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# PS 4305 CT:LOWER PRIMARY MATHEMATICS 3

List and explain the methods or strategies that a teacher will use to enhance
his/her teaching.

## Method of teaching is an organization and application of teaching technique, teaching

materials, teaching aids and supplementary materials by the teacher, with the aim of
achieving the teaching and learning objectives. Teaching methods or strategies
generally include teacher-centered, pupil- centered and material-centered strategies.

A number of teaching methods have been designed which can be used as teaching
methods for mathematics. Some of them are listed below:

1. QUESTIONING METHOD

## Questioning method is often used in almost all stages of teaching in

mathematics and so far the most useful and effective method to test knowledge
learned as well as to generate new knowledge or learning.

The aims and uses of the questioning method for learning mathematics are
explained below:

• It motivates pupils to recall the concept learned through the set induction
so that it can be related to the new concept in the following lesson.

• It also can be used to guide pupils to use their thinking ability to forward
some related questions to solve certain mathematical problems.

## • It sharpens the pupils’ mind by forwarding appropriate questions for

their mental training.

## • It is used to guide pupils in inquiry-discovery activities so that they will

eventually be able to make accurate summary or conclusion.

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The following table shows some mathematics questions that follow the
Bloom’s Taxonomy:-

## Level Examples of mathematics questions

1. knowledge (i) What is the formula for the area of a triangle?
(facts) (ii) What is the product of 3 x 5?
2. Understanding (i) Use the number line to find the sum of 3 + 15
3. Application (i) A field with length 551m and breadth 310m is to be fenced
by using wires. What is the total length of the wires used?
4. Analysis (i) List out all the common characteristics between a cuboid
and a cube
5. Synthesis (i) If 4 x 6 = 24
6 x 4 = 24 complete a x b =
6. Evaluation (i) show that (a + b) +c = a + (b + c)

## Practical work can be defined as a type of activity. Using practical work as a

method of teaching is a method used to train pupils to use teaching aids for
them to learn mathematics concepts or facts. Practical work method is a
popular method which has been widely used in schools. The followings are
some examples of mathematics activities which can be carried out in the
classroom:

• Guide pupils to cut or fold papers or manila cards into few equal parts to
learn the concept of fraction.

## • Make geometrical models such as a cuboid, cube, cylinder and others to

master the characteristics of solid geometry.

• Play “make the price” – provide pupils with a choice of small items that
have been labeled with a price. Provide them with a bag of real coins and
a recording sheet that has been divided into 4 sections. Pupils choose an
item and label price on recording sheet. Pupils create at least 3 different
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combinations.

## • Use measuring instruments such as ruler, weighing scale and measuring

cylinder to master the skill and concept of length, weight and volume of
liquid.

By using this method, it would give confidence to the pupils in the learning of
mathematics. It is easier for the pupils to understand as well as to remember the
mathematical concepts and skills through their own practical experience. In
addition, playing mathematical game by using relevant learning aids, pupils
will enjoy pleasant experience during learning mathematics.

3. INDUCTION METHOD

## The induction method is generally used to derive certain mathematics principle,

theorem, formula based on the study of specific mathematics examples. This
method required pupils to study mathematics examples, then to make
comparison and analysis until a generalization is derived.

## For example, in order to derive the commutative law in the operation of

multiplication, pupils are given several pairs of example; follow by common
characteristics to obtain a general idea.

The following figure illustrates the teaching and learning process, using the
induction method to obtain the commutative law a x b = b x a

3 x 5 =15
5 x 3 = 15
3x5=5x3
axb=bxa
6x7=7x6
6 x 7 = 42
7 x 6 = 42

4. INQUIRY-DISCOVERY MODEL
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## As in the inquiry and discovery method, it covers activities such as planning,

investigating, analyzing and discovering. Learning by means of this method needs
skills such as making comparison and looking for similar characteristics to
formulate a certain generalization. Figure below summarizes the learning process
by using the inquiry discovery method:

## Identify Plan the Collect Study and Derive

the strategy for related analyze the generalization
research solving information information or conclusion
topic problem

For example, pupils can discover the formula of area of a rectangle by using this
method. Pupils are given a few rectangles of different sizes and arranged by
drawing a number of squares with measurement 1cm x 1cm in each of them.

3cm 3cm
2cm

## 3cm 5cm 4cm

A C B
Then pupils are guided to count the number of squares in each rectangle to obtain
its area. Pupils are then guided to use the information obtained from the above
activity to complete the following table.

## Rectangle Area of rectangle by Length (l) Breadth (b) Lxb

counting the squares
A 6cm2 3 2 6
B 12cm2 4 3 12
C 15 cm2 5 3 15

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Pupils are required to check and analyze the information recorded in the table.
Through discussion and comparison between the area of rectangle derived from
counting the number of squares and from the product of length and breadth, pupils
will finally discover the formula of rectangle as follow:

## Area of rectangle = length x breadth

5. COOPERATIVE LEARNING

## The term cooperative learning is actually the combined effort of a group of

pupils, who usually learn together to achieve certain learning objective in class.
During the process of cooperative learning, pupils will gather together to
interact and help one another in their learning activities. In other words,
cooperative learning is actually a teaching strategy and method whereby a
teacher supervises and guides pupils in a group which consists of pupils with
mixed abilities, to work together and help one another to work out a certain
assigned mathematics course work or project.

For example, pupils are asked to collect data based on pupils’ interests
(favourite books, foods, drinks etc) then they have to construct appropriate

graphs and compose a paragraph explaining the results of the data collection
and display it in the classroom.

6. PEER TUTORING

Teachers can simultaneously engage all pupils in learning and practicing basic
maths or problem skills using peer tutoring. Peer tutoring is an instructional
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## strategy that consists of pairing pupils together to learn or practice an academic

task. The pairs of pupils can be of the same or differing ability or/and age
range. Peer interaction can have a powerful influence on academic motivation
and achievement. Examples of mathematics content suited for peer tutoring
include addition, subtraction, multiplication, number concepts, measurement
and fraction.

Natalie Josh

## Raj Each stands for four apples.

Tutor: The purpose of this lesson is to read, to identify parts of a chart and to interpret
information from a chart in order to solve a problem or answer a question. (Tutor states the
learning objective.)

## Tutee: Apples Picked at the Orchard

Tutor: Do you know what orchard means? (Explain words that are unfamiliar to students to
make the exercise more meaningful.) What does the picture of the apple below the chart show?

## Tutor: What do 2 apples and 3 apples show you?

Tutee: 2 apples mean Tamara has 8 apples and 3 apples means that Raj has 12 apples.

Tutor: How do you know that? Can you show me with a picture or tallies?

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Tutee: For one apple, I have 1 1 1 1. That is 4. For 2 apples, I have 11111111. That is 8.

## Tutor: What does the question on the right ask you?

Tutee: It wants to know the number of apples Natalie picked. Not the number of apples she ate.

## Tutee: 4 apples since one apple stands for 4 apples.

7. USING INTERNET

## Internet is the abbreviation of internetwork in English. It functions as a connecting

net, which is a kind of communication system enabling computer users to
communicate globally with others. Therefore, mathematics teachers should
attempt to master the skills of using internet so as to obtain current information on
mathematics development and the latest pedagogy in teaching. Besides, teachers
can utilize the computer skill to guide pupils to use internet to search and receive
education information and interactive learning.