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Practical Journal

CERTIFICATE

Name:

Group:

Class/Batch:

Institution:

INDEX S.No. Object 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9-13 To identify the various steel sections used in the construction of steel structures. To determine the equation of the moment of inertia of different steel sections. Derive the flexural formula. Technical report on MUET machine workshop Enlist the Design steps for the Rolled Steel Section. Calculate and show the Values of Maximum Shear Force and Maximum Bending Moment for Ideal Cases AISC, AASHO and AREA Specification Applicable for Bending AISC Specification Applicable for Shear and Deflection Comparative Study on Design Methods (ASD V/s LRFD) Demonstration on INSTEP software and Problem practice in Lab.

PRACTICAL # 01 Object: To identify the various steel sections used in the construction of steel structures. Theory: There are different types of steel section used for the construction. The most commonly used steel section are follow: I - Section. L - Section. C - Section. T - Section. I - SECTION

USES:

I-beam is extensively used as floor beams, as columns and in fabricating built up sections like stanchions. Vibration - the stiffness and mass are chosen to prevent unacceptable vibrations, particularly in settings sensitive to vibrations, such as offices and libraries Bending failure by local buckling - where the flange or web is so slender as to buckle locally Buckling or yielding of components - for example, of stiffeners used to provide stability to the I-beam. L-SECTIONS

USES

Building frames, composite and truss structures. Frames, sub-frames and bodies of vehicles and trailers. Warehouse equipment. Masts for data transmission, TV and radio, power line pylons. Gate and fence structures. C - SECTION

USES

Generally used as columns, to support the roofs especially petrol pumps Used primarily in framed openings and as a transition member between partial block walls and wall panels. Ware houses, or very large area to be covered as roofs of stadiums.

T SECTION USES Mainly Used as to give support the roof bricks (not RCC)

Result: The pictures show the different steel section used for the construction.

PRACTICAL # 02 Object: To determine the equation of the moment of inertia of different steel sections.

Theory: MOMENT OF INERTIA The Area Moment Of Inertia of a beams cross-sectional area measures the beams ability to resist bending. The larger the Moment of Inertia the less the beam will bend. The moment of inertia is a geometrical property of a beam and depends on a reference axis. The smallest Moment of Inertia about any axis passes through the centroid. The following are the mathematical equations to calculate the Moment of Inertia:

Ix

equation. (1)

Iy

equation. (2)

y is the distance from the x axis to an infinitesimal area dA. x is the distance from the y axis to an infinitesimal area dA. Moment of Inertia of different steel sections

C SECTION

I - SECTION

L-SECTIONS

T SECTION

T- SECTION To find the moment of inertia of the given section, first of all the let us find out the center of gravity of the section. As the section is symmetrical about Y Y axis there for its center of gravity will lie on the same axis. Splitting the whole T section into two rectangles. Let the bottom of web be the reference axis. Rectangle 1 1 = b x s 1 = z + 2 Rectangle 2 2 = z x t 2 = 2 Now the distance of center of gravity from the bottom of the flange can be calculated by Y=

1 1 + 2 2 1 + 2 z + 2 + z x t 2 b x s +(z x t)

Moment of inertia about X-X axis We know that M.I of rectangle 1 about axis through its center of gravity and parallel to the X-X axis. 1 =

3 12

And distance between the center of gravity of rectangle 1 and X-X axis 1 = 1 = + 2

z + 2 + z x t 2 b x s +(z x t)

1 =

(2+) 2 +

Moment of inertia of rectangle1 section about X-X axis by using the parallel axis theorem (1 + 1 1 2 )

3 2 + = + 12 2 +

Similarly moment of inertia of rectangle 2 about an axis through its center of gravity and parallel to X-X axis 2 =

3 12

And distance between the center of gravity of rectangle 2 and X-X axis 2 = 2 = z + 2 + z x t 2 b x s + (z x t) ( + ) 2 + 2

2 =

Moment of inertia of rectangle1 section about X-X axis by using the parallel axis theorem (2 + 2 2 2 ) 3 ( + ) = + (z x t) 12 2 +

2

Now moment of inertia of whole section can be calculated by adding both moment of inertia of rectangle 1 and rectangle 2. 3 2 + = + 12 2 +

2

3 ( + ) + (z x t) 12 2 +

Moment of inertia about Y-Y axis We know that moment of inertia of rectangle 1 about Y- Y axis =

3 12

3 12

Now moment of inertia of whole section can be calculated by adding both moment of inertia of rectangle 1 and rectangle 2 =

3 12

3 12

Consider a small section of the beam ABCD of length of DX subjected to bending moments as shown in figure .Let RS be the neutral layer perpendicular to section AB and CD due to the application of the moment, the section ABCD bends into the section ABCD as shown in figure .Let O is the center of arc and is the subtended angle of the arc. Let R is the radius of curvature from O to neutral plan R S. Therefore: RS = R (1) :.( S=r )

Let us consider a layer of interest PQ which is located at distance y from the neutral plan RS as shown in figure 1.Let PQ get compressed to PQ due to application of bending moment M as shown in figure 2. :. = ( ) ..(2) Now the change in length in the layer PQ is = :. Strain () =

:.(S=r )

(3)

= + = = =

= .equation (6)

MOMENT OF RESISTANCE

Let us consider a section of Beam as shown in figure. Let =cross sectional area of small element located at distance to y from neutral plan = bending stress in element =bending stress in this element moment about neutral axis of the elements will be = = (: . = )

Now the moment the resistance of the whole section about the neutral axis will be =

= =

(: . = . )

Results:

Dimensions of the work shop Length of the workshop Breadth of the workshop Height of the workshop = = = 157.5 ft 40 17 ft ft

21 15

Approximate Center to center distance between two trusses = Transference of load to structural members.

7.5ft

During the visit to the workshop we observed that load one structure member to other was in UVL pattern structural members are rested over another structural pattern of providing an angle so we say that the load members in the form of UVL.

Materials used in the construction of trusses and roof The steel sections used in the making of the trusses are I- section and angle section. The roof is constructed of steel sheets in angular pattern in such a way that sheets are resting on trusses and trusses are resting on column.

The different steel sections (section and angle section) are welded together and steel sheets are bolted with nuts to the trusses.

PRACTICAL # 05 Object: Enlist the Design steps for the Rolled Steel Section. Calculate and show the Values of Maximum Shear Force and Maximum Bending Moment for Ideal Cases Theory: The design of a rolled steel beam is a simple task. It involves different considerations among these are bending, shear, web crippling, vertical buckling, lateral buckling, combined stresses, deflection and sometime torsion and fatigue. But bending is governed in all these cases, I is therefore the design should always consists of proportioning the beam to satisfy bending requirements and then, investigating the section for stresses due to all or a part of the above mentioned consideration (if appears to be necessary).

The design procedure 1. Draw a sketch of the beam with its load and compute the maximum shear and the maximum bending moment, as shown in figure below: 2. solve equation (S=M/Fb) for the required section modulus, using the specified value of Fb, ( Fb=.66fy or .6Fy) 3. Choose the most suitable beam section from the steel Handbook (steel Table).The section modulus of the chosen beam must be sufficient to include the effect of the beams weight (i-e Shear and Bending due to the self weight of the beam), since the dead load is not known in advance. Note: it is important to be noted that inches will not mixed with feet, nor pounds with Kips.

Table 4.1 Shear force and Bending Moment Values for Simply Loaded, Uniformly Distributed Loaded (UDL) and Uniformly Varying loaded (UVL) S.No. Loading Condition 1 2 3 Point load UDL UVL End Reaction Values P/2 Wl /2 WL/2 Maximum Shear Maximum Bending Force (S.F. max.) Moment (B.M. max.) RA = RB=P/2 RA=RB=Wl/2 RA=Wl/3,RB=WL/6 Pl/4 WL/8 WL/6

Results: Table 1 shows the calculated values of Maximum Shear force and Bending Moments for the Simply Loaded, Uniformly Loaded and Uniformly Varying loaded. Figure 1 shows the Shear force and Bending Moment diagram for the ideal cases Simply Loaded, Uniformly Loaded and Uniformly Varying loaded

PRACTICAL # 06 Object: AISC, AASHO and AREA Specification Applicable for Bending

(Eq-1) Where S is the required section modulus, M is the maximum applied bending moments, and Fb is the allowable extreme fiber stress in tension or compression, in the absence of axial force. Where M, & Fb consist entirely of factors that are known or that are readily found. M is computed from known data and Fb is fixed or may be computed by specification. Whereas S, is given by tables in the steel table for rolled section. The permissible Fb depends on whether or not the beam section is compact and the distance between lateral supports. All rolled S and W shapes of A36 steel and a large proportion of those shapes having a yield stress up to 50 Ksi meet these provision and are termed as COMPACT SECTIONS Sections to be considered laterally supported, the distance between lateral supports for the compression flange must satisfy requirements given below: subparagraph 5.

Procedure: AISC Specification Applicable to Bending In accordance with the AISC Specification, tension and compression on extreme fiber of compacts, laterally supported, hot-rolled, or built up member (except hybrid girder and member of A514 steel) symmetrical about, and loaded in the plane of their minor axis, and meeting the requirements stated below: Fb=0.66Fy or 0.6Fy (Eq-2)

Where Fy is the specified minimum yield stress, in Kips per square inch, for the type of steel being used and Fb is the permissible bending stress in the absence of axial force.

To qualify the above-stated permissible stress, a member must meet the following requirements: 1. The flange shall be connected continuously to the webs. 2. The width-thickness ratio of un-stiffened, projecting elements of the compression flange, of a compact section shall not exceed 52.2/Fy. 3. The width-thickness ratio of the stiffened elements of the compression flange, as in the case of cover plates between longitudinal lines of fasteners, shall not exceed 190/Fy. 4. The depth-thickness ratio of the web or webs shall not exceed the value: (Eq-3) 5. The compression flange shall be supported laterally at intervals not to exceed 76bfFy nor 20,000Af /dFy; that is, (Eq-4)

AASHO Specification Applicable to Bending. For beams supported laterally throughout by embedment in concrete: Fb == 0.55Fy For unsupported or partially supported beams: (Eq-10)

(Eq-11)

Where l is the unsupported distance between lateral supports, in inches, and b is the flange width in inches. Unlike the AISC usage of Kip units, the AASHO uses pound units for Fy and, of course, Fb. AREA Specification. For tension in extreme fiber of rolled shapes, girders; and built section that are subjected to bending, net section, and for compression in extreme fibers of I-type members subjected to loading perpendicular to the web: Fb== 0.55Fy (Eq-12)

Where Fb is the bending stress permitted in the absence of axial force, Fy is the specified minimum yield stress of the steel being used, and both are expressed in pounds units.

For compression in extreme fiber of welded, built-up, rolled beam flexure members symmetrical about the principal axis in the plane of the web (other than box-type flexure members), and for compression in extreme fiber of rolled channels, the larger of the value computed by the following formula is applicable:

(Eq-12) Or

(Eq-13) (Applicable only for member with solid rectangular flange and for S shapes.)

PRACTICAL # 07 Object: AISC Specification Applicable for Shear and Deflection Theory: Shear seldom governs the selection of a rolled steel beams. However, short beams of heavy section with heavy, concentrated loaded near either or both supported must be investigated. Spandrel beams might be governed by shear for the reason that the vertical shear is sometimes augmented by torsional shear induced by the connecting floor beams. The distribution of shear across the section of a rolled steel beams, instead of being parabolic as in rectangular section, is comparatively uniform along the web section with very little going o flanges. Figure; shown below, shows a sketch for a W10 X 39 beams for which the unit shear fv has been plotted. The computed values were found by the well-known equation:

(Eq-15a)

V == is the total applied shear at the section, A == is the area of that portion of the section lying and beyond the line at which f v is desired, == is the distance from the neutral axis of the beam section to the centroid of A I == is the moment of inertia of the entire beam section about its neutral axis b == is the width of the beam section at which fv is desired.

Shear permitted on gross section by the AISC is Fv== 0.40Fy In which Fv and Fy are in kips per square inch. For the purpose of computing shear stress the AISC define the gross section or rolled and fabricated shaped as the product of the overall depth and the web thickness. By this definition: (Eq-16 a)

(Eq-15b) Where fv is the computed shear stress, V is the maximum applied shear d is the total beam depth; and t is the web thickness.

PRACTICAL # 08 Object: Comparative Study on Design Methods (ASD V/s LRFD) Theory: Allowable Stress Design (ASD) Method: The allowable is based on the concept of allowable stress and elastic behavior. The allowable stress also called the working stress is the maximum safe stress a material may carry. Allowable load is a fraction (small part) of the ultimate strength of the member determined on the basis of a limiting value of maximum stress. The ASD method is characterized by the use of one judgmental factored of safety. A limiting stress (usually Fy also called yield stress) is divided by a factored of safety (Fs determined by the authors of specifications) to arrive at an allowable stress. Allowable stress = Fy/Fs. The factored of safety is based on assumption that the first yielding is the useful limit of the structure and for adequate safety the allowable load must be equal to or greater than the computed design load .the design load on the member, corresponding to the conditions under service loads , is computed using the elastic theory . Actual stresses in steel member are calculated by dividing forces or moments by the appropriate section property (e.g., area or section modulus). The actual stress are then compared with the allowable stresses to ascertain that Allowable stress Actual stress This method of design, based on service loads, elastic behavior and allowable stresses, is widely accepted because it develops an integral part of rational stress analysis and has the authority of experience and tradition behind it . No distinction is made among the various kinds of loads. Because of the greater variability and uncertainty of the live load and others loads in comparison with the dead load, a uniform reliability for all structures is not possible. The principal disadvantage of this method is that it fails to provide uniform over load capacity for all parts and type of structure. ASD Load Combinations 1.0D +1.0L 0.75D +0.75L+0.75W 0.75D +0.75L+0.75E

Where D = dead load L = live load W = wind load E = earth quick load Load Resistance Factored (LRFD) Method: LRFD is based on the concept of plastic design and ultimate loads. LRFD is a method for designing structures so that no applicable limit state is exceeded when the structure is subjected to all appropriate combinations of factored load. Limit state is a condition in which structure or structural component becomes unfit .Structural member can have several limits states. Strength limit state concern safety and relate to maximum load carrying capacity (e.g. plastic hinge and buckling).Service ability limit states relate to performance under normal service conditions (e.g. excessive deformation and vibration). The LRFD method as applied to each limit states may be summarized by the formula QiRn Where = load factor Q = load = resistance factor Rn = nominal resistance In the terminology of the AISC LRFD Specification ,the left side of the inequality is required strength and the right side is the design strength .The left side represents the load combinations ;that is the summation (detonated by ) of the various loads (or load effects ) Qi multiplied by their respective load factors . The left side is material independent ; the loads are taken from the governing building code and the LRFD loads factors were derived from statistical building load studies .On the right side of inequality , the design strength for the given limit states is the product of the nominal strength or the resistance Rn and its resistance factor . Associated with each limit states are values for Rn and , where Rn defines the boundary of structural usefulness ; ( always less than or equal to one ) depends on the variability of Rn . Test data were analyzed to determine the uncertainty in each resistance. The greater the scatter in the test data for the given resistance the lower its . Although plastic design is rational method which considers inelastic behavior of the structure , it will not replace all other analyze and the design methods .To be sure the method has many advantages to encourage its use , but it also has some limitation among the advantages are :

(a) Ability to prescribe over load capacity under simple loading conditions, (b) Effectives use of material, (c) Simplicity of plastic analysis calculations for symbol frame structures and (d) Design of more economic details reflecting plastic behavior. The Limitations of the plastic theory are that plane section assumed to remain plane, and residual and local stress concentrations or neglected. Other important considerations in evaluating plastic strength criteria are material properties ,effects of shear ,and axial loads, local and lateral buckling ,effect of encasement ,effect of repeated loads ,and the possibility of brittle fracture . Load Combination : The required strength is defined in the AISC LRFD Specification as the maximum (absolute value) force obtained from the following load combinations.

1.4D 1.2D + 1.6L+0.5(Lr or S or R ) 1.2D +1.6 (Lr or S or R )+ (0.5L or 0.8 W) 1.2D +1.3W +0.5L +0.5(Lr or S or R ) 1.2D +1.5E+(0.5L or 0.2S) 0.9D-(1.3W or 1.5E) Where D = dead load L = live load Lr = roof life load S = snow load R = rain load E = earth quick load W = wind load

Difference Between plastic design procedure and allowable stress method: The plastic design procedure differs from conventional allowable stress important respects: (a) Ultimate loads are used instead of service loads (b) Forces and the moments in the members subjected to ultimate loads are determined on, more realistic basis of including elastic action, (c)The members are so proportioned that their ultimate strength exceeds or at least equals, the force and moments produce by the ultimate loads. Actual vs. Ultimate Strength method in three

n

Capacity

The first difference between ASD and LRFD, historically, has been that the old Allowable Stress Design compared actual and allowable stresses while LRFD compares required strength to actual strengths. The difference between looking at strengths vs. stresses does not present much of a problem since the difference is normally just multiplying or dividing both sides of the limit state inequalities by a section property, depending on which way you are going. In fact, the new AISC Allowable Strength Design (ASD), which replaces the old allowable stress design, has now switched the old stress based terminology to a strength based terminology, virtually eliminating this difference between the philosophies. Figure DC.5.1 illustrates the member strength levels computed by the two methods on a typical mild steel load vs. deformation diagram. The combined force levels (Pa, Ma, Va) for ASD are typically kept below the yield load for the member by computing member load capacity as the nominal strength, Rn, divided by a , that reduces the capacity to a point below yielding. For LRFD, the combined force levels (Pu, Mu, Vu) are kept below a computed member load capacity that is the product of the nominal strength, Rn, times a .

When considering member strengths, we always want to keep our final design's actual loads below yielding so as to prevent permanent deformations in our structure. Consequently, if the LRFD approach is used, then load factors greater than 1.0 must be applied to the applied loads to express them in terms that are safely comparable to the ultimate strength levels. This is accomplished in the load combination equations that consider the probabilities associated with simultaneous occurrence of different types of loads.

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09CE37

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