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List and explain the methods or strategies that a teacher will use to enhance

his/her teaching.

materials, teaching aids and supplementary materials by the teacher, with the aim of

achieving the teaching and learning objectives. Teaching methods or strategies

generally include teacher-centered, pupil- centered and material-centered strategies.

A number of teaching methods have been designed which can be used as teaching

methods for mathematics. Some of them are listed below:

1. QUESTIONING METHOD

mathematics and so far the most useful and effective method to test knowledge

learned as well as to generate new knowledge or learning.

The aims and uses of the questioning method for learning mathematics are

explained below:

• It motivates pupils to recall the concept learned through the set induction

so that it can be related to the new concept in the following lesson.

• It also can be used to guide pupils to use their thinking ability to forward

some related questions to solve certain mathematical problems.

their mental training.

eventually be able to make accurate summary or conclusion.

PS 4305 CT:LOWER PRIMARY MATHEMATICS 3

The following table shows some mathematics questions that follow the

Bloom’s Taxonomy:-

1. knowledge (i) What is the formula for the area of a triangle?

(facts) (ii) What is the product of 3 x 5?

2. Understanding (i) Use the number line to find the sum of 3 + 15

3. Application (i) A field with length 551m and breadth 310m is to be fenced

by using wires. What is the total length of the wires used?

4. Analysis (i) List out all the common characteristics between a cuboid

and a cube

5. Synthesis (i) If 4 x 6 = 24

6 x 4 = 24 complete a x b =

6. Evaluation (i) show that (a + b) +c = a + (b + c)

method of teaching is a method used to train pupils to use teaching aids for

them to learn mathematics concepts or facts. Practical work method is a

popular method which has been widely used in schools. The followings are

some examples of mathematics activities which can be carried out in the

classroom:

• Guide pupils to cut or fold papers or manila cards into few equal parts to

learn the concept of fraction.

master the characteristics of solid geometry.

• Play “make the price” – provide pupils with a choice of small items that

have been labeled with a price. Provide them with a bag of real coins and

a recording sheet that has been divided into 4 sections. Pupils choose an

item and label price on recording sheet. Pupils create at least 3 different

06B0402, 06B0403, 06B0414, 06B0421, 06B0422

PS 4305 CT:LOWER PRIMARY MATHEMATICS 3

combinations.

cylinder to master the skill and concept of length, weight and volume of

liquid.

By using this method, it would give confidence to the pupils in the learning of

mathematics. It is easier for the pupils to understand as well as to remember the

mathematical concepts and skills through their own practical experience. In

addition, playing mathematical game by using relevant learning aids, pupils

will enjoy pleasant experience during learning mathematics.

3. INDUCTION METHOD

theorem, formula based on the study of specific mathematics examples. This

method required pupils to study mathematics examples, then to make

comparison and analysis until a generalization is derived.

multiplication, pupils are given several pairs of example; follow by common

characteristics to obtain a general idea.

The following figure illustrates the teaching and learning process, using the

induction method to obtain the commutative law a x b = b x a

3 x 5 =15

5 x 3 = 15

3x5=5x3

axb=bxa

6x7=7x6

6 x 7 = 42

7 x 6 = 42

4. INQUIRY-DISCOVERY MODEL

06B0402, 06B0403, 06B0414, 06B0421, 06B0422

PS 4305 CT:LOWER PRIMARY MATHEMATICS 3

investigating, analyzing and discovering. Learning by means of this method needs

skills such as making comparison and looking for similar characteristics to

formulate a certain generalization. Figure below summarizes the learning process

by using the inquiry discovery method:

the strategy for related analyze the generalization

research solving information information or conclusion

topic problem

For example, pupils can discover the formula of area of a rectangle by using this

method. Pupils are given a few rectangles of different sizes and arranged by

drawing a number of squares with measurement 1cm x 1cm in each of them.

3cm 3cm

2cm

A C B

Then pupils are guided to count the number of squares in each rectangle to obtain

its area. Pupils are then guided to use the information obtained from the above

activity to complete the following table.

counting the squares

A 6cm2 3 2 6

B 12cm2 4 3 12

C 15 cm2 5 3 15

PS 4305 CT:LOWER PRIMARY MATHEMATICS 3

Pupils are required to check and analyze the information recorded in the table.

Through discussion and comparison between the area of rectangle derived from

counting the number of squares and from the product of length and breadth, pupils

will finally discover the formula of rectangle as follow:

5. COOPERATIVE LEARNING

pupils, who usually learn together to achieve certain learning objective in class.

During the process of cooperative learning, pupils will gather together to

interact and help one another in their learning activities. In other words,

cooperative learning is actually a teaching strategy and method whereby a

teacher supervises and guides pupils in a group which consists of pupils with

mixed abilities, to work together and help one another to work out a certain

assigned mathematics course work or project.

For example, pupils are asked to collect data based on pupils’ interests

(favourite books, foods, drinks etc) then they have to construct appropriate

graphs and compose a paragraph explaining the results of the data collection

and display it in the classroom.

6. PEER TUTORING

Teachers can simultaneously engage all pupils in learning and practicing basic

maths or problem skills using peer tutoring. Peer tutoring is an instructional

06B0402, 06B0403, 06B0414, 06B0421, 06B0422

PS 4305 CT:LOWER PRIMARY MATHEMATICS 3

task. The pairs of pupils can be of the same or differing ability or/and age

range. Peer interaction can have a powerful influence on academic motivation

and achievement. Examples of mathematics content suited for peer tutoring

include addition, subtraction, multiplication, number concepts, measurement

and fraction.

Natalie Josh

Tutor: The purpose of this lesson is to read, to identify parts of a chart and to interpret

information from a chart in order to solve a problem or answer a question. (Tutor states the

learning objective.)

Tutor: Do you know what orchard means? (Explain words that are unfamiliar to students to

make the exercise more meaningful.) What does the picture of the apple below the chart show?

Tutee: 2 apples mean Tamara has 8 apples and 3 apples means that Raj has 12 apples.

Tutor: How do you know that? Can you show me with a picture or tallies?

PS 4305 CT:LOWER PRIMARY MATHEMATICS 3

Tutee: For one apple, I have 1 1 1 1. That is 4. For 2 apples, I have 11111111. That is 8.

Tutee: It wants to know the number of apples Natalie picked. Not the number of apples she ate.

7. USING INTERNET

net, which is a kind of communication system enabling computer users to

communicate globally with others. Therefore, mathematics teachers should

attempt to master the skills of using internet so as to obtain current information on

mathematics development and the latest pedagogy in teaching. Besides, teachers

can utilize the computer skill to guide pupils to use internet to search and receive

education information and interactive learning.

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