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Section I Concepts/Short Notes (3 or 5 marks)

1) 2) 3) 4)

HRM Outsourcing Downsizing Employee Training & Development

6) 7) 8) 9)

Trade Unions Quality Circles Participative Management Compensation Management

10) Pink Slip 11) VRS 12) Career Planning 13) Performance Appraisal 14) MBO approach 15) Sensitivity Training 16) Job Description 17) Job Specification 18) Recruitment v/s Selection 19) Job analysis 20) Job Rotation


Section II 10 Marks question

1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Define HRM. State the challenges faced by the HR manager. Explain the meaning and purpose of contracting & sub-contracting. Define Job Evaluation. State the Importance of Job Evaluation. Explain the steps involved in the selection process. Explain the term training and development and bring out the importance of the same.

6) 7) 8) 9)

Explain 360 degree appraisal and state its merits. What are fringe benefits? State its features/ advantages & disadvantages. What is succession planning? State its merits and demerits. State the forms of participation. Explain any two of them.

10) Define a trade union and state its features.

P.S. These are the likely questions for exams but not the only questions to be studied for exams. So, make it a point you know these questions well as well as cover the other topics. We are not held responsible if the above questions dont appear in exams as we are not paper setters but just learn the above for your reference.

Importance and need of Logistics Management in todays business Logistics management deals with the coordination of resources in an organization. Logistics management focuses on the organization as a whole and not on individual units and departments while deciding about the allocation of resources The resources may be in the form of men, machines, materials, money and time. Logistics management helps in the efficient use and deployment of the scarce resources. In absence of effective logistics management, there will be a depletion of various meager resources.

In developing countries like India projects do not succeed because of lack of attention to logistics management. Due to this there is a delay in the implementation of the projects. There is also uneven distribution of goods and services. In certain areas, there is excess of goods and services available, while in certain other areas, they are scarce. There is general inefficiency, uncertainty and instability in rendering services to the public.

Depending on the type of business, the expenditure on logistics can be anything between 5 and 35 percent of the sales. The cost of logistics management is therefore found to be high by certain industries. Because of this high cost, they are reluctant to implement logistics management. But, if adequate attention is paid to logistics, cost reduction can be effected in various departments. This is because logistics suggests the use of efficient means of transport, locating areas where cheaper materials are available, determining the correct quantities to be dispatched to market areas so that there is no scarcity or surplus felt in those areas etc.

In case a problem arises, logistics management would investigate the problem and resolve the same on the basis of costs and benefits to the organization as a whole and not to any particular department or unit. For example, to manufacture any product with zero defects would mean high cost of Production, which the customer may not be willing to pay. At the same time, if the finished product contains a lot of defectives, the customers would be unwilling to buy such products. Logistics management tries to find out the permitted standards of allowable defects in the

finished products without any loss in the market share. This information is passed on to the production departments, which fix standards for production.

Another type of interface problem is caused when for example-, the marketing department considers that it is responsible only for the sale of the finished product. On the other hand, the production department may feel that the moment the goods are loaded on to the vehicle, its responsibility ceases. Such rigid compartmentalization of responsibilities and roles is definitely not desirable. This leads to neglect of activities in the interface areas which affects the overall efficiency of the organization.

Logistics management does away with the ambiguity in the definition of the responsibilities of individuals, Units and departments in an organization. It focuses on areas of possible inefficiency and ensures that all areas are effectively managed. It brings about co-ordination between units and departments.

Q .Write short notes on any three of the following :a) Job Rotation d) Managing Change b) Multi Skilling e) Resolving Conflict c) Job Evaluation

Ans a. Job Rotation: Job rotation refers to the movement of an employee from one job to the other. Jobs themselves are not actually changed, only the employees are rotated among various jobs. An employee who works on a routine/respective job moves to and works on another job for some hours/days/months and backs up to the first job. This measure relieves the employee from boredom and monotony, improves employees skills regarding various jobs, prepares the competent employees and provides competitive advantages to the company. These measures also improve workers self-image and provide personal growth. However, frequent job rotations are not advisable in view of their negative impact on the organization and the employee.

b. Multi Skilling : The transferring of executives from job to job and from department to department in a systematic manner is called Job Rotation. When a manger is posted to a new job as part of such a program it is not merely an orientation assignment. He has to assume the full responsibility and perform all kinds of duties. The ideal behind this is to give him the required diversified skills and a broader outlook which are very important at the senior management levels. It is up to the management to provide a variety of job experiences for those who have the potential for higher ranks before they are promoted. Job rotation increases the inter-departmental co-operation and reduces the monotony of work. It makes the executives in general management and does not allow them to confine themselves to their specialized field only.

c. Job Evaluation : Job evaluation deals with money and work. It determines the relative worth or money value of jobs. The International Labor Organization defined job evaluation as an attempt to determine and compare demands

which the normal performance of a particular job makes on normal workers without taking into account the individual abilities or performance of the workers concerned. Wendell L. French defined job evaluation as a process of determining the relative worth of the various job within the organization, so that different wages may be paid to jobs of different worth. Job evaluation is defined as the overall activity of involving an orderly, systematic method and procedure of ranking, grading and weighing of jobs to determine the value of a specific job in relation to other jobs. British Institute of Management (1970) defined job evaluation as, the process of analyzing and assessing the content of jobs, in order to place them in an acceptable rank order which can then be used as a basis for a remuneration system. Job evaluation, therefore, is simply a technique designed to assist in the development of new pay structures by defining relatives between jobs on a consistent and systematic basis. Thus, job evaluation may be defined as a process of determining the relative worth of jobs, ranking and grading them by comparing the duties, responsibilities like skill, knowledge of a job with other jobs with a view to fix compensation payable to the concerned job holder.

d. Managing Change : The term Organizational Change implies the creation of imbalances in the existent pattern or situation. Adjustment among people, technology and structural set up is established when an organization operates for a long time. People adjust with their jobs, working conditions, colleagues, superiors etc. Similarly, an organization establishes relationship in the external environment. Change requires individuals and organizations to make new adjustments. Complexity and fear of adjustment gives rise to resistance and problem of change. Human resource is an important factor in relation to the adjustments among individuals as well as between the organisation and environment, as an organisation is mostly composed of people. Individual members can resist either individually or in a group. Change could be both reactive and proactive. A proactive change has necessarily to be planned to attempt to prepare for anticipated future challenges. A reactive change may be an automatic response or a planned response to change taking place in the environment.

e. Resolving Conflict : The methods of resolving conflicts generally include:

Methods of Resolving Conflicts |

Investigation Mediation


Voluntary Arbitration Compulsory Arbitration/Adjunction


Investigation: This is conducted by a board or court appointed by the government. It may be voluntary or compulsory. If the investigation is conducted on an application by either or both the parties to the dispute it is voluntary. If the Government appoints a Court of Inquiry without the consent of the parties it is compulsory. Investigations analyse the

facts and aim at an amicable solution. When the investigation is compulsory, the strikes and lockouts are required to be stopped and employers should not make any change in the conditions of employment.


Mediation: Another attempt to settle disputes is Mediation. In this method, an outsider assists the parties in their negotiations. It takes place with the consent of both the parties. The main aim of mediator is the settlement of disputes by bringing about a voluntary agreement. There may be three kinds of mediation:

1. 2. 3.

The Eminent Outsider Non-Government Board and Semi Government Board.

If mediation is conducted skillfully and sympathetically then it can bring about the adjustments of differences that might otherwise contribute to stoppage of work.


Conciliation: The main objective of a conciliation and arbitration is to reunite the two conflicting groups in the industry in order to avoid interruption of production, distrust etc. Conciliation is a process by which representatives of both workers and employers are brought together before a third party with a view to persuading them to arrive at some sort of settlement. It is an extension of collective bargaining with third party assistance. Conciliation machinery consists of conciliation officer and board of conciliations. The conciliator induces the parties to a course of action. He plays the role of an innovator, protector, discussion leader, stimulator, advisor, face saver. He acts as a safety value and a communication link. The task of conciliation is to offer advice and make suggestions to the parties to the dispute on controversial issues.


Voluntary Arbitration: if the two parties to the dispute fail to come to an agreement, either by themselves or with the help of a mediator or conciliator, who agrees to submit the dispute to an impartial authority, whose decision, they are ready to accept. The essential elements in voluntary arbitration are :

1. 2. 3.

The voluntary submission of dispute to an arbitrator. The subsequent attendance of witness and investigations and The enforcement of an award may not be necessary


Compulsory Arbitration/Adjudication: Where trade unions are weak the method of compulsory Arbitration is used. Compulsory Arbitration is utilized generally when the parties fail to arrive at a settlement through the voluntary methods. It is at times necessary and desirable. The objective of state intervention in the field of industrial relations should be to do social justice and make the weaker party equally strong to enable it ultimately to stand and survive on its own and settle its differences through negotiations and collective bargaining. Compulsory arbitration is one where the parties are required to arbitrate without any willingness on their part. Any one of the parties may apply to the appropriate governments to refer the dispute to adjudication machinery.

6. Modes of Transportation / Modal Characteristic

The basic modes of transportation are rail, highway, water, pipeline and air.


India has amongst the largest railway network in the world. Every city, town, village has a rail connection. Through railways very large volumes of goods can be transported economically over long distances to remote places in the country. But railways in general incur high fixed costs because of expensive equipment (i.e. railways must maintain their own rail track meant exclusively for them) switching yards and terminals. However the railways experience relatively low variable operating costs. Railways help to transport raw materials from extractive industries which are located at considerable distances. Besides this railways also transport massive amount of steel, automobiles, war equipment, across the country.

Railroads basically concentrate on the container traffic and are becoming more responsive of the customer needs, emphasizing bulk industries and heavy manufacturing. They have expanded their intermodal operations through alliances and motor carrier ownership. Railroads are even concentrating on development of special equipment. There are unit trains which are entire train carrying the same commodity, which are bulk products such as coal or grain. Unit trains are faster, less expensive to operate and quick as it can bypass rail yards and go direct to the products destination.

There are also various different types, such as articulated cars for extended Rail chassis, double-stack railcars, have 2 levels of containers, thereby doubling the capacity of each car. It also reduces chances of damage because of their design. These technologies have are being applied by railroads to reduce weight, increase carrying capacity, and facilitate interchange.

The above examples show the attempts being made by the railways to retain and improve their share of overall transportation market.

Road Transport

Road transport forms an essential part of any transport activity, whether rail, sea or air. It is essential as a supplementary and complementary mode of transport to complete movement by other modes of transport. Eg. From one terminal i.e. the railway station the goods have to be carried to the destination by road. Highway transportation has increased rapidly since the end of World War II. This is because Motor carrier industry results from door-to-door operating flexibility and speed of intercity movement. They are even flexible because they can operate on each and every kind of roadways.

In comparison to railroads, motor carriers have relatively small fixed investments in terminal facilities and operate on publicly maintained highways. The variable cost per mile for motor carriers is high because a separate power unit and driver are required for each trailer or combination of tandem trailers. Labor requirements are also high because of driver safety restrictions and the need for substantial dock lobor. Motor carriers are best suited to handle small shipments moving short distances. The characteristics of motor carriers favor manufacturing and distributive trades, short distances, high-value products. Motor carriers have made significant inroads into rail traffic for medium and light manufacturing. This is also because of delivery flexibility that they have captured a major chunk of the market. This industry even has a few problems, and one of the primary difficulties relate to increasing cost to replace equipment, maintenance driver wages, and platform and dock wages. Although accelerating, labor rates influence all modes of transport motor carriers are more labor-intensive, which causes higher wages to be a major concern. Since 1980, the industry segments have become more definitive since deregulation, and include truckload (TL), less than truckload (LTL), and specialty carriers. TL segment includes loads over 15,000 pounds that generally do not require intermediate stops for consolidation. LTL segment of the industry loads less than 15,000 pounds that generally requires stops at intermediate terminals for consolidation. Because of terminal costs and relatively higher marketing expenses, LTL experiences a higher percentage of fixed costs then TL. Specialty carriers include package haulers such as Federal Express and United Parcel Service. These firms focus on specific requirements of the market or product. It is quite apparent that highway transportation will continue to function as the backbone of logistical operations for the foreseeable future.

In short Road transport offers certain advantages like i. ii. iii. traffic. iv. Road transport provides employment to many people. Door to door service to customers which neither rail nor neither sea nor air transport can offer. On per unit basis, the cost of making a road is 1/6`h that of laying a railway line. Capital investment in case of railways is much less then railways designed to carry equivalent quantum of

Road transport faces a number of problems. This is evident from the following facts:

1) 2)

There is an occasional storage of diesel fuel in the country. Vehicle availability in the country has been problematic. With the recent entry of a number of manufacturers, the

situation has improved to some extent. 3) 4) 5) The cost of components and accessories, such as tyres and batteries, has escalated tremendously. The Octroi and police check posts are to many, resulting in heavy detention to road vehicles, The present Motor Vehicle Act regulating the issue of licenses and permits and movement of vehicles is very



Conditions on Indian road are very bad and hazardous. They tend to reduce speed of vehicles, which leads to

wastage of natural transport capacity. 7) 8) Roadside maintenance and service facilities have not developed through fund necessary. The system of national, zonal and state permits restricts free, growth of road transport but the system has to be


Water transport

One of the oldest modes of transportation is water. In terms of time factor, they may be slow. But, they Water transport could be of inland can carry more shipment, at reduced cost over longer distance. Water transport could be of inland type or oceanic transport.

Inland water transport Inland water transport is used mainly for transport within a country. In our country Inland water transport through rivers and canals is quite popular because of the low cost and bulk transport. But here, the inland water transport system heavily depends upon the rain and in many places on the tides. So, in our country we cannot guarantee the functioning of inland water throughout the year at the same efficiency.

Oceanic Transport Oceans act as huge waterways for transport of goods form one country to another. Oceanic transportation includes import and export of crude and bulky commodities like materials which are removed from mines, cement, chemical, crude oil, iron ore, coal, chemicals like sulphur, crude petroleum, and selected agricultural products, etc. The capability of water to carry large tonnage at low variable costs makes it in demand. When a company desire low freight rates and the speed and the time of transport are secondary, it has the option of selecting water as a mode of transport. The main disadvantage of water transport is the limited range of operation and speed. Unless the origin and destination are adjacent, supplement haul by rail or truck is required. Water transport isnt all that flexible. Labour restrictions on loading and unloading at docks create operational problems and tend to reduce the potential range of available traffic. Also, a highly competitive situation has developed between railroads and inland water carriers in areas where parallel routes exist.

Pipelines Primarily, pipeline is used for the transport of crude petroleum, refined petroleum and natural gas. Pipelines are also used for the transportation of certain types of chemicals, Pulverized dry bulk materials such as cement and flour via hydraulic suspension system, and sewage and water in cities. A significant fixed cost is incurred while setting up the pipeline and related infrastructures. Thus, given the nature of costs, pipelines are the best suited when relatively large

and stable flows of materials are required. E.g.: pipeline may be best suited to transport crude petroleum from the port to the refinery. But, to transport refined petrol to a gas station does not justify the use of a pipeline and this is better done by a truck. There is a talk going on between India, Iran and Pakistan regarding the transportation of crude oil from Iran to India with the help of a pipeline which will pass through Pakistan. This will reduce the cost of transporting crude oil from Iran to India. In comparison with the other modes of transport, pipelines operate on a 24 hour basis, seven days a week. They stop functioning due to change in the commodity to be transported, or due to maintenance. Unlike other modes of transport, pipeline does not have any empty containers or vehicles which are to be returned to the origins. A high fixed cost for pipelines normally results from the right of way construction and requirements at the control stations and pumping capacity. Another disadvantage of pipeline is that they are not flexible. Once the route of a pipeline is fixed, it is not changeable. Again pipelines are restricted with respect to the types of commodities which can be transported through them. Only products in the form of gas, liquid slurry can be handled by the pipelines:

One advantage of pipelines is that, once they.01aye been constructed, they are not labour intensive for operational purposes as other modes of transport so their variable operating cost is low.

Air Transport

Air transport though new as compared to other modes of transportation, has gained large popularity in transporting various commodities. The basic advantage of Air transport is its high speed. By air, the time required may be just a few hours, which may be days by other modes of transport. However this being a major advantage, air transport also has various disadvantages. These are:

y y

Air transport is a costly affair. Air transport is limited by lift capacity i.e. goods upto certain load (weight) can be transported by aircrafts.

Air freight variable cost is very high due to fuel, maintenance and labour intensity of both in flight and ground crew. The fixed cost of air transport is low as compared to rails, water and pipeline. In fact, air transport ranks second only to highway with respect to low fixed cost. Airways and airports are maintained by public funds and terminals are by local communities. The fixed costs of airfreight are associated with aircraft purchase and the requirement for specialized handling systems and cargo containers. But the air freight variable cost is extremely high as a result of fuel, maintenance, and labour intensity of both in-flight and ground crews. Even though it has all these disadvantages, High speed of air transport often helps in compensating its other disadvantages. No particular commodity dominates the freight carried by air transport. E.g. big courier companies such as DHL, Fed Ex have their own air crafts to transport couriers between different countries within a short time.

Rope ways

A ropeway is a form of naval lifting device used to transport light stores and equipment across rivers or ravines. It comprises a jackstay, slung between two sheers or gyps, one at either end, from which is suspended a block and tackle, that is free to travel along the rope and hauled back and forth by inhauls (ropes attached to the pulley from which the block and tackle are suspended).

Intermodal Transportation Intermodal transportation is the use of more than one mode of transport to move a shipment to its destination. A variety of intermodal combinations are possible depending upon the type and amount of goods, the time of delivery, the pricing factor, etc. the most common combination is that of the motor carrier and railway. Intermodal combination of transport has also helped to increase the revenue of each of the modes of transport. On land it has been found that a combination of truck and rail mode of transport offer a better deal in terms of cost and time rather than transport by truck alone. In general, therefore intermodal means of transport helps to bring together different modes of transport to create a price and /or service offering that may not be matched by any single mode transport.

Various Intermodal combinations Piggyback / railroad It is a specialized form of containerization in which rail and and road transport co-ordinate. In piggyback, the carrier places the motor carrier trailer on a rail flatcar, which moves the trailer by rail for a long distance. A motor carrier then moves to trailer for short-distance pickups and deliveries.

Containership / Fishy back / trainship : Containership, Fishy back, trainship and example of the oldest form of intermodal transport. They utilize waterways, which e of the least expensive modes for product movement. The Fishyback, trainship and containership concept

loads a truck trailer, railcar, or container onto a barge or ship for the shipment.

The following is the list of questions appeared in the past University Papers. They are not topic-wise but year-wise (01 to 09) marketing magt. Imp. Concepts:1) Great idea with example 2) Rational and moral appeals with example 3) Consumer products

4) Dist b/w communication and marketing objective with example 5) Full service agency 6) Dist b/w brand image and USP 7) USP guidelines with example Brand positioning strategies 9) Dist b/w image and positioning 10) Copy platform 11) Steps for developing an advertising programme 12) GRP, TRP 13) Promotion mix 14) Media vehicle with example of OOH media 15) Advantages and disadvantages of continuity, flighting and pulsing 16) CPM 17) if you are lucky enough to write a good advertisement, repeat it until it stops pulling. (Oglivy) 18) if awareness does not affect sales, why bother to measure it? If it does not have a close relationship to the sales, why not measure sales directly? Comment 19) Promotion and sales promotion are 2 terms that often create confusion in the advertising and marketing fields. Clarify the distinction b/w these 2 terms. Short notes:1) Message structure 2) Rural communication approach of advertising 3) Client servicing 4) Types of ad agencies 5) AIDA 6) Persuasion matrix 7) Strategic role of PR Outdoor advertising 9) Radio as media 10) Role and scope of media research 10 marks1) 5 Ms of advertising 2) IMC 3) Advertising communication process 4) Organization structure and functions of ad agency 5) Selection and evaluation of ad agency 6) Account for ad agency

7) DAGMAR Attitude in advertising 9) Brand image 10) Brand essence, identity, fatigue, personality, equity 11) Qualities and criteria for effective copy 12) Creation and production of a copy 13) Principles of copy print, TV, radio, outdoor, retail and B2b 14) Advertising budget advantages, disadvantages and methods 15) Corporate advertising 16) Media planning and selection factors and strategies 17) Media types advantages and disadvantages 18) Reach, frequency and impact 19) Testing advertisement effectiveness 20) Sales promotion tools 21) Illustration and layout

Question Bank -Service sector Management 10 mks1) 7 Ps of Banking, Insurance, Tourism, Hospital and Transport. 2) Service Sector Introduction/ Definition, Factors for growth, Characteristics, Classification 3) Service marketing Triangle 4) Service Quality Dimensions / TQM in services 5) Distinguish b/w goods and services 6) Use and importance of technology in services Short notes1) Branding in services 2) Service Recovery 3) Service Guarantee 4) Benchmarking 5) Service Gaps Model 6) Flowcharting 7) Flower of services Concepts1) Product service continuum 2) Moment of Truth

3) Service Blueprint 4) Service Mapping 5) CIT (critical incident technique) 6) Service leadership, vision, mission, innovation 7) Customers involvement in services QUESTION BANK SPECIAL STUDIES IN MARKETING 10 marks:-IMC -Advertising agency definition, types and functions -5 M s of Advertising -Advertising Budget- Factors and Methods -Define consumer behaviour. Explain the factors affecting Consumer behaviour. Explain any two models of consumer decision making process. -Media planning definition, process, different types -Sales promotion tools - Methods of testing advertising effectiveness Short NotesFactors affecting consumer behaviour, DAGMAR Model, AIDA Model, Media scheduling, media buying, motivation theories, age and family life cycle (FLC), branding strategies, PR advertising, E-commerce, marketing communication process (aaker and myers model), USP, Internet as a tool of advertising ConceptsReach , Frequency , BDI,GRPs, TRP, Brand Image, Brand Personality, Brand equity and Brand Fatigue, 10 marks:1) Business Ethics Definition, features, different theories (technological and deontological ethical theory) 2) Explain the concept of 7 code of conduct and state the measures to improve ethical conduct of business? (v.imp) 3) CSR Definition, different ways and obstacles, initiatives, advantages, limitations, arguments against CSR 4) CSR responsibility of business of different stakeholders, CSR at workplace with reference safety and security measures 5) Ethical problems in global marketing, ethical issues in advertising, ethical principles in environment 6) Corporate Governance Definition, objectives, Features 7) Mention the disclosure requirement as per companies Act 1956 and clause? Short Notes1) Concept of Dharma 2) Agency theory of corporate governance HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT QUESTION BANK1) Definition and meaning, scope, functions, objectives, areas covered, activities, importance in recent years of HRM.

2) Challenges, evolution/trends of HRM 3) Traits/characteristics of the workforce 4) Personnel policy manual and personnel philosophy 5) Distinguish between HRM and PM 6) Define HRP. Importance, factors affecting, process and barriers to HRP 7) Forecasting techniques 8 ) Concept on Managerial Succession Planning 9) Requirements/ requisites for successful HRP 10) Participative Management - Importance, scope and ways 11) Define Job Analysis and process of Job Analysis. 12) Concept of Job Description and Purpose of Job Analysis 13) Methods of collecting Job data 14) Concept of Job design, ergonomics and placement 15) Define Job Evaluation and process, methods of Job evaluation. 16) Recruitment definition, importance, purpose and factors 17) Orientation Definition, purpose, programme 18) Importance of Industrial Relations and Trade Unions 19) Performance Appraisal Objectives and Methods 20) Factors influencing employee remuneration F.M. IMPORTANT PROBLEM TOPICS MARKWISE. Topics Marks (1) Working Capital -15 / 10 (2) Capital Budgeting - 15 / 10 (3) Cash Management -10 (4) Business Restructuring -10 (5) Receivable Management -5 (6) Cost of capital- 5 (7) Capital Structure- 5 (8) Leverages- 5 Theory Questions1) Explain the objectives of financial Management 2) Long term and short term sources of finance 3) Functions of financial manager SSF IMPORTANT PROBLEM TOPIC MARK WISE Topics Marks

(1) Term Loan- 15 / 10 (2) AS 11 15 / 10 (3) Hire Purchase - 10 (4) Lease - 10 (5) EVA / GVA - 10 (6) AS 17 - 5 (7) AS 30 - 5 (8) ESOP - 5 (9) Sweat Equity- 5 (10) IPO - 5 (11) AS 22 - 5 Important Theory QuestionsConceptsSweat equity Flash report Derivatives Underwriting Pari passu charge Mutual funds Book building Spot exchange rate Financial instruments Credit rating Lead banker EVA Moratorium period IPO 5 marks:Functions on merchant bankers ESOP AS-30 Segment reporting Role of SBI Functions of credit rating agency Functions of stock exchange Logistics Question Bank

Importance of logistics management; Operating objectives of Logistics; Logistics Competency; Three Cs ; 3rd Party Logistics; 4th Party Logistics; Evolution of Lgx and SCM; Concept of Extended Enterprise; Bull Whip Effect ; Customer service and dimensions of customer service; seven Rs of customer service; Perfect Order; Demand forecasting Types of demand; Forecasting methods; Which Mode of transport to be used; Deciding on Specific carrier selection; Intermodal operators; Transport infrastructure; factors that influence transport economics; Vehicle turn around time; hidden costs in Transportation; Warehouse Functionality; Warehouse Design Criteria; Basic Warehousing Decisions; Advantages of Public Warehouses & Private Warehouses; Deciding The Number Of Warehouses; Deciding on Centralized or Decentralized warehouses; Points to be considered while deciding a Warehouse location ; Importance of packaging; Types of packaging; Concept of Unitization; Palletisation; Containerization; Material Handling Basic Principles of Material Handling ; Material handling equipments; Inventory Functionality;

Service level; Fill Rate; Fixed order quantity system; Economic Order Quantity; responsive organization; Kanban; Selective Inventory Control; Quadrant Technique; Information System ; levels of information; Information functionality; Principles of Logistics Information; Internal and External information system; Objectives of Performance Measurement; Internal Performance Measurement; perfect order; External Performance Measurement including bench marking; Total cost-analysis; Activity-Based Costing; Mission Based Costing ; Milk Runs; Nodal points in distribution system P.S. These are the likely questions for exams but not the only questions to be studied for exams. So, make it a point you know these questions well as well as cover the other topics.