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Vol.

14, 2004 ISSN 1084-2810

SMARANDACHE NOTIONS JOURNAL

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE CORK


This journal is an extension of the "Smarandache Function Journal",
ISBN 1053-4792, Vol. 1-6, 1990-1995.

SNJ is yearly published (in the Spring or Fall) in a 300-400 pages


volume, and 800-1000 copies.

SNJ is a referred journal: reviewed, indexed, cited by the


following journals: "Zentralblatt Für Mathematik" (Germany),
"Referativnyi Zhurnal" and "Matematika" (Academia Nauk, Russia),
"Mathematical Reviews" (USA), "Computing Review" (USA), "Libertas
Mathematica" (USA), "Octogon" (Romania), "Indian Science Abstracts"
(India), "Ulrich's International Periodicals Directory" (USA),
"Gale Directory of Publications and Broadcast Media" (USA),
"Historia Mathematica" (USA), "Journal of Recreational Mathematics"
(USA), "Abstracts of Papers Presented to the American Mathematical
Society" (USA), "Personal Computer World" (U.K.), "Mathematical
Spectrum" (U.K.), "Bulletin of Pure and Applied Sciences" (India),
Institute for Scientific Information (PA, USA), "Library of
Congress Subject Headings" (USA).

Referents:
Murad A. AlDamen, P. O. Box 713330, Hai Nazzal 11171, Amman,
Jordan.
Y. V. Chebrakov, Department of Mathematics, St.-Petersburg
Technical University, Nevsky 3-11, 191186, Russia.
Ion Goian, Department of Algebra, Number Theory and Logic,
State University of Kishinev, Republic of Moldova.
M. Khoshnevisan, School of Accounting and Finance, Griffith
University, Australia.
Maohua Le, Department of Mathematics, Zhanjiang Normal College,
29 Cunjin Road, Chikan, Zhanjiang, Guangdong, P. R. China.
Chris Nash, 5000 Bryan Station Road #5, Lexington, KY 40516-9505,
USA.
Sebastian Martin Ruiz, Avda. De Regla, 43, Chipiona 11550,
Cadiz, Spain.

Copyright 2004
by Sabin & Tatiana Tabirca, University College Cork, Ireland.

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ASSOCIATE EDITORIAL BOARD:

Azmy Ariff, PO Box 444, Jalan Sultan, Petaling Jaya 46750,


Malaysia.
Charles Ashbacher, Charles Ashbacher Technologies, Box 294,
119 Northwood Drive, Hiawatha, Iowa 52233, USA.
Krassimir Atanassov, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, PO Box
12 MRL, Sofia, Bulgaria.
Ion Balacenoiu, Department of Mathematics, University of
Craiova, Romania.
Mihaly Bencze, Str. H|rmanului 6, 2212 S|cele 3, Jud. BraÕov,
Romania.
Henry Bottomley, 5 Leydon Close, London SE16 5PF, U.K.
Micha Fleuren, Acaciastraat 16, 6598 BC Heyen, The
Netherlands.
H. Gunarto, Ritsumeikan Asia-Pacific University, 1-1
Jumonjibaru, Beppu-shi 874-8577, Oita-ken, Japan.
Henry Ibstedt, Glimminge 2036, 280 60 Broby, Sweden.
Howard Iseri, Department of Mathematics, Mansfield University,
Mansfield, PA 16933, USA.
Muneer Jebreel, SS-Math-Hebron, UNRWA, Field Education
Officer, Box 19149, Jerusalem, Israel.
W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Indian Institute of Technology,
Madras, Chennay 600 036, India.
A.A.K. Majumdar, Department of Mathematics, Jahangirnagar
University, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh.
Leonardo Fernandes Dias da Motta, Av. Conselheiro Furtado,
1574, Apt. 501, Bairro Batista Campos, Belem, PA 66040-100, Brasil.
Felice Russo, Micron Technology Italy, Avezzano (Aq), Italy.
Vasile Seleacu, Department of Mathematics, University of
Craiova, Romania.
Y. A. Shmagin, Department of Mathematics, St.-Petersburg
Technical University, Nevsky 3-11, 191186, St.-Petersburg,
Russia.
Delfim F. M. Torres, Department of Mathematics, University
of Aveiro, 3810-193, Portugal.
Angela Vasiu, Mathematics Department, Babes-Bolyai
University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania.
Bouzza El Wahbi, Départment de Mathématques et
Informatiques, Faculté des Sciences, B.P. 2121 Tétouan, Morocco.
Zhang Wenpeng, Department of Mathematics, Xi’an University
of Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi, P.R. China.
Lamarr Widmer, Department of Mathematics, Messiah College,
Grantham, PA 17027, USA.
INDICATION TO AUTHORS

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Authors of papers concerning any of Smarandache type functions,
numbers, sequences, integer algorithms, paradoxes, Non-Euclidean
geometries, etc. are encouraged to submit manuscripts to Editors:

Prof. Sabin & Tatiana Tabirca


Department of Mathematics
University College Cork, Ireland.

The submitted manuscripts may be in the format of remarks,


conjectures, solved/unsolved or open new proposed problems,
notes, articles, miscellaneous, etc. They must be original work
and camera ready [typewritten/computerized, format: 8.5 x 11
inches (. 21,6 x 28 cm)]. They are not returned, hence we
advise the authors to keep a copy.
The title of the paper should be writing with capital letters.
The author's name has to apply in the middle of the line, near
the title. References should be mentioned in the text by a
number in square brackets and should be listed alphabetically.
Current address followed by e-mail address should apply at the
end of the paper, after the references.
The paper should have at the beginning an up to a half-page
abstract, followed by the key words.
All manuscripts are subject to anonymous review by two or more
independent sources.
Every letter will be answered.
The authors will receive free copies of the journal.

Papers in electronic form are accepted. They can be e-mailed


in Microsoft Word XP (or lower), WordPerfect 7.0 (or lower), PDF
6.0 or lower.

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CONTENTS

MATHEMATICS:
PAULO D. F. GOUVEIA, DELFOM F. M. TORRES, Smarandache Sequences: Explorations
and Discoveries with a Computer Algebra System …...…………………………. 5
HENRY IBSTEDT, Palindrome Studies (Part I: the Palindrome Concept and Its Applications
to Prime Numbers) ………………………………………………………….....…23
A. S. MUKTIBODH, V. M. WAGH, Chains of Smarandache Semifields …………………...36
CHARLES ASHBACHER, On Numbers That Are Pseudo-Smarandache and Smarandache
Perfect ……………………………………………………………………………………….…..40
A. W. VYAWAHARE, K. M. PUROHIT, Near Pseudo-Smarandache Function …………....42
ZHANG TIANPING, On the k-Power Free Number Sequence ………………………………62
ZHU WEIYI, On the k-Power Complement and k-Power Free Number Sequence …………66
HE XIAOLIN, GUO JINBAO, On the 80-th Problem of F. Smarandache (I) ………………70
HE XIAOLIN, GUO JINBAO, On the 80-th Problem of F. Smarandache (II) …………..…74
MUNEER JEBREEL KARAMA, Smarandache Concatenated Magic Squares ……………..80
ZHENG JIANFENG, Proof of Functional Smarandache Iterations ……….. ………………84
ZHENG JIANFENG, On the Inferior and Superior k-th Power Part of a Positive Integer and
Divisor Function ………………………………………………………………………………..88
A. A. MAJUMDAR, H. GUNARTO, On Some Recurrence Type Smarandache sequences …92
ADRIAN VASIU, ANGELA VASIU, The Fulfilled Euclidean Plane ………………………113
DELFIM F. M. TORRES, Números Felizes e Sucessōes de Smarandache Digressōes com o
Maple ………………………………………………………………………………………….119
JOHN PERRY, Calculating the Smarandache Numbers ……………………………………124
JÓZSEF SÁNDOR, On Additive Analogues of Certain Arithmetic Functions ……………..128
SABIN TABIRCA, KIERAN REYNOLDS, Recursive Prime Numbers ……………………..133
MUNEER JEBREEL, Smarandache Sequence of Happy Cube Numbers ………………….139
ZHU WEIYI, On the Divisor Product Sequence ……………………………………………..144
ZHANG TIANPING, On the Cubic Residues Numbers and k-Power Complement Numbers
……………………………………………………………………………………………….....147
MAOHUA LE, A Conjecture Concerning the Smarandache Dual Function ………………153
LIU HONGYAN, LOU YUANBING, A Note on the 29-th Smarandache’s Problem ……....156
XU ZHEFENG, On the k-Full Number Sequence …………………………………………..159
LIU HONGYAN, ZHANG WENPENG, A Note on the 57-th Smarandache’s Problem …...164
SEBASTIAN MARTIN RUIZ, Diverse Algorithms to Obtain Prime Numbers Based on the
Prime Function of Smarandache …………………………………………………………….166
414
LIU HONGYAN, ZHANG WENPENG, On the Simple Numbers and the Mean Value
Properties ……………………………………………………………………………………...171
MOHUA LE, The Divisibility of the Smarandache Combinatorial Sequence of Degree Two
………………………………………………………………………………………………….176
MAOHUA LE, The Smarandache φ–Sequence …………..………………………………….178
MAOHUA LE, Two Functional Equations …………………………………………………..180
MAOHUA LE, Two Formulas for Smarandache LCM Ratio Sequences …………………..183
MAOHUA LE, An Equation Concerning the Smarandache LCM Functions ……………...186
GAO JING, LIU HUANING, On the 45-th Smarandache’s Problem ………………………189
GAO JING, LIU HUANING, On the Mean Value of Smarandache Double Factorial Function
……………………………………………………………………………………….193
CHARLES ASHBACHER, LORI NEIRYNCK, The Density of Generalized Smarandache
Palindromes ……………………………………………………………………………………196
ZHU WEIYI, On the Cube Free Number Sequence …………………………………………199
GAO JING, On the 49-th Smarandache’s Problem ………………………………………….203
HOWARD ISERI, Paper Models of Surfaces with Curvature Creative Visualization Labs ..205
CHARLES T. LE, BERND HUTSCHENREUTHER, Die Smarandache’sche Klasse von
Paradoxien ………………………………………………………………………………. …...211
BOUAZZA EL WAHBI, Convergence of the Smarandache General Continued Fraction ...213
MUNEER JEBREEL, The first 10-th Smarandache Symmetric Numbers …………………215
LIU HUANING, ZHANG WENPENG, On the 57-th Smarandache’s Problem ……………218
MAOHUA LE, Some Problems Concerning the Smarandache Square Complementary
Function (I) ……………………………………………………………………………………220
JASON EARLS, Some Results Concerning the Smarandache Deconstructive Sequence ….222
LOU YUANBING, An Asymptotic Formula Involving Square Complement Numbers …….227
FELICE RUSSO, On A Problem Concerning the Smarandache Left-Right Sequences …...230
CHARLES ASHBACHER, Some Properties of the Happy Numbers and the Smarandache H-
Sequence ……………………………………………………………………………………….236
JASON EARLS, Some Smarandache-Type Sequences and Problems Concerning Abundant
and Deficient Numbers ……………………………………………………………………..…243
JASON EARLS, On Smarandache Repunit n Numbers …………………………………….251
CHARLES ASHBACHER, Some Simple Advantages of Reasoning in Intuitionistic
Neutrosophic Logic ……………………………………………………………………………257
JASON EARLS, Smarandache Iterations of the First Kind on Functions Involving Divisors
and Prime Numbers …………………………………………………………………………...259
JASON EARLS, The Smarandache Sum of Composites between Factors Function ………265
YAO WEILI, On the Mean Value of m-th Power Free Numbers …………………………...271
415
JASON EARLS, A Note on the Smarandache Divisors of Divisors Sequence and Two similar
Sequences ……………………………………………………………………………………...274
SEBASTIAN MARTIN RUIZ, Formula to Obtain the Next Prime Number in Any Increasing
Sequence of Positive Integer Numbers ……………………………………………………….276
W. B. VASANTHA KANDASAMY, Smarandache Non-Associative (SNA-) Rings …..…….281
W. B. VASANTHA KANDASAMY, Smarandache Pseudo-Ideals …………………………..294
HOWARD ISERI, Impulse Gauss Curvature ………………………………………………..299
W. B. VASANTHA KANDASAMY, Smarandache-Galois Fields …………………………...310
W. B. VASANTHA KANDASAMY, Smarandache Near-Rings and Their Generalizations ..315
W. B. VASANTHA KANDASAMY, Smarandache Semi-Automaton and Automaton ……..320
W. B. VASANTHA KANDASAMY, Smarandache Zero Divisors …………………………...325
MAOHUA LE, Some Problems Concerning the Smarandache Square Complementary
Function (II) ……………………………………………………………………………..……330
MAOHUA LE, Some Problems Concerning the Smarandache Square Complementary
Function (III) …………………………….……………………………………………………333
MAOHUA LE, Some Problems Concerning the Smarandache Square Complementary
Function (IV) ………………………………………….………………………………………335
MAOHUA LE, Some Problems Concerning the Smarandache Square Complementary
Function (V) …………………………………………………………...………………………338
MAOHUA LE, The Smarandache Combinatorial Sequences ……………………………….341
MAOHUA LE, A Conjecture Concerning Indexes of Beauty ……………………………….343
MAOHUA LE, The Smarandache-Riemann Zeta Sequence ………………………………..346
LI HAILONG, On Third Power Mean Values Computation of Digital Sum Function in Base n
………………………………………………………………………………………………..348
HENRY BOTTOMLEY, A Lucky Derivative ………………………………………………...352
HOWARD ISERI, A Classification of S-Lines in a Closed S-Manifold …………………….354
SEBASTIAN MARTIN RUIZ, AZMY ARIFF, A Basic Characteristic of Twin Primes and Its
Generalization …………………………………………………………………………………357
SEBASTIAN MARTIN RUIZ, Formula to Obtain the Next Prime in an Arithmetic
Progression …………………………………………………………………………………….363
SHYAM SUNDER GUPTA, Smarandache Sequence of Triangular Numbers …………….366

PHYLOSOPHY
FENG LIU, Truth and Absolute Truth in Neutrosophic Logic ……………………………..369
FENG LIU, Toward Excitation and Inhibition in Neutrosophic Logic ……………………..381
FLAVIAN VASILE, Processes of Consciousness ……………………………………………389
CHENG-GUI HUANG, A Note on Neutrosophy and Buddhism ……………………………398
416
PHYSICS:
HOMER B. TILTON, Reverse Engineer the Universe! ……………………………………...399
SOCIEDAD ESPAŇOLA DE EXOBIOLOGIA, HG Wells Telecom (Pregúntale al Científico)
………………………………………………………………………………………………….404
SOCIEDAD ESPAŇOLA DE EXOBIOLOGIA, Estación Central Tiempo (Pregúntale al
Científico) ………………………………..…………………………………………………….407
J. HARRI T. TIAINEN, The Schrödinger Cat Thought Experiment Land (The SCTE Land)
………………………………………………………………………………………………….409

417
Papers concerning any of the Smarandache type functions, sequences,
numbers, algorithms, inferior/superior f-parts, magic squares, palindromes,
functional iterations, semantic paradoxes, Non-Euclidean geometries, manifolds,
conjectures, open problems, algebraic structures, neutrosophy, neutrosophic
logic/set/probability, hypothesis that there is no speed barrier in the universe,
quantum paradoxes, etc. have been selected for this volume.
Contributors are from Australia, China, England, Germany, India, Ireland,
Israel, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Morocco, Portugal, Romania, Spain, USA. Most of
the papers are in English, a few of them are in Spanish, Portuguese, or German.

The Editors

$79.95