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proportional to the current, I flowing through the resistor. It can be represent by Eq. (1.1) that = where v = the potential different or voltage measured in volts (V). i = the current measured in ampere (A). R = the resistance measured in ohm (). (1.1)

In order to apply this law, we must pay attention to the direction of current and voltage polarity. We must always remember that current, i flows from a higher potential to a lower potential is equivalent for = . If current flows from lower potential to a higher potential, = .

(a)

(b)

Figure 1. Current flows from (a) higher potential to lower potential (b) lower potential to lower potential They are two terms that related to the extreme possible values of R. An element with = 0 is called a short circuit while = is called open circuit. A short circuit is a connecting wire assumed to be a perfect conductor. Thus, the voltage across a short circuit is assumed to be = 0. While, for an open circuit, the current flows through it is = 0 .

Figure 2. (a) Short circuit (b) Open circuit Example 1.1 An electric iron draws 2 A at 120 V. Find its resistance.

Node, Branch and Loop An electric circuit is an interconnection of electric elements. All elements can be interconnected in several ways. The circuit topology includes branch, node and loop; Node - point between two or more branches. Branch - element (current path) connecting 2 adjacent nodes. Loop - connection of branches that ends in the node where it began (closed current path).

Figure 3. Interconnection of electric elements Based on Fig. 3, it has 3 nodes (a, b and c), 3 branches (ab, bc and ac) and 1 loop (a b c a). While Fig. 4 consists of 6 nodes (a,b,c,d,e and f) where e and is known as supernode, 9 branches (ab, bc, cd, de, ef, af, ef, df and cf) where ed is known as short circuit and 4 loops (a b c d e a, a e f a, e d f e and d c f d ).

Figure 4. Interconnection of electric elements From the circuit topology, then we can conclude that Two or more elements are in series if they share a single node and carry the same current. Two or more elements are in parallel of they are connected to the same two nodes and have the same voltage across them. Example 1.2 Determine the number of node, branch and loop of Fig. 3. Then, list down all node, branch and loop of this figure. Identify the elements that are in series and in parallel.

Kirchhoffs current law (KCL) states that the sum of currents entering a node (or a closed boundary) is zero. By this law, currents entering a node may be regarded as positive and currents leaving the node may be regard as negative or vice versa.

i1 i4

i2 i3

Figure 6. Current at a node By applying KCL on Fig. 6, it gives + Br rearranging Eq. (1.2), we get + = + (1.3) + + =0 (1.2)

From Eq. (1.3), we can conclude that the sum of currents that entering a node is equal to the sum currents leaving the node. b) Kirchhoffs Voltage Law (KVL)

Kirchhoffs voltage law (KVL) states that the sum of all voltages around a closed path (or loop) is zero. The sign on each voltage is the polarity of the terminal encountered first as we travel around the loop. We can start with any branch and go around the loop either clockwise or counter clockwise. Suppose we start with the voltage source and go clockwise around the loop as shown in Fig. 7, then the voltages would be , + and + .

Figure 7. A single-loop circuit From Fig. 7 Rearrange Eq. (1.4) gives + = (1.5) + + =0 (1.4)

From Eq. (1.5), it shows that the sum of voltage drops around a closed loop is equal to the sum of voltages rise. 3

Example 1.3 Calculate all currents and voltages in the circuit shown in Fig. 8

2 + v1 20 V + + v2 3 30 V + 8 + v1 + v2 i1 i3 i2 + v3 -

(a)

(b)

Figure 8. For Example 1.3 Series Resistors and Voltage Division The need to combine resistors in series or in parallel occurs so frequently in order to simplify the circuit and analysis. The process of combining the resistors is facilitated by combining two of them at a time. Consider Fig. 9

Figure 9. A single-loop circuit with two resistors in series The two resistors are in series since the same current, i flows in both of them. Applying Ohms law to each resistors, thus = , = (1.6) If KVL is applying to the loop of Fig. 9, then we have + Combining Eq. (1.6) and Eq. (1.7), we get = or = Notice that Eq. (1.9) can be written as = where is the equivalent resistance of series resistors = 4 + (1.11) (1.10) (1.9) + = + (1.8) + =0 (1.7)

From Eq. (1.11) we can conclude that an equivalent resistance of any number of resistors connected in series is the sum of the individual resistances. Now, Fig. 9 can be replaced by Fig. 10. For N resistors in series then, = + ++ (1.12)

Figure 10.

To determine the voltage across each resistor in Fig. 9, we substitute Eq. (1.9) into Eq. (1.6) and obtain = Parallel Resistors and Current Division Consider Fig. 11, where two resistors are connected parallel and therefore have the same voltage across them. From Ohms laws, , = (1.13)

Figure 11.

or = Applying KCL at node a gives the total current, i as = Substitute Eq. (1.14) into Eq. (1.15), we get = where + = + = (1.16) + (1.15)

+ +

(1.17)

or (1.18)

(1.19)

From Eq. (1.18), we can conclude that the equivalent resistance of two parallel resistors is equal of the product of their resistances divided by their sum. For N resistors in parallel, the equivalent resistance is = + + + (1.20)

To determine the current, i of each resistor in Fig. 11, we combine Eq. (1.14) and Eq. (1.19) result in = Example 1.4 Find the equivalent resistance of Fig. 12. , = (1.21)

Figure 13.

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