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THE GERUND The gerund developed from the verbal noun, which in course of time became verbalized preserving at the same time its nominal character. The gerund is formed by adding the suffix -ing to the stem of the verb, and coincides in form with Participle I. The gerund has nominal and verbal properties. The nominal characteristics of the Gerund 1. It can perform the function of: a) subject: # Seeing you is always a pleasure. b) object: # I remember seeing you somewhere. # I'm thinking of seeing the film again. c) predicative: # Peter's hobby is seeing all new films. 2. It can be preceded by a preposition: # There is a chance of catching the train. # Don't forget to call me up before leaving London. 3. Like a noun the gerund can be modified by a noun in the Possessive Case or by a possessive pronoun: # Excuse my interrupting you. # I insist on John's staying with us.

The verbal characteristics of the Gerund are the same as those of the Participle: 1. The gerund of the transitive verbs can take a direct object: # Would you mind ringing the belt? 2. The gerund can be modified by an adverb: # I was surprised at his speaking English so fluently. 3. The gerund has tense distinctions. The gerund of transitive voice distinctions. The forms of the Gerund Correlation Indefinite Non-Perfect Perfect Active Voice writing going having written having gone

verbs has also

Passive Voice being written having been written

There is no gerund in Ukrainian language and the English gerund is rendered in Ukrainian in different ways: a) by a noun: # Dancing had not begun yet. . b) by an infinitive: # She had tea before leaving. , . c) by : # And without waiting for her answer she turned and left us. - He , . d) by a subordinate clause: # regretted now having come. , .

The tense distinctions of the Gerund The tense distinctions of the gerund, like those of the participles and the infinitive, are not absolute but relative. 1. The Indefinite Gerund Active and Passive denotes an action simultaneous with the action expressed by the finite verb; depending on the tense form of the finite verb it may refer to the present, past or future: # He can swim for any number of hours without tiring. # She walked on without turning her head. # No one will pass in or out without being seen. The Indefinite Gerund may also refer to the future when it depends on such verbs as to insist, to intend, to rely, etc: #I intend going there tomorrow. #I rely on his doing it properly. 2. The Perfect Gerund denotes an action prior to that of the finite verb: #She denies having spoken with him. #He was ashamed of having shown even the slightest irritation. However, a prior action is not always expressed by a Perfect Gerund. In some cases we find an Indefinite Gerund. It depends on the lexical meaning of the main verb or a preposition suggesting priority. Thus, the Indefinite Gerund is generally used after verbs of recollection, gratitude, blame, reproach, punishment and reward: # I shall never forget taking this exam. # I remember talking to him once. # Thank you for helping me. 3. The Non-Perfect Gerund is to be found in gerundial phrases introduced by the prepositions on, after and without: # On reaching the end of the street we turned towards the river. # ary, after reflecting a little, gave a long sigh. The Perfect Gerund is used, however, to emphasize the priority. # And all of sudden David remembered having heard the same before. # He came back after having been away for about 10 years.

The voice distinctions of the Gerund The gerund of transitive verbs has special forms for the active and passive voice: # He liked neither reading aloud nor being read aloud to. It should be observed that after the verbs to want, to need, to deserve, to require and the adjective worth the gerund is used in the Active Voice, though it is passive in meaning: # Your hair needs cutting. # This room needs whitewashing. # Your suggestion is worth talking over.

Verbs followed only by the Gerund

to admit to appreciate to avoid to deny to detest to enjoy to excuse to fancy to imagine to mention to mind to miss tO postpone to practice to put off tO resent to resist

to risk tO SUggeSt .'^ to understand


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can't help juj*o<*uuj *4

can't stand

r S j ^-lxhtii

Verbs followed either by the Gerund or the Infinitive

to be afraid to begin to cease to continue can't afford can't bear to dread to fear to forget to hate to intend to like/dislike to love to need to neglect to plan to prefer to propose to recollect to remember to regret to start to stop to try to want Si

Gerund as a Prepositional Object after Monotransitive Prepositional Verbs to to persist to look forward to in to consist in to count to ^-^ ^ to object
to agree to hear to learn to think of of of to depend to rely to succeed on on in

Gerund as a Prepositional Object after Ditransitive Verbs

to accuse to suspect to prevent to stop to assist to help to thank smb smb smb smb smb smb smb of of from for for for for in Qlfal^jU-tW.


from in in for

to smb to smb



to punish smb to sentence smb to have no difficulty to congratul ate on smb

Gerund as a Prepositional Object after Adjectives and Statives

to be afraid to be aware to be conscious to be capable of of of of to be fond to be ignorant to be proud of of of of to to be be on responsible sorry of about

to be keen


to be sure

Gerund as a Prepositional Object after Participle II (generally used as a predicative)

to be accustomed to be used to be absorbed to be engrossed to to in in

to be (dis) pleased to be surprised , to be tired

with/at at of

4o U^Xfe

FUNCTIONS OF THE GERUND function Subject prepositions examples Translating such texts is rather difficult. It is no use translating this text without a dictionary. My problem is getting to sleep on time. I don't feel like going to bed yet. began translating the novel.



Part of a compound verbal aspect predicate Direct object Prepositional object Attribute Adverbial modifier of time Adverbial modifier of purpose Adverbial modifier of condition Adverbial modifier of cause of, about, on, in, for, from, at, to etc. of, about, in, at, for, to after, before, on, in, at for, for fear of, for the sake of, for the purpose of without, but, for for, through, owing to, for fear of, due to, because of without, instead of

He suggested going to the museum. He denies having met her. He insisted on going home. She was not conscious of having shown any special interest in Tom. He was busy and gave up the idea of going to the seaside. She looked at him steadily before answering. He wants to visit a solicitor tomorrow for the purpose of making a new will. He won't go without saying good-bye. Through being left out all night in the rain, the metal had rusted. He felt better for having written the letter. He went away instead of working. He arrived at the age of forty five without having once appeared upon a stage. In spite of being busy, she managed to translate the text. Her evening was spent in reading. The country is much better for you than working in the hot city all summer.

Adverbial modifier of attendant circumstances Adverbial modifier of concession Adverbial modifier of manner Adverbial modifier of comparison

in spite of, despite in, by

6 Predicative Constructions with the Gerund The gerund can form predicative constructions, i.e. constructions in which the verbal element expressed by the gerund is in predicate relation to the nominal element expressed by a noun or a pronoun, e.g.: # I don't like your going off without any money. Some grammarians recognize the existence of the two separate constructions: the Gerundial Construction, the nominal element of which is expressed by a n^unjri_^e^^rntive_ase. or by a possessive pronoun; the Half-Gerundial Construction, the nominal element of which is expressed by a noun in the common case, a pronoun in the objective case, or a pronoun which has no case distinctions. The nominal element of the construction can be expressed in different ways: 1. by a noun in the genitive case or by a possessive pronoun, e.g.: # Do you mind Jack's (his) smoking? (the Gerundial Construction) # I insist on Mary's (her) going there, (the Gerundial Construction) 2. by a noun in the common case, e.g.: # Fancy David courting Emily! (the Half-Gerundial Construction) NOTE: Thus in Modern English there are two parallel constructions of the type: # Fancy David courting Emily! # Fancy David's courting Emily! 3. by a pronoun in the objective case, e.g.: # I hope you will forgive me disturbing you. (the Half-Gerundial Construction) 4. by a pronoun which has no case distinctions, such as all, this, that, both, each, something, e.g.: # I insist on both of them coming, (the Half-Gerundial Construction) A gerundial construction is nearly always rendered in Ukrainian by a subordinate clause, generally introduced by me, ; , ; : # His being a foreigner, an ex-enemy, was bad enough. # Her thoughts were interrupted at last, by the door opening gently. # I began to picture to myself ... my being found dead in a day or two, under some hedge.

7 Functions of the (Haifj-Gerundial Constructions Complex subject: = Your going there won't help much. - I t was quite unexpected his coming back so soon. Complex predicative: # What annoyed me most of all was his accepting their proposal quite readily. Complex direct object: # Do you mind my opening the window? Complex prepositional object: # I rely on your coming in time. Complex attribute: # I don't like the idea of your living here. Complex adverbial modifier of time: # Fix everything before my leaving the town. . Complex adverbial modifier of condition: # There's no teaching at school without your loving children. Complex adverbial modifier of cause: # They couldn't come to an agreement because of his being stubborn. # He felt better for Mary's having written the letter. Complex adverbial modifier of attending circumstances: # That's where we can talk without anybody's hearing. Complex adverbial modifier of concession: # In spite of it being cold, we went for a walk. Complex adverbial modifier of manner: # He was wakened by someone knocking at the door. Complex adverbial modifier of comparison: # She was not sure why it was so awful, even more awful than Hugh's knowing that she had returned.