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PRESENTATION TITLED WITH A BIRDS EYE VIEW-A GHANAIANS ASSESSMENT OF YOUTH PARTICIPATION IN POLITICS IN KENYA, AT A PUBLIC FORUM AT YMCA

NAIROBI UNDER THE AUPICES OF DAILOGUE AFRICA. SYNOPSIS When you see a pregnant goat in the market for sale, it means that there is a more pregnant problem at home. The fact that I am a young African crying foul about the bestial conditions of the youth means that the situation is alarming. However, before I proceed to the meat of todays discussion, it I important for me to say a few attributes about our two countries. 1. Kenya and Ghana suffered the brunt of inglorious British colonial domination. Ghana became independent on march 6, 1957 while Kenya attained her independence on December 12, 1963 2. the economies of two countries survive on rain fed agriculture to date 3. Kenya is the doyen of east African democracies while Ghana is for west Africa 4. The re-emergence of multiparty democracy materialised in 1992 with both countries conducting elections after several decades of autocratic rule. 5. Kenya is hugely endowed with sporting talents especially athletics while Ghana is adorned and remembered for her skills and artistry in soccer- at least we were the darling team for Africa in the just concluded world cup. 6. L &G, and Comrades, on the strength of the few pointers, I proclaim that I am on familiar grounds NOW THE THRUST OF THIS PAPER 7. This paper takes a critical look at the role young Kenyans have played in the evolution and subsequent management of this proud east African country-A country which has enjoyed unparalleled magnitude of political stability and has become the hub of business in east Africa, the great lakes and the horn of Africa. Thanks to the tolerance and accommodating spirit of Kenyans even in the face of difficult governance issues. 8. It also relate to the place of the Kenyan woman in nation building as a collective. The paper has benefited from information gathered from peoples oral account and also of some literally works interlaced with personal observations and contacts during my two-month stay in Kenya.

9. From this background, I wish to admit before hand that there may be a few of youth and related occurrences that this paper inadvertently may not have captured. Yet it is my strongest opinion that those issues not captured would not have substantially changed the matrix of this presentation. 10. It is the aim of this paper to trigger debate on the role young people and in particular young women can play in making Kenya and Africa a better place than inherited. 11. Finally, I wish to unequivocally state that I have not come here to say what everyone of us can say, but to say what we all want to say but unable to say. WHO IS A YOUTH? 12. There is no one universally acceptable definition for the term Youth as the definition keeps oscillating from one spot to another on the same globe. To define the youth anywhere in the world is an exceptionally Herculean assignment and in Kenya, a daunting challenge. The task is further complicated when one thinks of the youth in a political context (like in this particular case) 13. In the political perspective, the youth is defined as anyone who thinks and acts like a youth winger of a given political party, or a political warlord. This kind of youth is an errand runner, mobiliser, heckler, stone thrower, tent pitcher, bag/briefcase carrier, gossiper, all rolled into one. This picture of the youth as per this kind of definition is most unfortunate and absurd because it stereotypes a very important sector of society as, at best trouble makers, and at worst useless to itself and society and maybe to God. 14. Having painted that sad portrait of the youth, let me turn to the conventional definition of youth, which are those persons aged between 18 and 40. This definition could vary depending on who is doing it. In Kenya, the implicit constitutional age of 35 as qualification mark to be able to contest presidential elections could be the age limit of one to be called a youth. In Ghana, however this constitutional age is pegged at 40 hence the variations as explain in the introduction. The Youth Agenda defines the youth as, people within the 18-35 age brackets; this definition is chosen probably to satisfy the Kenyan constitution. I understand the UNs definition of the youth is persons aged between 15 and 24. The recently launched Kenya Young
Presented by Anbataayela Bernard.Mornah, at YMCA, Nairobi, Kenya
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Parliamentary Association (KYPA) defines youth in parliament as those MPs aged 45 and below. Definitely, however, there is a difference between young, youthful and youth. For purposes of this engagement and by virtue of my affiliation, I choose to accept YAAs definition of the youth (18-35).

THE KENYAN YOUTH IN THE INDEPENDENCE STRUGGLE 15. On the occasion of the liberation struggle throughout Africa and Kenya in particular, the youth served as the raw material for the processing of the fight against colonial domination. Most of the leading members of the MAU MAU were young and energetic who carried the fight to the colonial administration and hence suffered the brutal atrocities, tortures, incarcerations and deaths by the resistant colonialist. 16. No wonder the immediate post-independence politics in Kenya was driven by Kenyans within this age bracket. The legacy bequeathed by, these first timers at managing national life remain monumental as most of the infrastructural layout of Kenya can be credited to that generation. Almost 40 years after, Kenya has elected Mwai Kibaki who served as a minister in the first cabinet of Mzee (Oldman) Jomo Kenyatta as president of the country. Some of the young people of the age brackets 18-35 who blazed the trail of Kenya at independence include, Kenneth Matiba, Martin Shikuku, Tom Mboya, JM Kariuki, Gama Pinto and Paul Ngei all of whom were in either their late twenties or early 30s at independence. Their role in shaping the politics of Kenya as political party leaders and top civil servants cannot be subsumed. 17. From the brief insight into history of the role of the youth in national reconstruction, there are more blessings one can count as far as the Kenyan youth are concerned. The point here is that, retrospectively, the image of the Kenyan youth has been a positive and refreshing one. Somewhere along the way, however, as Kenyas politics got hopelessly corrupted, youth became part and parcel of the definition of this bad politics. 18. Politics essentially shapes all the other spheres of life, and one can not fault former President Arap Moi Torotichs wisdom, siasa mbaya, maisha mbaya (bad politics lead to bad life). RECESSION OF PEDIGREE OF YOUTH
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19. Dramatically, as the youth receded in their traditional role of using their energy for productive ventures partly because the youth of yesteryears are the same, who occupy the positions the led at independence and now have graduated to become professional politicians. And not willingly to allow for new and probably modern youth to take their stead, they have adopted dubious tactics to keep themselves in power. To maintain their ill-gotten dominance, the have succeeded in creating a youth in Kenya as per the ensuing sad case. 20. At the pinnacle of KANUs political monolithism in the mid 1980s, this version of the youth was best represented by the KANU youth wingers, who specialised in spreading terror among real and imagined KANU critics. Memories are fresh about the despicable behaviour of KANU youth in towns like Nakuru. They were literally government unto themselves, with powers to arrest, prosecute and torture the people whose faces they did not like on the unacceptable platform that they opposed the government. 21. With the heated clamour for multipartysm in the early 90s KANU again, redefined youth as anyone who professes support for KANU, and who loyally offers their services to the then ruling party, in such clownish terms as KANU ni Mama na Baba (KANU is my mother and my father). This era saw greying university professors also calling themselves youth and literally auctioning their brains to State House in exchange for political favours. But can anyone blame them, when it was clear that survival anchored on by been called a youth? 22. Immediately after KANU acceded to political pluralism, in late 1991 the party moved fast to yet again redefine youth. Youth for KANU 92 (YK92) was launched at the Nyayo Stadium with unprecedented pomp and pageantry. This outfit, spearheaded by a clique of young Kenyans in their late twenties and early 30s turned out to be a well-lubricated KANU campaign machinery. 23. It was common knowledge that the new kids on the block were soon swimming in money, which they would generously dish out as a way of buying Kenyans loyalty for Mama na Baba. To date, YK92 evokes memories of wands of five hundred bank notes then popularly known as Jirongos, after one of its leaders. 24. The image of youth as a negative phenomenon was further entrenched by what was popularly called land clashes in parts of
Presented by Anbataayela Bernard.Mornah, at YMCA, Nairobi, Kenya
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Kenyas Rift Valley and Coast provinces between 1991 and 1998. The then ruling elite misled indigenous young Kenyans in these provinces to believe that their economic salvation lay in kicking out foreigners. In actual sense though, land clashes was an advance rigging strategy. The bloodletting that accompanied land clashes marks one of Kenyas darkest historical chapters. 25. By the time Kenyans were going for their first multiparty elections after a decade in 1992, the political atmosphere was dangerously charged, and it is only by Gods enormous mercies that the nation avoided civil strife. 26. The situation today has witnessed a marked improvement as the youth are creating a new image for themselves and not subject to the whimsical dictates of the older generation as championed by YAA, 4Cs and FES among several NGOs engaged in reversing the sagged image of young Kenyans. Whether the interventions by these organisations will yield the desired dividends, I say time will tell but I hope they succeed. YOUTH IN GOVERNACE STRUCTURES: PARLIAMENT 27. There is need for one to consider the placement of young Kenyans in all sectors and attempt a diagnosis of the problem and offer prescriptions thereto. 28. The considerably dishonest nature of Kenyas politics cum the seemingly entrenched anti-youth cultural practices has ensured a limited role of the youth in governance structures. One is even more disadvantaged if you have not materially arrived or endowed, the situation is worst if one is young woman. 29. A cursory review of the role the youth had played in the 2002 general elections reveals some very devastating facts. Out of the 106 under 35ves who participated in the historic elections at the parliamentary level, only 12 made it to the august House, representing a paltry 11% of those who contested and approximately a dismal 6% of the total elected membership of 210 MPs. Cruelly, none of the twelve was a woman with similar age. When it came to nominations to Parliament, only NARCs Cecily Mbarire and KANUs Amina Abdalla were lucky to be the only under 35ves to be picked by their respective parties. Indeed, of the 12 nominated legislators of the 9th Parliament, only three are below 40. 30. In an environment of commercialised and patriarchal politics in Kenya, the youth can hardly join Parliament, a very important
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governance structure. By her own account, Hon. Cecily, (then 29) who lost to a wealthy and elderly male candidate had to live with derogatory comments such as kasichana kanataka nini kwa siasa? (What is this young girl looking for in politics?). However, she put up a spirited fight and managed to lose with a very small margin during the nominations stage how many can survive this abuse? 31. Patrick Wandabisi (then 32) tried his hand at Sirisia Constituency, Bungoma District. Voters dismissed him as too young, and some advised him to go and grow beards first. Mr. Ichenga Mugao (then 24) went for the Tharaka Parliamentary seat. He had to keep his beards long throughout the campaign period to prove he was ripe for such an important position. He lost, nevertheless. 32. Inside Parliament, young MPs are again disadvantaged due to an established tradition, which pays homage to old age and experience, in that order. The chair has this tendency to only catch the eyes of elderly MPs. This tradition has institutionalised an atmosphere of intimidation in the House, and ensured that young MPs leadership potential inside the Chamber is hardly fully exploited. Kenyas young MPs hope to address this problem among others, through KYPA, whose goal according to their strategic plan is to build the capacity and enhance the effective participation of young leaders at all levels in the country 33. It is significant to note that in the July 24, 2006 by elections, occasioned by the death of five MPs in a Marsabit plane crash, two young men under 30 years were elected out of the five seats, representing 40% percent-big boost to young Kenyans. If this trend is repeated in the main 2007 election, it will definitely signal a reinvention of the glorious days of youth empowerment. Note again that none of the elected MPs in the by elections was a woman. Even as we celebrate the enormous victories of these young MPs, society is monitoring what values they represent. If they outstandingly perform and live up to the dream of the people, then many more young people will be entrusted with responsibility in the next elections. Conversely, if they assume the shape of the current leadership of arrogance, deception, corruption and opulent lifestyle, I am afraid that the struggle for young people with value driven leadership will take a nosedive. EXECUTIVE
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34. The arm which has only the President subjected to popular elections, with all ministers and assistant ministers appointed by the president without a parliamentary vetting is disgusting in terms of youth representation. Of the 35 ministers none is below 40 and only 5 out of the 68 assistant ministers are below 40. It is interesting that a person who contributed his youth to nation building now elected President does not see need in incorporating young people whose uncorrupted and fertile energy is what can drive the national agenda. CIVIL SERVICE 35. The example of the dynamic and versatile leadership charm of Tom Mboya (28) in the Trade Union during the independence struggle is yet to be equalled. Just as that of Mr. Kenneth Matiba as a most effective education PS at age 31 in the First Republic is always cited as testimony that the youth can deliver if given a chance. The Second and Third Republics have however performed dismally as far as creating an environment for young people to actualise themselves. 36. The NARC administration is particularly doing badly on this score. The top echelon of the civil service today is dominated by the grey and greying generations. Just as in every bad situation some good can be adduced, it is essential to give credit where it is due, though; there are a number of young Kenyans who occupy key positions in the NARC government- but as always in insignificant numbers. The head of the Presidential Press Service, the Presidents Personal assistant, and government spokesperson are all under 40s. None of them is a woman, nevertheless. PARASTATAL SECTOR 37. The parastatal sector is where the youth have had perhaps the rawest deal. None of the CEOs and chairmen is known to be young. NGOs/CSOs 38. This sector of the Kenyan economy is widely the most occupied by young people. It is the civil society sector where the youth seem to have triumphed. A sector dominated by middleaged men and women up to early 2000, today the civil society is almost the preserve of men and women in their 30s. This is evident by the fact that it was this sector that spearheaded what has come to be known as the second liberation of Kenya as represented by the tremendous pressure it exerted on government to yield to reforms that led to multipartism in 1992
Presented by Anbataayela Bernard.Mornah, at YMCA, Nairobi, Kenya
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and the eventual transition from KANU to NARC in the 2002 elections-the spirit of the youth lingers on. LOCAL AUTHORITIES 39. The local authority sector has witnessed a sterling show by the high number of young people. A laid-back observation around the country confirms that there is a critical mass of young councillors and this may yet represent the beginning of young people asserting themselves for greater national positions. There is even greater possibility of most of these young councillors gunning for mayoral positions as indicated by most of the councillors and aspiring councillors I have met. YOUTH NETWORKS 40. The youth are perhaps the most amoeba-like group. In Kenya, the situation is particularly critical because since independence, there has never been a youth movement as such. Again, unlike Ghana where statutory National Youth Council exists, Kenya is still grappling with the idea. It is only at the universities where one comes across structured and functional youth organisations in the form of students unions and national students organisations. 41. In the recent past, however, efforts towards a national youth movement have been going on. In 1997, the Youth Agenda facilitated the birth of the National Youth Movement (NYM). Between 2000 and 2001, another effort by YAA gave birth to Young Leadership Network (YLN), which is an alumni of young leaders from across the country that benefited from YAAs Young Leadership Training Programme. The YLN has since its establishment has generated an Internet discussion forum where young minds generate ideas which when coalesced would serve as a budding platform for progress. 42. YAA is also associated with the formation of the East African Youth Council (EAYCO). In early 2002, a group of young Kenyans associated with the Ufungamano Constitutional Review Initiative constituted itself into an initiative by the name National Youth Lobby for Reforms (NYLR). Their objective, according to one of the officials, Joseph Simekha, was to encourage peaceful and responsible youth participation in that years general elections. The outcome of the 2002 elections largely indicates that the overall object of the group was met. It is pertinent to appreciate the role young people can play in peace and stability in the nation.
Presented by Anbataayela Bernard.Mornah, at YMCA, Nairobi, Kenya

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43. There are other ongoing efforts towards youth networking, such as the Youth Parliament, the African Youth Parliament, Inter-party youth council and so on. 44. It is fair however, to appreciate the fact that so far, youth networks in Kenya are either dormant (exist on paper only) or at their nascent stages of formation. To me, part of the problem lies in the following questions: 47.10 Are youth a conscious constituency? 47.11 If the answer to the above question is in the affirmative, what are some of the factors inhibiting youth networking in Kenya? 47.12 If the answer is in the negative, where does the problem lie? 47.13 Or is there a need for an active youth movement/networks in Kenya? 45. I ask these questions because as there is so much brouhaha on the need for either a new or comprehensive constitution or calls for minimum reforms before the elections, the youth constituency is completely missing in this ruckus. Ironically, the outcomes of this debate will inform the kind of governance system in place which, may turnout not to recognise youth issues. There is urgent need for the youth to unambiguously state their position on the current debate if they do not want to be considered a pariah or reactionary constituency. In order not to be judged as a bunch of infantile nonentities, the youth must stake a voice in the ongoing debate on constitutional affairs to create a place in the current political equation so as to build from there. 46. Despite all the challenges facing the youth in Kenya, however, the youth have been most valuable as instruments of positive change in Kenya since the pre-independence days. The role of the likes of Tom Mboya in the trade union movement during the struggle for independence is a case in point. 47. Kenyas youth through university students unions such as SONU, KUSA, SOMU, and MUSO have been key to the democratisation process since the 80s. It is these youth who together with those in the civil society took mass action to a new level in the late 90s by pouring to the streets to press for KANUs exit from power, a dream that came to pass in 2002. 48. During the actual NARC campaigns in 2002, the youth organised themselves under the NARC Youth Congress (NYC). They went flat out to ensure NARCs victory. On January 8th 2003 when the newly elected president, Mwai Kibaki hosted his valued supports
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for a luncheon at State House, NYC members were there. Speaker after speaker showered praises on NYC for their invaluable role in ushering in change. The questions remain unanswered though, how members of NYC through whose toil and sweat NARC was elected are out of a government for which they sacrificed so much to bring to power. Were the youth only used as mere elections gizmo and after that their services disposed off awaiting another round of elections where their energies and zealousness would be exploited? -Good but for election campaigns only. YOUTH AND POLICY 49. Three key policy documents merit mention here: the NARC 2002 manifesto titled Democracy and Empowerment, the constituencies Development Fund (CDF) Act, 2003, and the Economic Recovery Strategy Paper on Employment Wealth Creation (ESR paper, 2003). Of the 65 page NARC manifesto, only 3/4s of a page is devoted to the youth and even then, it nauseates when one read what there is for them. Other than providing that at least one out of the fifteen members of the Constituency development fund (CDF) committee be a youth (Sect.23 (1) (g)) the Act - throughout its 51 sections and three schedules - clearly did not envisage a significant role for the youth in local development, despite the fact that the fund runs into millions of the taxpayers money directly channelled to the grassroots for development. The ERS Paper is even worse. Throughout its 23,000 plus words, the paper avoids mentioning youth directly. Now the ERS is the NARC governments development blue print, and if such an important document does not directly address the plight of those the future belongs, one is tempted to ask what the economic recovery is all about? YOUTH AND LAND OWNERSHIP 50. It is annihilating when one talks about land ownership in Kenya, it is estimated that 80% of the entire land mass of Kenya is owned by about ten households vis--vis Kenyatta, Moi, Kibaki,lord Delameire,Critcos, Charles Njonjo, Kenneth Matiba, Swaleh Nguru, Ali Mazrui, and Njenga Karume, thus the old crop of politicians. The youth are thus not in any position to access land for even agricultural purposes except where one is blessed by virtue of inheritance to stake a claim as a family of the usual aristocrats. YOUTH AND CRIME 51. Armed robbery, drug or substance abuse, rape and the many social vices that hitherto, remained the exclusive lot of the
Presented by Anbataayela Bernard.Mornah, at YMCA, Nairobi, Kenya
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middle aged and aged has taken a dramatic dive as the current level of crime wave is the total ownership of the youth aged between 15-40 years. According to prison service, eighty percent of incarcerated persons fall in this age category. This development evokes worrying signals for the future and portends real danger for the attempts being made to recreate Kenya. YOUTH AND CORRUPTION 52. The cankerous nature of corruption has had an insidious crept into the youth, not only of Kenya but also across the continent. A Minute silence, in memory of Munyakei, a towering giant in the crusade against corruption and true picture of African culture. He died a dignified pauper. Did Munyakei die for anything after trying to rescue his country from chronic bleeding of her resources by a few? Has justice been dispensed? How did the youth honour the selflessness of a man who sought to protect their future? Are the memories of our young heroes evaporating just like that? Are there David Munyakeis in our current generation? YOUTH AND MEDIA: 53. It is encouraging to note that about 90% of media practitioners are young people in Kenya. It is however disheartening to conclude that they dont find it attractive to report on youth organised issues. I am tempted to say that young people are virtually given media blackout. Whatever the case, one will have thought that youth issues should be dominant in media circles unfortunate it is not. My friends from the media, you have chosen a noble professional, and if you elect to denigrate it by biasing it, then posterity will dislodge your contribution in nation building RAY OF HOPEPOLITICAL LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME PLDP 54. In 2004, YAA and 4Cs with sponsorship from the Friedrich Ebert Stiftung [FES] initiated a political leadership development programme for young people interested in value-driven leadership in Kenya. Participants for the PLDP are drawn from all political parties and by extension all parts of Kenya. The programme has produced some of the finest young people who are gradually assuming leadership within their various political parties and other organisations. It is instructive to know that most of those who benefited from PLDP are energised and determined to contest in 2007 general elections and hopeful this would marked the collapse of the empire of first generation politicians in Kenya and their cohorts.
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KAMUKUNJI OF September 9, 06 55. As part of efforts towards revitalising, restrategising, repositioning and reinvigourating the youth in national affairs, the Inter-Party Youth Council [IPYC] in collaboration with some allied CSOs staged a protest rally to demand among other things: 55.1 The immediate franchising of about 5million youth voters 55.2 The improvement in the bestial conditions of young people and 55.3 Active political involvement of young people. 49. This laudable project suffered in many respects as epitomised by the scanty number of people who heeded the call. There were organisational deficiencies and the out come the Youth Rally that never was. Above all, Rev Timothy Njoya stole the thunder, leaving leading organisers desperately rolling over one another to have audience with the media given out the message to the media. For me either some group of people are imposing their ideas on the youth or that youth have lost their place in history. YOUTH OUT REACH PROGRAMME 56. YAA throughout the years have been organising community sensitisation programmes for young people dubbed recreating our republic. These workshops and the outcomes will be further deliberated at a National Youth Convention so as to enable the evolution of a national youth charter or Manifesto capturing the demands of young people to the government. THE PLACE OF KENYAN WOMEN IN GOVERNMENT 57. As a gender sensitive person and also one that believes that in every home there is a mother, my presentation will be a highly mutilated one if it fails to capture the travails of the Kenyan women. Throughout creation, their men counterparts have subjected women to raw deal. Some quote bible to support the subservient status of women in our society. Despite the highly difficult role women play in the upbringing of society right from conception, through labour and care, the role of women in leadership is yet to achieve reverence in our communities. This is epitomised by the various position men accede to women as in the case of being a treasurer or secretary (keeping minutes) of meetings. Yet the immaculate manner that women handle these positions and the money has not attracted their masculine counterparts to entrust them with superior positions. How sad? 58. Yet, during the wars of conquest women cooked for men and provided egogenic aid to the combatants-complimentary.
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59. The level of deprivation of the Kenyan woman is deplorable as they have no claim to land ownership, paucity of representation at all levels of governance structures in spite of the fact that women constitute about 56% of the voter population of Kenya-are women their own enemies? The question of whether women are their own enemies is viewed from the fact that when Prof Wangari Mathai (Nobel Prize laureate in environment) and Hon Charity Ngilu (Minister of Health) brave the odds and contested as Presidential Candidates, they performed abysmally. Indicating that their feminine counterparts rejected them in the polls-obviously, if you dont love yourself, love cannot be imposed on you by another who did 56% women voters prefer to serve their lot? In the 210 elected parliament only 18 of them, are women representing nearly 8.6% and of the 12 nominated MPs only 2 representing approximately 17%. 60. The executive arm is no different as there are only 2 substantial ministers out of the 35 ministers (5.7%) and a paltry 4 assistant ministers out of 68 assistant ministers (5.9%). These daring figures are at parallel with the population quotation of 56% women voters-something must be done. 61. Cognisance must be taken of the production of a women manifesto by women of Kenya, expressly stating the many denials and deprivation that women have gone through and also making specific demands on government for certain interests. This undoubtedly is a positive step and with a strong lobby team, there can be hope for women participation in the political process in Kenya in reasonable numbers. CONCLUSION 62. In 1963, Kenya emerged from colonialism, as a country of diverse people with a simple yet profound unifying vision of eradicating poverty, ignorance and disease in order to achieve social justice, human dignity and prosperity for all. 63. This was a vision rooted in the political awakening of hitherto desperate African peoples, cultures and societies who had been subjected to the dehumanizing effects of slavery and colonialism seeking to create a one indivisible Kenya without any prior history of nationhood, looking into the future with confidence and expectation of shared economic progress. That vision somehow evaporated into the atmosphere as Kenya to this day, is still grappling with same issues as in all other parts of the continent.
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There is now there ugly face of tribalism and ethnicity which if not checked can plunge this country into chaos as witness in other parts of Africa. 64. The youth and women of Kenya who championed this agenda of a country united against penury, destitution and ethnicisation have endured decades of neglect and marginalisation, a situation that has led to a great waste of a great national resource. With their energy and creativity, the youth and women can spur Kenyas development to unprecedented heights if given chance. 65. However, waiting to be given a chance has proved futile, hence the need for the youth to rise and claim their rightful place in national life. You should go for leadership by invasion as opposed to invitation. Those leading us today are living in borrowed times. How can a debtor assume superiority over the creditor except in an APARTHEID regime? 66. The female gender is particularly called upon to double its efforts at positioning itself. For after all liberty does not descend on a people, a people must raise themselves to liberty. The hard fact is that the decisions we make will affect generations to come. Inaction is the worst action one can ever commit because the consequences are grave and irreverseble. The time to act is now 67. sooner than later we shall be parting company with heavy hearts, but if our paths ever cross again, we shall SMILE KARIBUNI AND ASANTENI SAANA

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