metal fatigue. Shaft fatigue failure may period of time, the increase in inertia forces may
be caused by improper manufacturing procedures, cause excessive wear of the journal bearings and
such as improper quenching or balancing, or by other engine parts, and in uneven wear of the
the presence of torsional vibration. Shaft fatigue journals.
failures generally develop over a long period of
The importance of lubrication cannot be
overstressed. Much that has been stated previously
about proper lubricants and adequate supply and Scored crankshaft journals are caused not only
pressure of lube oils is also applicable to by lubrication difficulties but also by journal
crankshafts, camshafts, and their associated bear- bearing failure or improper and careless
ings. Some of the troubles which may be caused handling during overhaul.
by improper lubrication are damaged cams and Journal bearing failures may cause not only
camshaft bearing failure, scored or out-of-round scoring but also broken or bent crankshafts and
crankshaft journals, and journal bearing failure. out-of-round journals. Journal bearing failures
Lubrication difficulties you should watch for are may be caused by several different factors and
low lube oil pressure, high temperatures, and lube may lead to more than one trouble. The causes
oil contamination by water, fuel, and foreign and the prevention of such failures are discussed
particles. in more detail later in this chapter.


Broken or bent crankshafts may be caused by

the improper functioning of a torsional vibration
damper. Vibration dampers are mounted on the
crankshafts of some engines to reduce the tor-
sional vibrations set up within the crankshaft and
to ensure a smoother running engine. If a damper
functions improperly, torsional vibrations may
rupture the internal structure of the shaft.
The principle of operation is similar in most
dampers, yet their construction and their
component parts vary somewhat. If the engine is
equipped with a vibration damper, the engine in-
struction manual must be consulted for informa-
tion on type, construction, and maintenance of
the damper.
In most engines, one end of the crankshaft is
flanged to receive the damper, the damper being 121.3
bolted or doweled onto the flange. A damper must Figure 3-19.—Cracked crank web.
be fastened securely to the crankshaft at all times
during engine operation; otherwise, the damper
will not control the crankshaft vibrations. bearing. You can minimize the possibility of jour-
Small dampers are usually grease-packed, nal out-of-roundness by taking measures to pre-
while larger ones frequently receive lubrication vent improper lubrication, journal bearing failure,
from the main oil system. Dampers that are grease overspeeding or overloading of the engine,
lubricated must have the grease changed excessive crankshaft deflection, and misalignment
periodically, as specified in the manufacturer’s of parts.
instructions. If the assembly is of the elastic type, Crankshaft bending breakage (out-of-
it must be protected from fuel, lube oil, grease, roundness) may also result from excessive
and excessive heat, all of which are detrimental crankshaft deflection. Excessive shaft deflection,
to the rubber. caused by improper alignment between the driven
Excessive rumbling at certain engine speeds unit and the engine, may result in a broken or bent
may indicate that the damper is not functioning shaft along with considerable other damage to
properly. You must learn to distinguish between bearings, connecting rods, and other parts. Ex-
this and the normal noise usually heard in some cessive crankshaft deflection may also be caused
engines during the first and last few revolutions by overspeeding an engine. The amount of deflec-
when the engine is starting or stopping. This noise tion of a crankshaft may be determined by the
is normal, it is due to the large designed clearances use of a straight gage.
in the damper and is not a sign of impending
trouble. The straight gage is merely a dial-reading
Crankshaft breakage or bending may be the inside micrometer used to measure the variation
result of excessive bearing clearances. Excessive in the distance between adjacent crank webs where
clearance in one main bearing may place practic- the engine shaft is barred over. When installing
ally all of the load on another main bearing. Flex- the gage, or indicator, between the webs of a
ing of the crankshaft under load may result in crank throw, place the gage as far as possible from
fatigue and eventual fracture of the crank web. the axis of the crankpin. The ends of the indicator
(See figure 3-19.) Excessive bearing clearance may should rest in the prick-punch marks in the crank
be caused by the same factors that cause journal webs. If these marks are not present, you must
bearing failure. Furthermore, off-center and out- make them so that the indicator may be placed
of-round journals tend to scrape off bearing in its correct position. Consult the manufacturer’s
material. This leads to excessive wear and to the technical manual for the proper location of new
increase of the clearance between the shaft and marks.


Readings are generally taken at the four crank camshaft may be damaged as a result of improper
positions: top dead center, inboard, near or at valve tappet adjustment, worn or stuck cam
bottom dead center, and outboard. In some followers, or failure of the camshaft gear.
engines, it is possible to take readings at bottom Cams are likely to be damaged when a loose
dead center. In others, the connecting rod may valve tappet adjustment or a broken tappet screw
interfere, making it necessary to take the reading causes the valve to jam against the cylinder head,
as near as possible to bottom dead center without and the push rods to jam against their cams. This
having the gage come in contact with the con- will result in scoring or breaking of the cams and
necting rod. The manufacturer’s technical manual followers, as well as severe damage to the piston
for the specific engine provides information con- and the cylinder.
cerning the proper position of the crank when Valves must be timed correctly at all times,
readings are to be taken. When the gage is in its not only for the proper operation of the engine
lowest position, the dial will be upside down, but also to prevent possible damage to the engine
necessitating the use of a mirror and flashlight to parts. You should inspect frequently the valve
obtain a reading. actuating linkage during operation to determine
Once the indicator has been placed in position if it is operating properly. Such inspections should
for the first deflection reading, do NOT touch the include taking tappet clearances and adjusting,
gage until all four readings have been taken and if necessary; checking for broken, chipped, or
recorded. improperly seated valve springs; inspecting push
Variations in the readings obtained at the four rod end fittings for proper seating; and inspect-
crank positions will indicate distortion of the ing cam follower surfaces for grooves or scoring.
crank. Distortion may be caused by several fac-
tors, such as a bent crankshaft, worn bearings,
or improper engine alignment. The maximum
allowable deflection can be obtained from the
manufacturer’s technical manual. If the deflec- Engine journal bearing failure and their causes
tion exceeds the specified limit, take steps to deter- may vary to some degree, depending upon the
mine the cause of the distortion and to correct type of bearing. The following discussion of the
the trouble. causes of bearing failure applies to most
Deflection readings are also employed to bearings—main bearings as well as crank pin bear-
determine correct alignment between the engine ings. The most common journal bearing failures
and the generator, or between the engine and the may be due to one or to a combination of the
coupling. When alignment is being determined, following causes:
a set of deflection readings is usually taken at the
crank nearest to the generator or the coupling. 1. Corrosion of bearing materials caused by
In aligning an engine and generator, it may be chemical action of oxidized lubricating oils.
necessary to install new chocks between the Oxidation of oil may be minimized by changing
generator and its base to bring the deflection oil at the designated intervals, and by keeping
within the allowable value. It may also be engine temperatures within recommended limits.
necessary to shift the generator horizontally to Bearing failures due to corrosion may be identified
obtain proper alignment. When an engine and a by very small pits covering the surfaces. In most
coupling are to be aligned, the coupling must first instances, corrosion occurs over small bearings
be correctly aligned with the drive shaft; then, the areas in which high localized pressures and
engine must be properly aligned to the coupling, temperatures exist. Since the small pits caused by
rather than the coupling aligned to the engine. corrosion are so closely spaced that they form
channels, the oil film is not continuous and the
load-carrying area of the bearing is reduced below
CAMSHAFTS the point of safe operation.

In addition to the camshaft and bearing 2. Surface pitting of bearings due to high
troubles already mentioned, the cams of a localized temperatures that cause the lead to melt.


This is generally the result of very close oil loads on the main bearings because of the force
clearances and the use of an oil having a viscos- that is necessary to retain correct alignment be-
ity higher than recommended. Early stages of the tween the bearing and the journal.
loss of lead, due to melting, will be evidenced by
very small streaks of lead on the bearing surface. A bent or misaligned connecting rod can be
3. Inadequate bond between the bearing metal the cause of a ruined crank-pin bearing. Misalign-
and the bearing shell. A poor bond may be ment between the connecting rod bore and the
caused by fatigue resulting from cyclic loads, or piston pin bushing bore is indicated by the crack-
it may be the result of defective manufacturing. ing of the bearing material at the opposite ends
A failure due to inadequate bond is shown in of the upper and lower-bearing shell. An indica-
figure 3-20. In such failures, the bearing shell tion of a bent connecting rod is heavy wear or
shows through the bearing surface clearly. scoring on the piston surface.
4. Out-of-round journals due to excessive 7. Faulty installation, due to negligence or
bearing wear. As the bearings wear, excessive lack of experience. The paramount factor is
clearance is created; this leads to engine pounding, inattention to cleanliness. Hard particles lodge
oil leakage from the bearing, reduced flow of oil between the bearing shell and the connecting rod
to other bearings, and overheating, with the con- bore, and create an air space. This space retards
sequent melting of bearing material. To prevent the normal flow of heat and causes localized high
bearing wear, the journals should be checked for temperatures. Such condition may be further ag-
out-of-roundness. Manufacturers require crank gravated if the bearing surface is forced out into
pins to be reground when the out-of-roundness the oil clearance spaces and creates a high spot
exceeds a specified amount, but the amount varies in the bearing surface. The result of a bearing
with manufacturers. Always check the engine failure is illustrated in figure 3-21. Foreign par-
manual for this type of data. ticles, excessive clearance, or rough surface may
5. Rough spots. Burrs or ridges may cause cause poor contact between a bearing shell and
grooves in the bearings and lead to bearing failure. a connecting rod. Poor contact is indicated by the
Removal of rough spots is done with a fine oil formation of a gumlike deposit (sometimes re-
stone and a piece of crocus cloth. Be sure to place ferred to as lacquer or varnish) on the back of
a clean cloth beneath the journal to catch all par- the shell.
ticles. Apply a coat of clean lubricating oil to the
journal and to the bearing before a bearing is Bearing failures may result from improper fit
installed. of the shell to the connecting rod. If the locking
6. Misalignment of parts. Misalignment of the lip of a bearing does not fit properly into the recess
main bearings can be caused by a warped or bent of the bearing housing, distortion of the shell and
crankshaft. Such misalignment imposes heavy failure of the bearing results.

121.4 Figure 3-21.—Bearing failure resulting from wiping and
Figure 3-20.—Bearing failure due to inadequate bond. excessive temperatures.


Another source of trouble during installation circulation, and sufficiently low to prevent
is due to the interchanging of the upper and lower excessive oxidation of the lubricating oil. Nor-
shells. The installation of a plain upper shell in mally, the manufacturer’s technical manual
place of a lower shell, which contains an oil should be followed as to the correct lubricating
groove, completely stops the oil flow and leads oil temperature to maintain. However, if no
to early bearing failure. The resulting damage not manual is available, the temperature of the oil
only may ruin the bearing but may also extend leaving the engine should be maintained between
to other parts, such as the crankshaft connecting 160° and 200°F. When possible, oil must be
rod, piston, and wrist pin. analyzed at recommended intervals to determine
its suitability for further use. In addition, regular
8. Failure to follow recommended procedures service of oil filters and strainers must be main-
in the care of lubricating oil. Lack of proper tained, and oil samples must periodically be drawn
amount of lubricating oil will cause the from the lowest point in the sump to determine
overheating of a bearing, causing its failure (see the presence of abrasive materials or water. The
figure 3-22). In large engines, the volume of the lube oil purifier should be used in accordance with
lubricating oil passages is so great that the time required procedures. Strict adherence to recom-
required to fill them when starting an engine could mended practices will reduce the failure of bear-
be sufficient to permit damage to the bearings. ings and other parts because of the contaminated
To prevent this, separately driven lubricating oil oil or insufficient supply of clean oil.
priming pumps are installed, and by their action,
the oil is circulated to the bearings before an FRICTIONLESS BEARINGS
engine is started. Priming pumps should be
secured prior to starting the engine when the
prescribed pressure has been obtained. Figure 3-23 lists the troubles that may be
encountered with all types of (antifriction fric-
Maintenance of recommended oil pressures is tionless) bearings.
essential to ensure an adequate supply of oil at Since dirty bearings will have a very short serv-
all bearing surfaces. Refer to the oil pressure gage ice life, every possible precaution must be taken
as it is the best source of operational information to prevent the entry of foreign matter into bear-
to indicate satisfactory performance. ings. Dirt in a bearing which has been improperly
or insufficiently cleaned may be detected by noise
Use Navy-approved, low-corrosive lubricating when the bearing is rotated, by difficulty in
oils at recommended oil temperatures. Recom- rotating, or by visual inspection. Do not discard
mended temperatures have been determined by an antifriction bearing until you have definitely
extensive tests in laboratory and in service. established that something in addition to dirt has
They are sufficiently high to assure satisfactory caused the trouble. You may determine this by
properly cleaning the bearing.
Spalled or pitted rollers or races may be first
recognized by the noisy operation of the bearing.
Upon removal and after a very thorough clean-
ing, the bearing will still be noisy when rotated
by hand. (Never spin a frictionless bearing with
compressed air.) Roughness may indicate spall-
ing at one point on the raceway.
Pay particular attention to the inner surface
of the inner race, since it is here that most sur-
face disintegration first occurs. Since pits may be
covered with rust, any sign of rust on the rollers
121.6 or contact surfaces of the races is a probable
Figure 3-22.—Overheated bearing. indication that the bearing is ruined.


Brinelled bearings must not be placed back in

Trouble Causes service. Steps can be taken to prevent brinelling.
Proper maintenance will help a great deal, and
Dirty bearing Improper handling or the best insurance against brinelling caused by
Use of dirty or improper
vibration is to rotate the shafts supported by the
lubricant frictionless bearings at regular intervals (at least
Failure to clean housing once a day) during periods of idleness. These
Poor condition of seal actions will prevent the rollers from resting too
long upon the same portion of the races.
Spalled or pitted Dirt in bearing Separator failure may become apparent by
rollers or races Water in bearing noisy operation. Inspection of the bearings may
Improper adjustment of reveal loose rivets, failure of a spot weld, or crack-
tapered roller bearings ing and distortion of the separator. Failure of
Bearing misaligned or off separators can usually be avoided if proper
square installation and removal procedure are followed,
and steps are taken to exclude the entry of dirt.
Dented (brinelled) Improper installation or
Abrasion (scoring, wiping, burnishing) on the
Vibration while bearing is external surface of a race indicates that relative
inoperative motion has occurred between the race and the
bearing housing or shaft surface. The race adja-
Failed separator Initial damage during in- cent to the stationary member is usually made a
stallation or removal push fit so that some creep will occur. Creep is
Dirt in the bearing a very gradual rotation of the race. This extremely
slow rotation is desirable as it prevents repeated
Races abraded on Locked bearing stressing of the same portion of the stationary
external surfaces Improper fit of races race. Wear resulting from the proper creep is
negligible and no damaging abrasion occurs.
Cracked race Improper installation or
removal (cocking)
However, abrasion caused by locked bearings or
the improper fit of the races must be prevented.
Excessive Abrasives in lubricant Cracked races will usually be recognized by
looseness a definite thump or clicking noise in the bearing
during operation. Cleaning and inspection is the
best means of determining if cracks exist. Cracks
Figure 3-23.—Antifriction bearing troubles and their causes. usually form parallel to the axis of the race. The
cracking of bearing races seldom occurs if
proper installation and removal procedures are
Brinelled or dented races are most easily followed.
recognized by inspection after a thorough clean- Excessive looseness may occur on rare occa-
ing. Brinelling receives its name from its similarity sions even though no surface disintegration is
to the Brinnell hardness test, in which a hardened apparent. Since many frictionless bearings appear
ball is pressed into the material. The diameter of to be loose, even when new, looseness is not
the indentation is used to indicate the hardness always a sign of wear. The best check for excessive
of the material. Bearing races may be brinelled looseness is to compare the suspected bearing with
by excessive and undue pressures during installa- a new one.
tion or removal, or by vibration from other Wear of bearings, which cause looseness
machinery while the bearing is inoperative. If without apparent surface disintegration, is
heavy shafts supported by frictionless bearings are generally caused by the presence of fine abrasives
allowed to stand motionless for a long time, and in the lubricant. Taking steps to exclude abrasives
if the equipment is subject to considerable vibra- and keeping lubricating oil filters and strainers in
tion, brinelling may occur. This is due to the peen- good condition is the best way to prevent this type
ing action of the rollers or balls on the races. of trouble.


Most of the troubles listed in figure 3-23

require the replacement of an antifriction bear-
ing. The cause of damage must be determined and
eliminated so that similar damage to the replace-
ment bearing may be prevented.
Dirty bearings may be made serviceable with
a proper cleaning, providing other damage does
not exist. In some cases, races abraded on the
external surfaces can be made serviceable, but it
is generally advisable to replace abraded bearings.
Dirty frictionless bearings must be thoroughly
cleaned before being rotated or inspected.


Auxiliary drive mechanisms are used in inter-

nal combustion engines to maintain a fixed and
definite relationship between the rotation of the
crankshaft and the camshaft. This is necessary in
order that the sequence of events necessary for
the correct operation of the engine may be car-
ried out in perfect unison. Timing and the rota-
tion of various auxiliaries (blowers, governor, fuel
and lubricating oil pumps, circulating water
pumps, overspeed trips, etc.) are accomplished by
a gear or chain drive mechanism from the
crankshaft. (Some small engine auxiliaries may
be belt-driven.) 121.8
Figure 3-24.—Relative arrangement of the gears in an auxili-
ary drive mechanism.

The principal type of power transmission for 3-24.) Most gears are made of steel, although cast
timing and accessory drives in most diesel engines iron, bronze, or fiber are sometimes used.
is a system of gears similar to those shown in The timing gear train shown in figure 3-24 is
figure 3-24. In some of the larger engines, there used on some two-stroke cycle diesel engines. The
may be two separate gear trains, one for driving camshafts rotate at the same speed as the
the camshaft and the other for driving certain crankshaft. Note that two idler gears are necessary
accessories. to transfer crankshaft rotation to the camshaft
The type of gear employed for a particular gears. The idler gears are used because the cam-
drive depends upon the function it is to perform. shafts and crankshaft are displaced a considerable
Most gear trains use single helical spur gears, while distance. If idler gears were not used, the
governor drives are usually of the bevel type; crankshaft and camshaft gears would have to be
reverse and reduction gear units employ double considerably larger.
helical gears to balance fore and aft components A similar timing gear train may be found in
of tooth pressure. some four-stroke cycle engines, except that the
Small gears are usually made from a single camshaft gear or gears will have twice as many
forging, while larger ones are quite often built up teeth as the crankshaft gear to permit the cam-
in split sections. (See the crankshaft gear in figure shaft to rotate at one-half the crankshaft speed.


A different type of drive gear mechanism is follow the instructions given in the manufacturer’s
used for a four-stroke cycle, V-type gasoline technical manual.
engine. The camshaft gears are driven through a
train of bevel gears from the crankshaft. This ar- Maintenance and repair of gear trains involve
rangement serves to drive not only the camshaft a thorough check (for scoring, wearing, pitting,
but also other accessories, such as a magneto, or etc.) of the gear shafts, bushings and bearings,
distributor, a fuel pump, and a tachometer. An and gear teeth during each periodic inspection.
additional gear, called the oil and freshwater Be sure that the oil passages are clear, and that
pump drive gear, meshes with the crankshaft gear. the woodruff keys, dowel pins, and other lock-
ing devices are secured to a tight fit in order to
The causes of gear failure (improper lubrica- prevent longitudinal gear movement. It is essen-
tion, corrosion, misalignment of parts, torsional tial that all broken or chipped parts be removed
vibration, excessive backlash, wiped gear bearings from the lubrication system before new gears are
and bushing, metal obstructions, and improper installed.
manufacturing procedures) are basically the same
as the causes of similar troubles in other engine An engine must not be barred over while the
parts. The best method of prevention is to adhere camshaft actuating gears are removed from the
to the prescribed maintenance procedures and train. Should the engine be barred over, there is

Figure 3-25.—Checking clearance of positive displacement blower lobes.


danger that the piston will strike valves that may

be open and extending into the cylinder. Make
certain that any gears removed are replaced in the
original position. Special punch marks, or
numbers (figure 3-24), are usually found on gear
teeth that should mate. If they are not present,
make identifying marks to facilitate the correct
mating of the gears later.
Bearing, bushing, and gear clearances must be
properly maintained. If bushing clearances exceed
the allowable value, the bushings must be re-
newed. The allowable values for backlash and
bushing clearances should be obtained from the
instruction manual for the engine involved.
Usually, a broken or chipped gear must be Figure 3-26.—Checking the backlash of blower rotor gears.
replaced. Care should be exercised in determin-
ing whether a pitted gear should be replaced.
The minimum clearance is found in a similar
manner except that rotor lobes are held in such
BLOWER ROTOR GEARS a position as to take up all slack and backlash.
The difference of the two clearance readings is
One of the most important parts of a root type the value of the backlash of the rotor lobes. Since
blower is the set of gears that drive and syn- a change in lobe clearance is normally caused by
chronize the two rotors. Satisfactory operation wear of the gears, the gear clearance must be
depends on the condition of these gears. checked. The most direct method for checking
Worn gears are found by measuring the gear clearance is by the use of feeler gages. (See
backlash of the gear set. Gears with a greater figure 3-26.)
backlash than specified in the applicable technical Any gear set which has excessive lash or shows
manual are considered to be excessively worn and, any sign of fracture must be replaced with a new
if not replaced, will eventually cause extensive set. Since blower drive gears come in matched sets,
damage to the entire blower assembly. gears from different sets must not be
A certain amount of gear wear is to be interchanged.
expected, but scored and otherwise damaged rotor
lobes resulting from excessively worn gears are CHAIN MECHANISMS
inexcusable. It is the duty of the engineering force
to inspect the gears and lobes, and to measure the In some engines, chains are not only used to
clearance at frequent intervals. During the inspec- drive camshafts and auxiliaries but also to drive
tion, it will be possible to measure accurately the such parts as rotating supercharger valves. Con-
values of backlash. These values should be re- necting links for two types of chains are shown
corded. By observing the rate of increase of wear, in figure 3-27. Note that the connecting pins in
it will be possible to estimate the life of the gears one are secured by cotter pins, while the joint pins
and to determine when it will be necessary to shown in the other are riveted.
replace them. The principal causes of drive chain failure are
Lobe clearance can be found by determining improper chain tension, lack of lubrication,
the difference of the maximum and minimum sheared cotter pins or improperly riveted joint
rotor lobe clearance at the same distance from the pins, and misalignment of parts, especially idler
center. To find the maximum clearance, hold the gears.
rotors so that there is maximum clearance between Chain drives should be checked for any symp-
the two rotor lobes. Then, with feeler gages deter- toms of such difficulties, in accordance with the
mine the value of the rotor lobe clearance. (See instructions in the appropriate engine manual. The
figure 3-25.) tension should be adjusted as required during



Figure 3-27.—Accessory drive chain link assemblies.

these inspections. An idler sprocket and chain

tightener are used on most engines to adjust chain
tension. During operation, chains increase slightly
in length because of stretch and wear. Ad-
justments should be made for these increases
whenever necessary.
When you are installing a new chain, peen the
connecting link pins into place, but avoid excessive
peening. After peening, make sure the links move
freely without binding in position. Cotter pins
must be secured or the joint pin ends riveted,
whichever is applicable. Repair links should be
carried at all times. Always check engine timing
after installing a new timing and accessory drive


The turbochargers used in the Navy today may

operate with temperatures as high as 1200 °F and


speeds up to 75,000 rpm. Therefore, it is of shrill high pitch whine, shut down the engine at
utmost importance that turbochargers be main- once. The whine may be caused by a failing
tained in proper working order at all times. If a bearing, and serious damage may result. Do not
turbocharger is allowed to operate without confuse the whine heard as the turbine runs down
lubrication, cooling, or the proper clearances, it with that of a bad bearing.
not only could be completely destroyed in a
matter of minutes but also could possibly cause
extensive damage to other machinery and Noise from the turbocharger may also be
personnel. caused by improper clearances between the
All oil lines and air duct connections should turbine wheel and the turbine housing. The
be inspected and free of leakage. The air filter clearances should be checked at predetermined in-
should be clean and in place and there should be tervals in accordance with the PMS. Check
no build-up of dust or dirt on the impeller. Turn bearing axial end play and shaft radial movement.
the impeller by hand and check for binding or rub- Crankcase vents should not be directed towards
bing and listen for any unusual noises. the turbocharger air intakes, as the corrosive gases
When the turbocharger is operating, listen for may cause pitting of the blades and bearings,
any unusual noise or vibrations. If you hear a thereby reducing the life of the turbocharger.



This chapter contains information on the Lubrication of Gears and Bearings
operation, care and maintenance of reduction
gears and related equipment found on Navy ships. The correct quantity and quality of lubricating
All EN1s and ENCs must be familiar with the oil must be available at all times in the main sump.
design and construction details of naval reduction This oil must be clean and it must be supplied to
gears and related equipment. When more detailed the gears and bearings at the pressure specified
information is needed, refer to the manufacturer’s by the manufacturer. In order to supply the
technical manual. proper quantity of oil, several conditions must be
met. The lubricating oil pump must deliver the
proper discharge pressure, and all relief valves in
REDUCTION GEARS the lubricating system must be set to function at
their designed pressure. Too small a quantity of
oil will cause the bearing to run hot. On the other
The main reduction gears are the largest hand if too much oil is delivered to the bearing,
and most expensive single units of machinery the excessive pressure will cause the oil to leak at
found in the engineering department. When the the seal rings, and may also cause the bearing to
main reduction gears are installed properly and overheat.
are operated properly they give years of satisfac-
tory service. However, when casualties occur to Lubricating oil must reach the bearing at the
the main reduction gears they put any ship out proper temperature. If the oil is too cold, there
of operation or force it to operate at reduced will be insufficient oil flow. If the oil supply is
speed. Main reduction gear repairs are very too hot, some lubricating capacity is lost. For
costly. Usually they must be accomplished by a most main reduction gears, the normal
shipyard. temperature of oil leaving the lube oil cooler
should be between 120°F and 130°F. For full
power operation, the temperature of the oil leav-
FACTORS AFFECTING GEAR ing the bearings should be between 140°F and
OPERATION 160°F. The maximum temperature rise of oil
passing through any gear or bearing, under any
operating condition, should not exceed 50°F, and
Proper lubrication is essential for the efficient the final temperature of the oil leaving the gear
operation of reduction gears. This includes or bearing should not exceed 180°F. Temperature
supplying the proper amount of oil to the gears rise and limit may be monitored by a thermometer
and bearings, and keeping the oil clean and at or by a resistance temperature element installed
the proper temperature. All abnormal noises and where the oil is discharged from the bearings.
vibrations must be investigated and corrective
action must be taken immediately. Gears and Cleanliness of lubricating oil cannot be
bearings must be inspected in accordance with cur- overstressed. The oil must be free from such
rent instructions issued by NAVSEA, the type impurities as water, grit, metal, and dirt. Par-
commander, or other proper authority. ticular care must be taken to remove metal flakes


and dirt when new gears or bearings are wearing oil and that of the reduction gear casing approxi-
in or after they have been opened for inspection. mate the engineroom temperature. While the oil
Lint or dirt, if left in the system, may clog the is being circulated, the cooler should be operated
oil spray nozzles. The spray nozzle passages must and the gear should be jacked continuously. The
be open at all times. Spray nozzles should not be purifier should also be operated to renovate the
altered without proper authorization. oil while the oil is being circulated and after the
oil circulation is stopped until water is no longer
Although the lubricating oil strainers perform discharged from the purifier. This procedure
satisfactorily under normal operating conditions,
eliminates condensation from the interior of the
they cannot trap particles of metal and dirt which main reduction gear casing and reduces rusting
are fine enough to pass through the mesh. These
in the upper gear case and gears.
fine particles can become embedded in the bear-
Generally, lubricating oil will be maintained
ing metal and cause wear on the bearings and in good condition if proper use is made of the
journals. These fine abrasive particles passing purifier and settling tanks. However, if the
through the gear teeth act like a lapping com- purifier does not operate satisfactorily and does
pound and remove metal from the teeth. not have the correct water seal, it will not separate
the water from the oil. You can check for the
EFFECTS OF WATER AND ACID IN presence of water by taking small samples of oil
OIL.—Water in the oil is extremely harmful. Even in bottles, and allowing the samples to settle.
small amounts soon cause pitting and corrosion
These samples should be taken from a low point
of the teeth. Acid can cause even more serious
in the lube oil system.
problems. The oil must be tested frequently for Samples of lubricating oil should be tested at
water, and periodic tests should be made for acid
every opportunity for acid, water, and sediment
content. Immediate corrective measures must be content at a naval shipyard (or other similar
taken when saltwater is found in the reduction
gear lubricating oil system. activity). With continuous use, lube oil increases
in acidity, and free fatty acids form a mineral soap
Occasionally gross contamination of the oil which reacts with the oil to form an emulsion. As
by saltwater occurs when a cooler leaks or when the oil emulsifies, it loses its lubricating quality.
leaks develop in a sump. The immediate location Once the oil has emulsified, the removal of water
and sealing of the leak is not enough. Additional and other impurities becomes increasingly dif-
steps must be taken to remove the contaminated ficult. When the formation of a proper oil film
oil from all steel parts. Several instances are is rendered impossible, the oil must be renovated.
known when, because such treatment was Sometimes, when a ship from the reserve fleet
postponed—sometimes for a week or less—gears, is placed back in commission, the rust preventive
journals, and couplings became so badly corroded compound is not removed completely. The residue
and pitted that it was necessary to remove the of this compound may cause serious emulsifica-
gears and recondition the teeth and journals. tion of the lubricating oil. Operating with
Saltwater contamination of the lubricating oil may emulsified oil may result in damage to the bear-
also cause bearing burnout. ings or the reduction gears. Since it is extremely
difficult aboard ship to destroy emulsions by
Water, in small amounts, is always present heating, settling, and centrifuging, you must make
within the lubrication system as a result of con- sure that emulsions do not occur. At the first
densation. Air which enters the units contains indication of an emulsion, the plant should be
moisture. This moisture condenses into water
stopped and the oil renovated.
when it strikes a cooler surface and subsequently
mixes with the oil. The water displaces the oil
from the metal surfaces and causes rusting. Water LEVEL.—It is of extreme importance that the
mixed with oil also reduces the lubricating value
quantity of oil in the sump be maintained within
of the oil itself. the prescribed maximum and minimum levels.
When the main engines are secured, the oil Too much oil as well as too little oil in the sump
should be circulated until the temperature of the can lead to trouble. If the oil level is above the


prescribed maximum and the bull gear runs in the and under close observation by experienced per-
oil, the oil foams and heats as a result of the sonnel. A more thorough investigation should be
“churning” action. If the oil level is below the made, as soon as practicable, to determine the
prescribed minimum, it may lead to a low lube cause of the unusual noise. Upon discovery of the
oil casualty such as a damaged bearing or gears. trouble, appropriate action should be taken to
In gear installations where the sump tank remedy the condition.
extends’up around the bull gear, and the normal
oil level is above the bottom of the gear, an oil-
excluding pan (sheet metal shield) is fitted under Vibration
the lower part of the gear to prevent its running
in the sump oil. Under normal conditions, the bull If the main reduction gear begins to vibrate,
gear comes in contact with only a small quantity a complete investigation should be made,
of oil. The oil which tends to fill the pan is swept preferably by a naval shipyard. Vibrations may
out by the gear and is drained back to the sump. be caused by bent shafts, damaged propellers,
When there is too much oil in the sump, the misalignment between prime mover and gear, a
engines must be slowed or stopped until the worn out bearing, or coupling, or an improper
excess oil can be removed and normal conditions balance in the gear train. When these units are
restored. Routine checks should be made to see built, the gear wheels are carefully balanced (both
that the lubricating oil is maintained at the statically and dynamically). Later any unbalance
proper level. Any sudden loss or gain in the in the gears is manifested either by unusual vibra-
amount of oil should immediately be investigated. tion and noise, or by unusual wear of the bearings.
When a ship has been damaged, vibration of
Unusual Noises the main reduction gear may result from misalign-
ment of the engine and the main shafting as well
as from misalignment of the engine and the main
A properly operating gear has a definite sound gear foundation.
which the experienced engine operator can easily When the vibration occurs within the main
recognize. The operator should be familiar with reduction gear, trouble or damage to the propeller
the sounds of the gears aboard the ship during should be one of the first things to consider. The
normal operation and at different speeds and vulnerable position of propellers makes them
under various operating conditions. more liable to damage than any other part of the
Often the readings of lube oil pressures and main plant. Bent or broken propeller blading and
temperatures may help in determining the propellers fouled with line and steel cable may
reason(s) for abnormal sounds. A burned-out transmit vibration to the main reduction gear.
pinion bearing or main thrust bearing may be in-
dicated by a rapid rise in oil temperature for the MAINTENANCE OF
individual bearing. A noise may indicate misalign-
ment, improper meshing of the gear teeth, or gear REDUCTION GEARS
tooth damage.
When there is either a burned-out bearing or Under normal conditions, all repairs and
trouble with the gear teeth, the main propeller major maintenance on main reduction gears
shaft should immediately be stopped, locked, and should be accomplished by a naval shipyard.
inspected to determine the cause of the abnormal However, when the services of a shipyard are not
sound or noise. The trouble should be remedied available, emergency repairs should be ac-
before the reduction gear is placed back in complished (where possible) either by a repair ship
operation. or at an advanced base. Minor inspections, tests,
In some cases, conditions of a minor nature and repairs should be accomplished by the ship’s
may cause unusual noises in a reduction gear force.
which is otherwise operating satisfactorily. When It is of utmost importance that the ship retain
an investigation reveals the cause of the noise to a complete record of the reduction gears from the
be minor, the gear should be operated cautiously time of commissioning. Complete installation


data, furnished by the contractor, should be

entered in prescribed records by the ship’s
engineering personnel when the ship is at the con-
tractor’s yard. They should include the crown
thickness readings and the clearances of the
original bearings, the thrust settings and
clearances, and the backlash and root clearances
for gear and pinion teeth. It is essential to have
this information available at the time when the
alignment must be checked.
All repairs, adjustments, readings, and
casualties should be reported in accordance with
3-M system procedures. All original bearing data,
as well as all additional bearing measurements,
should be entered in appropriate records.
The manufacturer’s technical manual, which
gives detailed information regarding repairs to be
made to reduction gears, is furnished to each ship.
Special tools and equipment are normally pro-
vided on board ship for (1) lifting some reduc-
tion gear covers, (2) handling the gear elements
when removing or replacing their bearings, (3)
making the required measurements, and (4) rebab- Figure 4-1.—Scribe lines used in measuring the crown
thickness of reduction gear bearings.
bitting bearings.
These special tools and equipment should be
available aboard ship in case repairs have to be bearings are given in the manufacturer’s technical
made by repair ships or at advanced bases. Bridge manual. These clearances are also shown on the
gages are no longer used to check bearing wear blueprints for the main reduction gears.
of the main reduction gears. When bearing wear
must be checked, the crown thickness method is On a multishaft ship, if a main reduction gear
used. bearing is wiped, the preferred procedure (if prac-
ticable) is to secure the shaft and the reduction
A bearing shell consists of a pressure-bearing
half and a nonpressure-bearing half. The gear until the units can be inspected and repaired
nonpressure-bearing half has a radial scribe line by a repair activity.
at one end of the geometric center. The pressure- A glance at figure 4-2 will indicate why the
bearing half of every main reduction gear shell replacement of a bearing in a main reduction gear
has three radial scribe lines on each end of the would be a major undertaking for the ship’s force.
bearing shell (figure 4-1). As you can see one of However, emergency conditions may require
these scribe lines is located at the geometric center action by the ship’s force. When such action is
of the shell and the remaining lines intersect the to be taken, a number of factors must be taken
center scribe line at a 45° angle. into consideration before repairs are attempted.
The crown thickness of each shell at these The first factor to consider would be whether
points should be measured with a micrometer at or not to attempt the repair work.
a prescribed distance from the end of the shell. The EN1 or the ENC must study the manufac-
These measurements should be recorded during turer’s instructions and the blueprints for the
the initial alignment and should be permanently reduction gear, so as to have a clear understanding
marked adjacent to each scribe line. of the constructions details and the repair pro-
The amount of bearing clearance should not cedures and to be able to decide whether or not
be allowed to become too great to cause incor- the work should be done by the ship’s force. Other
rect tooth contact. The designed clearances for factors which must be considered are the location


Figure 4-2.—Starboard gear unit with cover removed—view from aft and inboard.

of the ship, the availability of Navy repair ac- bearing. Then, with the aid of a special jack, roll
tivities, and the operational schedule of the ship. out the lower half of the bearing. The function
of the jack is to relieve the weight from the lower
CAUTION: No portion of the gear casing or half of the bearing and to properly support the
its access openings, plugs, piping, or attached fix- rotating elements when the journal bearings are
tures shall be dismantled or removed without the removed.
specific authorization of the ship’s engineer The journal surface of the shaft and all oil
officer. passages (nozzles) should be carefully inspected
and cleaned. The new bearing to be used to replace
Refer to the gear shown in figure 4-2 during the wiped one should also be cleaned and
the following discussion. Assume that the after inspected. Its crown thickness, as measured at the
bearing for the inboard pinion has been wiped factory, is stamped on the new bearing. The
because of an obstructed oil passageway. measurements of the new bearing should be com-
pared with those of the original bearing and with
When making repairs to this unit, ensure the the specifications in the manufacturer’s
propeller shaft is locked rigid and the lubricating instructions.
oil is pumped from the sump BEFORE the bear- After ensuring that the new bearing is well
ing cap is disturbed. For the physical security of oiled, the lower half of the bearing can be rolled
main reduction gears refer to Naval Ship’s into place and the jack removed. Then the upper
Technical Manual chapter 9420 and current ships half is placed in position. Be sure that the bear-
instructions. After removing the bearing cap, ing and its dowel are in the required position,
remove and inspect the upper half of the and in accordance with the manufacturer’s


instructions. Afterwards, the bearing cap can be The designed center-to-center distance of the
lowered into position and securely bolted down. axes of the rotating elements should be maintained
It is possible that the forward bearing for the as accurate as practicable. In all cases the axes
inboard pinion is also damaged as a result of of pinions and gear shafts must be parallel. Non-
excessive wear. When one pinion bearing fails, parallel shafts concentrate the load in one end of
that end of the shaft will tend to move away from a helix. This situation may cause flaking, galling,
the bull gear; consequently, an abnormal load will pitting, featheredge on teeth, deformation of
be placed on the other pinion bearing. For this tooth contour, or breakage of tooth ends.
reason, the other pinion bearing should also be The designed TOOTH CONTOUR must also
opened and inspected, and checked with a be maintained. If the contour is destroyed, a rub-
micrometer, using the crown thickness method. bing contact will occur with consequent danger
All readings should compare with the readings of abrasion.
listed in the manufacturer’s instructions. If ex- If proper tooth contact is obtained when the
cessive wear is indicated, the bearing should be gears are installed, there will not be much trou-
replaced with a new one. If no wear of the ble as far as the WEAR OF TEETH is concerned.
opposite pinion bearing is indicated, then the for- Excessive wear cannot take place unless there is
ward bearing can be reassembled. metallic contact, and metallic contact will not
The condition of the bearings depends a great occur if adequate lubrication is provided. An ade-
deal upon the type of casualty that has occurred. quate supply of lubricating oil at all times,
When the casualty is due to a loss of lubricating proper cleanliness, and inspection for scores will
oil, the pinion bearings must be checked first. If prevent the wearing of teeth.
these bearings are in good condition, it may be If, after all precautions have been taken, the
assumed that the bull gear shaft bearings are also lubricating oil supply should fail and the TEETH
in satisfactory condition. However, after a bear- DO BECOME SCORED, the gears must be
ing casualty has been corrected, a close watch thoroughly overhauled by a naval shipyard, as
should be maintained on all bearings. soon as possible.
Remember that when the reduction gear is During the first few months that reduction
opened, every precaution should be taken to keep gears are in service, PITTING may occur, par-
out dirt and foreign matter and that the repair ticularly along the pitch line. Although slight pit-
personnel should remove all loose articles from ting does not affect the operation of the gears,
their clothing. Again, before closing the reduc- care must be taken to see that no flakes of metal
tion gear, a careful inspection should be made to are allowed to remain in the oiling system.
see that the inside of the gear is free of all dirt, Play between the surfaces of the teeth in mesh
foreign matter, and misplaced tools. on the pitch circle is known as BACKLASH. It
increases as the teeth wear out. However, backlash
can increase considerably without causing any
Gear Teeth trouble.

New gears or gears which have been realigned ROOT CLEARANCE.—The designed root
should be given a wearing-in run at low power clearance with gear and pinion operating on their
before being subjected to the maximum tooth designed centers can be obtained from the
pressure of full power. manufacturer’s drawing or blueprint. The actual
For the proper operation of the gears, it is clearance can be found by taking leads or by
essential that the tooth contact (or total tooth inserting a long feeler gage or a wedge gage. This
pressure) be uniformly distributed over the total clearance should check with the designed
area of the tooth faces. This is accomplished by clearances. When the root clearance is con-
accurate alignment and adherence to designed siderably different at the two ends, the pinion and
clearances. Gear tooth contact is verified by the gear shaft are not parallel. Some tolerance is per-
application of Dkem to the gear teeth and by jack- mitted, provided that there is still sufficient
ing the gears. Then the gears are inspected to backlash and that the teeth are not meshed so
check for the Dkem impressions. closely that lubrication is adversely affected.


ALIGNMENT OF GEAR TEETH.—When Remember that the stoning of gears is useful

the gear and the pinion are parallel (axes of the only to remove a local hump or deformation, not
two shafts are in the same plane and equally dis- to remove deep pitting or galling.
tant from each other), the gear train is aligned.
In service the best indication of proper alignment
is good tooth contact and quiet operation. Main Thrust Bearings
The length of tooth contact across the face of
the pinions and gears is the criterion for satisfac- A ship is moved through the water by an ax-
tory alignment of reduction gears. To static check ial thrust that is developed by the propeller and
the length of tooth contact, coat about 5 to 10 transmitted to the ship’s structure. This axial
teeth with either Prussian blue or red lead, then thrust is transmitted by the shaft through a thrust
roll the gears together with sufficient torque to bearing which is located either at the forward end
cause contact between the meshing teeth and force or at the after end of the main reduction bull gear
the journals into the ahead reaction position in or in the propeller line shafting aft of the gear.
their bearings. After you determine the tooth con- Pivoted-segmental shoe bearings (Kingsbury type)
tact, remove all the coating to prevent possible utilize a wedge-shaped film of oil in their opera-
contamination of the lubricating oil. If tooth con- tion. The source of lubricating oil for thrust bear-
tact is to be checked under operating conditions, ings depends on the location of the bearings. In
coat the teeth with red or blue Dyken or with cop- some installations oil is provided by the same
per sulphate. system which furnishes oil to the reduction gears.
In other installations, a separate lubricating
SPOTTING GEAR TEETH.—All abnormal system is provided.
conditions which may be revealed by operational Kingsbury-type thrust bearings consist of a
sounds or by inspections should be corrected as collar mounted on the shaft and revolving between
soon as possible. Rough gear teeth surfaces, one or more sets of babbitt-faced segmental shoes.
resulting from the passage of foreign objects The backs of these shoes rest against round
through the teeth, should be stoned smooth. If hardened steel pivots which permit the shoes to
the deterioration of a tooth surface cannot be assume a tilt and change their angle with respect
traced directly to a foreign object, give special at- to the shaft collar. Bearings in which the thrust
tention to lubrication and to the condition of the is always exerted in the same direction are
bearings. Also consider the possibility that a equipped with shoes on one side only, but since
change in the supporting structure may have provision must be made in most marine applica-
disturbed the parallelism of the rotors. tions for thrust in two directions, it is more com-
mon to find shoes on each side of the collar. The
Spotting reduction gear teeth is done first by shoes are free to adjust themselves at an angle to
coating the teeth with Prussian blue and then by the collar. Rotation of the shaft collar drags a film
jacking the gear in its ahead direction of rotation. of oil into the space between the shoes and the
As the gear teeth come in contact with the collar, and as the oil film forms, the shoes adjust
marked pinion teeth, an impression is left on the themselves to the angle most efficient for the load
high part of each gear tooth. Rotate the gear conditions and the oil viscosity.
about 1/4 of a turn to a convenient position for Additional information on Kingsbury-type
stoning. Then remove all the high spots indicated thrust bearings and other types of bearings is pro-
by the marking with a small handstone. Normally, vided in the NAVSHIPS Technical Manual,
it will be necessary to replace the bluing on the chapter 243. Detailed information on allowable
pinion teeth repeatedly, since if the bluing is tolerances and procedures for taking thrust bear-
applied too heavily you may obtain false impres- ing readings can be obtained from the manufac-
sions on the gear teeth. turer’s technical manual.
A satisfactory tooth contact is obtained when End play checking of a Kingsbury thrust bear-
at least 80% of the axial length of the working ing must always be done with the upper half of
face of each tooth is in contact and distributed the housing solidly bolted down, otherwise the
over approximately 100% of the face width. base rings may tilt and provide a false reading.


Keep a record of the end play measurements MAIN PROPULSION SHAFT

and refer to them when checking the main thrust BEARINGS
bearing. The normal wear of a pivoted shoe-type
thrust bearing is negligible even with years of use. You will be required to watch and maintain
However, when a thrust bearing is new, there may the main propeller shaft bearings. These bearings
be slight settling of the leveling plates. If you support and hold the propulsion shafting in align-
notice any increase in the end play, examine the ment. They are divided into two general groups:
thrust shoe surfaces, and make all necessary the main line shaft bearings (spring bearings), and
repairs. the stern tube and strut bearings.
In most cases, the main thrust bearing cap
must be removed for inspection. The opening is MAIN LINE SHAFT BEARINGS
of such size that it will permit the withdrawal of (SPRING BEARINGS)
the pair of ahead and astern thrust shoes located
in line with it. The main line shaft bearings (spring bearings)
are of the ring-oiled, babbitt-faced, spherical seat,
CHECKING END PLAY WHILE shell type. These bearings (figure 4-3) are designed
RUNNING THE SHAFT.—The simplest method primarily to align themselves to support the weight
of checking end play is to use a suitable measur- of the shafting. In many of the older, low-
ing instrument on any accessible part of the powered ships, the bearings are not of the self-
propeller shaft while running the shaft slowly aligning type and consist only of bottom halves.
ahead and astern. This is normally done at the The upper half of each assembly consists only of
end of a run when the ship is maneuvering to ap- a cap or cover (not in contact with the shaft)
proach the pier before the machinery and shaft designed to protect the shaft journal from dirt.
are cold. Although the speeds should be slow to The spring bearings of all modern naval ships,
avoid adding deflections of bearing parts and however, are provided with both upper and lower
housing to the actual end play, these speeds should self-aligning bearing halves.
be sufficient to overcome the rake of the shaft The brass oiler rings (figure 4-3) hang loosely
and to ensure that the full end play is actually over the shaft journal and the lower bearing half,
taken up. and are slowly drag fed around by the rotation
of the shaft. The upper half of the bearing is
End play is measured with a dial indicator
mounted on a rigid support close to any con-
venient coupling flange. Occasionally a shaft may
have a shoulder turned on it for the sole purpose
of applying a dial indicator. Make sure that the
flange surface is free from paint, burrs, and rust
spots. The flange surface should also be well
oiled in order to prevent damage to the dial


it is not feasible to measure the end play of a shaft
while running, your next choice is to jack the shaft
fore and aft at some convenient main shaft flange.
Use a dial indicator make certain that the shaft
movement is free, and guard against overdoing
the jacking force. The main difficulty associated
with the use of the jacking methods is in finding
suitable supports to ensure that no structural
damage will be incurred when jacking is done
against a main shaft flange coupling. Figure 4-3.—Main line shaft bearing.


grooved to accommodate the rings. As they glide is supported in the stern tube by two bearings—
through the reservoir of oil at the bottom, the one at the inner end and one at the outer end of
rings carry some of the oil along to the top of the the stern tube—called stern tube bearings. At the
shaft journal. inner end of the stern tube there is a stuffing box
On some steam driven ships, the most recent containing the packing gland (figure 4-4), which
line shaft bearing design employs oiler discs is generally referred to as the stern tube gland.
instead of oiler rings for lubrication. At very low The stern tube gland seals the area between the
speeds (i.e., when the shaft is jacked for 24 hours shaft and stern tube but allows the shaft to rotate.
while the turbines are cooling), the oil rings tend The stuffing box is flanged and bolted to the
to slip and lubrication is sometimes inadequate. stern tube. Its casing is divided into two
The oiler discs are clamped to propulsion shaft compartments—the forward space which is the
and have cavities at the periphery which carry oil stuffing box proper, and the after space, provided
to the top of the bearing regardless of the shaft with a flushing connection, designed to maintain
speed. a positive flow of water through the stern tube
Spring bearing temperatures and oil levels for lubricating, cooling, and flushing. This
should be checked hourly while underway. At flushing connection is supplied by the firemain.
least once each year, the bearings should be A DRAIN CONNECTION is provided both for
inspected, clearances taken, and any defects testing for the presence of cooling water in the
corrected. bearing and for permitting sea water to flow
through the stern tube and cool the bearing when
STERN TUBE AND STERN underway, where natural seawater circulation is
The gland for the stuffing box is divided
The hole in the hull structure for accom- longitudinally into two parts. The gland bolts are
modating the propeller shaft to the outside of the long enough to support the gland when the latter
hull is called the stern tube. The propeller shaft is withdrawn at least 1 inch clear of the stuffing

Figure 4-4.—Stern tube stuffing box and gland.


Figure 4-5.—Details of underwater strut bearing. A. Longitudinal view. B. Cross-sectional view. C. Rubber stripping in the

box. This permits the addition of a ring of new Both face seals are on a plane perpendicular to
packing, when needed, while the ship is water- the shafting, against a gland ring for rubber face
borne. Either braided flax packing or special seal or against a seal ring for a mechanical face
semimetallic packing must be used (ship’s seal. Further, most face seals require seawater for
engineering drawings show the proper type of both cooling and lubrication.
packing). This gland is usually tightened to The rubber face consists of a rubber element
eliminate leakage when the ship is in port, and that is clamped around the shaft just tightly
is loosened (prior to warming up) just enough to enough to prevent rotational slippage and leakage
permit a slight trickle of water for cooling pur- underneath the seal, while at the same time, the
poses when the ship is underway. seal is able to travel axially along the shaft. This
More recent shaft seal designs utilize packing axial motion is necessary so that the seal can main-
only for emergencies. These newer seals are of two tain its position against the gland ring regardless
types; rubber face seals and mechanical face seals. of shaft position.


The mechanical face seal is a ring made of consisting of layers of cotton fabric impregnated
either a hard synthetic or a carbon compound. and bonded with phenolic resin. Strips of this
This ring is held tightly against the seal ring by material, as shown in view C of figure 4-5, are
springs mounted behind it. fitted inside the bearing. A rubber composition
is the type most used in modern installations.
NOTE: More information on face-type seals
is available in manufactures technical manuals— CONTROLLABLE PITCH PROPELLERS
(Crane Co., “Surface Ship, Seal Inc.“,
“Submarine”). This section will describe the major com-
ponents and the principles of operation of the con-
STRUT BEARINGS trollable reversible pitch (CRP) propeller (a part
of the main propulsion system).
The strut bearings, like the stern tube bear-
ings, are equipped with composition bushings COMPONENTS OF THE CRP
which are split longitudinally into two halves. The PROPELLER
outer surface of the bushing is machined with Most ships that use CRP propellers use two
steps to bear on matching landings in the bore of independent units with their associated
the strut. mechanical, hydraulic, and electronic pitch con-
Since it is usually impracticable to use oil or trol mechanisms, plus all the required valves and
grease as a lubricant for underwater bearings, seals. Some type ships require tubing and passages
some other material must be employed for that for the discharge of prairie air through each pro-
purpose. Materials that become slippery when wet peller blade. The CRP propellers form an integral
include natural or synthetic rubber; lignum vitae, part of the ship’s two shaft main propulsion
a hard tropical wood with excellent wearing system. Figure 4-6 shows the major components
qualities; and laminated phenolic material of a single CRP propeller.

Figure 4-6.—CRP Propeller Machinery.


Table 4-1.—Related Propulstion System Components Related propulsion system components, which
are necessary for the operation of a CRP propeller
but which are not part of the CRP propeller are
System Name/Description listed in table 4-1. Let’s look at some of these com-
ponents, along with other components, shown in
table 4-2.
Main Reduction Gear, Mounting and
Coupling for Gear-Driven Hydraulic Oil Hub/Blade Assembly
Propeller Shaft. The propeller’s hub/blade assembly (see figure
4-6), attached to the main propulsion propeller
Interconnecting Hydraulic Oil Piping. shaft, provides the mounting for the propeller
Head Tank, Sump Tank and Hydraulic Oil blades and houses the blade turning mechanism
Supply plus Associated Components, and for rotating and holding the pitch position of the
Fittings. blades. Attached to the after end of the hub body
are the hub cone and the hub cone end cover.
Central Control Station (CCS) Controls These items form the chamber for the servomotor
and Indicators. piston. The hub body is fitted to the tailshaft by
guide pin dowels which also transmit the torque

Table 4-2.—CRP Propeller Hardware Components


Hub Assembly, LG Hydraulic Oil Power Module, P/S
Hub assembly. RH (each including): Electronic Pitch Control Assembly,
Blades (Set of 5). LH Suction Strainer (1)
Blades (Set of 5). RH Feedback Potentiometer, P/S
Hydraulic Oil Pump, Coupling
and Motor (1) Readout Potentiometer, P/S
VALVE ROD ASSEMBLY Duplex Discharge Filters (3)
Air Bleed Valves (2)
Piping, Couplings & Guides, Port Pressure Control Assembly, con-
Piping, Couplings & Guides, Stbd sisting of: sequence and relief Pitch Indicating Assembly, P/S
valve, unloading and check
control oil relief valve.
Manual Bypass Valve (1) Emergency Hand Pump Assembly,
DD Box Assembly. Port
Gauge Panels (2) P/S
DD Box Assembly, Stbd.
Manifold Block Assembly, P/S (each
Electra-hydraulic Servo Control
Valve (1) Rotoseal, P/S
Manual Pitch Control Valve (1) Check Valve (hub), LH/RH
Manual Changeover Valves (2) Check Valve (OD Box), P/S
Standby Hydraulic Oil Pump (gear Prairie Air Tube Assy.. P/S
driven), P/S Connectors, Prairie Air, Hub to
Suction Strainer (gear pump), P/S Blade (Set of 5). LH/RH
Return Check Valve, P/S


from the shafting to the hub assembly. The hub class and DD 963 class ships, is mounted to the
is secured to the tailshaft by flange bolts. These forward end of the main reduction gear and is
bolts are not designed to take torque from the tail flange-connected to the main reduction gear shaft
shaft. The hub to tailshaft joint is sealed by coupling. The other type, used on the LST
O-rings located between the hub and the tailshaft, 1179-1198 class ships, is called the Bird-Johnson
and between the tailshaft and the tailshaft spigot. Kamewa Unit; it is manufactured of steel, is cast
Each blade is attached to a crank pin ring by blade in two sections, and is line-bored for installation
bolts. The crank pin ring fits over and rotates over the intermediate shaft. The OD box provides
about a center post which is physically a part of a direct hydraulic oil connection to the main pro-
the hub body. The crank pin ring is retained in pulsion shaft and also translates to the valve rod
the hub by the bearing ring. The area under each in response to hydraulic control oil commands.
blade is sealed by the blade port cover and by two High pressure oil from the hydraulic oil power
O-rings in the blade seal base ring. Each blade module (HOPM) is introduced through the OD
seal base ring is spring-loaded against the under- box to the internal bore of the valve rod and to
side of the blade port cover to provide a sealing the hub. The oil returns from the propeller hub
surface under all loading conditions. to the hydraulic oil sump tank by way of the an-
The blade turning mechanism in the hub con- nulus between the valve rod and the internal bore
sists of a single crosshead, attached to the end of of the shafting, through the OD box.
a piston rod. Several sliding blocks are fitted
into the machined chambers of the crosshead. An Hydraulic System
eccentric pin on the underside of each crank pin
ring fits into a hole machined into each sliding The hydraulic system consists of a self-
block. The hub servomotor is attached to the after contained HOPM, a standby hydraulic pump
end of the crosshead. A piston rod carries the lines driven by the main reduction gear, the pitch con-
for the regulating valve pin which is attached to trol valves manifold block assembly, and all the
the end of the valve rod. This assembly forms a associated connecting piping, fittings, and valves.
passage for hydraulic power oil flow and return The hydraulic oil is supplied to the hydraulic oil
oil flow to and from the hub. pumps from a separate sump tank. To maintain
a static head pressure when the hydraulic system
Valve Rod Assembly is shut down, a gravity head tank is connected to
the OD box.
The valve rod assembly is composed of
fabricated sections of seamless steel tubing HYDRAULIC OIL POWER MODULE.—
joined by couplings to provide a mechanical link The HOPM is located adjacent to the main reduc-
between the oil distribution (OD) box and the hub tion gear. It is a RESILIENT mounted, welded
servomotor through the internal bore of the structural assembly, consisting of a base plate with
propeller shaft. The valve rod assembly provides structural ANGLE bar, flat bar, and mounting
a passage for high pressure hydraulic oil from the plates. The HOPM contains the major com-
oil distribution box to the hub. Each valve sec- ponents of the hydraulic system, including (1)
tion is supported at the center of the propeller either the motor-driven hydraulic screw or the
shaft bore by guides. The after end of the valve vane pump, coupling, and AC motor; (2) a suc-
rod assembly supports a regulating valve pin tion strainer for the motor-driven pump; (3) two
which operates in the valve pin liner of the hub 40 micron duplex discharge filters; (4) the pressure
servomotor. The forward end of the valve rod control assembly operating valves, which consist
assembly is mechanically linked to the OD box of a pressure reducing valve, an auxiliary relief
shaft, so that the valve rod assembly turns with valve, a check valve, an unloading and check
the shaft. valve, and a relief and sequence valve; (5) one 10
Oil Distribution Box micron duplex control oil filter; (6) a gauge panel
assembly and associated instrumentation; (7) a
Presently there are two types of OD boxes manual bypass valve; and (8) the interconnecting
being used in the Navy. One type, used on FFG-7 piping and fittings.


STANDBY PUMP.—The standby pump is of When a change of propeller pitch position is

the same type as the main hydraulic pump, but ordered, a pitch position command from the pro-
it is mounted at the forward end of the main pulsion control system is fed to the controls. This
reduction gear housing and is driven through a command signal activates the electrohydraulic ser-
disconnect coupling. The suction strainer and suc- vocontrol valve which, in turn, activates the flow
tion gauge for this pump are mounted separately. of control oil to and from the OD box to change
The primary function of the standby pump is to the position of the valve rod actuator. The
assist the main pump in effecting pitch changes. hydraulic power oil flows to the OD box and is
When the control pitch (C/P) unit is in the holding admitted to the valve rod via the annular chamber
pitch position, the standby pump discharge oil is in the OD box and the ports in the valve rod. The
unloaded back to the sump through the hydraulic oil flows within the bore of the valve rod to the
block. But, whenever a pitch change is ordered, hub servomotor, and returns from the hub via a
the pump discharge oil is directed to the hydraulic passage formed between the valve rod and the
block high pressure passage. propulsion shaft bore. ‘The oil leaves the OD box
via ports in the OD box shaft and the annular
LOWER OIL TANK.—The lower (sump) oil chamber to return to the sump tank. Control oil
tank is usually located aft and below the OD box is regulated by a set of sequencing and reducing
assembly. The oil capacity of the sump varies valves in the hydraulic system which maintain the
depending on the type and class of ship. Two required pressure level. Control oil is supplied to
pumps, the main and standby hydraulic pumps, the electrohydraulic servocontrol valve. From the
take suction on the lower oil tank through a foot servocontrol valve, the control oil flows to one
valve, which permits the oil to flow from the tank side of the low pressure (LP) chamber of the OD
but does not allow it to return through the suc- box to drive the valve rod actuator. Control oil
tion line. returns to the sump through the OD box manifold
from the other side of the LP chamber.
UPPER GRAVITY OIL TANK.—This tank When the propeller is operating at the desired
is located above the maximum draft line. Its main blade pitch position, the OD box valve rod
purpose is to maintain hub oil pressure above that actuator is hydraulically locked and the hub ser-
of the surrounding seawater when the C/P unit vomotor is hydraulically held in a stationary posi-
is secured. In the Kamewa installation, the tion. The configuration of the regulating valve pin
upper gravity oil tank serves an additional pur- in the hub servomotor allows hydraulic power oil
pose. During C/P unit operation the tank assists to circulate continuously through the hub servo.
in maintaining the sliding ring chamber pressure. The oil pressure developed on each side of the hub
servomotor piston is balanced and established at
the level necessary to counteract blade loading
which would tend to change pitch position. A
hydraulic pitch change signal from the elec-
The CRP propeller provides the ahead and trohydraulic servo control valve moves the valve
astern propulsion thrust for a vessel by a change rod actuator and the valve rod. This movement
in the pitch of the propeller blades. Such changes changes the size of the oil passages to each face
can be obtained even when the main propulsion of the hub servomotor piston, thereby creating
machinery, including the propeller shaft, are a differential pressure in the circulating oil to each
turning at a high rate of speed. Blade pitch con- face of the piston. The regulating valve pin then
trol permits a full range of ahead and astern supplies high pressure oil to one face of the piston
thrusts. Maximum ahead thrust is provided with and connects the other face to the return oil
the blades in the full ahead pitch position, and passage. The high pressure oil develops the
maximum astern thrust is provided with the blades necessary pressure on the piston face to overcome
in the full astern pitch position. When the pro- blade loading and move the turning mechanism
peller blades are set at zero thrust, the propeller and the blades to the desired pitch position. Blade
shaft may be turning at any speed without im- pitch will continue to change until the oil port
parting thrust to the vessel. openings equalize and the oil pressure developed


on each face of the piston is balanced. 3. Inspect the strainers for the oil-spray
Removing the oil signal from the valve rod nozzles to see that dirt or sediment has not
actuator stops motion in the valve rod and the accumulated in them.
hub servomotor. The self-centering feature of the 4. Take and record all main thrust bearing
servomotor over the regulating valve pin provides readings.
the restoring force to counteract any
hydrodynamic tendency to change pitch from that When conditions warrant or if trouble is
set by the command signal. suspected, a work request should be submitted to
a naval shipyard to perform a 7-YEAR INSPEC-
TION of the main reduction gears. This inspec-
INSPECTIONS tion includes clearance readings of bearings and
journals; alignment checks and readings; and any
The inspections mentioned here are the other inspections, tests, or maintenance work that
minimum requirements for reduction gears. may be considered necessary.
Where defects are suspected, or operating condi- If the ship’s propeller strikes ground or a
tions so indicate, inspections should be made at submerged object, a careful inspection should be
more frequent intervals. made of the main reduction gear immediately
No inspection plates or other fittings of the following the OCCURRENCE of the casualty. In
main reduction gear may be opened without the this inspection, the possible misalignment of the
permission of the engineer officer. Before replac- bull gear and its shaft should be considered.
ing of an inspection plate, connection, fitting, or Where practicable, a naval shipyard should be re-
cover which permits access to the gear casing, quested to check the alignment and concentricity
make a careful inspection to ensure that no of the bull gear.
foreign matter has entered or remains in the cas-
ing or oil lines. An entry of the inspections, and NAVAL SHIPYARD OVERHAUL
the name of the CPO or officer who witnesses the
closing of the inspection plate, should be made During a naval shipyard overhaul, the fol-
in the Engineering Log. lowing work should be performed: inspection of
the condition and clearance of thrust shoes to en-
PMS INSPECTIONS sure proper position of gear; inspection of the
thrust collar, nut, and locking device; and inspec-
The PMS requirements discussed in this sec- tion of the flexible couplings between turbines and
tion are general in scope. Inspection requirements reduction gears and removal of the sludge
for your ship are listed in the ship’s PMS Manual deposits.
and should be referred to for all maintenance
Gears should be jacked DAILY—AT
ANCHOR—so that the main gear shaft is The correction of any defect disclosed by
moved 1 1/4 revolutions. This jacking should be regular tests and inspections, and the conscien-
done with lubricating oil circulating in the system. tious observance of the manufacturers’ instruc-
You should take the following actions tions, should assure that the gears are ready for
QUARTERLY: full power at all times.
It is not advisable to open up gear cases,
1. Sound with a hammer the holding down bearings, and thrusts immediately BEFORE
bolts, ties, and chocks to detect signs of loosen- TRIALS. In addition to the inspections which
ing of casing fastenings. may be directed by proper authority which are
2. Open inspection plates, inspect gears, and conducted during the FULL POWER TRIALS,
oil-spray nozzles. Wipe off oil at different points the following checks must be made AFTER
and note whether the surface is bright or if already TRIALS. Open the inspection plates, and examine
corroded, and whether or not new areas are the tooth contact and the condition of the teeth
affected. to note changes that may have occurred during


the trials. (Running for a few hours at high power 7. The immediate vicinity of an inspection
will show any possible condition of improper con- plate joint should be kept free from paint and dirt.
tact or abnormal wear that would not have shown 8. When gear cases are open, precautions
up in months of operation at lower powers.) should be taken to prevent the entry of foreign
Check the clearance of the main thrust bearing. matter. The openings should never be left unat-
tended unless satisfactory temporary closures have
been installed.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS 9. Lifting devices should be inspected
carefully before being used and should not be
Observe the following safety precautions overloaded.
which apply to the operation, care, and 10. Naked lights should be kept away from
maintenance of reduction gears and related equip- vents while gears are in use (the oil vapor may be
ment found on Navy ships. explosive).
11. Ships anchored in localities where there
1. If churning or emulsification of the oil in are strong currents or tides should take precau-
the gear case occurs, the gear must be slowed tions and lock the main shafts.
down or stopped until the defect is remedied. 12. When divers are in the vicinity of the pro-
2. If the supply of lubricating oil to the gears peller, propeller shafts should be locked.
fails, the gears should be stopped and the cause 13. When a shaft is allowed to turn or trail,
located and remedied. the lubrication system must be in operation.
3. When bearings have been overheated, the
gears should NOT be operated—except in extreme 14. The main propeller shaft must be brought
emergencies—until bearings have been examined to a dead stop position before an attempt is made
and defects have been remedied. to engage or disengage the turning gear.
4. If excessive flaking of metal from the gear 15. When a main shaft is being locked,
teeth occurs, the gears should not be adjusted, ex- precautions must be taken to apply the brake
cept in case of emergency, until the cause has been quickly and securely.
determined. 16. Where there is a limiting maximum safe
5. Unusual noises should be investigated at speed at which a ship can steam with a locked pro-
once, and the gears should be operated cautiously peller shaft, this speed should not be exceeded.
or stopped until the cause for the noise has been 17. When the main gears are being jacked
discovered and remedied. over, precautions must be taken to see that the
6. No inspection plate, connection, fitting, turning gear is properly lubricated.
or cover which permits access to the gear casing 18. Before the main engines are started, it
should be removed without specific authority of should be definitely determined that the turning
the engineer officer. gear has been disengaged.



Your prime concern as an Engineman is to combustion, volumetric efficiency, and the
keep the machinery for which you are responsi- proper mixing of fuel and air limit the power
ble operating in the most efficient manner possi- which a given engine cylinder can develop. You
ble. From your past experience and training, you must become familiar with the factors which cause
know that engine efficiency and performance overloading of an engine and unbalance between
depend upon much more than just operating the engine cylinders. You should know the symptoms,
throttle and changing oil at prescribed intervals. causes, and effects of cylinder load unbalance and
The preceding chapters have covered many of the the steps that are necessary to maintain an equal
casualties which may occur to reduce the power load on each cylinder.
output of an engine. You have learned how to pre- You must know what is meant by engine
vent the occurrence of many of these casualties. efficiency and know how the various types of
As you gain experience and understanding, you efficiencies and losses are used in analyzing the
will probably have to train other people. The peo- internal combustion process. You must also be
ple you will train will frequently come up with familiar with those factors which may cause the
many questions about why an engine does or does efficiencies to increase or decrease, and with the
not perform efficiently. Will you be able to answer ways these variations affect engine performance.
their questions? Parts of this chapter may serve as a brief
To understand the various factors that review, but most of the information provided
influence engine performance and efficiency, a deals with those factors that influence engine per-
thorough knowledge of the internal combustion formance and efficiency.
process is necessary. Once the combustion
process is understood, it will be much easier for
you to appreciate the part played by such factors ENGINE PERFORMANCE
as engine design, engine operating conditions, fuel
characteristics, fuel injection, ignition, pressures In addition to mechanical difficulties, any
and temperatures, and compression ratios. This engine performance may be affected by other
chapter provides some of the information causes, such as engine design and operator’s per-
necessary for a better understanding of the many formance. A comparison of the principal condi-
factors that affect engine performance and effi- tions which influence the performance of
ciency. As an Engineman, you will be able to gain internal combustion engines is given in table 5-1.
complete understanding of such factors only Note that the performance conditions for the two
through continued study and practical experience. types of engines (diesel and gasoline) are
You should know how the power which an somewhat similar, except for some differences due
engine can develop is limited by such factors as to factors dealing with fuel and ignition.
the mean effective pressure, the length of piston
stroke, the cylinder bore, and the engine speed. POWER LIMITATIONS
You must also know how these factors are used
in determining the power developed by an engine. The design of an engine limits the amount of
You must learn how heat losses, efficiency of power that an engine can develop. Other limiting


Table 5-1.—Factors That Influence Engine Performance

Diesel Engines Gasoline Engines

1. Fuel characteristics X X
2. Compression ratio X X

3. Engine operating conditions

Combustion chamber design X X
Valve arrangements X X

Size of valves X X
Manifold arrangements X X

Hot spots (presence/absence) X X

Location of spark plugs X

Number of spark plugs X

4. Pressure and temperature of air in the engine cylinder

at start of compression X

5. Pressure/temperature of the charge in the engine

cylinder at the start of compression X

factors are the mean effective pressure, the length Length of Stroke
of stroke, the cylinder bore, and the number of
revolutions per minute (piston speed) of the The distance a piston travels between top and
engine. The latter, piston speed, is limited by the bottom dead centers (TDC, BDC) is known as the
frictional heat and by the inertia of the moving length of stroke. This distance is one of the fac-
parts. tors that determines the piston speed. In some
modern diesel engines, piston speeds may reach
Mean Effective Pressure about 1600 feet per minute (fpm).

The mean effective pressure (MEP) is the Cylinder Bore

average pressure exerted on the piston during each
power stroke, and is determined from a formula Bore is used to identify the diameter of the
or by means of a planimeter. There are two kinds cylinder. The cylinder bore must be known in
of mep: indicated mean effective pressure (imep), order to compute the area of the piston crown
which is developed in the cylinder and can be upon which the pressure acts to create the
measured; and brake mean effective pressure driving force. This pressure is calculated and ex-
(bmep), which is computed from the brake pressed for an area of one square inch as pounds
horsepower (bhp) delivered by the engine. per square inch (psi).


The ratio of length of stroke to cylinder bore Using the factors which influence the engine’s
is fixed in engine design; in most slow speed capacity to develop power, the general or
engines, the stroke is greater than the bore. standard formula for calculating ihp is as follows:

Revolutions Per Minute P × L × A × N

ihp =
Revolutions per minute (rpm) is the speed at
which the crankshaft rotates. Since the piston is where
connected to the shaft, the rpm, along with the
length of the stroke, determine piston speed. P = Mean indicated pressure, in psi
Since, during each revolution, the piston com-
pletes one up-stroke and one down-stroke, piston L = Length of stroke, in feet
speed is obtained by multiplying the rpm by twice
the length of the stroke. This speed is usually ex- A = Effective area of the piston, in
pressed in feet per minute (fpm). If the stroke is square inches
10.5 inches (or 10.5/12 of a foot), and the speed
of rotation is 720 rpm, the piston speed is com- N = Number of power strokes per minute
puted as follows:
33,000 = Unit of power (one horsepower), or
footpounds per minute.

To illustrate the use of this formula, assume

that a 12-cylinder, 2-stroke cycle, single-acting
engine has a bore of 8.5 inches and a stroke of
HORSEPOWER COMPUTATION 10 inches. Its rated speed is 744 rpm. With the
engine running at full load and speed, the imep
is measured and found to be 105 psi. What is the
The power developed by an engine depends ihp developed by the engine?
upon the type of engine as well as the speed of In this case
the engine. A cylinder of a single-acting, 4-stroke
cycle engine will produce one power stroke for
every two crankshaft revolutions, while a single-
acting, 2-stroke cycle engine produces one power
stroke for each revolution.

Indicated Horsepower
Substituting these amounts in the formula,
The power developed within a cylinder can be you have
calculated by measuring the imep and the engine
speed. (The rpm of the engine is converted to the
number of power strokes per minute.) With the
bore and stroke known (available in engine
manufacturers’ technical manuals), the
horsepower (hp) can be computed. This power is This amount represents the horsepower
called indicated horsepower (ihp) because it is ob- developed in only one cylinder; since there are 12
tained from the pressure measured with an engine cylinders in this engine, total horsepower for the
indicator. Power loss due to friction is not con- engine will equal 12 times 111.9, or approximately
sidered in computing ihp. 1343.


Brake Horsepower share, the remainder of the cylinders will become

Brake horsepower (bhp), sometimes called Using the rated speed and bhp, it is possible
shaft horsepower, is the amount of power to determine for each INDIVIDUAL CYLINDER
available for useful work. Bhp is less than ihp a rated bmep which may not be exceeded without
because of the various power losses which occur overloading the cylinder. If the ENGINE rpm
during engine operation. drops below the rated speed, then the cylinder
To determine the brake or shaft horsepower bmep generally drops to a lower value. The bmep
that is delivered as useful work by an engine, the should never exceed the normal mep at lower
sum total of all mechanical losses must be engine speed. Usually, it should be somewhat
deducted from the total ihp. lower if the engine speed is decreased.
Some engine manufacturers design the fuel
CYLINDER PERFORMANCE systems so that it is impossible to exceed the rated
LIMITATIONS bmep. This is done by installing a positive stop
to limit the maximum throttle or fuel control. This
The factors which limit the power that a given positive stop regulates the maximum amount of
cylinder can develop are the piston speed and the fuel that can enter the cylinder and limits the
mep. The piston speed, as stated before, is limited maximum load of the cylinder.
by the inertia forces set up by the moving parts In order to meet emergency situations, engines
and by frictional heat. In the case of the mep, the used by the Navy are generally rated lower than
limiting factors are as follows: those designed for industrial use. The economical
speed for most of the Navy’s diesel engines is
1. Heat losses and efficiency of combustion. approximately 90% of the rated speed. For such
speed, the best load conditions have been found
2. Volumetric efficiency (the amount of air to be from 70% to 80% of the rated load or out-
charged into the cylinder and the degree of put. When an engine is operated at an 80-90 com-
scavenging). bination (80% of rated load at 90% rated speed)
3. Mixing of the fuel and air. the parts last longer and the engine remains
cleaner and in better operating condition.
The limiting meps, both bmep and imep, are Diesel engines do not operate well at ex-
prescribed by the manufacturer or NAVSEA. ceedingly low bmep such as that occurring at
They should never be exceeded. In a direct-drive idling speeds. You are well aware that idling an
ship, the meps developed are determined by the engine tends to gum up parts associated with the
rpm of the power shaft. In electric-drive ships, combustion spaces. Operating an engine at idling
the horsepower and bmep are determined by a speeds for long periods will result in the
computation based on readings from electrical in- necessity for cleaning and overhauling the engine
struments and from generator efficiency. much sooner than when operating at 50 to 100%
of load.
Symptoms of Unbalance
In order to ensure a balanced, smooth-
operating engine, the general mechanical condi- Evidence of an unbalanced condition between
tion of the engine must be properly maintained the cylinders of an engine may be indicated by
so that the power output of the individual the following symptoms:
cylinders is within the prescribed limits at all loads
and speeds. In order to have a balanced load on 1. Black exhaust smoke. When this occurs,
the engine, each cylinder must produce its share it is not always possible to determine immediately
of the total power developed. If the engine is whether the entire engine or just one of the
developing its rated full power, or nearly so, and cylinders is overloaded. To determine which
one cylinder or more is producing less than its cylinder is overloaded, you must open the


indicator cock on each individual cylinder and unless you secure the engine and dismantle at least
check the color of the exhaust. a part of it.
2. High exhaust temperatures. If the
temperatures of exhaust gases from individual To obtain equal load distribution between
cylinders become higher than normal, it is an in- individual cylinders, the clearances, tolerances,
dication of an overload within the cylinder. If the and the general condition of all parts that affect
temperature of the gases in the exhaust header the cycle must be maintained so that very little,
becomes higher than usual, it is an indication that if any, variation exists between individual
all cylinders are probably overloaded. Frequent cylinders. Unbalance will occur unless the follow-
checks on the pyrometer will indicate whether ing conditions are as nearly alike as possible for
each cylinder is firing properly and carrying its all cylinders:
share of the load. Any sudden change in the
exhaust temperature of any cylinder should be
investigated immediately. The difference in ex- 1. Compression pressures
haust temperatures between any two cylinders 2. Fuel injection timing
should not exceed the limits prescribed in the
engine manufacturer’s technical manual. 3. Quantity and quality of fuel injected
3. High lubricating oil and cooling water 4. Firing pressures
temperatures. If the temperature gages for these
5. Valve timing and lift
systems show an abnormal rise in temperature,
an overloaded condition may exist. The causes of
the abnormal temperature in these systems should When unbalance occurs, correction usually in-
be determined and corrected immediately if engine volves repair, replacement, or adjustment of the
efficiency is to be maintained. affected part or system. Before any adjustments
4. Excessive heat. In general, excessive heat are made to eliminate unbalance, it must be deter-
in any part of the engine may indicate mined beyond any doubt that the engine is in
overloading. An overheated bearing may be the proper mechanical condition. When an engine is
result of an overloaded cylinder; or an abnormally in good mechanical condition, few adjustments
hot crankcase may be the result of overloading will be required. However, after an overhaul in
the engine as a whole. which piston rings or cylinder liners have been
5. Excessive vibration or unusual sound. If renewed, considerable adjustment may be
all cylinders are not developing an equal amount necessary. Until the rings become properly seated,
of power, the forces exerted by individual pistons some lubricating oil will leak past the rings into
will be unequal. When this occurs, the unequal the combustion space. This excess oil will burn
forces cause an uneven turning movement to be in the cylinder, giving an incorrect indication of
exerted on the crankshaft, and vibrations are set fuel oil combustion. If the fuel pump is set for
up. Through experience, you will learn to tell by normal compression, and the rings have not seated
the vibrations and sound of an engine when a poor properly, the engine will become overloaded. As
distribution of load exists. You should use every the compression rises to normal pressures, there
opportunity to observe and listen to engines will be an increase in the power developed, as well
running under all conditions of loading and as in the pressure and temperature under which
performance. the combustion takes place. Therefore, when an
overhaul has been completed, the engine
Causes of Unbalance instruments must be carefully watched until the
rings are seated, and all necessary adjustments are
made. Frequent compression tests will serve as a
An engine must be kept in excellent helpful aid in making the necessary adjustments.
mechanical condition to prevent unbalance. A Unless an engine is so equipped that compression
leaky valve or fuel injector, leaky compression can be readily varied, the engine should be
rings, or any other mechanical difficulties will operated under light load until the rings are
make it impossible for you to balance the load properly seated.


Effect of Unbalance 4. Keep cylinder temperatures and pressures

as evenly distributed as possible.
5. Train yourself to recognize the symptoms
From the preceding discussion, it can be of serious engine conditions.
readily seen that, in general, the result of un-
balance will be overheating of the engine. The
clearances established by the engine designer allow ENGINE EFFICIENCY
for sufficient expansion of the moving parts when
the engine is operating at the designed Engine efficiency is the amount of power
temperatures, but an engine operating at developed as compared to the energy input which
temperatures in excess of those for which it was is measured by the heating value of the fuel con-
designed is subject to many casualties. Excessive sumed. The term “efficiency” is used to designate
expansion soon leads to seizure and burning of the relationship between the result obtained and
the engine parts. Should the temperatures in the the effort expended to produce the result.
crankcase rise above the flash point of the The term “compression ratio” is frequently
lubricating oil vapors, an explosion may result. used in connection with engine performance.
High temperature may destroy the oil film be- From your study of the principles of internal com-
tween adjacent parts, and the resulting increased bustion, you will recall that compression ratio is
friction will further increase the temperature. the ratio of the volume of air above the piston,
Since power is directly proportional to the mep when the piston is at the BDC position, to the
developed in a cylinder, any increase in mep will volume of air above the piston when the piston
cause a corresponding increase in power. If the is at the TDC position.
meps in the individual cylinders vary, power will
not be evenly distributed among the cylinders. EFFICIENCIES
The quality of combustion obtained depends
upon the heat content of the fuel. The amount The principal efficiencies which must be
of heat available for power depends upon considered in the internal combustion process are
temperature. Temperature varies directly as cycle, thermal, mechanical, and volumetric.
pressure; therefore a decrease in pressure will
result in a decrease in temperature, and in poor Cycle Efficiency
combustion. Poor combustion will cause lowered
thermal efficiency and reduced engine output. The efficiency of any cycle is equal to the out-
Cylinder load balance is essential if the desired put divided by the input. The efficiency of the
efficiency and performance of an engine is to be diesel cycle is considerably higher than the Otto
obtained. To avoid the harmful effects of or constant volume cycle because of higher com-
overloading and unbalancing of load, the load on pression ratio and because combustion starts at
an engine should be properly distributed among a higher temperature. In other words, the heat
the working cylinders; and no cylinder, or the input in a diesel engine is at a higher average
engine itself, should ever be overloaded. temperature. Theoretically, a gasoline engine
using the Otto cycle would be more efficient than
In general, load balance in an engine can be the diesel engine if equivalent compression ratios
maintained if the following procedures are could be used. However, engines operating on the
observed: Otto cycle cannot use a compression ratio com-
parable to that of diesel engines because fuel and
1. Maintain the engine in proper mechanical air are drawn together into the cylinder and com-
condition. pressed. If comparable compression ratios were
2. Adjust the fuel system according to the used, the fuel would fire or detonate before the
manufacturer’s instructions. piston reached the correct firing position.
3. Operate the engine within the temperature Since temperature and amount of heat con-
limits specified in appropriate instructions. tent which is available for power are proportional


to each other, the cycle efficiency is actually com- hour, and that the fuel has a value of 19,200 Btu
puted by measuring the temperature. The specific per pound. What is the ite of the engine?
heat of the mixture in the cylinder is either known The work done per hour when 1343 ihp are
or assumed, and when combined with the developed is 1343 × 2545 or 3,417,935 Btu. The
temperature, the heat can be calculated at any heat input for the same time is 360 × 19,200 or
instant. 6,912,000 Btu. Then, by the above expression, the
indicated thermal efficiency is as follows:
Thermal Efficiency

Thermal efficiency is the measure of the effi-

ciency and completeness of combustion of the
fuel, or, more specifically, the ratio of the out-
put or work done by the working substance in the
cylinder in a given time to the input or heat energy
of the fuel supplied during the same time. Two
kinds of thermal efficiency are generally con-
sidered for an engine: indicated thermal efficiency The other type of thermal efficiency—
and overall thermal efficiency. OVERALL THERMAL EFFICIENCY—
Since the work done by the gases in the considered for an engine is a ratio similar to ite,
cylinder is called indicated work, the thermal except that the useful or shaft work (bhp) is
efficiency determined by its use is often called IN- used. Therefore, overall efficiency (often called
DICATED THERMAL EFFICIENCY (ite). If all brake thermal efficiency) is computed by the
the potential heat in the fuel could be delivered following expression:
as work, the thermal efficiency would be 100%.
Because of the various losses, however, this per- Overall thermal efficiency =
cent is not possible in actual installations.
If the amount of fuel injected is known, the × 100
total heat content of the injected fuel can be deter- Heat input of fuel
mined from the heating value, or Btu per pound,
of the fuel; and the thermal efficiencies for the Converting these factors into the same units
engine can then be calculated. From the (Btu), the expression is written as power output
mechanical equivalent of heat (778 foot-pounds in Btu divided by fuel input in Btu.
equal 1 Btu and 2545 Btu equal 1 hp-hr), the For example, if the engine used in the
number of foot-pounds of work contained in the preceding problem delivers 900 bhp (determined
fuel can be computed. If the amount of fuel by the manufacturer) what is the overall thermal
injected is measured over a period of time, the efficiency of the engine?
rate at which the heat is put into the engine can
be converted into potential power. Then, if the 1 hp-hr = 2545 Btu
ihp developed by the engine is calculated, as
previously explained, the indicated thermal effi- 900 bhp × 2545 Btu per hp-hr =
ciency can be computed by the following
expression: 2,290,500 Btu output per hr

Substituting factors already known, overall

hp × 2545 Btu per hr per hp
ite = × 100 thermal efficiency is computed as follows:
Rate of heat input of fuel in Btu per hr
Overall thermal efficiency =
For example, assume that the same engine
used as an example in computing ihp consumes 2,290,500
= 0.331, or 33.1%
360 pounds (approximately 50 gallons) of fuel per 6,912,000


Compression ratio influences the thermal the preceding examples, then, would be
efficiency of an engine. Theoretically, the ther- 1343 (ihp) – 900 (bhp) = 443 fhp, or 33% of
mal efficiency increases as the compression ratio the ihp developed in the cylinders. Then, using
is increased. The minimum value of a diesel engine the expression for mechanical efficiency, the
compression ratio is determined by the compres- percentage of power available at the shaft is com-
sion required for starting; and this compression puted as follows:
is, to a large extent, dependent on the type of fuel
used. The maximum value of the compression 900
ratio is not limited by the fuel used, but is limited Mechanical efficiency = 1343 = 0.67, or 67%
by the strength of the engine parts and the
allowable engine weight per bhp output.
When an engine is operating under part load,
it has a lower mechanical efficiency than when
Mechanical Efficiency operating at full load. The explanation for this
is that most mechanical losses are almost indepen-
This is the rating that shows how much of the dent of the load, and therefore, when load
power developed by the expansion of the gases decreases, ihp decreases relatively less than bhp.
in the cylinder is actually delivered as useful Mechanical efficiency becomes zero when an
power. The factor which has the greatest effect engine operates at no load because then bhp = 0,
on mechanical efficiency is friction within the but ihp is not zero. In fact, if bhp is zero and the
engine. The friction between moving parts in an expression for fhp is used, ihp is equal to fhp.
engine remains practically constant throughout To show how mechanical efficiency is lower
the engine’s speed range. Therefore, the at part load, assume the engine used in preceding
mechanical efficiency of an engine will be highest examples is operating at three-fourths load. Brake
when the engine is running at the speed at which horsepower at three-fourths load is 900 × 0.75
maximum bhp is developed. Since power output or 675. Assuming that fhp does not change with
is bhp, and the maximum horsepower available load, fhp = 443. The ihp is, by expression, the
is ihp, then sum of bhp and fhp.
bhp ihp = 675 + 443 = 1118
Mechanical efficiency = ihp × 100
Mechanical efficiency = 675/1118 = 0.60, or
During the transmission of ihp through the 60%; this is appreciably lower than the 67%
piston and connecting rod to the crankshaft, the indicated for the engine at full load.
mechanical losses which occur may be due to fric- Bmep is a useful concept when dealing with
tion, or they may be due to power absorbed. Fric- mechanical efficiency. Bmep can be obtained if
tion losses occur because of friction in the various the standard expression for computing
bearings, between piston and piston rings, and horsepower (ihp) is applied to bhp instead of ihp
between piston rings and the cylinder walls. Power and the mean pressure (p) is designated as bmep.
is absorbed by valve and injection mechanisms,
and by various auxiliaries, such as the lubricating
oil and water circulating pumps and the scavenge (bmep) × L × A × N
bhp =
and supercharge blowers. As a result, the power 33,000
delivered to the crankshaft and available for
doing useful work (bhp) is less than indicated or
33,000 × bhp
The mechanical losses which affect the effici- bmep = L × A × N
ency of an engine may be called frictional
horsepower (fhp) or the difference between ihp From the relations between bmep, bhp, ihp,
and bhp. The fhp of the engine used in and mechanical efficiency, by designating


indicated mean effective pressure by imep in the type meter) the amount of air taken in by the
expression, one can also show: engine, converting the amount to volume, and
comparing this volume to the piston displacement.
bmep = imep × mechanical efficiency
Volumetric efficiency =
To illustrate this, the bmep for the engine in
preceding examples at full load and three-fourths Volume of air admitted to cylinder
× 100
load is computed as follows: Volume of air equal to piston displacement

33,000 × bhp 33,000 × 900 The concept of volumetric efficiency does not
12 12 apply to 2-stroke cycle engines. Instead, the term
bmep =
= 10 × 56.14 × 744 “scavenge efficiency” is used. Scavenge efficiency
L × A × N
12 shows how thoroughly the burned gases are
removed and the cylinder filled with fresh air. As
in the case of a 4-stroke cycle engine, it is desirable
= 70 psi
that the air supply be sufficiently cool. Scavenge
or efficiency depends largely upon the arrangement
of the exhaust, scavenge air ports, and valves.
bmep = imep × mechanical efficiency
= 105 × 67, or 70 psi

Bmep gives an indication of the load an engine As the heat content of a fuel is transformed
carries, and what the output is for piston displace- into useful work, during the combustion process,
ment. As the bmep for an engine increases, the many different losses take place. These losses can
engine develops greater horsepower per pound of be divided into two general classifications: ther-
weight. For a given engine, bmep changes in direct modynamic and mechanical. The net useful work
proportion with the load. delivered by an engine is the result obtained by
deducting the total losses from the heat energy
Volumetric Efficiency

The volumetric efficiency of a 4-stroke engine Thermodynamic Losses

is the relationship between the quantity of intake
air and the piston displacement. In other words, Losses of this nature are a result of the follow-
volumetric efficiency is the ratio between the ing: loss to the cooling and lubricating systems;
charge that actually enters the cylinder and the loss to the surrounding air; loss to the exhaust;
amount that could enter under ideal conditions. and loss due to imperfect combustion.
Piston displacement is used since it is difficult to
measure the amount of charge that would enter Heat energy losses from both the cooling water
the cylinder under ideal conditions. An engine systems and the lubricating oil system are always
would have 100% volumetric efficiency if, at at- present. Some heat is conducted through the
mospheric pressure and normal temperature, an engine parts and radiated to the atmosphere or
amount of air exactly equal to piston displacement picked up by the surrounding air by convection.
could be drawn into the cylinder. This is not possi- The effect of these losses varies according to the
ble, except by supercharging, because the passages part of the cycle in which they occur. The heat
through which the air must flow offer a resistance, of the jacket cooling water cannot be taken as a
the force pushing the air into the cylinder is only true measure of heat losses, since all this heat is
atmospheric, and the air absorbs heat during the not absorbed by the water. Some heat is lost to
process. Therefore, volumetric efficiency is deter- the jackets during the compression, combustion,
mined by measuring (with an orifice or venturi and expansion phases of the cycle; some is lost


(to the atmosphere) during the exhaust stroke; and the short interval of time necessary for the cycle
some is absorbed by the walls of the exhaust in modern engines, complete combustion is not
passages. possible; but heat losses can be kept to a minimum
Heat losses to the atmosphere through the if the engine is kept in proper adjustment. It is
exhaust are unavoidable. This is because the often possible to detect incomplete combustion
engine cylinder must be cleared of the hot exhaust by watching for abnormal exhaust temperatures
gases before the next air intake charge can be and changes in the exhaust color, and by being
made. The heat lost to the exhaust is determined alert for unusual noises in the engine.
by the temperature within the cylinder when ex-
haust begins. The amount of fuel injected and the Mechanical Losses
weight of air compressed within the cylinder are
the controlling factors. Improper timing of the There are several kinds of mechanical losses,
exhaust valves, whether too early or too late, will but all are not present in every engine. The
result in increased heat losses. If too early, the mechanical or friction losses of an engine include
valve releases the pressure in the cylinder before bearing friction; piston and piston ring friction;
all the available work is obtained; if too late, the pumping losses caused by operation of water
necessary amount of air for complete combustion pumps, lubricating pumps, and scavenging air
of the next charge cannot be realized, although blowers; power required to operate valves; etc.
a small amount of additional work may be ob- Friction losses cannot be eliminated, but they can
tained. Proper timing and seating of the valves be kept to a minimum by maintaining the engine
is essential in order to maintain heat loss to the in its best mechanical condition. Bearings, pistons,
exhaust at a minimum. and piston rings should be properly installed and
Heat losses due to imperfect or incomplete fitted, shafts must be in alignment, and lubricating
combustion have a serious effect on the power and cooling systems should be at their highest
that can be developed in the cylinder. Because of operating efficiency.



As an EN1 or ENC you have already learned In the following discussion, we will deal with
the principles of refrigeration and air condition- the R-12 system as though it had only one
ing, and the components and accessories that evaporator, one compressor, and one condenser.
make up the system. You have learned how to However, a refrigeration system may (and usually
start, operate, and secure refrigeration plants. In does) include more than one evaporator, and it
addition, you have performed routine may include additional compressor and condenser
maintenance jobs such as trouble shooting, and units.
servicing the system, and used correct procedure’s
for leak detecting, and changing the lubricating
oil in refrigeration compressors. As you advance COMPRESSORS
in rate, you will be expected to have a greater
knowledge of the construction and operating
principles of refrigerating equipment. You will be Many different types and sizes of compressors
required to perform more complicated are used in refrigeration and air conditioning
maintenance jobs, to make repairs as required, systems. They vary from the small hermetic units
and to determine the causes of inefficient plant used in drinking fountains and refrigerators, to
operation and accomplish the necessary correc- the large centrifugal units used for air con-
tive procedures. ditioning.
This chapter provides information that sup-
plements related information in other training One of the most commonly encountered com-
manuals applicable to your rating and related to pressors on today’s modern ships is a high speed,
the qualifications for advancement. Information continuous running unit with a variable capacity.
is included on the construction and maintenance This compressor is of the multicylinder,
of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, reciprocating design, with a positive unloaded
and the detection and correction of operating system built into the compressor to control the
difficulties. compressor’s capacity.
You should refer to the manufacturer’s
technical manual for details of the plant on your SHAFT SEALS
The main parts of an R-12 refrigeration system
are shown in figure 6-1. The primary components Where the crankshaft extends through the
of the system are the thermostatic expansion crankcase, a leakproof seal must be maintained
valve, the evaporator, the compressor, the con- to prevent the refrigerant and oil from escaping
denser, and the receiver. Additional equipment and also to prevent air from entering the
required to complete the plant includes piping, crankcase when the pressure in the crankcase is
pressure gages, thermometers, various types of lower than the surrounding atmospheric pressure.
control switches and control valves, strainers, This is accomplished by crankshaft seal
relief valves, sight-flow indicators, dehydrators, assemblies. There are several types of seals
and charging connections. including the rotary seal, and the diaphragm.


Figure 6-1.

The rotary seal shown in figure 6-2 consists
of a stationary cover plate and gasket, a rotating
assembly which includes a carbon ring, a neoprene
seal, a compression spring, and compression
washers. The sealing points are located (1) be-
tween the crankshaft and the rotating carbon
rings, and sealed by a neoprene ring; (2) between
the rotating carbon ring and the cover plate, and
sealed by lapped surfaces; and (3) between the
cover plate and the crankcase, and sealed by a
metallic gasket. The seal is adjusted by adding or
removing metal washers between the crankshaft
shoulder and the shaft seal compression spring.
A stationary bellows seal is illustrated in figure
6-3. It consists of a bellows clamped to the com-
pressor housing at one end to form a seal against
a rotating shaft seal collar on the other. The seal-
ing points are located (1) between the crankcase
and the bellows, and sealed by the cover plate
gasket; (2) between the crankshaft and the shaft
seal collar, and sealed by a neoprene gasket; and
(3) between the surface of the bellows nose and Figure 6-3.—Stationary bellows seal.
the surface of the seal collar, and sealed by
lapped surfaces. The stationary bellows seal is
factory set for proper tension and should not be shaft seal shoulder on the other end. The sealing
altered. points are located (1) between the crankshaft and
The rotating bellows seals, figure 6-4, consists bellows, and sealed by a shaft seal clamping nut;
of a bellows clamped to the crankshaft at one end (2) between the removable shaft seal shoulder and
to form a seal against a stationary, removable the crankcase and sealed by a neoprene gasket;
and (3) between the bellows nose piece and the
shaft seal collar, and sealed by lapped surfaces.
This type seal is also factory set.

Figure 6-2.—Rotary seal. Figure 6-4.—Rotating bellows seal.


The diaphragm seal, figure 6-5, consists of a

diaphragm clamped to the crankcase at its outer
circumference and to a fulcrum ring at its center.
The fulcrum ring forms a seal collar which is
locked to the diaphragm. The sealing points are
located (1) between the outer circumference of the
diaphragm and the crankcase, and sealed by a
copper ring gasket; (2) between the fulcrum ring
and the diaphragm—sealed at the factory and not
to be broken; (3) between the fulcrum ring and
the rotating shaft seal collar, and sealed by
lapped surfaces; and (4) between the shaft seal
collar and the crankshaft shoulder, also sealed by
lapped surfaces.

The tension in a diaphragm seal is adjusted

by adding or removing diaphragm-to-crankcase
gaskets to obtain the specified deflection. For
information on handling, cleaning, and replace-
Figure 6-5.—Diaphragm type seal. ment of shaft seal assemblies, consult the

Figure 6-6.—Unloader mechanism in unloaded position.


manufacturer’s technical manual or the directions Unloader Mechanism

enclosed with every new seal.
CAPACITY CONTROL When the compressor is not in operation, the
unloader power element mechanism, which is
Controlling the capacity of the compressor is operated by oil pressure from the capacity con-
accomplished by unloading and loading the trol valve, is in the unloaded position (figure 6-6).
cylinders. This is a very desirable design feature The unloader spring pushes against the unloader
of the unit, because if the compressor is to be piston. This action moves the unloader rod to the
started under a load (all cylinders are working), left, thereby rotating the cam rings. As the cam
there is a much greater amount of torque required rings are rotated, the lifting pins are forced up-
and it is necessary to have a much larger drive ward, raising the suction valve off its seat. The
motor. Also, if the compressor is running at a con- suction valve is held in this position until the com-
stant capacity or output, it will reach the low pressor is started and oil pressure of approxi-
temperature or pressure limits and will be con- mately 30 psi is reached. At this time, the oil
stantly starting and stopping, thereby putting ex- pressure from the capacity control valve pushes
cessive work on the unit. the unloader piston back to the right against the
Unloading of the cylinders in the compressor unloader spring. The motion transmitted through
is accomplished by lifting the suction valves off the push rod rotates the cam ring, thus lowering
their seats and holding them open. This method the lifting pins and allowing the suction valve to
of capacity control unloads the cylinders com- close or operate normally and the cylinder to
pletely and allows the compressor to work at as become loaded (figure 6-7). On most compressors
little as 25% of its rated capacity. unloaders are connected to the cylinders in pairs.

Figure 6-7.—Unloader mechanism in loaded position.


Capacity Control Valve for repairs, it is necessary first to close the suc-
tion and discharge valves and then following all
The capacity control valve (figure 6-8) is safety precautions, to allow all the refrigerant in
located in the compressor crankcase cover. The the compressor to vent to the atmosphere through
valve is actuated by oil pressure from the main a drain plug.
oil pump, and its function is to admit or relieve When it becomes necessary to remove, replace,
oil to or from the individual unloader power or repair any internal parts of the compressor,
elements, depending on suction or crankcase observe the following precautions:
pressure. When the compressor is at rest the two
cylinders equipped with the unloader element are 1. Carefully disassemble and inspect while
unloaded and remain unloaded until the com- removing all parts, noting their correct relative
pressor is started and the oil pressure reaches nor- position so that errors will not be made when
mal operating pressure. reassembling.
As the high pressure oil from the pump enters 2. Inspect all parts that become accessible
chamber A of the capacity control valve and after the removal of those parts requiring repair
passes through an orifice in the top of the piston or replacement.
to chamber B, it forces the piston to the end of 3. Make certain that all parts and surfaces are
its stroke against spring A. When the piston of free of dirt and moisture.
the valve is forced against spring A, the circular 4. Apply clean compressor oil freely to all
grooves which form chamber A are put in con- bearing and rubbing surfaces of the parts being
tact with the unloader connections. This admits replaced or reinstalled.
high pressure oil to the unloader cylinder, 5. If the compressor is not equipped with an
actuating the unloader mechanism. oil pump, make certain that the oil dipper on the
To control the oil pressure from the capacity lower connecting rod is in the correct position for
control valve, a capacity control regulating dipping oil when the unit is in operation.
needle valve is installed. It is connected to the 6. Position the ends of the piston rings so that
crankcase and has an oil connecting line to alternate joints come on the opposite side of the
chamber B of the capacity control valve. As the piston.
crankcase, or suction pressure pulls down 7. Take care not to score the gasket surfaces.
slightly below the setting of the regulating valve, 8. Renew all gaskets.
the regulator needle valve opens and relieves the 9. Clean the crankcase and renew the oil
oil pressure from chamber B of the capacity con- following correct procedures.
trol valve. This permits spring A to push the
capacity control piston one step toward chamber EVACUATING THE COMPRESSOR
B, uncovering the unloader connection nearest the
end of the capacity control valve. This action In all but emergency situations it is desirable
relieves the oil pressure from the power element to evacuate the compressor with a vacuum pump
and allows the power element spring to rotate the rather than with the compressor itself. However,
cam rings and unload the cylinder. if you do not have a vacuum pump available, use
If the suction pressure continues to drop, the the following procedure:
regulator needle valve relieves more oil pressure
and more cylinders become unloaded. On the 1. Disconnect the connection in the com-
other hand, if the heat load increases, the suction pressor discharge gage line, between the discharge
pressure increases, causing the regulating needle line stop valve and the compressor.
valve to close and more cylinders to become 2. Start the compressor and let it run until the
loaded. greatest possible vacuum is obtained.
3. Stop the compressor and immediately open
MAINTENANCE PRECAUTIONS the suction stop valve slightly in order to blow
refrigerant through the compressor valves and
If a compressor cannot be pumped down and purge the air above the discharge valves through
is damaged to the extent that it has to be opened the open gage line.


Figure 6-8.—Capacity control system.


4. Close the discharge gage line and open the air or noncondensable gases accumulated in the
discharge line stop valve. condenser are lighter than the refrigerant gas and
5. Remove all oil from the exterior of the rise to the top of the condenser when the plant
compressor, and test the compressor joints for is shut down. A purge valve, for purging the
leakage, using the halide leak detector. refrigeration system (when necessary), is installed
either at the top of the condenser, or at a high
CLEANING SUCTION STRAINERS point in the compressor discharge line.

When putting a new unit into operation, the

suction strainers should be cleaned after a few CLEANING CONDENSER TUBES
hours of operation. Refrigerants have a solvent
action and will loosen any foreign matter in the In order to clean the condenser tubes
system. This foreign matter will eventually reach properly, it is necessary first to drain the cooling
the suction strainers and after a few days of opera- water from the condenser and then disconnect the
tion, the strainers will need cleaning. Strainers water connections and remove the condenser
should be inspected frequently during the first few heads. When you remove the condenser heads,
weeks of plant operation, and then cleaned as be careful not to damage the gaskets between the
found necessary. tube sheet and the water side of the condenser
The suction strainers are located either in the heads. Tubes should be inspected as often as prac-
compressor housing or in the suction piping. The ticable and be cleaned when necessary, by using
procedure for cleaning a strainer is as follows: any approved method. Use rubber plugs and an
air or water lance when it is necessary to remove
1. Pump down the compressor. foreign deposits. Although it is essential that the
2. Slowly bleed pressure from unit. tube surfaces be kept clear of particles of foreign
3. Remove the strainer and inspect it for matter, care must be taken not to destroy the thin
foreign matter. protective coating on the inner surfaces of the
4. Clean the strainer screen by dipping it in tubes. When the tubes become badly corroded,
an approved solvent and then allow it to they should be replaced in order to avoid the
dry. possibility of losing the R-12 charge and admit-
5. Replace the strainer and evacuate the air ting salt water into the R-12 system.
from the compressor.
6. Test the housing for leaks by wiping up all
oil and then using a halide leak detector. CLEANING AIR-COOLED

CONDENSERS Although the large plants are equipped with

water-cooled condensers, the auxiliary units are
The compressor discharge line terminates at commonly provided with air-cooled condensers.
the refrigerant condenser. In shipboard R-12 The use of air-cooled condensers eliminates the
installations, these condensers are usually of the necessity for circulating water pumps and piping.
multipass shell-and-tube type, with water cir-
culating through the tubes. The tubes are ex- The exterior surface of the tubes and fins on
panded into grooved holes in the tube sheet so a condenser should be kept free of dirt and any
as to make an absolutely tight joint between the matter that might obstruct heat flow and air cir-
shell and the circulating water. Refrigerant vapor culation. Brush the finned surface clean with a
is admitted to the shell, and condenses on the stiff bristle brush as often as necessary. Use low
outer surfaces of the tubes. pressure air to remove dirt in hard to reach places
Any air or noncondensable gases which may on the condenser. When installations are exposed
accidentally enter the refrigeration system is to salt spray and rain through open doors or
drawn through the piping and eventually dis- hatches, take care to minimize corrosion of the
charged into the condenser with the R-12 gas. The exterior surfaces.



To prevent serious loss of refrigerant through
leaky condenser tubes, test the condenser for An overall check for water-cooled condenser
leakage every week. Any condenser that has not performance may be used after, AND ONLY
been in use for the preceding 12 hours should also AFTER, the condenser has been properly
be tested. purged. After the condition of the condensing sur-
To test for leaky condenser tubes, drain the face has been determined, prepare the system as
water side of the condenser and let stand for 12 outlined in the procedure used to check for non-
hours, then insert the exploring tube of the leak condensable gases discussed earlier in the chapter.
detector through one of the drain plug openings. Then proceed as follows:
If this test indicates that R-12 gas is present, you
need to detect the exact location of the leak in the 1. While the compressor is in operation,
following manner: record the condensing temperature which cor-
responds to the pressure in the condenser.
1. Remove the condenser heads. 2. Record the temperature of the water leav-
2. Clean and dry the tube sheets and the ends ing the condenser.
of the tubes. 3. Subtract the temperature of the water leav-
3. Start at the top and work your way down ing the condenser from the condensing
the tube sheet. temperature. (The temperature of the water leav-
4. Check both ends of each tube with a leak ing the condenser should be several degrees below
detector. the condensing temperature of pure R-12.)
4. If the difference between the temperature
Mark the tubes which show an indication of of the water leaving the condenser and the con-
leakage. If you cannot determine if the tube is densing temperature is 5° to 10°F above the
leaking internally or around the tube sheet joint, temperature difference obtained when the con-
plug the suspected tube with a cork or a similar denser was in good condition and operating under
device and again check around the tube sheet similar heat loads, and if this difference is not
joint. Mark adjacent tubes, if necessary, to isolate caused by an overcharge of refrigerant or non-
the suspected area. condensable gases, clean the water side of the
5. To locate or isolate very small leaks in the
condenser tubes, hold the exploring tube at one THERMOSTATIC EXPANSION
end of the condenser tube for about 10 seconds VALVES
to draw fresh air through the tube. Then drive
a cork in each end of the tube. Repeat this pro- When the thermostatic expansion valve is
cedure with all the tubes in the condenser. Allow operating properly, the temperature at the outlet
the condenser tubes to remain plugged for 4 to side of the valve is much lower than that at the
6 hours; then, remove the plugs one at a time and inlet side. If there is no such temperature dif-
check each tube for leakage. If a leaky tube is ference when the system is in operation, the valve
detected, replace the plug immediately to reduce seat is probably dirty and clogged with foreign
the amount of refrigerant escaping. Make matter.
appropriate repairs, or mark all leaky tubes for Once a valve is properly adjusted, further
later repairs. adjustment should not be necessary. Any major
trouble can usually be traced to moisture or dirt
RETUBING CONDENSERS collecting at the valve seat and at the orifice.
The general procedure for retubing condensers TESTING AND ADJUSTMENT
is outlined in Naval Ships’ Technical Manual
chapter 516. The procedures are given in the Thermostatic expansion valves used in most
applicable manufacturer’s technical manual when shipboard systems can be adjusted by means of
a condenser of a specific type is being retubed. a gear and screw arrangement, (superheat to


adjustment), maintain a superheat ranging is used to supply gas under pressure. The gas
approximately from 4° to 12 °F at the cooling coil used does not have to be the same as that
outlet. The proper superheat adjustment varies, employed in the thermal element of the valve be-
of course, with the design and the service ing tested.
operating conditions of the valve, and the design 2. A high pressure and a low pressure gage.
of a particular plant. Increased spring pressure The low pressure gage should be accurate and in
increases the degree of superheat at the coil outlet; good condition so that the pointer does not have
decreased pressure on the other hand, has the any appreciable lost motion. The high pressure
opposite effect. Many thermostatic expansion gage, while not absolutely necessary, is useful in
valves are initially adjusted by the manufacturer showing the pressure on the inlet side of the valve.
to maintain a predetermined degree of superheat, Normally, refrigeration plants are provided with
and no provisions are made for further ad- suitable replacement and test pressure gages.
justments in service.
When the expansion valves are adjusted to give The procedure for testing is as follows:
a high degree of superheat at the coil outlet, or
when a valve is stuck shut, the amount of 1. Connect the valve inlet to the gas supply
refrigerant admitted to the cooling coil is reduced. with the high pressure gage attached to indicate
With an insufficient amount of refrigerant, the the gas pressure to the valve, and the low pressure
coil is “starved” and operates at a reduced capac- gage loosely connected to the expansion valve
ity. Compressor lubricating oil carried with the outlet. The low pressure gage must be connected
refrigerant tends to collect at the bottom of the up loosely so as to provide a small amount of
cooling coils, thus robbing the compressor leakage through the connection.
crankcase, and providing a condition whereby 2. Insert the expansion valve thermal element
slugs of lubricating oil are drawn back to the com- in a bath of crushed ice. Do not perform this test
pressor. If an expansion valve is adjusted for too with a container full of water in which only a small
low a degree of superheat, or if the valve is stuck amount of crushed ice is floating.
open, the liquid refrigerant may flood from the 3. Open the valve on the service drum or in
cooling coils back to the compressor. Should the the air supply line. Make certain that the gas
liquid refrigerant collect at a low point in the suc- supply is sufficient to build up the pressure to at
tion line or coil, and be drawn back to the com- least 70 psi on the high pressure gage.
pressor intermittently in slugs, there will be danger 4. Adjust the expansion valve, if it is desired
of injury to the moving parts of the compressor. to adjust for 10°F superheat, the pressure on the
outlet gage should be 22.5 psig. This pressure is
In general, the expansion valves for air con- equivalent to the pressure of an R-12 evaporating
ditioning and water cooling plants (high temperature of 22°F. Since the ice maintains the
temperature installations) are adjusted for higher bulb at 32°F, the valve adjustment is for 10°F
superheat than the expansion valves for cold superheat (difference between 32 and 22). For a
storage refrigeration and ship’s service store 5 °F superheat adjustment, the valve should be
equipment (low temperature installations). adjusted to give a pressure of approximately
If it is impossible to adjust expansion valves 26.1 psig. Allow for a small amount of leakage
to the desired settings, or if it is suspected that through the low pressure gage connection while
the expansion valve assembly is defective and re- this adjustment is being made.
quires replacement, make appropriate tests. (First 5. To determine if the valve operates
make sure that the liquid strainers are clean, that smoothly, tap the valve body lightly with a small
the solenoid valves are operative, and that the weight. The low pressure gage needle should not
system is sufficiently charged with refrigerant.) jump more than 1 psi.
The major equipment required for expansion 6. Tighten the low pressure gage connection
valve tests is as follows: and stop the leakage at the joints. Determine if
the expansion valve seats tightly. If the valve is
1. A service drum of R-12, or a supply of in good condition, the pressure will increase a few
clean dry air at 70 to 100 psig. The service drum pounds and then either stop or build up very


slowly. If the valve is leaking, the pressure will present in various combinations in the compound.
build up rapidly until it equals the inlet pressure. You may be more familiar with their brand or
7. Again loosen the gage to permit leakage at trademark names such as: Freon(s), Gentron,
the gage connections. Remove the thermal ele- Genesolv D, Frigen, AFFF, or carbon
ment, or control bulb, from the crushed ice and tetrachloride. As Enginemen, we work with these
warm it with the hand or place it in water that refrigerants, solvents, and fire extinguishing com-
is at room temperature. The pressure should pounds regularly aboard ship. The extended and
increase rapidly, showing that the power element routine usage of halocarbons in the military and
has not lost its charge. If there is no increase in civilian environments (e.g., home/car air condi-
pressure, the power element is dead. tioners) has led us to a false sense of security which
8. With high pressure showing on both gages makes us forget the inherent poisonous nature of
as outlined above, the valve can be tested to deter- halocarbons, particularly when used in high con-
mine whether the body joints or the bellows leak. centrations in enclosed or confined spaces.
This can be done by using a halide leak detector. Warnings, hazards, and cautions in technical
When performing this test, it is important that and training publications are usually benign. The
the body of the valve have a fairly high pressure labeling of containers and storage areas are con-
applied to it. In addition, the gages and other fit- sistently inadequate. The procedures for the
tings should be made up tightly at the joints so disposal of halocarbon waste are not well known
as to eliminate leakage at these points. nor are they followed. Most people do not know
the physiological effects of high concentrations
REPLACEMENT OF A VALVE of halocarbons on humans or the recommended
first aid by both medical and non-medical
When an expansion valve is defective, it must personnel.
be replaced. Some valves used on naval ships have
replaceable assemblies and it is possible to replace All Enginemen who handle or use halocarbons
a faulty power element or other part of the valve must be aware of the hazardous properties of
without having to replace the entire assembly. halocarbons. The greatest hazards have been
When replacement of an expansion valve is associated with Freon 113 refrigerant and
necessary, replace the unit with a valve of the same Genetron 113 (a fluorocarbon compound), with
capacity and type. the chemical name of TRICHLOROTRI-
FLUOROETHANE, which is used in large quan-
ADDITIONAL SYSTEM tities for cleaning refrigeration, hydraulic, air and
MAINTENANCE oxygen systems, and as a solvent for removing oil
and grease from machinery. Trichlorotri-
In addition to the maintenance of the com- fluoroethane is a heavy, colorless liquid at room
ponents described above, there are other parts of temperature, and has an odor similar to dryclean-
the system that will need periodic maintenance to ing fluid. Because of its low boiling-point it
keep the plant operating properly. evaporates rapidly at room temperature. Its vapor
Vibration may cause leakage in the piping is several times heavier than air and tends to col-
system, allowing air and moisture to be drawn in lect in low places.
or there may be a loss of the refrigerant charge. Trichlorotrifluoroethane should always be
If this happens, the plant will operate erratically treated as a toxic solvent. Exposure to it can cause
and inefficiently until the cause of trouble is headache, rapid heartbeat, light-headedness, and
corrected. tingling of fingers or toes. Any of these symptoms
is a warning to leave the area immediately. In
HALOCARBON SAFETY higher concentrations the solvent has an anesthetic
effect (causing uncoordination and stumbling); it
Halocarbons are organic chemical compounds can effect the heartbeat (causing irregular beats
containing one or more atoms of carbon and or even stoppage) and can cause tremors, convul-
hydrogen plus one or more atoms of fluorine, sions, and DEATH. Refrigerant gases such as
bromine, chlorine, or iodine which may be Freon 12 and 22 have properties similar to the


ones described above except that they are practic- 7. A medical department representative, who
ally odorless and can cause freeze burns. is trained and knowledgeable in the physiological
effects, prescribed first aid and emergency treat-
During all primary maintenance or industrial ment methods for halocarbon mishaps, should be
uses of halocarbons such as flushing or recharg- alerted to the maintenance action being performed
ing refrigeration or air conditioning systems, the and standing by for quick response.
following “good engineering” precautions are 8. An emergency eyewash/shower system in
mandatory: the immediate vicinity of all halocarbon opera-
tions should its use be required. Where a perma-
1. Strict compliance with NSTM gas-free nent system is not available, a portable system of
Engineering directions for entry into enclosed or 5-10 gallon capacity should suffice. Only potable
confined spaces, and close adherence to standard water should be utilized for this purpose.
operating procedures for all halocarbon 9. Ship’s emergency rescue teams (e.g.,
maintenance actions. “Flying Squads” and repair parties) familiar with
2. Tested and operational ventilation systems. the hazards of halocarbons and trained in air-
Availability of portable equipment to provide in- supplied respirator requirements when involved
take from—and exhaust to the atmosphere (not in halocarbon rescue operations.
recirculation) sufficient to maintain halocarbon 10. The performance of hot work is pro-
concentration at acceptable limits throughout the hibited from halocarbon work areas, due to the
whole maintenance action. (Example: The limit potential decomposition of halocarbons into more
for continuous exposure to the vapors of Freon toxic chemicals.
113 is 1000 parts of solvent per million parts of
air. This limit will be reached by evaporation of As stated earlier, in high concentrations,
approximately 100 milliliters (less than 1/2 cup) halocarbons are toxic chemicals. Any handling or
of solvent in a 10 × 10 × 10 ft. space). Local usage of these chemicals requires the following
exhaust ventilation capable of maintaining a minimum personal protective measures:
minimum capture velocity of 100 fpm over the
face of the container or operation is normally 1. Full-length face shield or chemical workers
required in order to maintain the vapor within ac- goggles
ceptable limits. Note: Absolutely NO venting of 2. Apron or coveralls (both may be required)
halocarbons below decks shall be permitted. 3. Elbow length gloves
3. Positive pressure emergency breathing 4. Boots or booties
devices with supplied air available in the space for 5. Clothing and equipment must be im-
instant donning and egress in the event of a pervious and resistant to halocarbons.
halocarbon mishap.
Note: Non-impervious clothing which
4. Established two-way communications be- becomes wet with halocarbons must be
tween the halocarbon pump at the bulk source and immediately removed and not reworn until all
the equipment being filled, cleaned, or flushed. traces of the chemical are removed by cleaning.
A backup sound powered system is recommended.
5. Verification of filling and flushing system CHARGING THE SYSTEM
integrity by leak testing (e.g., a pressure drop test)
before halocarbon operations commence. Information concerning the charging of
6. A minimum of two people should be sta- refrigeration systems may be found in Naval
tioned in the space, with a safety observer (tender) Ships’ Technical Manual chapter 516. The amount
in the vicinity of the egress route if available. of refrigerant charge must be sufficient to main-
Rescue equipment (as necessary) to quickly tain a liquid seal between the condensing and the
remove personnel from the space in the event of evaporating sides of the system. When the com-
an emergency. (Rescue personnel should also be pressor stops, under normal operating conditions,
equipped with protective clothing and positive the receiver of a properly charged system is about
pressure respiratory protection.) 85% full of refrigerant. The proper charge for a


specific system or unit can be found in the and screen in the strainer body. Replace the
manufacturer’s technical manual or on the ship’s strainer cap loosely. Purge the air out of the
blueprints. strainer, by blowing refrigerant through it, then
A refrigeration system should not be charged tighten the cap. After assembly is complete, test
if there are leaks or if there is reason to believe the unit for leaks.
that there is a leak in the system. The leaks must
be found and corrected. A system should be CLEANING OIL FILTERS
checked for leaks immediately following—or AND STRAINERS
during—the process of charging.
A refrigeration system must have an adequate Compressors arranged for forced feed lubrica-
charge of refrigerant at all times; otherwise its tion are provided with lubricating oil strainers in
efficiency and capacity will be impaired. the suction line of the lube oil pump and an oil
filter installed in the pump discharge line. A
PURGING THE SYSTEM gradual decrease in lubricating oil pressure in-
dicates that the units need cleaning. Cleaning is
To determine if there are noncondensable accomplished in much the same manner as
gases in the system, close the liquid line stop described for cleaning suction strainers.
valve. By-pass all evaporator pressure regulator When cleaning is necessary, the lubricating oil
valves and allow the system to pump down one in the crankcase should be drained from the com-
or more times. Stop the compressor. By-pass the pressor and a new charge of oil, equal to the
water regulating valve and circulate cooling water amount drained, should be added before re-
through the condenser. When discharge pressure starting the unit. When the compressor is put back
stops dropping, convert the pressure to into operation, the lube oil pressure must be
temperature and from this subtract the adjusted to the proper setting by adjustment of
temperature of the injection or overboard. (They the oil pressure regulator.
both should be equalized.) A variation of over 5 °F
will indicate that air and noncondensable gases MAINTAINING COOLING COILS
are present in the system. Crack open the purge
valve for 2-3 seconds at 2 to 3 minute intervals Cooling coils should be inspected regularly and
until the temperature is within 5 °F. cleaned as required. The cooling coils should be
defrosted as often as necessary to maintain the
CLEANING LIQUID effectiveness of the cooling surface. Excessive
LINE STRAINERS build up of frost on the cooling coils will result
in reduced capacity of the plant, low compressor
Where a liquid line strainer is installed, it suction pressure, and a tendency for the com-
should be cleaned at the same intervals as the suc- pressor to short-cycle. The maximum time inter-
tion strainer. If a liquid line strainer becomes val between defrosting depends on such factors
clogged to the extent that it needs cleaning, a loss as refrigerant evaporating temperature, condition
of refrigeration effect will take place. The of door gaskets, moisture content of supplies
tubing on the outlet side of the strainer will be placed in boxes, how frequently the doors are
much colder than the tubing on the inlet side. opened and atmospheric humidity.
To clean the liquid line strainer, secure the Cooling coils should be defrosted before the
receiver outlet valve and wait a few minutes to frost thickness reaches three-sixteenths of an inch.
allow any liquid in the strainer to flow to the cool- When defrosting, do not scrape or break off the
ing coils. Close the strainer outlet valve and very frost, as this may cause damage to the coils.
carefully loosen the cap which is bolted to the
strainer body. (Use all appropriate safety gear.) EVACUATING AND DEHYDRATING
When all of the pressure is bled out of the strainer, THE SYSTEM
remove the cap and lift out the strainer screen.
Clean the strainer screen with a small brush, The major cause of system failures is moisture
using an approved solvent. Reassemble the spring (H2O) which is brought in through air leaks.


When H2O combines with R- 12 it forms sulfric evacuation process. If possible, the dehydrated
acid which will attack the entire system. Good air should be heated to about 240°F.
engineering practice dictates that evacuation, Large dehydrators, suitable for preliminary
dehydration and fixing all air leaks will in the long dehydration of refrigeration systems, are usually
term prevent an acid attack upon the system. available at naval shipyards and aboard tenders
and repair ships.
Where moisture accumulation must be cor- After the preliminary dehydration, the remain-
rected, the system should first be cleared of ing moisture is evacuated by means of a two-stage
refrigerant and air. The time required for these high-efficiency vacuum pump. (These vacuum
processes will depend upon the size of the system pumps are available aboard tenders and repair
and the amount of moisture present. It is good ships.)
engineering practice to circulate heated air A vacuum indicator (figure 6-9) is attached to
through a large dehydrator for several hours, the two-stage high efficiency pump. It consists of
or as long as the dehydrator drying agent an insulated test tube containing a wet bulb ther-
remains effective, before proceeding with the mometer with its wick immersed in distilled water.
This indicator is connected to the vacuum pump
suction line, which in turn, is connected to the
refrigeration system. The refrigerant circuit should
be closed to the atmosphere and the charging con-
nection should be opened to the vacuum pump.
Two-stage pumps are started for operation in
PARALLEL so that maximum displacement may
be obtained during the initial pump-down stages.
When the indicator shows a temperature of about
55 °F (0.43 inch Hg, absolute), the pumps are
placed in SERIES operation (wherein the
discharge from the first step enters the suction of
the second step pump). The dehydration process
will be reflected in the temperature drop of the
vacuum indicator (as shown in figure 6-10).
Readings will initially reflect ambient
temperatures. Then they will show rapidly

Figure 6-10.—Vacuum indicator readings plotted during

Figure 6-9.—Dehydrator vacuum indicator. dehydration.


falling temperatures until the water in the system as activated alumina and silica gel. However,
starts to boil. when special drying agents are employed they
When most of the evaporated moisture has should be reactivated in accordance with the
been evacuated from the system, the indicator will specific instructions furnished by the
show a decrease in temperature. As soon as the manufacturer.
temperature reaches 35 °F (0.2 inch Hg, absolute),
admit dry air through a chemical dehydrator After reactivation, the drying agent should be
into the system at a point farthest from the pump. placed back in the dehydrator shell and sealed as
As the pump continues operating, the dry air will quickly as possible, in order to prevent absorp-
mix with and dilute any remaining moisture. tion of atmospheric moisture. When the drying
Secure the opening which feeds the dry air to the agent becomes fouled or saturated with lubricating
system. The system must continue evacuating until oil, it must be replaced with a fresh charge, or
the indicator again shows a temperature of 35 °F. with a dehydrator cartridge, taken from a sealed
At this time, the dehydration process is complete. container.
Close the valves and disconnect the vacuum
pump. Remember that the dehydrators that are
Sometimes it is impossible to obtain a permanently installed in refrigeration systems of
temperature as low as 35 °F in the vacuum naval ships are designed to remove only the
indicator. The probable reasons for this and the minute quantities of moisture unavoidably
corrective procedures to take, are as follows: introduced in the system. Extreme care must be
taken to prevent moisture, or moisture-laden air,
1. Excess moisture is present in the system. from entering the system.
Because of the acid being formed, the dehydra-
tion procedure should be conducted for longer
2. Absorbed refrigerant is present in the
lubricating oil contained in the compressor Systems may accumulate dirt and scale as a
crankcase. Remove the lubricating oil from the result of improper procedures used during repair
crankcase before proceeding with the dehydration or installation of the system. If such dirt is
process. excessive and a tank-type cleaner is available, con-
3. Air is leaking into the system. The leak nect the cleaner to the compressor suction strainer.
must be found and stopped. It will be necessary Where such a cleaner is not available, insert a hard
to repeat the procedure required for detecting wool felt filter, about 5/16 inch thick, in the suc-
leaks in the system. tion strainer screen. The plant should then be
4. Inefficient vacuum pump or defective operated with an operator in attendance, for at
vacuum indicator. The defective unit(s) should be least 36 hours or until cleaned, depending upon
repaired or replaced. the size and the condition of the plant.

Immediately after each period of use, or after

the system has been opened for repairs, the dry- AIR CONDITIONING CONTROL
ing agent in the dehydrator should be replaced.
If a replacement cartridge is not available, the dry-
ing agent can be reactivated and used until a Most of the information presented to this
replacement is available. point applies to the refrigeration side of a system,
Reactivation is accomplished by removing the whether it is used for a refrigeration plant or for
drying agent and heating it, for 12 hours, at a air conditioning. The compressor controls for
temperature of 300°F to bake out the moisture. both type systems are nearly identical, however,
The drying agent may be placed in an oven, or the devices used to control space temperatures dif-
a stream of hot air may be circulated through the fer. A two-position control, sometimes called the
cartridge. These methods are satisfactory for reac- on/off control, is used for the automatic control
tivating commonly used dehydrating agents such of most shipboard air conditioning systems.


TWO-POSITION CONTROL and working spaces more comfortable and to the

rapid development of various types of weapons
This control may be used on three types of systems. Such spaces often use a common cool-
systems: ing coil serving several different spaces. Assume
that three spaces are being cooled by a common
1. Systems employing a simple thermostatic- coil. Since the load changes seldom occur
ally controlled single-pole switch to control flow simultaneously, electric or steam reheaters are
of refrigerant to the cooling coil. installed in the cooling air ducts and the cooling
2. Systems using reheaters, employing a ther- thermostats of the various spaces are connected
mostatic element actuating two interlocked in parallel so that any one may open the cooling
switches. coil valve.
3. Systems using reheaters in the same man-
ner as in item 2 with control of humidity added, Suppose space “B” (figure 6-11) has a load
where specified. change and spaces “A” and “C” do not. These
spaces would become too cold for comfort with
The type 1 system above is the most commonly the coil operating to take care of space "B". In
used and requires little explanation. A thermostat, order to prevent this condition, the thermostat
consisting of a temperature sending element, would close the heating switch and energize the
actuating a single-pole, single-throw switch, opens reheaters for spaces A and C.
and closes a magnetic valve to start and stop the The type 3 system is identical to the type 2
flow of refrigerant—chilled water or commercial system, except that a humidistat is wired in
refrigerant. This type of control is similar to ther- parallel with the thermostatic heating switch. This
mostatic control for the refrigeration plant. type system is used mostly in weapons and elec-
Although the type 1 system requires single-pole tronic spaces. The humidistat is set for the relative
thermostats, the 2PD used in type 2 and type 3 humidity condition desired. In most installations,
systems can be used. The cooling switch would it is only necessary to prevent the humidity from
then be connected in the normal manner with the exceeding 55%. Where the humidistat is installed,
heating switch inoperative. an increase in temperature beyond the thermostat
The use of the type 2 system has greatly in- setting will close the thermostat cooling switch and
creased, due to the present effort to make living an increase in relative humidity beyond the

Figure 6-11.—Typical air conditioning system.


humidistat setting will close the heating switch, Setpoints of the thermostats and humidistats
energizing the reheaters. should be checked with a calibrated thermometer
and a reliable humidity indicator.
When servicing the two-position control
Proper attention to maintenance checks will system there are three possible areas where trou-
often allow you to detect developing troubles in ble may occur:
time to take corrective action. Since most
breakdowns often occur at the most inopportune 1. The sensing element and its associated
time, periodic checks and maintenance will mechanism.
prove to be well worthwhile to avoid 2. The magnetic valves that control the flow
malfunctions. or refrigerant.
The two-position control system can easily be 3. The wiring system which connects the sen-
checked out in a reasonably short time. The sing elements to the solenoids of the magnetic
checkout period should be at least every three valves and the controller of the electric heaters.
months or more often if it proves to be necessary.
Inspection and checks should be conducted at the
beginning of the cooling season and about mid- DETECTING AND
way. The same should be done for the heating CORRECTING TROUBLES
Sensing elements should be inspected and any Faulty operation of the refrigerating and air
dust accumulations removed. Thermostatic conditioning plants is indicated by various definite
sensing elements should have dust and dirt re- symptoms. Information in figures 6-12 and 6-13
moved with a soft brush, and the sensing elements indicates some possible troubles that may be en-
in humidistats should be blown off gently with countered, the possible causes of these troubles,
air so as not to damage the elements. and the corrective action which may be taken. But
Magnetic valves should be checked for opera- remember always consult the manufacturer’s
tion. Be sure that the valves are opening and clos- technical manual before attempting any repair or
ing completely. adjustment on your equipment.


Trouble Possible Cause Corrective Measure

High condensing pressure. Air or non-condensable gas Purge air from condenser.
in system.
Inlet water warm. Increase quantity of con-
densing water.
Insufficient water flowing Increase quantity of water.
through condenser.
Condenser tubes clogged or Clean condenser water tubes.
Too much liquid in receiver, Draw off liquid into service
condenser tubes submerged cylinder.
in liquid refrigerant.

Low condensing pressure. Too much water flowing Reduce quantity of water.
through condenser.
Water too cold. Reduce quantity of water.
Liquid refrigerant flooding Change expansion valve
back from evaporator. adjustment, examine
fastening of thermal bulb.
Leaky discharge valve. Remove head, examine valves.
Replace any found defective.

High suction pressure. Overfeeding of expansion Regulate expansion valve,

valve. check bulb attachment.
Leaky suction valve. Remove head, examine valve
and replace if worn.

Low suction pressure. Restricted liquid line and Pump down, remove, examine
expansion valve or suction and clean screens.
Insufficient refrigerant in Check refrigerant charge
Too much oil circulating Check for too much oil in
in system. circulation. Remove oil.
Improper adjustment of Adjust valve to give more
expansion valves. flow.
Expansion valve power Replace expansion valve
element dead or weak. power element.

Figure 6-12.—Trouble diagnosis chart.


Trouble Possible Cause Corrective Measure

Compressor short cycles on Low refrigerant charge. Locate and repair leaks.
low pressure control. Charge refrigerant.
Thermal expansion valve not Adjust, repair or replace
feeding properly. thermal expansion valve.

(a) Dirty strainers. (a) Clean strainers.

(b) Moisture frozen in orifice (b) Remove moirture or dirt
or orifice plugged with (Use system dehydrator).
(c) Power element dead or (c) Replace power element.
Water flow through Remove restriction. Check
evaporators restricted or water flow. Clean coils
stopped. Evaporator coils or tubes.
plugged, dirty, or clogged
with frost.
Defective low pressure Repair or replace low pres-
control switch. sure control switch.

Compressor runs continuously. Shortage of refrigerant. Repair leak and recharge

Leaking discharge valves. Replace discharge valves.

Compressor short cycles on Insufficient water flowing Determine if water has been
high pressure control switch. through condenser, clogged turned off. Check for scaled
condenser. or fouled condenser.
Defective high pressure Repair or replace high
control switch. pressure control switch.

Compressor will not run. Seized compressor. Repair or replace compressor.

Cut-in point of low pressure Set L. P. control switch to
control switch too high. cut-in at correct pressure.
High pressure control switch Check discharge pressure
does not cut-in. and reset H. P. control
1. Defective switch. 1. Repair or replace switch.
2. Electric power cut off. 2. Check power supply.
2. Service or disconnect 3. Close switches.
switch open.

Figure 6-12.—Trouble diagnosis chart—Continued.


Trouble Possible Cause Corrective Measure

Compressor will not run. 4. Fuses blown. 4. Test fuses and renew
(Cont‘d) if necessary.
5. Over-load relays tripped. 5. Re-set relays and find
cause of overload.
6. Low voltage. 6. Check voltage (should
be within 10 percent of
nameplate rating).
7. Electrical motor in trouble. 7. Repair or replace motor.
8. Trouble in starting switch 8. Close switch manually to
or control circuit. test power supply. If
OK check control circuit
including temperature and
pressure controls.
9. Compressor motor stopped 9. Check oil level in crank-
by oil pressure differ- case. Check oil pump
ential switch. pressure.

Sudden loss of oil from Liquid refrigerant slugging Adjust or replace expansion
crankcase. back to compressor crank valve.

Capacity reduction system Hand operating stem of Set hand operating stem to
fails to unload cylinders. capacity control valve not automatic position.
turned to automatic position.

Compressor continues to Pressure regulating valve Adjust or repair pressure

operate at full or partial load. not opening. regulating valve.

Capacity reduction system Broken or leaking oil tube Repair leak.

fails to load cylinders. between pump and power

Compressor continues to Pressure regulating valve Adjust or repair pressure

operate unloaded. not closing. regulating valve.

Figure 6-12.—Trouble diagnosis chart-Continued.




Space temperature B a d l o c a t i o n o f Carefully read tempera- Relocate thermostat to

higher than thermostat thermostat. ture at the sensing a place more repre-
setting and thermostat element. sentative of average
contacts are open. space temperature.

Thermostat out of ad- Calibrate with good Clean, adjust, or

justment or sticking. thermometer. replace the thermostat.

Cooling coil magnetic Solenoid Valve. Replace solenoid coil.

valve not opening. Valve sticking. Clean valve or adjust

Space temperature Bad location of ther- Test with reliable ther- Move thermostat to a
thermostat lower than mostat (this will also ef- mometer at location. better location.
thermostat setting and fect cooling).
contacts are closed.

Space temperature Cooling coil magnetic Stuck valve. Disassemble and clean.
lower than thermostat valve stuck in open
setting and thermostat position.
contacts are open.

Heating coil magnetic Test solenoid. Replace solenoid coil.

valve stuck or bad Test valve. Clean the valve.

Thermostat or humidi- Sensing element fouled Examine. Clean.

stat time constant too with lint and dirt.
low, causing wide
deviation from set

Electric heater does not Controller contacts Use test lamp to Replace contacts,
cut out. stuck. determine. springs or other parts as
found defective.

Electric heater does not Overheat protection Place test lamp across. Repair or replace.
cut in. not reset or defective.

Figure 6-13.—Trouble diagnosis chart.


Information related to much of the auxiliary should be kept constantly in mind when a machine
machinery aboard ship is provided in Engineman of any kind is being serviced. Remember, the im-
3 & 2, NAVEDTRA 10541 (current revision). proper use of tools and methods may cause serious
This chapter provides additional information on casualties to both machinery and personnel.
the care and maintenance of compressed air Although rugged and dependable, modern
systems and equipment, auxiliary boilers, auxiliary machinery is not designed to withstand
hydraulic systems, distilling plants and pressure abusive treatment. Gasketed joints, pipe joints,
valves. and bolts are designed to safely withstand the
strain required for a tight connection when the
specified torque is applied with the correct tool.
COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEMS Whenever a joint or bolt cannot be tightened
without the use of an oversized wrench or wrench
Qualifications for lower rates require that you handle extension, there is usually something
know not only the purpose and principles in- wrong with the assembly.
volved, but also the operation and performance Pounding on a wrench to acquire additional
of routine maintenance on many auxiliary systems force usually results in damage to the equipment.
and units which use compressed air. As an EN, Use of a wrench extension is likely to distort the
you have already used compressed air for such gasketed surface or twist off the bolt without
jobs as starting diesel engines, blowing out and achieving a tight joint. The application of any
cleaning various units, and operating numerous force in excess of the force prescribed usually
pneumatic tools. When working with any of the results in breakage.
three types of compressed air systems (low,
medium, and high pressure), you have probably CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF
found that the principal source of many troubles AIR COMPRESSORS
is to be found in the compressor. Even though To keep the ship’s air compressors operating
the design and capacity of compressors vary, the efficiently at all times and to prevent as many
maintenance procedures are essentially the same troubles as possible, it is necessary to know how
for all of them. However, the care and to care for air intakes and filters; how to main-
maintenance of high pressure compressors require tain and replace air valves; how to take care of
additional safety precautions and adherence to air cylinders, pistons, and wrist pins; how to
procedures recommended by the manufacturer. adjust bearings and couplings; and how to
Because of your past experience, parts of the properly maintain the lubrication, the cooling, the
following discussion will serve only as a review, control, and the air systems.
while other portions of the discussion will benefit
you in your study for advancement, and will be Air Intakes and
helpful when you are called upon to train others. Intake Filters
To avoid unnecessary damage to equipment,
always use proper tools and take all necessary The satisfactory operation of any compressor
precautions. The correct use of proper tools is based on a supply of clean, cool, dry air. To


aid in keeping the air supply clean, filters are discharge valve below the intercooler will cause
fitted to compressor intakes. Unless inspected and a decrease in the intercooler pressure. An unusu-
cleaned regularly, these filters become clogged and ally hot valve cover is a sign of valve trouble.
cause a loss of capacity. Dirt is generally the cause of leaking valves.
Filter elements should be removed from the The source of valve trouble can usually be traced
intake and cleaned either with a jet of hot water to dirty intake air; the use of excessive or improper
or steam, or by immersion in a strong solution cylinder oil; or excessively high air temperature,
of sal soda. The filter body should be drained and resulting from faulty cooling. A periodic inspec-
replaced. Filter elements of the oil-wetted type tion and cleaning of valves and valve passages will
should be dipped in a clean, medium viscosity oil minimize and perhaps prevent the occurrence of
after cleaning and the excess oil should be air valve troubles. The frequency for cleaning
drained from the elements before replacing them valves must be determined for each installation.
on the filter intakes. Gasoline or kerosene should The air valves are easily accessible and are
not be used for cleaning air filters because of the removed by first loosening the valve cover plates.
explosive fumes which may collect in the com- Then the valve and valve unloader, if installed,
pressor or air receiver. may be lifted out. Each valve should be marked
so that it may later be returned to the same open-
Dehydrators ing from which it was removed.
Dirt or carbon can usually be removed from
On some ships, compressed air is used for the valve parts without disassembling the valve. If
operation of missile system components and with disassembly is necessary, notice should be taken
automatic controls for boilers. In order to pre- on how the various parts are arranged so that the
vent failure of these systems, moisture and proper relationship will be kept when the valve
lubricants from the compressor must be kept at is reassembled. To remove carbon from valve
a minimum. Blowing down the compressor parts, soak each part in kerosene and then brush
separators prevents most of this, but still some or scrape lightly. After drying and reassembling
moisture is carried over. the valve parts, test the valve action to be sure
To aid in the removal of the moisture and that the valve opens and closes freely.
lubricants, two types of dehydrators are gener- Before air valves are replaced in a cylinder,
ally used: type I refrigerant dehydrators and type inspect the gaskets. If the gaskets are made of
II dehydrators using a desiccant of either silica materials other than copper, and are damaged,
gel or activated alumina, and containing electric change them. Copper gaskets should always be
heating coils for reactivating the desiccant when replaced. Since it is often difficult to distinguish
it becomes saturated with moisture. Type II between suction and discharge valves, use extreme
dehydrators are normally installed in pairs so that care when inserting valves in the cylinder. Make
one can always be in service while the other is be- sure that suction valves open TOWARD, and
ing reactivated. discharge valves AWAY FROM, the center of the
cylinder. Otherwise, serious damage or loss of
Air Valves capacity will result. If special locknuts are not pro-
vided to seal against leakage at the threads of the
Air inlet and discharge valves are vital parts valve setscrew, place a turn of solder or fuse wire
of a compressor and should receive careful atten- around the screw and set down into a recess by
tion. When these valves leak, the compressor the locking nut.
capacity is reduced and results in an unbalanced
stage pressure. Cylinders and Pistons
There are several symptoms which signify that
an air valve is not functioning properly. A devia- When you find that it is necessary to inspect
tion from normal intercooler pressure may the cylinders or pistons of an air compressor, you
indicate a leaking or broken valve. A defective should refer to the manufacturer’s instruction
inlet valve above the intercooler will cause a rise manual and the appropriate Planned Maintenance
in pressure in the intercooler, while a defective System (PMS) maintenance requirement card


(MRC) for the proper methods and tools required differential pistons, it is necessary to loop a wire
for removing the heads. The following is general around the top of the lower liner, using valve ports
information on removing a piston, fitting new for access, and squeeze each ring closed as it
piston rings, and checking piston end clearance approaches the top of the liner. One technique
for a vertical compressor. is to slip the rings over a thin piece of shim stock
To remove trunk pistons from vertical com- which, in turn, is slipped over the piston. This
pressors, it is first necessary to remove the cylinder prevents overstretching and other possible ring
heads. In the case of three- or four-stage com- damage.
pressors, the third and fourth stage cylinders will After a piston has been replaced in a com-
also have to be removed. Next, you must turn the pressor and the head has been drawn down
compressor by hand to top center and remove the evenly, it will be necessary for you to check piston
lower half of the crank pin bearing, or the entire end clearance. NOTE: The piston end clearance
crank pin bearing box, if so directed. Pull up the must always be measured and adjusted after
piston and connecting rod through the cylinder. replacing the pistons, or after any adjustment or
In removing pistons from compressors fitted with replacement of the main, crank pin, wrist pin, or
cross heads and piston rods, the general procedure cross head bearing has been made. This is ac-
is to loosen the piston rod locknuts adjacent to complished by inserting a lead wire through a
the cross head, then unscrew the piston rod from valve port or indicator connection, and then jack-
the cross head and lift the piston and the rod out ing the compressor over so that when the piston
of the cylinder. has moved to the end of its stroke (top dead center
If the piston rings are worn or broken and
(TDC)), the lead will be flattened to the exact
require replacement, take accurate measurements amount of clearance at the end of the stroke. The
of the cylinder or liner to determine the exact lead wire should be long enough so that the
diameter. Standard size rings may be used in over- reading can be taken at a point near the center
size cylinders if the oversize does not exceed 0.003 of the piston.
inch per inch of the cylinder diameter. If the
cylinder or liner is worn beyond the manufac- In differential piston compressors in which
turer’s recommended limits, it should be replaced. compression takes place in two stages during the
On compressors not equipped with liners, such same stroke, the clearance must be measured for
as air-cooled or large pneumatic service com- both stages. In double-acting compressors, or in
pressors, one reboring is allowed. those compressors in which compression in any
When piston rings are being replaced, they stage takes place on the reverse stroke, a second
should first be fitted to the cylinder to check for reading of the clearance at the bottom of the
proper end clearance. If necessary, the ends stroke (bottom dead center (BDC)) of that
should be filed until the manufacturer’s recom- cylinder must be taken.
mended clearance is obtained. Rings should then After taking these readings, you can adjust the
be fitted to the piston grooves, making sure that piston end clearances. Proper clearances for a
the side clearance of each ring is such as to allow specific compressor are usually found in the
it to fall into the groove by its own weight. The manufacturer’s instruction book or on the
thickness of each ring should be checked to make blueprints. If neither of these documents is
sure that the groove is deep enough for the ring available, then you should adjust the clearance
thickness. In replacing the rings, care must be so that the TDC stroke is approximately 1/64 inch
taken to ensure that they are staggered so that the greater than the BDC stroke. This is necessary to
ring splits are not in line. After the piston is allow for the expansion of the running parts when
assembled, it is advisable to wire the rings tightly the compressor is in operation.
with a soft copper wire so that they will enter the
bore without difficulty. As each ring enters the The method of adjusting the piston clearance
bore, the binding wire can be removed through varies with different compressors or designs.
the valve ports. Most cylinder liners are beveled Adjustments may be accomplished by one of the
at the top to permit the rings to compress and following methods: (1) by adding or removing
enter the bore easily. In certain designs of shims in the connecting rod between the lower end


of the rod and the crank pin bearing boxes; (2) In general, the lubricating system of a com-
by adding or removing shims between piston and pressor will give you little trouble if the follow-
socket type wrist pin boxes; (3) by screwing in or ing steps are taken:
backing out the wrist pin adapter, in compressors
having a threaded wrist pin adapter; (4) by turn- 1. Keep the reservoir oil at the prescribed level
ing the piston rod in or out of the cross head, in in order to maintain proper oil temperature.
double-acting pistons equipped with piston rod 2. Change crankcase oil periodically, flush the
and cross head. In some compressors, the piston crankcase, and clean the oil filter.
clearance is nonadjustable. 3. Maintain proper lube oil pressure by keep-
ing the oil pump in good working condition and
Control Devices by adjusting the bypass relief valve.
4. Keep the oil cooler free from leaks to pre-
Because of the great variety of control, vent oil contamination and emulsification.
regulating, and unloading devices used with com- 5. Inspect cylinder lubricators.
pressors, detailed instructions on their adjustment
a. When Navy Symbol 9000 series oil is
and maintenance must be obtained from
used for compressor cylinder lubrication, the sight
manufacturers’ technical manuals.
When a control valve fails to work properly, flow indicators should be filled with glycerine
disassembly and a thorough cleaning is usually alone.
necessary. Some control valves are fitted with b. When Navy Symbol 2000 series oil is
used for cylinder lubrication, the sight flow in-
filters filled with sponge or woolen yarn, to pre-
dicators should be filled with a mixture of 50%
vent dust and grit from being carried into the valve
distilled water and 50% glycerine.
chamber and to remove gummy deposits which
come from the oil used in the compressor
cylinders. Replace the filter element with the 6. Keep the lubricator in proper adjustment
for the specified quantity of oil feed.
specified material each time a valve is cleaned.

WARNING: DO NOT use cotton as a filter The general requirements for care and
element because it will pack down and stop the maintenance of compressor cooling systems are
as follows:
air flow.

Since relief valves are essential for the safe 1. Intercoolers and aftercoolers should be in-
spected periodically.
operation of a compressed air system, they must
2. Collections of gummy oils or tarry
be kept in satisfactory working condition at all
substances on the sides of cooler tubes should be
times. Relief valves should be set as specified by removed by washing the tube nests with a cutting
the manufacturer, and tested by hand each time solution. Be sure that the nests are completely dry
the compressor is started. Periodically, the set-
ting of relief valves should be checked by raising before reassembly.
3. Any leaks in tube nests must be repaired;
the pressure in the space which they serve. otherwise, water will leak into the compressor
while it is secured, and air will leak into the water
Lubricating and Cooling Systems side during operation.

The maintenance procedures for lubricating If during operation, a water relief valve on the
and cooling systems in air compressors are similar coolers blows while the cooling water pressure is
to the procedures used for lubricating and cool- normal, it is evident that a tube in the cooler is
ing systems in internal combustion engines. For ruptured. The compressor should be secured im-
air-cooled compressors, steps must be taken to mediately and the tube plugged, if possible.
keep the cooling fins clean. Oil and dust act as
insulators and, if allowed to collect on the fins, 4. Cylinder water jackets should be inspected
will prevent heat transfer. and cleaned periodically with a cleaning nozzle.


5. When the cooling water system of the com- coating, and when necessary, the exterior is
pressor is being refilled, the water inlet valve painted. Further information on the details of the
should be opened slightly to allow the water to inspections and maintenance performed by repair
rise slowly in the cooler shell and water jackets. activities can be found in chapter 551, section
Also, the vent valves which are fitted to the water VIII, of Naval Ships’ Technical Manual.
spaces should be opened to permit entrapped air
to escape, and thus prevent the formation of air
pockets in the system. INSPECTIONS AND TESTS

CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF The minimum maintenance requirements for

AIR SYSTEM EQUIPMENT the performance of inspections and tests of com-
pressed air plants are given in figure 7-1. It is the
The air flasks and separators of surface ships responsibility of the engineer officer to determine
must be given a surface inspection every 3 months if the condition of the equipment, hours of
to determine if there is any external corrosion or service, or operating conditions necessitate more
damage to flasks or piping. frequent inspections and tests. Details for each
Because of the coating of zinc chromate test and inspection are obtained from the PMS
primer, corrosion is seldom a source of trouble Manual, or the appropriate manufacturer’s
on the internal surfaces of air flasks; however, technical manual.
corrosion may take place on the external surfaces
of air flasks and may be sufficiently serious to
weaken the material, especially in high-pressure SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
flasks. Surface corrosion usually occurs at points
which cannot be easily reached for proper Competent personnel operating and maintain-
cleaning and painting. ing any machine keep it performing as efficiently
Drainage of air system equipment must be suf- as possible. In order to achieve peak performance
ficiently frequent to prevent excessive accumula- from a compressed air plant, they take steps to
tions of moisture and oil. Such accumulations not prevent or minimize the occurrence of any con-
only cause internal corrosion and fouling of dition which might reduce plant capacity or result
moving parts, but also create a serious hazard in serious damage. All personnel should take every
since any excessive oil accumulation may result possible precaution to prevent potential explo-
in an explosion. sions, especially when operating high pressure
All high-pressure flasks and separators must systems. Safety precautions which will aid you in
be inspected, cleaned, tested, and repainted at preventing explosions and in maintaining a plant
prescribed intervals by a repair activity. For sur- in satisfactory operating condition are listed
face ships, the initial and subsequent intervals below.
should not exceed 6 years. Although inspection
intervals for separator flasks are approximately 1. Minimize the possibility of explosions in
3 years, if there is reason to believe that serious an air compressor, discharge line, or receiver by
corrosion of either the exterior or the interior of taking steps to prevent or eliminate the following:
air flasks is taking place, before the lapse of the
normal interval, the flasks should be inspected and a. Dust-laden intake air.
tested at once. b. Presence of oil vapor in compressor or
Periodic examinations are essential to deter- receiver.
mine the condition of air system equipment; these c. Leaking or dirty valves.
examinations should include not only a complete
inspection of the interior and the exterior of flasks 2. Make sure that the compressor intake
and separators, but also ultrasonic inspections and receives only cool, dry air.
hydrostatic tests. After a thorough cleaning, the 3. Use only prescribed agents for cleaning
flasks which successfully pass the hydrostatic test compressor intake filters, cylinders, or air
are given the prescribed internal protective passages. DO NOT use benzene, kerosene, or


Figure 7-1.—PMS tests and inspections for compressed air plants.


other light oils that vaporize easily and that, under operation, and maintenance of auxiliary boilers
compression, form a highly explosive mixture. must be obtained from the manufacturer’s
4. Use only the minimum amount and the technical manual.
proper grade of oil for cylinder lubrication.
5. Secure a compressor immediately if there
is an abnormal rise in the temperature of air OPERATION
discharge from any stage.
6. Be sure a relief valve is installed between The operation of auxiliary boilers used on
a compressor and a stop valve, or a check valve diesel-driven ships is under the supervision of an
is installed between a compressor and the receiver. ENC or EN1. You should ensure that personnel
If there is no relief valve and the compressor is charged with the operation and maintenance of
started against a closed valve or a deranged check an auxiliary boiler are thoroughly familiar with
valve, the air will not be able to escape and an the boiler and its associated equipment. Satisfac-
explosion will result. tory operation of the boiler depends on proper
7. Do not leave a compressor station after care and maintenance. Specific attention must be
starting a compressor, especially a new com- paid to maintaining automatic regulating, control,
pressor or one that has been idle for some time, and safety devices in proper operating condition.
until you are positive that the control, unloading, Failure of these devices may lead to a major
and governing devices are working properly. casualty, damage to equipment, and injury to per-
8. Do not disconnect any part of a com- sonnel; therefore, continuous, alert watchstanding
pressor if the system is under pressure. To avoid should be maintained while the auxiliary boiler
serious accidents, the following precautions is in semiautomatic or manual operation. An
should be taken before working on, or removing, operating auxiliary boiler should never be left
any part of a compressor: unattended.

a. Leave all pressure gages open.

b. Be sure the compressor is actually secured TROUBLESHOOTING
and cannot be started automatically or
accidentally. Faulty operation of auxiliary boilers is
c. Be sure the compressor is completely indicated by various symptoms. These symptoms
blown down. may indicate one or more conditions in the boiler.
d. Be sure all valves, including the control Each condition must be corrected. Consult the
or unloading valves, between the compressor and manufacturer’s technical manual for detailed
the receiver are closed. information on troubleshooting a particular
boiler. Knowing the probable causes of a par-
9. Operate a compressor at recommended ticular symptom can assist you in correcting any
speeds and maintain proper cooling water circula- trouble quickly and efficiently. Some of the
tion to prevent damage from excessive troubles encountered in the operation of auxiliary
temperatures. boilers and their causes are listed in figure 7-2.
10. Drain the circulating water system of a
compressor if it is to remain idle for an extended AUXILIARY BOILER
period, or if it is to be exposed to freezing WATER TREATMENT
The auxiliary boiler feedwater is exposed to
AUXILIARY BOILERS the same contaminants as the propulsion boiler
feedwater. Auxiliary boilers are generally used for
Information about the operation, hotel service loads, and shore water used for
maintenance, and safety regarding auxiliary feedwater is usually the prime source of con-
boilers in this chapter supplements that given in tamination. The shore water may contaminate the
Engineman 3 & 2, NAVEDTRA 10541 (current feedwater system by leakage through malfunction-
edition). Detailed information on construction, ing galley mixing valves, laundry equipment, and


Symptom Symptom Condition may be due to

Condition may be due to
or Difficulty or Difficulty

Ignition Faulty transformer. Oil pump Improper oil relief valve set-
failure Broken or grounded high tension fails to ting.
leads. deliver Defective gasket on the oil pump.
Cracked high tension electrode (continued) Leaky pump seal.
Carbon deposits on electrodes Blower fails Slipping V-belts.
or insulators. to deliver Driver pulley loose on the shaft.
Incorrect electrode setting. Misalignment.
Malfunctioning programing con- Dirty fan blades.
trol cams. Restriction at the blower inlet.
Faulty ignition cable connector. Seized bearings in the blower or
Solenoid oil or air valve fails to the blower drive.
open. Bent or broken shaft.
Water in the oil. Dirty air inlet screen.
Dirty or clogged burner tip. Insufficient supply voltage to
motor (d-c machinery).
Flame Dirty glass in the photocell. Fluctuating voltage.
failure Abnormal ambient temperature.
Bad electron tube in the photo- Feed pump Dirty suction strainer.
cell. fails to Abnormally high water tem-
Damaged photocell. deliver perature.
Faulty electron tube in the com- Leak in the suction line.
bustion safeguard control. Pump packing gland leaks badly.
Loose connection on the photo- Plugged inlet piping.
cell. Excessive discharge head.
Out of oil or have water in the Slipping or broken drive coup-
oil. ling.
Clogged fuel oil nozzle. Jammed pump impeller.
Clogged fuel oil line or strainer. Dirty water level relay contacts
Broken pressure regulator (electrode - probe type con-
spring. trol).
Faulty solenoid valve. Malfunctioning pump time delay
Broken belt (V-belt drive). relay. Grounded water probes
(electrode - probe type con-
Burner Dirty nozzle. trol).
smokes or Excessive return line oil pres- Pump vapor locked.
pulsates sure (return flow system). Insufficient water supply.
Nozzle not positioned correctly. Reversed rotation.
Insufficient air for combustion. Wornout impeller.
Low oil pressure. Defective water pressure gage.
Incorrect burner linkage set-
ting. Excessive Combustion pulses.
Incorrect setting of primary air. vibration Loose hold-dorn bolts.
Low voltage (d-c machinery). Badly worn bearings.
Fluctuating voltage. Insufficient air to the burner.
Loose mechanical fastings.
Oil pump Leak in the suction line. Misalignment of rotating auxil-
fails to Insufficient fuel in the tank. iaries.
deliver Clogged or dirty strainers. Dynamic unbalance of rotating
Worn pump members. auxiliaries.

Figure 7-2.—Troubleshooting guide—auxiliary boilers. 121.21


hot water heaters. Shore water is usually hard phosphate without significantly affecting the
water which contains high concentrations of alkalinity.
dissolved solids and silica. Although it can have
either high or low pH, in a boiler, shore water Initial Treatment
usually causes high pH. High concentrations of
dissolved solids lead to boiler water carryover with The boiler is initially half-filled with feedwater
the steam. Silica may be deposited on the boiler to partially dilute the treatment chemicals which
watersides and in the steam system as it vaporizes. must be added. The treatment chemicals are then
added to bring the boiler water conditions to near
Water hardness leads to excessive usage of the upper limits. The necessary amounts of treat-
boiler water treatment chemicals which causes cor- ment chemicals are weighed, dissolved in feed-
rosion, scale, and sludge buildup. Excessively high water, and injected into the boiler.
pH causes caustic embrittlement and subsequent
erosion of boiler metal parts. WARNING: TSP solutions are corrosive and
cause burns to skin, eyes, and body tissues.
Firetube and watertube auxiliary boilers are Affected personnel should flush skin with cold
natural circulation boilers. The water treatment water. If TSP or its solutions enter the eyes, flush
for natural circulation auxiliary boilers is main- with cold water and obtain immediate medical
tained in the same manner as the propulsion boiler attention.
water. Section 21 of Naval Ships’ Technical
Manual, chapter 220, volume 2, describes this TSP is added to bring the alkalinity to 2.0
water treatment. The control parameters for aux- equivalents per million (epm) (2.0 meq/L) and to
iliary boiler water are alkalinity, phosphate, and provide some of the needed phosphate. DSP is
chloride. In auxiliary boilers, the alkalinity of the added to bring the phosphate to 300 parts per
auxiliary boiler water is measured instead of the million (ppm) (300 mg/L) and not to the upper
pH because its higher alkalinity level can be more limit of 400 ppm (400 mg/L). In order to deter-
easily measured by the alkalinity test than by the mine the amount of chemicals needed, the volume
pH meter test. The alkalinity range is equivalent of water requiring chemical treatment must be
to a pH range of 11.0 to 11.3. The auxiliary boiler known. This information is sometimes available
limits are given in table 7-1. in the instruction manual for the boiler. If the
weight of water at normal steaming level while
The same treatment chemicals, trisodium steaming is given, divide the weight in pounds by
phosphate dodecahydrate (TSP) and disodium 8.33 to determine volume in gallons. If the boiler
phosphate anhydrous (DSP), are used for aux- weight data gives only the dry weight and the wet
iliary boiler water treatment except that a higher weight of the boiler, determine the boiler water
level must be maintained due to the lower chemical treatment volume as follows:
operating pressures. The TSP provides alkalin-
ity and phosphate. The DSP provides additional 1. Subtract the boiler dry weight from the
boiler wet weight to obtain a weight of cold water
in the boiler.
Table 7-1.—Auxiliary Boiler Water Limits For Firetube and 2. Divide the weight of cold boiler water in
Natural Circulation Water Tube Auxiliary Boilers pounds by 9.30 for boilers operating at 125
pounds per square inch (psi) or 8.87 for boilers
operating at 35 psi to obtain the boiler water
Alkalinity: 1.0 - 2.0 epm (1.0 - 2.0 meq/L) volume, in gallons, for chemical treatment. This
volume times the initial chemical treatment fac-
Phosphate: 200 - 400 ppm (200 - 400 mg/L) tors (ounces per gallon) given in table 7-2 deter-
mines the ounces of TSP and DSP required. Enter
Chloride: 10.0 epm (10.0 meq/L) maximum the volume to the nearest gallon and the calculated
dosage to the nearest one-half ounce in the
appropriate columns.


Table 7-2.—Natural Circulation Auxiliary Boiler Water Initial Dosage

Factor X Boiler Volume = Initial Dosage

(ounces/ for Chemical (ounces)
gallon) Treatment (gallons)

TSP 0.100 x =

DSP 0.022 x =

Initial dosages for several of the auxiliary chemicals only.” Add cold feedwater, cap the
boilers are given in table 7-3. The volumes listed bottle and spout, then shake to dissolve. Inject
are for the following vessels: the solution into the boiler.

Auxiliary boilers are equipped with a chemical

FF-1040, FF-1041, AGFF-1 215 gallons injection system on a bypass of the feedwater line.
One treatment system schematic and general pro-
Other ships having pressure- cedures for auxiliary boilers are presented in figure
fired main boilers 300 gallons
7-3. When you are operating an injection system,
slightly overfill the tank to bleed air out of it. The
LST- 1179 class 280 gallons over-filling must be minimal; otherwise an ex-
cessive amount of treatment will be discharged to
MSOs having cyclotherm the bilge. In addition, injection must continue for
MC-800 boilers 84 gallons
at least 10 minutes to ensure that all of the treat-
ment is flushed into the boiler. Upon completion
Weigh the necessary amount of chemicals and of the chemical addition, finish filling the boiler
place both in the 10-liter safety dispensing bot- to the lightoff level, or if the boiler has been over-
tle. The safety dispensing bottle should be filled, drain until the proper water level is
marked and used “For boiler water treatment reached. A boiler water sample obtained from a

Table 7-3.—Chemical Weights For Freshly Filling Some Auxiliary Boilers

Boiler Water Volume for 84 215 280 300

Chemical Treatment
Weight required *TSP 8.5 21.5 28 30
Weight required **DSP 2 4.5 6 6.5

1 gallon = 3.785 liters *TSP - Trisodium Phosphate

1 ounce = 28.35 grams **DSP - Disodium Phosphate
16 ounces = 1 pound


WARNING: Protective clothing shall be worn while pouring concentrated chemicals into chemical
injection tank and while topping off.


1. Slowly open valves 7 (drain), 6 (overflow/vent), and then 5 (funnel fill).

2. Close valve 7.
3. Charge the injection tank with treatment chemicals already in solution through
the funnel.
4. Top off tank with feedwater obtained in bucket until an overflow just starts.
5. Close valves 5 and 6.
6. Open valves 4 and 8.
7. Close valve 1.
8. Maintain a flow of water for 10 minutes to wash out the injection tank.


1. Open valve 1.
2. Close valves 4 and 8.
3. Drain injection tank by first slowly opening valve 7 and then valve 6.
4. Close valves 6 and 7.

Figure 7-3.—Auxiliary Boiler Chemical Injection Procedure.


freshly filled, chemically treated boiler, prior to and phosphate are linked. The DSP provides
light off, is not representative and is therefore additional phosphate as needed. The boiler
meaningless. The freshly filled and treated boiler water volume for chemical treatment must be
shall be steamed immediately but not later determined as described earlier. Using this
than 24 hours after being filled. Preferably, the volume, the dosages of TSP and DSP are
boiler should not be filled unless it is expected calculated. Table 7-4 gives the TSP dosage fac-
to be fired within 24 hours. If the boiler can- tor (ounces per gallon) for all values of alkalinity.
not be steamed within 24 hours, it should be The boiler volume is multiplied by the factor and
placed under dry layup in accordance with chap- the dosage of TSP is entered to the nearest one-
ter 221, Boilers, Naval Ships’ Technical half ounce in the appropriate space. The increase
Manual. in phosphate due to TSP is given in the last
column. The DSP dosages are calculated similarly
using the DSP factors (ounces per gallon) given
ALKALINITY AND PHOSPHATE.—Since in table 7-5. TSP and DSP dosages for the aux-
the addition of TSP to raise the alkalinity iliary boilers are given in tables 7-6 and 7-7. The
also raises the phosphate, the control of alkalinity procedures for determining the chemical treatment

Table 7-4.—Trisodium Phosphate Dosage For Natural Circulation Auxiliary Boilers (Trisodium Pbosphate, Dodecahydrate,
Na 3 PO 4 12H 2 0)

(Enter) (Calculate)
Boiler water TSP Dosage X Boiler Water = Ounces of TSP Phosphate
Alkalinity Factor Volume for required to raise Correction
epm (meg/L) (ounces/gallon) Chemical alkalinity
Treatment to 2.0 epm

0.1 0.095 X = 180

0.2 0.090 X = 170
0.3 0.085 X = 160
0.4 0.080 X = 150
0.5 0.075 X = 140
0.6 0.070 X = 130
0.7 0.065 X = 120
0.8 0.060 X = 110
0.9 0.055 X = 100
1.0 0.050 X = 90
1.1 0.045 X = 90
1.2 0.040 X = 80
1.3 0.035 X = 70
1.4 0.030 X = 60
1.5 0.025 X = 50
1.6 0.020 X = 40
1.7 0.015 X = 30
1.8 0.010 X = 20
1.9 0.005 X = 10

1 gallon = 3.785 liters

1 ounce = 28.35 grams
TSP - Trisodium Phosphate


Table 7-5.—Disodium Phosphate Dosage For Natural Circulation Auxiliary Boilers (Disodium Phoshate, Anhydrous
Na 2 HPO 4 )

(Enter) (Calculate)
Corrected DSP Dosage X Boiler Water = ounces of
Boiler Water Factor Volume for DSP Required
Phoshate (ounces/gallons) Chemical to raise Phosphate
ppm (mg/L) Treatment to 300 ppm (300 mg/L)

10 0.058 X =
20 0.056 X =
30 0.054 X =
40 0.052 X =
50 0.050 X =
60 0.048 X =
70 0.046 X =
80 0.044 X =
90 0.042 X =
100 0.040 X =
110 0.038 X =
120 0.036 X =
130 0.034 X =
140 0.032 X =
150 0.030 X =
160 0.028 X =
170 0.026 X =
180 0.024 X =
190 0.022 X =
200 0.020 X =
210 0.018 X =
220 0.016 X =
230 0.014 X =
240 0.012 X =
250 0.010 X =
260 0.008 X =
270 0.006 X =
280 0.004 X =
290 0.002 X =

1 ounce - 28.35 grams

1 gallon - 3.785 liters

DSP - Disodium Phosphate

dosages for the completed dosage tables are 2. Locate the boiler water alkalinity in the
described below: first column of table 7-4. Then read across
to the weight of TSP required for the correct
1. Determine the alkalinity and phosphate volume. (Use table 7-6 for the vessels listed ear-
concentrations in the boiler water from sample lier in the chapter.) Enter this weight in the
results. log.


Table 7-6.—Calculated Trisodium Phosphate Dosages For Some Natural Circulation Auxiliary Boilers (Trisodium Phosphate,
Dodecahydrate Na3Po412H2O)

Boiler Water Volume at Normal Steaming Level Add

Boiler Water (Gallons) to
Alkalinity 84 215 280 300 Current
epm (meg/L) Ounces of TSP Phosphate
Required to Raise Alkalinity to 2.0 epm (2.0 meq/L)

0.1 8 20.5 26.5 28.5 180

0.2 7.5 19.5 25 21 170
0.3 7 18.5 24 25.5 160
0.4 6.5 17 22.5 24 150
0.5 6.5 16 21 22.5 140
0.6 6 15 19.5 21 130
0.7 5.5 14 18 19.5 120
0.8 5 13 17 18 110
0.9 4.5 12 15.5 16.5 100
1.0 4 10.5 14 15 90
1.1 4 9.5 12.5 13.5 90
1.2 3.5 8.5 11 12 80
1.3 3 7.5 10 10.5 70
1.4 2.5 6.5 8.5 9 60
1.5 2 5.5 7 7.5 50
1.6 1.5 4.5 5.5 6 40
1.7 1.5 3 4 4.5 30
1.8 1 2 3 3 20
1.9 0.5 1 1.5 1.5 10

1 ounce = 28.35 grams

1 gallon = 3.785 liters

TSP - Trisodium Phosphate

3. Continue to the last column to find the correct volume. (Use table 7-7 for the vessels listed
phosphate correction. This is the amount the earlier.) Enter this weight in the log.
phosphate will increase due to the TSP. Record
the phosphate correction in the log. 6. Weigh the chemicals, dissolve them
together in the 10-liter safety dispensing bottle,
4. Add the phosphate correction caused by and inject the solution into the boiler.
TSP to the measured boiler water phosphate. This
gives the corrected phosphate concentration; NOTE: TSP must be dissolved in cold feed-
record this in the log. water since TSP generates heat when dissolving.
DSP must be dissolved in hot feedwater if only
5. Proceed to table 7-5. Locate the corrected DSP will be injected into the boiler. Therefore,
phosphate in the first column. Read across the TSP should be added first to cold water in the
table to the weight of DSP required for the bottle, then dissolved. This will generate sufficient


Table 7-7.—Calculated Disodium Phosphate Dosages For Some Natural Circulation Auxiliary Boilers, (Disodium Phosphate
Anhydrous, Na2HPO 4)

Boiler Water Volume at Normal Steaming Level

Corrected (Gallons)
Boiler Water 84 215 280 300
Phosphate Ounces of DSP
ppm (mg/L) Required to Raise Phosphate to 300 ppm (300 mg/L)

10 5 12.5 16 17.5
20 4.5 12 15.5 17
30 4.5 11.5 15 16
40 4.5 11 14.5 15.5
50 4 10.5 14 15
60 4 10 13.5 14.5
70 4 10 13 14
80 3.5 9.5 12.5 13
90 3.5 9 12 12.5
100 3.5 8.5 11 12
110 3 8 10.5 11.5
120 3 7.5 10 11
130 3 7 9.5 10
140 2.5 7 9 9.5
150 2.5 6.5 8.5 9
160 2.5 6 8 8.5
170 2 5.5 7.5 8
180 2 5 7 7
190 2 4.5 6 6.5
200 1.5 4.5 5.5 6
210 1.5 4 5 5.5
220 1.5 3.5 4.5 5
230 1 3 4 4
240 1 2.5 3.5 3.5
250 1 2 3 3
240 0.5 1.5 2 2.5
270 0.5 1 1.5 2
280 0.5 1 1 1
290 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

1 gallon - 3.785 liters

1 ounce - 28.35 grams
DSP - Disodium Phosphate


heat to dissolve the DSP when it is transferred HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS

to the TSP solution.
The overall efficiency of the hydraulic installa-
Remember, treatment in accordance with the tions used to control or drive auxiliary machines
DSP dosage table will not bring the phosphate is basically dependent upon the size, oil pressure,
level to the upper limit of 400 ppm (400 mg/L) speed, and stroke of the hydraulic installation.
but will only raise it to 300 ppm (300 mg/L). DSP The efficiency of the hydraulic speed gears and
is added to allow a margin for phosphate in case the components of the system as a whole will
it should become necessary to treat the feedwater depend upon the care which is given them. Since
only for alkalinity since the addition of TSP to major repair of hydraulic gear, except for piping
raise alkalinity will also increase its phosphate and fittings, is generally done in a naval shipyard
level. The boiler must never be surface blown if or by the manufacturers, this section will deal
this action will cause boiler water limits to go primarily with troubleshooting and preventive
below the minimum requirements for alkalinity maintenance.
and phosphate, regardless of the chloride level. Hydraulic transmissions are sturdy, service-
A 10 percent blowdown will cause the phosphate, proven machines, inspected and tested with such
alkalinity, and chloride levels to drop by 10 per- care that casualties seldom occur except as a result
cent. There are no “dump” limits for alkalinity of faulty assembly, installation, or maintenance.
or phosphate. From the standpoint of feedwater A correctly installed hydraulic system, operated
consumption, it is better to secure and dump the regularly and serviced with proper care, will re-
boiler when its alkalinity level is 6 epm (6 meg/L) tain its design characteristics of power, speed, and
or when its phosphate level is 1200 ppm (1200 control. The need for costly repair and replace-
mg/L). ment will seldom occur if the equipment has been
maintained properly.
CHLORIDE.—If feedwater quality is prop-
erly maintained, a maximum concentration of TROUBLESHOOTING
10.0 epm (10 meg/L) chloride in boiler water can
be achieved without difficulty. Leakage of Troubleshooting an electrohydraulic system
seawater into the feedwater system, or abnormally involves the systematic elimination of the possi-
high makeup rates, will cause a continuous ble causes, one by one, until the actual cause of
increase in the chloride level of boiler water. Boiler a casualty is found. In attempting to locate the
water chloride level is controlled by surface source of any trouble in an electrohydraulic
blowdown and by elimination of seawater con- system, remember that all troubles occur in one
tamination in the feedwater. If a serious seawater of three categories—hydraulic, electric, or
contamination situation arises, every effort must mechanical. Isolating a trouble into one of these
be made to isolate and correct the source of con- categories is one of the main steps in locating the
tamination and to limit it to the system already source of trouble.
contaminated. If the boiler water chloride level
exceeds 30 epm (30 meg/L), more makeup feed Hydraulic Troubles
is needed to conduct surface blowdowns than is
used in dumping, flushing, and refilling the boiler. Casualties in a hydraulic system are generally
For additional information about boiler the result of low oil levels, external or internal
water/feedwater test and treatment, read chapter leakage, clogged lines or fittings, or improper
220, volume 2, of the Naval Ships’ Technical adjustment of valves and other working parts. Do
Manual. This manual covers such subjects as (1) not disassemble a unit unless you are certain that
steam plant water chemistry principles, (2) water the trouble exists within that unit. Unnecessary
requirements for propulsion boilers, (3) casualty disassembly may create conditions which lead to
control, (4) quantitative analysis and additional trouble, since dirt may enter an open
troubleshooting, (5) chemical safety precautions, system.
(6) supply information, and (7) water Leaks are a frequent cause of trouble in
requirements for auxiliary boilers. hydraulic equipment. Generally, leaks are a result


of excessively worn parts, abnormal and con- when speed or load is reduced. If the noise per-
tinuous vibration, excessively high operating sists at low speeds or light loads, the system needs
pressures, or faulty or careless assembly. Exter- to be vented of air. Air in a hydraulic system can
nal leaks usually have little effect on the opera- also cause uneven motion of the hydraulic motors.
tion of equipment other than a steady draining When a GRINDING noise occurs, it can
of the oil supply; but even a small leak wastes oil, usually be traced to dry bearings, foreign matter
and the resulting unsightly appearance of a in the oil, worn or scored parts, or overtightness
machine is indicative of poor maintenance of some adjustment.
procedures. The term HYDRAULIC CHATTER is
External leaks may result from any of the sometimes used to identify noises caused by a
following causes: improperly tightened threaded vibrating spring-actuated valve, by long pipes im-
fittings; crossed threads in fittings; improperly properly secured, by air in lines, or by binding
fitted or damaged gaskets; distorted or scored of some part of the equipment.
sealing rings, oil seals, or packing rings; scored SQUEALS or SQUEAKS indicate that the
surfaces of working parts; improperly flared tube packing is too tight around some moving part or
ends; or flanged joints not seating squarely. that a high-frequency vibration is occurring in a
Internal leaks usually result in unsatisfactory relief valve.
operation of the equipment. Large internal leaks
are signified by loss of pressure and failure of
Electrical Troubles
equipment. While large internal leaks can usually
be located by installing pressure gages in various
parts of the equipment, the location of small leaks Even though troubles occurring in electrical
generally requires disassembly and visual inspec- equipment are the responsibility of the Electri-
tion of the parts. Internal leaks may result from cian’s Mate, the Engineman can facilitate
worn or scored valves, pistons, valve plates or maintenance of such equipment by making a few
bushings, or improperly fitted or damaged simple checks when electrical troubles occur.
gaskets. Failure to have a switch in the ON position will
The symptoms of trouble in a hydraulic system cause unnecessary delay in operating electrical
are frequently unusual noises. Some noises are equipment. If the switch is closed and the equip-
characteristic of normal operation and can be ment still fails to operate, check for blown fuses
disregarded, while others are evidence of serious and tripped circuit breakers. Troubles of this type
trouble. Even though the exact sound indicating are usually the result of an overload on the equip-
a specific trouble can be learned only through ment. If a circuit breaker continues to cut out,
practical experience, the following descriptive the trouble may be caused by damaged equip-
terms will give a general idea of the noises which ment, excessive binding in the electric motor,
are trouble warnings. obstruction in the hydraulic transmission lines,
If POPPING and SPUTTERING noises or faulty operation of the circuit breaker. Check
occur, air is entering the pump intake line. Air for visual indication of open or shorted leads,
entering the system at this point may be the result faulty switches, and loose connections. Do not
of too small an intake pipe, an air leak in the suc- make repairs to the electrical equipment or system
tion line, a low oil level in the supply tank, cold and do not open enclosures of electrical equip-
or heavy oil, or possibly the use of improper oil. ment, but report the condition to the Electrician’s
If air becomes trapped in a hydraulic system, Mate when evidence of electrical failure is found.
HAMMERING will occur in the equipment or
transmission lines. When this occurs, check for
Mechanical Troubles
improper venting. Sometimes, a POUNDING or
RATTLING noise occurs as the result of a par-
tial vacuum produced in the active fluid during When an electrohydraulically driven auxiliary
high speed operation or when a heavy load is becomes inoperative because of a mechanical
applied. This noise may be unavoidable under the failure, a check should be made for improper ad-
conditions stated and can be ignored if it stops justment or misalignment of parts; shearing of


pins or keys; or breakage of gearing, shafting, or 6. Start and operate the unit with a light load
linkage. Elimination of troubles resulting from for a short interval of time (3 to 5 minutes, unless
any of these causes should be accomplished ac- otherwise specified). Allow the equipment to stand
cording to the manufacturer’s instructions for the idle for about 15 minutes, then repeat the whole
specific piece of equipment. cleaning process. Do this two or three times.

Never operate a hydraulic unit with a full load

MAINTENANCE when it is filled with cleaning fluid. Keep the
operating pressure as low as possible.
The principal requirements necessary to keep
a hydraulic transmission in satisfactory operating After each short operating period, turn the
condition are regular operation, proper lubrica- cleaning handles of edge type filters (if installed)
tion, and the maintenance of all the units and the and drain from the filter an amount of cleaning
fluid in the required state of cleanliness. Regular fluid equal to its volume.
operation of hydraulic equipment prevents the
accumulation of sludge and the freezing of adja- 7. If time permits, allow the system to stand
cent parts, and aids in preventing corrosion. The idle for an additional hour following the series
necessity of proper lubrication and cleanliness of short operating periods.
cannot be too strongly emphasized. 8. Drain the system of cleaning fluid. Reclean
Detailed instructions on the maintenance of permanent filters, if necessary; install new
a specific unit should be obtained from the replaceable filters. Close the system, and fill it
appropriate manufacturer’s technical manual, but with the proper hydraulic oil.
the following general information will also be
useful. As the system is filled, the hydraulic oil should
be strained through a fine wire screen of 180 or
200 mesh. If oil is not clean, it should be run
The Fluid System through a centrifuge. Adequate protection should
be provided against dust and moisture. Moisture
If an inspection of an oil sample drawn from should be expelled from the oil before it is poured
a hydraulic system reveals evidence of water, into a system; oil with noticeable water content
sludge, or acidity, the system must be should be rejected or centrifuged.
DRAINED, then CLEANED with the prescribed When a hydraulic system is being filled, suf-
acid-free cleaning fluid (flushing oil), and ficient hydraulic fluid should be used to com-
FILLED with clean hydraulic oil. A hydraulic pletely fill the active parts of the mechanism,
system may be drained and cleaned as follows: leaving no air pockets. Air valves should be
opened during the filling process, so that air can
1. Remove permanent filters and wash them escape to the oil expansion box. Be sure the valves
in flushing oil. Then use low pressure air for dry- are closed tightly after the system has been filled.
ing purposes. If filters have replaceable elements,
install new elements. Pumps and Motors
2. Drain the system of old hydraulic oil as
completely as possible. Whether the pumps and motors of hydraulic
3. Close all connections and fill the system transmissions are of the axial or radial piston type,
with acid-free cleaning fluid. the maintenance procedures, as well as the
4. Start and operate the unit under idling con- operating principles, are relatively the same. In
ditions in order to fill the system thoroughly with general, maintenance information on other types
the cleaning fluid. of pumps also applies to hydraulic pumps and
5. Secure the unit and allow it to stand idle motors.
for the prescribed period (usually about an hour). Neoprene is utilized as a seal around the shafts
This period of idleness permits the cleaning fluid of most modern hydraulic pumps and motors, but
to dissolve any sludge. other types of shaft packing are also used.


On some modern hydraulic transmissions, the a reduction in the efficiency of the unit, frequent
SHAFT STUFFING BOX PACKING is of the inspections should be made for leakage and steps
square-braided pure asbestos type. This packing should be taken to eliminate any leakage found.
is easily removed, but care must be taken to If leaks occur at a flanged joint in the line of
ensure that it is not replaced too tightly. If prop- a hydraulic system, tighten the flange bolts
erly installed, this packing makes a tight joint evenly, but not excessively. If the leaks persist,
when you apply light pressure. If packing wears use the auxiliary gear while the leaking flange is
out quickly, the shaft should be inspected for being refitted with copper asbestos or "O" ring
roughness. If a lathe is available, roughness may packing. Be sure the flange surfaces are cleaned
be eliminated from a shaft by a finishing cut to carefully before the packing is applied.
smooth the surface. If a lathe is not available, it
may be necessary to replace the shaft. Packing CAUTION: Exposure to asbestos fibers is a
should be renewed at prescribed intervals to recognized health hazard. Refer to N.S.T.M.
eliminate the possibility of the packing becoming chapter 635 for safety requirements applicable to
hard and scoring the shaft. When packing is be- handling asbestos packing and gaskets.
ing replaced, make certain that there is a uniform
thickness around the shaft. An excess of packing Operation of hydraulic equipment may be
on one side of the shaft will cause shaft deflec- continued while leakage repairs are being made
tion and may cause breakage. Stuffing boxes in some parts of the system if certain measures
should be packed loosely and the packing gland are taken. When lines in an auxiliary system leak,
set up lightly to allow adequate leakage for cool- they should be valved off from the main line con-
ing and lubrication. nection to prevent leakage between the two
There will be very little likelihood of poor systems. If leaks occur in the pumping connec-
alignment between the driving and driven tions to the three-way valves of a steering gear
members of a hydraulic transmission if the installation, the pump can be cut out with the
wedges, shims, jacking screws, or adjusting valve, and another pump cut in. If the three-way
setscrews are properly set and secured when con- valves fail to cut out the leaking unit, and it
necting units are installed. However, when a becomes necessary to cut out both pumps of a
casualty occurs or a unit is replaced, it is possi- steering gear installation, the valves may be
ble for units to get out of alignment sufficiently closed at the ram cylinder. Since hydraulic systems
to cause severe stress and strain on the coupling will work without pressure control, leaking pipes
and connected parts. Excessive misalignment or cylinders of the pressure control can be cut out
should be eliminated as soon as possible by replac- of the system for repair by closing the valves in
ing any defective parts and by readjusting the the lines where they join the main piping.
aligning devices. If this is not done, pins, Expansion lines and replenishment lines in
bushings, and bearings will wear out too fast and hydraulic systems of older ships are seldom a
will have to be replaced frequently. source of leakage or breakage, since they are not
Since there is no end play to either the pump under any appreciable pressure; however, all con-
shaft or the motor shaft, flexible couplings are nections must be maintained intact. In more
generally used in hydraulic transmissions. Such recent installations, however, replenishing lines
couplings permit satisfactory operation with a are under pressure of as much as 300 psi. In these
slight misalignment, without requiring frequent installations, the hydraulic systems should not be
renewal of parts. operated during repair of the lines.
Relief valves and shuttle valves of a hydraulic
system may also be a source of trouble. The seats
Piping and Fittings
of relief valves which are leaking should be
reground. Loss of power is a symptom of a leak-
If properly installed, the piping and valves of ing relief valve. Shuttle valves may stick and fail
a hydraulic system are seldom a source of to cut off; this condition is evidenced either by
trouble, except for leakage. Since some leaks, the escape of oil from the high pressure side of
however, can be of sufficient seriousness to cause the line into the expansion tank or by the failure


of the pressure control. When a shuttle valve fails because the valve adjustment may allow more
to operate, the stop valves should be closed and fluid to pass through leakage points in the system
the defective valve removed and repaired. than through the valve.
Incorrectly adjusted needle valves can be
another source of trouble. Needle valves which SERVOVALVES
are adjusted too fine may cause the device
operated by the valve to stop short of its Although there are many types of valves
intended stopping point. This may happen used for control in a hydraulic system, the valve

Figure 7-4.—Servovalve—neutral.


most commonly used when fine control is desired to block the right nozzle and causes a pressure
is the servovalve (servocontrol). Servocontrol may increase in chamber A. The increased pressure
be defined as a control actuated by a feedback causes the spool valve to start sliding to the left.
system which compares the output signal with the As the spool valve moves, it uncovers the high
input or reference signal and makes corrections pressure line to chamber D (right side of the
to reduce the differences. The feedback signal may piston) and the return line from the left side of
be provided by fluid pressure, mechanical linkage, the piston through chamber E (nonpressure side
electrical signal, or a combination of the three. of the hydraulic system). The synchromotor is
One type of hydraulic servovalve is illustrated geared to the actuator shaft. As the actuator
in figure 7-4. The valve is controlled by two moves to the left, the synchromotor rotates and
solenoids through an amplifier which energizes produces a feedback signal to the amplifier. When
either the right or left solenoid, depending on the the feedback signal and the input signal are
input signal. The valve shown in figure 7-5 has matched, the solenoid is deenergized and the
the right solenoid energized; this causes the reed magnetic reed returns to the neutral position. With

Figure 7-5.—Servovalve—actuated.


the reed in the neutral position, the fluid pressure exceed 4000 gallons per day (gpd). Since the vapor
is relieved to chamber C through the nozzles and compression type found on surface crafts is
a pressure drop allows the centering springs to being replaced with the heat recovery distilling
return the spool valve to a central position; in this units, vapor compression distilling units will not
position, the valve blocks the pressure and return be covered in this manual. Chapter 531 (9580-II)
line, creating a hydraulic lock in chambers E and of Naval Ships’ Technical Manual contains infor-
D. By energizing the left-hand solenoid, the mation on these plants.
magnetic reed will move to the left and the entire The low-pressure steam distilling unit is used
process will be reversed. in all steam-driven surface ships and nuclear sub-
The position of the spool valve can be adjusted marines. Enginemen usually share responsibility
by using the centering screw. Fixed orifices are with Machinist’s Mates for the maintenance and
used so that the pressure drop in the hydraulic operation of the low-pressure steam distilling
servovalve will not create a pressure drop in the plants.
opposite nozzle which is closed. Note that the ser- There are two reasons why low-pressure steam
vovalve is basically a sliding spool valve. This type distilling units are considered “low pressure”: (1)
of valve has many other applications in hydraulic they use low-pressure steam as the source of
systems. For example, servovalves are used in the energy, and (2) their operating shell pressure is
guidance systems of missiles and in the control less than atmospheric pressure.
systems of aircraft. The three major types of low-pressure steam
distilling units are submerged tube, flash type, and
vertical basket.
DISTILLING PLANTS In this section of the chapter we will be
discussing only two of these distilling units—the
This section will deal with the operation, submerged tube and the flash type.
troubleshooting, and repairing of the submerged
tube and the flash type distilling plants that are SUBMERGED TUBE PLANTS
used by the Navy. For additional and more de-
tailed information than is provided by this train-
ing manual, consult the manufacturer’s technical Low pressure, submerged tube plants differ
manual for the type of distilling plant installed from ship to ship, but the operating conditions
on your ship. and the maintenance procedures are basically the
Distilling plants in naval ships are of three same. In almost all instances, the personnel who
general types: (1) vapor compression, (2) low- stand watches on distilling plants are also respon-
pressure steam, and (3) heat recovery. The sible for the maintenance of the plants. This gives
major differences between the three types are the them ample opportunity to detect abnormal
kinds of energy used to operate the units and the operating conditions before such conditions reach
pressure under which distillation takes place. advanced stages. When operating troubles do
Vapor compression units use electrical energy (for occur, it is the responsibility of the EN1 or ENC
heaters and compressors). Low-pressure steam on duty to locate the trouble and to make the
distilling units use low-pressure steam from either necessary adjustments or repairs.
the auxiliary exhaust steam systems or the aux- Steady operating conditions are essential for
iliary steam system. Heat recovery distilling units satisfactory results. Except under emergency con-
use diesel engine jacket water instead of steam as ditions, no plant should be forced beyond its rated
the heat source. Vapor compression units boil the capacity, because higher steam pressures will be
feedwater at a pressure slightly above atmospheric required and the resulting higher temperatures will
pressure. Low-pressure steam and heat recovery cause more rapid scaling of the evaporator tubes.
units depend on a relatively high vacuum for During operation, the various elements of any
operation. plant are interdependent due to the heat and fluid
Vapor compression type distilling units are balances throughout the plant. Adjustment of any
used in submarines and small diesel-driven sur- one control can produce widespread effects on
face craft where the daily requirements do not these balances. For example, an increase in the


feed to the first effect will raise the liquid level gland properly vented, gland properly packed and
in the first effect. More heat will be required to sealed, no air leaks in piping).
raise the feed to the boiling point, so that less heat
will be available for evaporation in the first-effect f. Tube nests properly drained.
shell and a smaller amount of heat will flow to
the second-effect tube nest. These changes would (1) Proper operation of all drain
work out to a new balanced condition, but other regulators.
adjustments would be required to make the new
balance satisfactory. Under such circumstances, (2) Proper operation of the tube nest
overcontrolling can cause many readjustments. drain pump.
The operator will always find it is better to make
adjustments singly and in small increments, allow- 3. Highest possible vacuum in the last-effect
ing enough time between each adjustment for the shell.
conditions to become steady.
a. No air leaks.
Causes of Low Plant Output b. Proper air ejector operation.
Failure to obtain full rated capacity is one of (1) Clean nozzle and strainer.
the most frequent troubles encountered during
operation of a distilling plant. The trouble may (2) Steam at the required quality and
be very difficult to remedy since it may result from quantity.
a combination of things. Following are the various
factors which promote full output of the distill- c. Ample flow of circulating water.
ing plant. Any variations of these may cause a
decrease in the plant’s efficiency. (1) Clean strainer, pipeline, and tubes.
1. Proper steam pressure above the orifice. (2) Proper valve settings.
2. Highest possible vacuum in the first-effect (3) Proper operation of the circulating
tube nest. pump.
a. No air leaks d. Effective surface in the distilling
b. Proper water levels in the evaporator condenser.
(1) No undue deposits inside the tubes.
c. Evaporator tube nests continuously