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1.1 Fluid and Fluid Properties 1.2 Fluid-is any substance that deforms continuously when it is subjected to a tangential stress or shear force Stress-force per unit area Types: Normal Stress-acts perpendicular to the surface Shear Stress-acts tangentially to the surface Pressure-normal compressive force per unit area Types: Gauge Pressure-certain pressure exceeds that of the atmosphere Absolute Pressure-gauge plus absolute pressure Velocity-rate of change of the position of a fluid particle with time Mass and Volumetric flow rate is defined as  Density-mass per unit volume


Rheology and Classification of Fluids

Rheology-discipline of fluid mechanics which studies the relationship between fluid deformation and stress TYPES:Purely Viscous (a) Time Independent 1. Newtonian-constant viscosity 2. Non-Newtonian a. Bingham-stress is required before constant viscosity (suspension in water, starch) b. Dilatant-shear thickening (quick sand, KFC gravy) c. Pseudoplastic-shear thinning (mayonnaise) (b) Time dependent 1. Rheopectic-thickening 2. Thixotropic-thinning (paint) 1.3 Fluid Statics and Manometry

Barometer-used to measure atmospheric pressure Manometer-used to measure unknown pressure, difference Manometry-is a common and accurate method of measuring relatively low fluid pressure by causing the pressure to raise a column in a liquid Devices: Piezometer-generic name given to a pressuremeasuring device U-tube manometer-is an extension of the piezometer where a double limb tube is used. Solving Fluid Statics 1. Choose the two reference points. 2. Use equation below (potential head) to solve and equate pressure up to the liquid end or boundary. 3. For sign convention, h must be higher than the point of balance to be positive. 1.4 Classification of fluid flow and the continuity equation Fluid Flow: Uniform-velocity of fluid is the same in magnitude and direction at every point in the fluid Non-uniform-velocities at different point are not the same Steady-may vary from point to point but not with time Unsteady-condition change with time at different points Restraining Effects: Closed-conduit-flow is completely enclosed by solids (pipes) Open-channel-one surface is exposed to atmosphere (flow of river) Free-surface-flow in which does not have any contact with solid (rainfall) Incompressible flow-fluid s density is constant Streamlines-imaginary curves drawn through a fluid to indicate the direction of motion in various sections

Newton s Law of Viscosity-it is given by

2 1

Note: Pt. 1 is positioned where the force is applied Viscosity-ability to resist motion, UNITS Symbol SI F/A N/m2 kg/ms g 9.8 m/s2 g/gc 9.8 N/kg

Fluid static-branch of fluid mechanics which studies systems in which fluid is at rest Pascal s princliple-for the same fluid, the pressure is the same at the same elevation For incompressible fluid:

Property Pressure Viscosity Gravity Mass Force

AES lbf/ft2 lbm/fts 32.2 ft/s2 1 lbf/lbm

Compressible fluid: Compressible, but temp changes:

Pressure Measurement: Bourdon gauge-gauge pressure in pipelines

Streamtubes-separates segment of a fluid for fluid flow analysis Potential flow-occures in a region where influence of solid boundary is small or negligible Ideal fluid-incompressible, inviscid and isothermal Continuity equation-steady state mass balance for fluid flow. It is given by  The overall mechanical energy balance is

Classification of Re Number Flow Regime Reynolds Number Laminar Re<2100 Turbulent Re>4000 Friction types: Skin friction-tangential stress or drag on the surface that is oriented on the direction of the flow. Form friction-occurs whenever a fludi changes path to pass around a solid boundary set in flow path Friction factor,f-dimensionless wall stress defined as ratio of wall stress to inertial force per unit area Evaluation of friction factor

Complex Piping System: Series-connected end to end Parallel-connected in such a way the flow branches will meet up again Pipe junction-consist of one or more pipes that entirely separates into branches Solving complex piping systems 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1.6 Use continuity equation. Do mechanical energy balance per branch. Assume f are all equal. Solve for u. Repeat the process. Check your answer if the f from the last iteration is the same. Compressible fluid flow

Bernoulli s Equation-simpler form of mechanical energy balance, no shaft work and no frictional dissipation. Solving Energy Balance 1. Assume no fluid pressure difference unless stated, flow from atmosphere to tank, viceversa or without elevation, with pump. No kinetic energy for same end to end diameter. No potential for no height difference. Friction is not neglected for sudden expansion, contraction, fittings, and flowing in long pipe with roughnes. Shaft work is not present for no work is applied to or by the fluid. Fluid flow in pipes or tubings

For laminar flow: For turbulent, smooth: For turbulent, rough: Friction K s where  

Mass velocity, G constant at steady state

2. 3. 4.


Compressible flow varies with pressure (isothermal) Weymount Equation:



      Note: For Ke and Kc, the higher value of velocity is used in F eqn. and Using the equivalent length   

Reynolds number (Re)-dimensionless number defined as the ratio of inertia and viscous forces.

Mach number-ratio of fluid velocity (u) at the point to the velocity of sound. 1.7 Measurement of Fluid Flow

where u is the velocity inside the pipe, with diameter D. While for non-circular conduits,   

Cases in solving 1. Case 1: Given Q and D, req, P 2. Case 2: Given P and D, unknown Q 3. Case 3:Given P and Q, unknown D For iterative solution, assume u=1 or D=1.

Flow meter types: (1) Obstruction meter-indicate fluid flow by change in pressure a. Full bore meter-Venturi, Orifice, Flow nozzle b. Insertion meter-pitot tube

(2) Variable area meter-reading is dependent on variable flow area at constant pressure drop. Venturi meter-converging and diverging sections, constricted throat

C=1 0.01 (simple pitot) and C=0.98 to 1 Using Fig. 10-13 of PCH8, you can relate Remax to u/umax Rotameter- consist of solid float or plummet where fluid flows upward and the flow rate is indicated by equilibrium position reached by float. Notch-opening in the side of the tank or reservoir Weir-a notch on larger scale found on rivers 1.8 Pumps

Pumps in series and parallel For series pumps,   For parallel pumps,  

A1 u1 P1

A2 u2 P2 h

1.9 Pumps-machine that imparts energy to the fluid flowing through them. Turbines-converts fluid power into mechanical power Fans/blowers-used in koving gases NPSHA(net positive suction head)-total such head that is available

Agitation of Liquids

Agitation or mixing-is typically carried out in a cylindrical tank with the agitation provided by blades rotating on a shaft coincident w/ vertical axis. Typical Agitator parts:

-pressure drop magnitude

  where Pinlet can be solved by MEB starting ftom the top surface of fluid(pt. 1) to the prump inlet (pt. 2) Cavitation-occurs when NPSHA<NPSHR Specific speed, Ns-rev. per minute needed to produce 1 gpm at 1 ft head (can also be in L/s and ft)

Y=1 for liquids Orifice meter-sharp-square edged orifice hole with straight walls perpendicular to the flat upstream face.

Similarity Theorem and Scale Factor, R 1. Determine the scaleup/down ratio. Volume of tank: 

Pump Performance 

For MEB, use:

For Re>20,000; Co=0.61

2. Determine the dimensions using R These includes: W, H, C, L, DT, J and also Pinput 3. Determine the speed, N

This ends in form: Write in terms of Q or u, for dependent term is Hsys. Pitot tube-insertion meter that measures local velocity (velocity at pt.) Affinity Laws where n depends on its application: n=1 flow velocity sensitive n=3/4 dispersion sensitive n=2/3 energy intensity sensitive 4. Determine the power input, Pinput

resistance of filter medium cross sectional area Constant Rate Filtration See PCH8, 18-12 Types of mixing equipment 1. Axial-flow turbines-give a flow coming off the impeller o of approx. 45 and recirculation pattern, Re=200~600. 2. Radial-flow impeller-having blades that are parallel to the axis of drive shaft 3. Fluid foil impeller-designed to maximize flow and minimize shear rate Baffles-are metal plates that are mounted vertically along the wall of the agitation vessel or tank. Pitch-is the axial distance a free propeller would move through a non-yielding liquid during one revolution. Analysis for unbaffled tank Froude Number-dimensionless number that is defined as ratio of forces associated with kinetic energy and forcess of gravity Power number-drag coefficient for agitation system 1.10 Filtration

Vertical Packed Bed Filtration:

where is the rate of filtration Additionally, where is filtrate density, m is wet cake to dry cake ratio and Cx is the weight fraction of solid in slurry Packed Bed Filtration Ergon Equation

Horizontal Packed Bed Filtration

Psys PPB

Slurry-wet solution or initial solution Filter cake-dry cake Filtrate-liquid removed Constant Pressure Filtration 

were particle property are porosity (volume of void space per total volume of packed bed) sphericity particle diameter 1-D: if sphere, diameter 2-D: smallest dimension Fluid properties density of fluid superficial velocity Use MEB:


viscosity of solution, sometimes equal to liquid viscosity resistance of filter cake concentration of slurry, msolid per volume solution

For horizontal: For vertical: