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By Nicolas Protonotarios
Edited by Paul Ashton Front Cover Artwork: George Hatzopoulos This edition 3 November 2003

I wish to dedicate this rule set to the professional figure painters of Greece: Andreas Panagopoulos, Antonis Lyberopoulos, George Hatzopoulos and George Pistov, without whose excellent work wargaming in Greece would have been much poorer to look at and much slower to grow. I also wish to thank Dimitris Nikolaou, Miltos Yourgis,Antiohos Barzoukas, George Hatzopoulos, Panagiotis Binaris, Vangelis Tsaras, Nikos Raphaelides, Christos Sourlis and last-but-not-least, Steve Higgins, wargamers who gave their precious time and attention in order for HOPLON to be play tested and improved. They form only a tiny minority of the wargamers at home, but in understanding and courage are head and shoulders above the rest.

UK Edition published by Amazon Miniatures 200 Monton Road, Monton, Eccles, Manchester, M30 9PY, England

Website: Hoplon Discussion Group:


INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................. 1 1. GROUNDWORK .........................................................................................................2 2. BASIC RULE FEATURES...............................................................................................2 3. ARMY STRUCTURE- COST ..........................................................................................3
3.1. Army Structure ..............................................................................................................................................3 3.2. Cost................................................................................................................................................................. 4

4. ELEMENTS - UNITS.....................................................................................................5 5. COMMAND ELEMENTS - COMMAND CONTROL & INITIATIVE..............................6

5.1. Ally Commands........................................................................................................................................... 7

6. TROOP TYPES BASING .............................................................................................8

I. Foot.........................................................................................................................8 II. Mounted................................................................................................................ 10 6.1. Troop Type Distinctives .............................................................................................................................12 Self-confidence, Motivation and Quality of Materiel (Mandatory): .................................. 13 Training Status (Mandatory): ...................................................................................... 13 Function (Mandatory):................................................................................................ 13 Level of Training - Experience: ................................................................................... 13 Protection Against Missiles: ....................................................................................... 14 Special Abilities: ........................................................................................................ 14

7. SETTING UP FOR BATTLE ......................................................................................... 15

I. If the game is a competition game or non-scenario driven ......................................... 15 II. For scenario-driven games or re-enactment of historical battles ................................ 17 7.1. Deployment Mode......................................................................................................................................18 7.2. Outflanks......................................................................................................................................................18

8. TERRAIN TABLE........................................................................................................ 19
8.1. Rivers - Coastline - Naval Support ....................................................................................................... 20 8.2. Engineers - Fortifications....................................................................................................................... 20

9. GAME SEQUENCE..................................................................................................... 21 10. MOVEMENT............................................................................................................ 21

10.1. Group Movement .................................................................................................................................... 23 10.2. Movement by Type of Troop............................................................................................................... 23 I. Foot....................................................................................................................... 24 II. Mounted................................................................................................................ 24 III. Professional ......................................................................................................... 25 IV. Impetuous............................................................................................................ 25 V. War Engines ......................................................................................................... 25


VI. Naval Units .......................................................................................................... 25 10.3. Interpenetrations.....................................................................................................................................26 10.4. Compulsory Moves.................................................................................................................................27

11. SHOOTING...............................................................................................................27
11.1. Visibility for Shooting (Kill Zone ) ......................................................................................................28 11.2. Target Priority & Shooting Priority .....................................................................................................28 11.3. Shooting Mechanics - Effects ................................................................................................................29 11.4. Support Shooting and Charge Test ...................................................................................................... 30 11.5. Shooting at Flanks and Rear....................................................................................................................31 11.6. Cover ............................................................................................................................................................31

12. CHARGING - COMBAT........................................................................................... 31

12.1. Charge Reaction........................................................................................................................................32 12.2. Moving into Contact - Flanks & Rear................................................................................................ 33 12.3. Melee ..........................................................................................................................................................35 12.4. Recoiling - Following up ....................................................................................................................... 36 12.5. Routing - Evading - Breaking off - Pursuing....................................................................................39 12.6. Rallying......................................................................................................................................................40

13. AMBUSHES...............................................................................................................41 14. FIGHTING IN BUILT-UP AREAS & FORTIFICATIONS ............................................41 15. BAGGAGE............................................................................................................... 42 16. DEMORALISATION & WITHDRAWAL....................................................................43 17. WINNING A BATTLE.............................................................................................. 45 I. APPENDICES ............................................................................................................. 45 I. SPECIAL COMBAT FORMATIONS............................................................................ 45 II. TABLES ...................................................................................................................... 51


The rationale for the HOPLON Rule System Early wargame rule systems attempted to simulate reality on the table by basing their deployment and combat operations solely on units groups of figures arrayed in rigid formations. While this is realistic for the deployment and appearance of troops on the wargames table, it leaves much to be desired in functionality, due to the inherent inflexibility of the unit block. Well-trained armies of antiquity, which relied on their flexibility to win battles, could not be represented accurately. With the appearance of the Wargames Research Group th 7 Edition and the subsequent DBA and DBM rule systems, the operational basis began to use, and then reverted to, elements. The flexibility of the element is incontestable and the introduction of the PIP-based command and control, the new, simplified troop types and the undemanding, accounting-free combat mechanisms brought instant success. Most wargame armies are designed today around the DB(x) systems allowing players from around the world to standardize their armies and find opponents more easily. The scope of the game changed, however, and along with the welcome simplifications came the tendency to even out the performance of the few troop types and classes available to cover a 3000 year + history. The result of this is that while competition rules work admirably for championships, cup matches etc. they are inadequate for re-enacting historical battles or simply wargaming for the fun of it without substantial tweaking of both the rules and especially the army lists. For example, the ability of cavalry to shoot from a distance and evade heavier opponents, often with devastating results, has become marginalized on the wargames table (Huns, Turks, Mongols, Parthians etc. would not find this amusing). As for the battle objectives, the over-simplification of morale has led to the pursuit of that last element kill in order to defeat an opponent; hardly characteristic of what most ancient battles were about. In other words, success in competition wargaming has resulted in the loss of historical realism and fun for many players, the main reason for having wargames in the first place. The HOPLON rule system was designed to use as many of the troop types, mechanisms and army composition lists of DBM as possible, while re-introducing those aspects of ancient warfare that have been lost through the pursuit of championship competitiveness. This allows players who wish to wargame utilizing realistic tactics, without having to sacrifice their competition-designed armies, to do so. HOPLON is by no means a DBM derivative in that it differs in a number of crucial areas: opponents move and fight simultaneously, as units or as elements, various troop types may evade or break-off, and all may flee and pursue, making the battlefield far more fluid and, at times, less predictable. Shooting has been given special attention and all troops that could do so may use this to their advantage, but may be limited in hand-to-hand combat. In addition, elite troops are truly capable when compared to untrained levies and can be devastating if handled properly, while Command Elements may have the ability to influence the performance of their troops beyond the roll of a single die all at a price. Apart from historical re-enactment, the rules also come with a comprehensive costing system to allow balanced or competition battles to be played. This is not a simplified affair and great effort has been put into the evaluation of every troop or command capability: a Spartiate hoplite element may cost 13 points compared to 4 points for the average Persian infantryman and a Mongol horse archer 16 points compared to 12 points for an armoured Russian knight, but both will do the business when asked to do so (or could die in vain if used improperly). Commanders also have variable abilities and Alexander the Great may not need much luck in moving his troops about, while Darius army, although much larger, will be relatively immobile. HOPLON is a general rule system and any special, era-specific characteristics, the so-called 'national characteristics' are incorporated into the accompanying Army Lists to make armies even more realistic. What has been achieved with HOPLON, is that every historical period played has a distinctive flavour: a mainly infantry battle, as between Romans and Gauls, presents a totally different image and flow than a mainly cavalry battle, as between Byzantines and Turks, and all this without additional investment in time or money. NICOLAS A.PROTONOTARIOS

To play the game: Wargames table 200 x 140 cm divided into 12 sectors Terrain features (woods, hills, swamps, rough, buildings etc.) Normal dice (D6 = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6), regular dice (D4 = 2, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5) and half-dice (D3 = 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3) Multi-coloured flag markers (optional) Armies, divided into Commands, with Command Elements.


Below is a short list of the rules basic features to better understand the game system introduced with HOPLON. Element: The smallest component and the basic combat entity on the table. A number of elements build into a combat unit. All elements have a frontage of 4 cm, differing only in depth depending on troop type. Elements each represent between 100-150 men for Open Order troops (Psiloi, Light Horse), 200-250 men for Loose Order troops (Peltasts, Cavalry, Fast foot) and 250-300 for Close Order troops (Spearmen, Swordsmen, Barbarians, Cataphracts). When fighting or shooting as independent entities (not as part of a unit) elements fight with their respective combat factor 1s, without cohesion bonus or unformed handicap. Combat Unit: The combat unit (or unit) is composed of elements. The number of elements per unit varies according to troop type and regular or irregular status of the troops. Elements fighting as part of formed units have advantages in combat (cohesion bonus), but may also become disordered or unformed. A number of units constitute a Command. Cohesion-Disorder: Cohesion is an indicator of unit integrity that allows most troop types to fight better than they would as individual elements, by using their cohesion bonus. Unsuitable terrain, uncontrolled advance, flank attack, casualties from shooting and any break in the line of a units front, as in the case of a partial follow-up after combat, are all causes for disorder and result in the loss of the cohesion bonus. A disordered result is best represented by placing one of the rear elements of a disordered unit crookedly to mark the unit as such. Individual elements, having no cohesion bonus, are never disordered. Rallying from disorder is automatic at the end of the round as long as the causes are removed (terrain, break in the line etc.) Unformed: An unformed result on a unit denotes significant combat losses, morale fatigue and lack of cohesion and its elements may fight with a handicap. Units become unformed either by sustaining casualties or when defeated in melee. The severity of the unformed effect on a unit varies by troop type. An unformed result is best represented by a flag marker (preferably coloured to distinguish different armies etc.) Rallying from unformed requires a commanders intervention, except if the unformed unit is victorious in melee, in which case it is automatic. Independent elements are never unformed. Zone of Control (ZOC): This is a zone of 10cm around every unit which interdicts march moves. Troops may enter this zone only by tactical move, except if demoralised or withdrawing in which case they ignore it and may retreat through it. Open Order troops, single elements outside friendly ZOCs 2, troops inside built-up areas, or in rout or behind uncrossable rivers, have a lesser ZOC of 3cm. Combat Zone: This is the -unoccupied- area immediately in front of each element, defined in width by its own width (4cm) and in depth depending on the type of element (3cm for foot, 4cm for mounted and War Engines). Enemy elements within this zone or passing through it may not move freely and may never voluntarily expose their flanks or rear to it: they may only move to contact the element itself or retreat directly away from it or move to provide support
1 2

For Combat Factors, see Table 3. MELEE TABLE Except Command Elements, Elephants and War Engines .

for any adjacent friendly element, within 4cm. Fortifications and Wagon Laager do not negate the combat zone. Command Points (CoP): This is the cost measure for relaying and executing orders. It is the same number that determines the Initiative of each Command for that round by adding a D6 die roll to the commanders BIF. the number of CoPs also determines how many actions a players troops can execute each round. Command: A Command is the main formation on the table and is composed of infantry and/or cavalry units or elements, with or without war engines. The structure of a Command may be restricted by the army lists. A Command is led by a Command Element representing a General, Sub-General or an Ally General and is part of a Field Army or an Army Corps. Command Range: Every Command Element may control any troops under its Command to a range of 30cm, 40cm, or 50cm, depending on the quality (BIF) of the commander. Units under control move and react expending normal CoPs. Those out of control may still move, but at higher CoP cost, and some types (Inferior class troops) may not advance closer to the enemy. Basic Initiative Factor - Initiative: The Basic Initiative Factor (BIF) ranges from 0 to 3 and is allocated to Command Elements (Generals, Ally Generals and Sub-Generals) before the start of the game. The BIF is crucial to the game system and simulates the command ability of each commander as well as the ability of his staff to relay orders and of his troops to obey them. Commander BIFs may be restricted by the Army Lists. Securing the initiative gives a commander priority status in deciding whether to move and attack before or after his opponents. The initiative of each Command is determined at the beginning of each round, by adding a D6 die roll to the BIF of the respective Command Elements and is calculated immediately after the Command and Rally phase. Sector: The wargames table is split into 12 sectors (3 depth x 4 width) with terrain features and troops allocated to each. The breakdown in sectors aims at facilitating arrival of reinforcements etc.


The deployment of each army takes place by Commands. The structure of each Command may vary from army to army and is given in detail in the accompanying Army Lists book. Two or more Commands are necessary to fight a medium-sized battle, with each commander having been allocated a Basic Initiative Factor (BIF) before the start of the battle. The total number of Commands is limited by the Army Lists and by the size of an army. The general rule is that any army under 700 combat points (net -not counting any BIF costs) cannot have more than three own Commands or reliable Ally Commands, but can have any number of unreliable Ally Commands. If there is no scenario for a battle, the rules provide a fairly comprehensive costing system to allow a balanced game in points.

3.2. C OST
Each element of a troop type has its combat value expressed in points [see Table below]. The total cost of each Command is calculated by adding up all the individual points of its elements plus the cost of its Command Element. Command Elements have double the cost of their respective troop type (rounded up). If the Command Element has a BIF other than 0 the cost of its Command will be augmented by a percentage equal to its BIF x 10. Totals are rounded up [see examples below]. Examples An Imperial Roman Command (1 Legion) of 69 AD will cost: 1 Legio: 21 x Reg Sw O, Pro2, H, Shk/Msl [Pilum] 21 x 15 p Light Horse: 1 x Reg LH O, Shk/Msl [Jav] 1x7p Sub-General, (S w as above, doubled) 1 x 30 p A BIF of 2 for the CE would increase the total cost by: 352 +20% = 422 points A Sarmatian Command (Iazyges) of 105 AD will cost: Lancers: 8 x Irr Kn O, F, (Pro1), Shk/Msl [Bow] Horse Archers: 6 x Irr LH O, Msl, [Bow] Sub-General, (as Kn) A BIF of O adds no cost to the Command A Late Imperial Roman Command (2 Legions) of 360 AD will cost: Legiones: 8 x Reg Sw O, Pro1, (H), Shk/Msl [Bow] 8 x 13 p Auxilia: 6 x Reg Plt O, Pro1, (H), Shk/Msl [Bow] 6 x 11 p Ala Quingenaria: 6 x Reg Cv O, Shk/Msl [Jav] 6 x 10 p Sub-General (as S w) 1 x 26 p A BIF of 1 would increase the total cost by: 278 +10% = 306 points An Early Sassanid Command of 380 AD will cost: Noble Cavalry: 12 x Irr Cv S, H, Msl/Shk [Bow][L] Light Horse: 4 x Irr LH O/F, Msl/Shk [Bow] Slingers: 6 x Irr Ps O, Msl [Sling] Sub-General (as Cv) 315 p 7p 30 p 352 p

8 x 17 p 6x7p 1 x 34 p

136 p 42 p 34 p 212 p

104 p 78 p 60 p 26 p 278 p

12 x 14 p 4x8p 6x3p 1 x 28 p

168 p 32 p 18 p 28 p 246 p

A BIF of 1 would give it a total cost of: 246 +10% = 271 points


R EGULAR MOUNTED Knight Kn Cataphract Cat Heavy Chariot HCh Light Chariot LCh Cavalry Cv Light Horse LH Camels Cm Light Camels LCm Elephants 2 El Wagon Laager WL Scythed Chariot SCh +3 +2 +3 +1 +2 +2 -


15 15 14 9 10 9 10 9 22 10 10

12 12 11 6 7 6 8 6 18 7

10 10 9 4 5 4 6 4 16 5

FOOT Foot Knights FKn Swordsmen Sw Spearmen Sp Sarissae Ss Barbarians Bb Bowmen Bw Peltasts Plt Psiloi Ps Rabble Rb War Engines 2 WE Baggage Bg

+1 +2 +2 +2 +2 -

9 7 6 8 6 6 5 5 2 18 3

1 2

Fast F Untrained Unt Professional Pro1 or Pro2 Double armed Shk/Msl or Msl/Shk Wedge or Skythian capable W or Sk Dual role (only if intending to dismount) - Dmt Heavy H, Mounted foot Mtd Greek Hoplites, Elephant or Camel trained horses Cavalry with Lance, Elephant crews in howdah Double depth element 6 2E Minimum cost for any troop type is point.

-1 -2

7 5 4 6 4 4 3 3 1 20 3 1 MODIF IERS -1 +3 or +5 4 +1 , +2 or +3 5 +2 +1 -2

5 3 3 4 3 3 2 2 24 3

+1 -1

The additional features of Elephants (Double-armed, Heavy) and War Engines (Pro) cost double.
3 4

High Trajectory, Low Trajectory and Fast War Engines respectively.

Pro1 refers to single-armed troops or troops that only count their Pro bonus for their main combat role (Shock or Missile) and cost 3 points extra. Pro2 refers to double-armed troops that count their Pro bonus in both combat roles and cost 5 points extra. CO or LO troops that have only a single shot with hand-hurled weapons (pila, javelins etc.) cost 1 point extra. Any troops with multiple shot capability like archers, slingers etc. cost 2 points. Any (like Chariot or Elephant crews) that have all-round shooting ability +3 points.
6 5

For the total cost of 2E elements, see Appendices I. Special Combat Formations.

Depending on the troop type and status, all troops, bar a few exceptions, must initially be formed into units. Units should include an element with a standard and/or musicians and a unit commander to denote their unit status. The size and composition of each unit varies between regular and irregular troops and is given in detail in the Army Lists. The maximum number of elements per unit is 9 for regulars and 12 for irregulars 3. The absolute minimum is 2 for regulars, light troops and bodyguards and 2-4 for irregular troops, in accordance with the army lists. Elements as part of a unit move and fight together expending CoPs as a group and have better staying or offensive power than independent elements or groups of elements, through the cohesion bonus. Elements may be detached from units and fight independently if necessary, but will then have only limited fighting and staying power. To maintain unit status,

In case of mandatory double-depth elements, like Sp/Bw combinations or Psiloi -supported elements like Sw/Ps or LCh/Ps, count rear elements as half.

a unit must keep at least two thirds of its elements in side or rear contact with each other, while to maintain order (i.e. cohesion bonus) a unit must maintain its front in an unbroken line. A unit at under two thirds strength loses its unit status and its constituent elements become independent 4. Detached elements may rejoin their parent unit at will during the Charge and Normal Movement phase. However, ad hoc elements from different units, even of the same troop type, may not be reformed into a new unit. The only other reinforcement that can augment a unit is the Command Element itself. A unit may become disordered by breaking its formation through movement over uneven terrain or following-up or being partially pushed back in a melee, or flank-charged, or due to enemy shooting, thus losing its cohesion bonus.
The elements on the right have lost contact with their unit, but the other six are still over 2/3 of unit strength and may continue to fight as a (disordered) unit.

It can also become unformed by enemy missile attack, or by being defeated in combat, or by suffering an element killed, in which case, in addition to its losing its cohesion bonus, the unit may fight at a disadvantage, the severity of which depends on its troop type [see Appendices II.3.Melee Table]. Independent elements and groups from decimated or dispersed units have no unformed or disordered effects, but also no cohesion advantages 5. However, even if detached from each other, a units elements are affected morale-wise. Some armies either have mandatory Double-depth elements of different troop types or may support their Shock (hand-to-hand) troop elements with different types of troops ( Shock or Missile types). In these cases, the Missile supports may shoot from a rear rank, even if not Bowmen, while the combat and morale performance of the combined element depends on the specific army and/or period as dictated in the Army Lists. Different types of units of the same Command may move together as a group as long as they can all move at the slowest units pace. Independent elements of a Command may move as groups only of the same troop type [see 10.2.Movement by Type of Troop]. In the rules, the term formation is used to describe either a unit, or a group of independent elements (often an under-strength unit that has lost its unit status) or, if applicable, a single independent element.


Command Elements- CE. The smallest operational unit on the table is the Command Element. This is represented as an element of (usually) the main troop type of each army, with a leader figure, accompanied by banners, standards etc. that costs double the cost of the respective troop type. CEs have a Basic Initiative Factor (BIF) ranging from 0-3 [see Army Lists]. The BIF plus a D6 dice roll, determines the Initiative of the whole Command and its CoPs available for each round. CEs constitute a Commands HQ and are crucial for relaying orders, rallying troops etc. CEs may move, once every round, either at the Command and Rally phase or during the Charge and Normal Movement phase, for free (no CoPs expended), at the speed of their respective troop type. Any additional movement costs accordingly. A CE may join any friendly unit by moving into contact with any of the units elements. A unit with an attached CE may use its free CoP to move if it has not already been used in the Command and Rally phase. A CE may be attached to any formation under its command or may have its own bodyguard troops, who thus act as a full unit. If a CE of BIF = 1, 2 or 3 is in the front rank of a unit of its own Command, the entire unit will be upgraded by one morale class for as long as the

The effect of this is that larger units may sustain more losses or detach smaller sub-units or single elements to fight separately if necessary. In cases of detached elements, only the parent unit retains its unit status.

Any unformed or disordered markers are removed automatically when a formation can no longer operate as a unit.

commander remains there and is combat-capable (Inferior and Ordinary Missile troops will react as Ordinary Shock and Superior Missile and they in their turn as Superior Shock.) CEs always allow inter-penetrations regardless of their respective troop type and may always exchange ranks with one of the units elements. The Commander in Chief (C-in-C) may join and support any Command in addition to his own, as above, except allied Commands. When part of a unit, the CE will be affected by the results of the whole unit (disordered, unformed etc.) A CE may charge and fight on its own with a melee advantage of +1. If, at the beginning of a round, the CE is still in combat or is lost or routed, it will not be able to add any BIF of 1 or above to the die roll and the Command will only have a D6 to determine its CoPs and Initiative. If the BIF was originally 0, the die roll will be a D3 instead of a D6. A CE may evade enemy charges regardless of its troop type. However, if it does so without its troop type normally allowing evades (like LH, Ps etc.) its Command must test for morale as if the CE had routed. The same will occur if a CE attempts to break-off after defeat in combat. The loss or rout of a CE is cause for morale test [see 16. Demoralisation & Withdrawal]. On subsequent rounds, if the Command passes its morale test successfully, the player may designate another combat-capable element with the same BIF as before minus one (even if it was originally 0). The new CE must be of the same troop type as the one lost and preferably not in contact with enemy troops at that point. If the same troop type is not available then a different troop type may be designated. In case of a CE being lost, if its Command passes the morale test successfully, it must temporarily react as unwilling and may not voluntarily approach enemy troops for the entire round following the CE loss (see 16. Demoralisation & Withdrawal). This is only necessary for the Command of the CE lost, not the entire army (in case of the C-in-C being lost). Command Control & Initiative. In HOPLON , movement takes place for both armies on the same round, by Command. The Command with the higher initiative for a given round decides whether to charge or move before its opponents. Initiative for movement means that a player may allow other Commands of lower initiative to move first. The initiative of a Command is determined just after the Command and Rally phase, after subtracting CoPs used for rallying troops. A Command Element has a BIF of 1 and throws a (D6)=3 for an Initiative Factor of 4. Of the 4 CoPs available, the commander spends 2 CoPs to rally units, so the Command's Initiative Factor for that round is 2. This determines both the Commands initiative and the number of CoPs available to the commander for that round.

For a unit/element to receive its orders normally (expend n ormal CoPs) it must be under Command Control, i.e. within a distance of 30cm, 40cm or 50cm of its own CE, (30cm if BIF=0; 40cm if BIF=1; 50cm if BIF=2 or 3). The line of communication must be unimpeded or must be able to trace a path around any intervening enemy units or impassable terrain. Elements/units need to be in Command Control before they move, but not necessarily when they end their move. Units out of Command Control must expend an additional 1 CoP for each tactical or rally move they make. If these are of Inferior class they may not charge enemy units or approach voluntarily within the enemys ZOC. Troops in rout cannot be rallied if out of Command Control.


Ally Commands are led by Ally Command Elements that may only command their own troops. They may be Reliable, in which case they are treated as normal troops, Cautious in which case they may refuse to fight, or Unreliable, in which case they may even become hostile and turn against their former allies. Reliable Commands may be fielded independently (in which case their CE will be treated as a Sub-General) or may be incorporated into a larger Command, as a national contingent, in which case their CE will not have its own D6. If, however, this CE should be lost or routed, its contingent must take a morale test separately. If the troops of this should break, the rest of the Command must take a morale test as well, taking into account the routed allies.

Once, at the beginning of the game, each Cautious or Unreliable Ally Command must test for fidelity. If Cautious it will become unwilling on a D6 roll of 1; if Unreliable on 1 or 2. An Unwilling Command will then refuse to advance or shoot against its former enemies until any enemy Command becomes demoralised, in which case it will become operational once more. If attacked or shot at by anyone, it will declare automatically against the side that attacked it and remain firm in its commitment for the rest of the battle. If, at any point of the battle, the friendly C-in-Cs Command becomes demoralised before any of the opponents, any unwilling, Cautious Ally Command will withdraw from the battlefield. An unwilling, Unreliable Ally Command, however, may become treacherous and must test for reaction. A treacherous ally throws a D6 and on a roll of 5, or 6 will withdraw from the battlefield; on 1, 2, 3, or 4 it will change sides and will come under the command of the opponent player. Cautious Ally Commands cost 10% less than their normal total cost, Unreliable ones 30% less.


I. Foot.
There are ten foot troop types, depending mainly on their weapons and method of fighting: Foot Knights (FKn), Swordsmen (Sw), Spearmen (Sp), Sarissae (Ss), Peltasts (Plt) and Barbarians (Bb), that are mainly Shock and Bowmen (Bw), Psiloi (Ps), that are mainly Missile, plus Baggage (Bg) and Rabble (Rb). Foot deploys in three basic combat orders: i. Close Order (CO) (Swordsmen, Spearmen, Sarissae, Barbarians, Bowmen, Rabble) ii. Loose Order (LO) (Foot Knights, Peltasts, Fast) iii. Open Order (OO) (Psiloi)

Foot Knights (FKn) represent heavily armed and armoured troops, like warriors that formed elite bodyguards, dismounted knights, Byzantine menavlatoi etc. They invariably fought with heavy swords, axes, poleaxes, halberds or heavy spears, in LO formation, requiring space to wield their weapons. In wargaming terms, they are slow moving, but are flexible in manoeuvre and rely less on their formation than other troops. They fight in single rank with a cohesion bonus of only +1 and have 1 when drawing against foot, but their basic combat factor is more than adequate. Their advantages are mainly against heavy mounted troops, like non-Fast Knights and Heavy Chariots, which they destroy automatically. They are also destroyed automatically, however, if they are forced to recoil by Elephants in addition to the above. When shot at by War Engines, they count as a Vulnerable target.

Swordsmen (Sw) represent troops that fought primarily using swords or similar hand-t ohand weapons and did not rely solely on their combat formation to beat their opponents. They were usually the elite of shock infantry being inherently flexible and thus capable of quickly adapting to rapid developments on the battlefield. They can be double-armed either with javelins or with heavy throwing weapons like the Roman pila. In wargaming terms, they have a high basic combat factor against foot and a cohesion bonus of +2, but are also inherently flexible being able to break formation or become unformed without any additional penalty. When defending they can fight in two ranks but risk losing both ranks if they suffer a kill. When shot at by War Engines, they count as a Vulnerable target.

Spearmen (Sp) represent the most common form of foot troops armed with a relatively long thrusting spear that were better in defence than attack and mostly against mounted troops. In wargaming terms they rely mostly on unit cohesion for effect, fighting at up to two ranks deep only in defence (except Greek hoplites), with a cohesion bonus of +3, (+2 if Untrained), and have a 1 penalty when unformed. Spearmen can destroy Cavalry and Light Horse opponents only if charged by them, but if Spearmen charge such mounted troops themselves they can only cause them to flee (including their rear supporting ranks). Untrained Spearmen can only initiate charge as units, not as independent elements. All mounted and all

LO foot facing ordered Spearmen on level ground have a 1 handicap. When shot at by War Engines, they count as a Vulnerable target.

Sarissae (Ss) represent the development of the spear phalanx with the adoption of the longer pike, the sarissa, and were the most powerful troops in a frontal engagement, especially against mounted troops. Pike phalanges relied almost entirely on their combat formation for effect and thus had to have well-protected flanks and rear. Difficult terrain, or heavy losses from missile weapons could prove disastrous. In wargaming terms, they fight at up to three ranks deep and have a +3 cohesion bonus (+2 if Untrained) while all opponents facing ordered Ss on level ground have a 1 handicap. On the other hand, Ss are very inflexible and vulnerable, fighting with a 2 penalty when unformed. Non-Professional pikemen can initiate charge or advance to provide overlap only as units, not as independent elements. Like Spearmen, Ss can destroy Cavalry and Light Cavalry opponents only if charged by them. If Sarissae charge such troops themselves they can only cause them to flee (including any rear supporting ranks). Sarissae are always Regular and cannot be Doublearmed or Fast. When shot at by War Engines, they count as a Vulnerable target.

Barbarians (Bb) represent the massed tribal infantry formations charging, often impetuously, against their opponents to overcome them by sheer momentum. Barbarians relied primarily on the rush of their charge to cause disorder in their opponents ranks and burst through. They can be fielded either as CO or LO foot, but are always based as LO. Barbarians are dangerous opponents when in order, but are disadvantaged when unformed or disordered. In wargaming terms, they are momentum troops and automatically kill CO Swordsmen, Spearmen, Bowmen and Sarissae elements if they push them back in any terrain. They fight at up to three ranks deep, with +2 cohesion bonus, but have a penalty of 1 when unformed. When within an enemy ZOC or when shot at they become impetuous and advance out of control against their closest enemy, in which case, they become automatically disordered and lose their cohesion bonus. Barbarians cannot be Regular and must always make full moves up to an enemy ZOC. To hold them back or to rally them when impetuous, their commander needs 2 CoPs for each formation. Superior LO Barbarians react differently to Superior CO Barbarians. The former have their automatic kill against CO foot even when drawing, but suffer the same 1 penalty as all Fast troops when defeated; the latter have the +1 bonus when defeated as all Superior troops.

Bowmen (Bw) represent those units armed primarily with missile weapons such as bows or longbows, with or without a secondary hand-t o-hand capability. Their main aim was to destroy opponents at long range and were often unwilling to join a melee, although when double-armed they could be dangerous. In wargaming terms, they shoot with one rank of rear support, melee without rear support and have a weak melee factor. If purely Missile, they rely on their unit cohesion bonus only for shooting (+1 per target) and may only charge Missile opponents. If Double-armed, they count cohesion bonus of +1 in melee and may also charge any opponents. Bowmen may attempt to break-off if defeated in melee. When doing so they may interpenetrate any friendlies as Psiloi. When shot at by War Engines, they count as a Vulnerable target.

Peltasts (Plt) represent those troops trained to fight in loose order in mountainous or difficult terrain, sacrificing protection and cohesion for speed and manoeuvrability. They combine moderate hand-to-hand performance with excellent speed and adaptability to changing requirements. They disliked fighting against mounted troops when in good going and were thus brittle against such opponents. In wargaming terms, Peltasts fight in two ranks in good or in rough terrain and have a cohesion bonus of +2 if Regular, or in rough terrain and +1 if Irregular in the open. All operate without any additional penalty when unformed. NonInferior or Untrained Peltasts, destroy Elephants automatically.

Psiloi (Ps) represent the various types of light skirmishing troops, performing harassment, screening and other tasks. They could be very specialised depending on their skills and weapons and their uses range from hand-to-hand combat in difficult terrain, to supporting CO infantry and harassing heavy, slow-moving opponents with missiles. In wargaming terms they may evade enemy charges and may inter-penetrate freely with other troop types. They have no cohesion bonus but also no disorder or unformed effects and are unaffected by any terrain. If they have a Shock distinctive, they may charge anyone. They fight in double rank against any in rough or difficult terrain and against Psiloi, Rabble, Baggage, Bowmen and War Engines in any terrain. Purely Missile Psiloi may only charge

other purely Missile troops or routers and must evade when charged. If they cannot evade and have to fight, Missile Psiloi are automatically destroyed by mounted troops when defeated. All other Psiloi must evade (for free) if their formation is defeated in melee. NonInferior or Untrained Psiloi, with a shock distinctive, destroy Elephants automatically.

Rabble (Rb) represent, with few exceptions, inadequately trained and equipped civilians, often unwilling to fight. In a few cases they represent fanatic mobs that were enthusiastic and aggressive, but ill-equipped and untrained. In wargaming terms they are limited compared to normal combat infantry in every aspect and can be unreliable or difficult to control. They have no rear support, cannot be Regular, Professional, Double-armed or Heavy and if Superior (fanatics) they become impetuous when shot at or when within an enemy ZOC, even of Psiloi. When unformed they have a 1 handicap.

Baggage (Bg) are not strictly foot troops, but are represented by lightly defended elements of baggage train, or entire camps that accompanied most armies. In some cases, the baggage train can be protected by a palisade or a ditch or even a wagon laager or can even form an entire camp. In wargaming terms Baggage elements are weak, they can never attack or move (unless specified as mobile in the Army Lists) and are captured if forced to recoil, but can draw enemy troops away from the battle.

II. Mounted.
There are eleven troop types depending mainly on their weapons and method of fighting: Knights (Kn), Cataphracts (Cat), Cavalry (Cv), Light Horse (LH), Camelry (Cm), Light Camelry (LCm), Heavy Chariot (HCh), Light Chariot (LCh), Scythed Chariots (SCh), Elephants (El) and Wagon Laager (WL). Mounted deploy in three basic combat orders: i. Close Order (CO) (Cataphracts, Wagon Laager) ii. Loose Order (LO) (Knights, Cavalry, Camelry, Chariots, Elephants) iii. Open Order (OO) (Light Horse, Light Camelry)

Knights (Kn) represent heavily-armed and armoured cavalry on massive horses that excelled primarily in the charge. In wargaming terms, they charge at the gallop, moving like Fast troops, they can fight in two ranks when formed and are momentum troops destroying any foot troops they push back, but they are automatically destroyed when forced to recoil in unsuitable terrain or on any terrain by Elephants or Foot Knights (except if Fast Knights). If Irregular, they become impetuous if shot at by missiles or if within an enemy zone of control and they must always make full moves when moving (up to an enemy ZOC). To control their impetuosity, 2 CoPs are required for every formation. Knights Fast may always evade Elephants, Scythed Chariots and may evade foot charging their flank or rear. When shot at by War Engines, they count as a Vulnerable target.

Cataphracts (Cat) represent heavily armoured cavalry, in dense formation, mostly encountered in the East, with emphasis placed on protection against missiles. They were slow-moving, did not charge at the gallop and used a variety of weapons from lances to maces to split up enemy formations. They were especially effective when used in conjunction with mounted archery. In wargaming terms, they fight in two ranks against foot, have a cohesion bonus of +2, always benefit from a +1 bonus when defeated in melee (even if not Superior) and are momentum troops destroying any foot they push back. They are automatically destroyed by Elephants (without the above +1 bonus) or when forced to recoil in unsuitable terrain. When shot at by War Engines, they count as a Vulnerable target.

Heavy Chariots (HCh) represent chariots that used more than two horses and a heavier chariot frame relying on shock of impact to defeat other lesser chariots and infantry. Needing excellent terrain to operate, they were d isadvantaged by troops that were more flexible and more manoeuvrable. In wargaming terms, they have no rear support and are momentum troops destroying any foot they push back, but they are automatically destroyed by Elephants or Foot Knights and have a 1 handicap when unformed. If Irregular, they become impetuous if shot at by missiles or if within an enemy ZOC. They must always make full moves when moving, up to an enemy ZOC, and may charge out of control. To hold them back or to rally them when impetuous, their commander needs 2 CoPs for each formation. If their crew


includes missilemen, they can shoot all-round with no angle limitations and at all times, regardless of their role. When shot at by War Engines, they count as a Vulnerable target.

Cavalry (Cv) is the main type of mounted horse troops armed with a variety of weapons like lances, spears, javelins, bows etc. In wargaming terms, they can fight with one rank rear support against both mounted and foot and are relatively flexible to manoeuvre, even if Irregular. They have a +1 cohesion bonus, but a 1 handicap when unformed. Lancer Cavalry must be specified as such because non-lancer Cavalry fight at 1 when fighting against advancing lancers. Cv may always evade Elephants, Scythed Chariots and, when not in contact, may evade foot charging its flank or rear.

Camelry (Cm) is as above, but slower-moving. Their main advantage lay in strategic terms, due to the inherent stamina of camels over arid and sandy terrain (to be taken into account in campaigns). In tactical use Camelry was more effective against horse troops since they tended to scare uninitiated horses, but fight only in single rank and have a 1 handicap when unformed. Uninitiated enemy horse troops cannot provide overlap or rear support and react in morale as Inferior against them, but neither can such friendly horse units provide overlap support for them.

Elephants (El) represent the animals and crews that range from the simple crews sitting on the back of the beast, to the heavily protected elephants with howdah-protected crews. They were relatively resilient and particularly effective against cavalry, but were vulnerable to missile attack and light infantry troops that could literally maim them if they were left unprotected. Their main disadvantage lay in their unreliable reaction when hurt, which made them equally threatening to friend and foe. In wargaming terms, they cannot be Regular, only their crews can be Professional or Untrained and they fight without rear support. Elephants affect horses and camels. Enemy horse or camel troops facing Elephants are automatically disordered, cannot provide overlap or rear support against them and react in morale as Inferior. Friendly horse troops, likewise, may not provide overlap support, unless speciallybred. If Elephants sustain any kill from War Engines they are eliminated, but the first time they sustain a kill from other missile shooting they must dice for the result. They become uncontrollable on a D6 roll of 1, 2, 3, 4, and are killed at 5 or 6. Elephants may also be killed if pushed back by good quality 6 Shock Psiloi or Peltasts, but they in turn destroy any Foot Knights, non-Fast Knights, Cataphracts or Heavy Chariots they push back. If their crew includes missilemen, they can shoot all-round with no angle limitations and at all times, regardless of their role. Elephants without a howdah are at a disadvantage (-1) against Elephants with howdah.

Light Horse (LH) represents the speedy, usually light-armed and unarmoured cavalry that performed a multitude of tasks, like reconnaissance, screening, missile support, raiding etc. Their main function was to harass enemy troops but were often expected to come to grips with their opponents when the opportunity arose. Their weapons would essentially be the same as those of the cavalry described above with a heavier bias towards missile weapons. In wargaming terms, they can evade charges and if Shock can fight in two ranks against any mounted troops in rough terrain and against Psiloi, Light Horse, Bowmen, War Engines, Rabble and Baggage in good going. Purely Missile Light Horse may not charge any but purely Missile troops or routers and must evade if charged by any Shock opponents. If Missile LH cannot evade and is forced to fight it routs automatically if defeated. All other Light Horse formations must evade (for free) if defeated in melee.

Light Camelry (LCm) were essentially as above, but slower moving and with emphasis on missile weapons. In wargaming terms, enemy horse troops cannot provide overlap or rear support against camels and react as Inferior when fighting against them. However, Light Camelry fight only in single rank against all. Otherwise, treat as Light Horse, above.

Light Chariots (LCh) represents the lighter types of chariots that were mainly used to transport missile troops with limited shock ability. They would be at a disadvantage if used against heavier chariots and usually lacked the ability to break up dense infantry formations. In wargaming terms, they have no rear support, have a +1 cohesion bonus and no unformed penalty, but can evade any foot or Heavy Chariots charging them and primarily Missile Light

Not Untrained or Inferior


Chariots may evade all. However, a Light Chariot element defeated by Heavy Chariots ny must break-off. Non lance-armed Light Chariots have a 1 handicap when facing lance-armed Light Chariots. If their crew includes missilemen, they can shoot all-round with no angle limitations and at all times, regardless of their role.

Scythed Chariots (SCh) represents chariots equipped with scythes used by a number of eastern armies to attempt to break-up dense enemy foot formations. In wargaming terms, the may manoeuvre like mounted troops as long as they are outside enemy ZOC. When they charge or are within an enemy ZOC they may only go straight ahead in the direction they were already pointing at. When advancing in good going against any, except Elephants and Wagon Laager, they have a +2 bonus for the scythes. They also do not count enemy or friendly overlaps, except by Psiloi, otherwise, fight as Heavy Chariots without cohesion or unformed modifiers, destroying enemy elements to the depth of their base (4cm). LO troops fight normally against them and OO troops may simply allow them to pass through. SCh are automatically killed if defeated by any. If they sustain a kill result from missile fire, they react like Elephants and have to dice for their direction, attacking anyone, friend or foe whom they meet. Certain Regular, CO troop types may open ranks to allow them to pass through [see Army Lists] without fighting. In this case, the CO unit that is attempting this throws a D6. At 1, the Scythed Chariot makes one additional move passes through and destroys any elements it encounters; at 2, 3, it passes through causing unit to become unformed; at 4, 5, 6, it passes through without effect and exits out the back. If it encounters further troops behind, it attacks them immediately. Scythed Chariots are considered expendable and do not count towards demoralisation of a Command.

Wagon Laager (WL) represents mobile or stationary wagon trains that were used as temporary fortifications by a number of nomadic peoples. In wargaming terms, they can be used as mobile fortifications being strictly defensive and may not charge, but may move only when outside a known enemy ZOC. Wagon Laager are well protected against missiles and their opponents count no overlaps, cohesion bonus, or rear support against them in melee. Wagon Laager cannot be killed by normal missile fire but they may become unformed. They may be destroyed by War Engines. Other mounted than Elephants may not charge Wagon Laager, but Wagon Laager are automatically destroyed if defeated by any foot or Elephants. Wagon Laager missile crews may shoot all round. There are four combat formations that can be adopted by most mounted troops. i. In Column, with advantages in mobility. ii. In Depth with advantages in combat. iii. In Wedge with advantages in both mobility and combat, available to a few types only. iv. In Skythian with advantages in skirmishing, available to a few select horse archers only.

III. War Engines.

There are two types of War Engines:

Low Trajectory (Stone or dart -throwing ballistae, Fast, Light, Medium, Heavy). High Trajectory (Large stone throwers) used mostly in sieges or against stationary targets.

Low Trajectory War Engines shoot effectively against all targets. High Trajectory War Engines are effective mostly against stationary targets, like fortifications. In general, War Engines negate the protection of their targets.


All troop types are distinguished by their: overall self-confidence, motivation and quality of materiel [Superior, Ordinary, or Inferior]; training status [Regular or Irregular]; level of training


and experience [Professional, Untrained]; function [Shock and/or Missile]; protection against missiles [Heavy]; specialised abilities [Fast].

Self-confidence, Motivation and Quality of Materiel (Mandatory):

Troops must be classed as either Superior, Ordinary or Inferior.

Superior (S) troops represent troops that benefited from a combination of better than average training, equipment and morale. They would be more reliable than the average soldier and better equipped to survive in combat. In wargaming terms, Superior troops have a +1 advantage when losing in a melee (exception see Fast), are very reliable when charging or standing to receive and have great stamina. Ordinary (O) troops represent the averagely equipped and motivated soldier of all times. In wargaming terms they have no particular disadvantages or advantages and can, depending on troop type, be more cost-effective than their Superior counterparts. Inferior (I) troops represent the negatively motivated troops that often made up the bulk of many armies. They cannot always be relied upon to stay and fight when things are dicey, but they are quite cheap and when the battle is favourable they provide a useful support for the better troops. In wargaming terms, they are more brittle to losses sustained from support shooting or melee and they also have to test for morale on several occasions that other classes ignore.

Training Status (Mandatory):

Regular or Irregular (Reg or Irr) Troops must be classed as either Regular or Irregular.

Regular troops were those that had received substantial training and drill in their nations preferred way of waging war, not solely as individuals, but as part of a structured command system. As such, organized into tactical units, they would be capable of carrying out orders through the chain of command, regardless of their priorities as individuals. In wargaming terms, Regular units are better able to manoeuvre, rally from unformed and operate with lower CoP expenditure than Irregular troops. In combat, some Regular units benefit more from their unit cohesion than Irregulars, but may also be more vulnerable if cohesion is lost. Some types of Irregular foot, Knights and Heavy Chariots are less capable of t ctical a manoeuvres, must make full moves, or expend extra CoPs, and are prone to uncontrolled advances and impetuous charges, but are cheaper and generally equally effective as regulars in their initial clash.

Function (Mandatory):
Shock-Missile (Shk-Msl) Troops must be classed as either Shock or Missile or both if

double-armed. The double-armed distinctive denotes troops that used a primary and a secondary weapon, which also determined their function and performance on the battlefield 7. Primarily missile troops are less reliable for charging or standing to receive a charge, reacting as troops of a lower class, but may shoot at any time. Primarily shock troops are better suited for charging, but can only use their missiles for support shooting only in support or against charges 8. Purely missile troops use their cohesion bonus only in shooting and are not allowed to charge or counter-charge certain troop types.

Level of Training - Experience:

Professional (Pro1 or Pro2) denotes veteran troops that considered war as their main or

sole occupation. They are either of a purely warrior class or expertly trained full-time soldiers and could -although not necessarily- be employed as mercenaries. As soldiers they were very skilled in their tasks and would be expected to perform their duties far more expertly than other troops, although they need not necessarily be enthusiastic or heroic.

For example: Nikephorian Byzantine troops classed as Cavalry (Shk/Msl) are primarily a shock type with a secondary missile capability. Early Sassanid noble Cavalry (Msl/Shk) would then primarily be a missile type with a secondary shock capability.

Except Double-armed crews of Elephants, Chariots, Wagon Laager, and 2E elements with Bowmen which can shoot at any time.


Such examples would be Alexanders Macedonian army, the Imperial Roman armies, which can be fielded almost entirely as Pro. Also, most horse archer armies could field mainly Pro Light Horse troops as would most feudal armies, which would be based around a core of Pro knights. In wargaming terms, their main advantage lies in their ability to voluntarily continue the same move of the previous round or react to enemy actions on their own initiative without CoPs. In combat, Professionals add a +1 bonus, per element, either to their shooting or melee factors (depending on their main role), if Pro1, or to both if Pro2.
Untrained (U) represent those troops that were hastily assembled without being

adequately trained for battle, but not necessarily badly motivated. In wargaming terms, they manoeuvre as Irregulars of their type, have a 1 modifier in melee (making it easier to destroy them) and a 1 modifier when shooting (per target). They may be Superior, Ordinary or Inferior for morale purposes, the Superior and Inferior distinctives affecting only the morale of the unit not their combat performance.

Protection Against Missiles:

Heavy (H) This is a distinctive which denotes those troops that had a superior level of

protection due to their better armour or armour of their mounts or large, portable shields. In wargaming terms they benefit from a +1 defence factor per element when shot at by most missile weapons.
Vulnerable (V)

is a special distinctive for shieldless, dense formation troop types that presented a good target to missiles. Vulnerable troops have a Target Factor of 1 regardless of troop type and any other distinctives.

Special Abilities:
Fast (F) represent those troops capable through training, formation or equipment of

moving faster than average troops and, if foot, operating in rougher terrain. This is partially offset by lighter armour and/or equipment, which makes them more vulnerable to missiles and melee. In wargaming terms, they count a 1 handicap (per target) when shot at and also when losing in melee. They are considered Loose Order troops and may be Inferior, Ordinary or Superior for morale purposes, the Superior distinctive affecting the morale of the unit not its combat performance. Fast/Superior Barbarians are an exception and have a +1 advantage when drawing, but also the 1 handicap when losing. Also, Fast and Untrained troops will only count the Untrained handicap not both; if both Fast and Professional, they will count both modifiers, the Pro bonus never being negated.

Swordsmen, Spearmen, Sarissae Foot Knights, Barbarians Peltasts, Fast foot, Bowmen Psiloi Rabble Baggage, Double-depth elements Cataphracts Knights, Cavalry, Camelry Light Horse, Light Camelry Chariots, Wagon Laager Elephants Light, Medium War Engines Heavy, Siege War Engines






3-4 3-4* 3-4** 2 5-8 6-8*** 4 3 2 1 1 1-2 1

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

1.5 2 2 2 3 4 3 3 3 4-8**** 4 4-5 6-8

* Superior Barbarians are 4 figures to a base, Ordinary or Inferior 3. Foot Knights may be fielded as either 4 or 3. ** Regulars are 4 figures to a base, Irregulars 3. *** Baggage elements can depict supply-carrying carts etc, with or without armed guards.


**** Heavy and Scythed Chariots 5cm, Light Chariots 4cm, Wagons up to 8cm depth.


I. If the game is a competition game or non-scenario driven
1. Designate Commands. Players start the game by designating their Commands, calculating points' value (optional for a balanced game) and allocating a Commander-in-Chief to one of them. They also calculate Demoralisation levels for each Command (2/3 of total value) and scouting capacity [see below]. 2. Determine type of engagement Scouting Factor. The players must then decide on the type of battle: meeting engagement or set battle. This may be determined by adding an average (D4) dice throw to the Scouting Factor (ranging from 0 to +2) of each army for the specific engagement. If the final scores are equal or within 1 point of each other, the engagement will be a meeting engagement with both armies entering the table, one Command at a time by order of initiative. If one is greater than the other by more than 1 point, it will be a set battle with the one with the highest score, the initiative player, deciding whether to deploy before or after the outscouted player. He who deploys first, will have his troop positions observed by his opponent, but will have more terrain points and the possibility to set up ambushes. To determine the Scouting Factor of each army calculate its scouting capacity by adding 3 points for every Light Horse or Light Camelry element, 1 point for every Knight Fast, Cavalry, Light Chariot or Camelry element and point for every Psiloi element. Also, the C-in-Cs BIF augments the Scouting Factor by a factor of BIF x 10. (i.e. if an army has 56 scouting points and its C-in-C is a BIF=2, the total scouting ability will be 56 + 20 = 76 points. If scouting capacities are within 10% of each other, both sides will have a Scouting Factor of 0; if one is greater than 10% than the other its army will have a Scouting Factor of +1; if the difference is greater than 50%, it will have a Scouting Factor of +2. 3. Allocate terrain features. When the type of engagement has been determined, players decide on terrain features for the battlefield. All terrain features have a cost in points (see 8.Terrain Table) and each player is allocated 12, 14, or 16 terrain points9 . Terrain features on the table may not exceed 12 in total, 6 for each player. Terrain features must be placed in at least four different sectors with up to two per sector. Open spaces (of up to half a sector) can also be 'purchased' by using up points. An open space cannot be covered by a feature of an opposing player, except if a road. Roads do not constitute terrain features for the above limits, but when placed they must lead from one table edge to another or from one table edge to a town. As such, they may end up serving both opponents. Terrain sizes and shapes are not strictly determined, but each should generally cover no more than (approximately) a third of any specific sector (i.e. 25 x 20cm for a hill or swamp, 30 x 10cm for a ridge and so on). It is suggested, however, that roads and bridges have a width of at least 4cm to allow elements to pass. The terrain features are placed, two at a time, successively by the two opponents, in three rounds, who must roll a D6 for their exact placement in each sector (except roads)10. A 6 places the feature anywhere in the sector; A 5, in the front-half left; A 4, in the front-half right; A 3, in the rear-half right; A 2, in the rear-half left; A 1 means the feature is lost (but the player may try again by expending terrain points.)

In set battles, the one to deploy first has 16 points, the second, 12 points. In meeting engagements, both have 14 points.

If in placing two features in the same sector, their exact placement coincides, place the second adjacent to the first at will


In set battles, the player who decides -or is forced by his opponent- to deploy first, has the right to start first and places his first two terrain features 11 on any of the eight sectors on his side of the table. Then, his opponent does the same from his side. The two players repeat for the second round and finally, the first player places his two last ones anywhere on the table (on any of the twelve sectors) followed by the last two of the second player. A player may place a terrain feature in a sector already chosen before, but not in a sector chosen by his opponent, the only exception being roads and open spaces. [See example below] Any terrain feature other than road or open space (hills, swamps, woods) placed in the two central sectors (shaded area in the sketch) has its cost increased by 5 points. Towns may never be placed in central sectors but must be placed within 10cm from a table edge. Rivers are an exception: rivers running across the wargames table can only be included in scenario-driven games 12 or by common agreement by the two players. In non-scenario games, rivers may only be placed in the flank sectors, at any depth, running along the side of the table. FIRST PLAYER A. The first player (FP) places a gentle hill, FP1a, costing 2 p.+5 for the central sector =7, followed by the second players (SP) gentle hills, SP1a, SP1b costing 2 p. each. B. They continue in succession with FP2a (woods), at 4 p. and SP2a, SP2b (hills) at 2 p. each. But SP2b is lost, through having thrown a 1 on the D6. C. They complete the terrain allocation by placing the remaining features anywhere on the table allowed, the FP placing another woods FP3a and the SP two more at SP3a, SP3b at 2+2 points. The SP was forced to place 2 features in one of his sectors, since his first one was lost.



SP2b SP3a



FP2a FP3a


4. Deploy forces. Both sides then throw a D6 for each of their Commands -added to the Basic Initiative Factor (BIF ) -to determine their initiative for the set-up round. In case of equal total scores, the initiative lies with the highest BIF. If these are equal as well, the advantage lies with the BIF of the C-in-C. If these are equal as well, then the Commands in question may simply dice to determine their initiative for that round (highest wins). a. In a meeting engagement, both players deploy their troops (or mark any Outflanks), one Command at a time, in Deployment Mode [see 7.1. Deployment Mode below], with the order of deployment determined by the respective initiative of each Command for that round (the Commands with the higher initiative always choose whether to deploy first or not). No hidden troops are allowed. b. In a set battle, the army to deploy first must deploy all its forces (or mark any Outflanks), up to 40 cm from its own table edge, but may also place hidden troops in ambush ahead of the main body, at up to the middle of the table, in depth. Troops in ambush can only consist of Fast, Loose (LO) or Open Order (OO) troops [see 13.Ambushes]. The opponent deploying second must then enter the table (or mark any Outflanks) in Deployment Mode, one Command at a time.

In case of a meeting engagement the opposing players can determine the order of terrain allocation by dicing for initiative, the greatest being the initiative player.

Rivers -and bridges or passes over them- determine the type of engagement to such an extent that they should not be part of any simplified costing system.


II. For scenario-driven games or re-enactment of historical battles

1. Draw strategic map. The square strategic map drawn should be split into sixteen (4x4) battle sectors, each of which is further split into 4 segments. Each battle sector represents a wargames table. Both opponents should have identical map copies and they should choose a point of entry at opposite ends of the map. If the game is scenario-driven, the games master or the players themselves may determine the general geographical characteristics of each sector in accordance with the prevailing terrain for each army, as specified in the Army Lists. This will depend on whether there is an invader, in which case most of the prevailing terrain would be that of the player being invaded. This can be in the form of a general description: steppe, rocky, desert, hilly, wooded, wetlands, with provision for any sea coast, rivers, with crossing points, built-up areas, strong-points etc. The actual allocation of terrain features for any specific battle sector, where the opponents will meet, must follow these general guidelines and must have the maximum allowable terrain types of one player, as specified by the Terrain Table below. Thus, a hilly battle sector terrain must have at least four hills; a swampy or wooded terrain at least three swamps or woods and a sector with a built-up area, one town or fort. Their exact placement would follow the method described above. 2. Designate Commands. The two players must then designate Commands and allocate units to each, but must also specify their exact marching order necessary for their deployment for battle. 3. Determine Scouting Ability. [See Scouting Factor above] 4. Make strategic moves on the map. Each player may secretly move his main force on the map, one segment at a time or may stay put on any map segment (diagonal moves are only allowed from segment to segment not from sector to sector). If any sector has other than good going, the marching speed is halved (i.e. one segment every two rounds.) Mounted-only Commands may move at double speed, but only across good going. Sectors with built-up areas allow double speed for both mounted and foot, due to road networks. Players may also despatch a separate outflanking force along a different route, but upon meeting opponents these will have to fight the main battle and their main force will automatically become the outflanking force with the limitations outlined below [see 7.2.Outflanks]. After the fourth round of march and on each round thereafter, the initiative player may demand the outscouted player to reveal the sector his main force is in (without further details). If there is no scouting advantage for any of the two, both players must announce which sector their main force is in after the fourth round. Battle will be joined when both opponents find themselves in the same sector at the end of their move. If any outflanking force has been despatched, its round of test for arrival will be delayed by the number of rounds it must move on the strategic map to reach the battle sector. 5. Deploy forces. Normally, as in the case of competition games. Example: In the example, right, the invading Assyrians have primarily hilly terrain; while the Egyptians are on the seacoast, have rivers, swamps and desert EGYPTIAN ARMY (DEFENDING) terrain. Thus, the invaders entry sectors could be primarily hilly. The eastern side of the map could be include a coastline, the central sectors could have a river -with crossing pointsrunning to the coast, while rough desert terrain and difficult swamps would prevail where so marked. Finally, the two sectors with Egyptian built-up areas on them would include a town or a fortification. In the example there is no scouting advantage for any of the two. On the first three rounds both opponents decide to enter ASSYRIAN ARMY (INVADING)


through open ground (split sectors). The Assyrians also send an outflanking cavalry force ahead of their main force, north, through the same sector. On the fourth round, the Assyrian main force marches north into the desert and hills, while the Egyptians also move straight south to cross the river. The Assyrian cavalry moves east at double speed onto open ground. Both reveal the general positions of their main armies. On the fifth round, the Assyrians continue north to cross the hills and threaten the town in the centre. The Egyptians, having crossed the river, turn east to protect the town. The Assyrian cavalry moves north into the river sector just vacated by the Egyptians. Both announce their main armies positions. On the sixth round, the Egyptians arrive in the town sector and wait. On the seventh round, the Assyrians arrive in the same sector and both deploy for a meeting engagement. The Assyrian cavalry force, being adjacent, may test for arrival as an outflank from the first round onwards or as required.


Deployment Mode is a special kind of movement for the initial deployment of entire Commands or for Commands that arrive as an outflank. Commands in deployment mode roll a D4 die (to determine the number of CoPs for deployment) and move all their units as a group. The entire Command advances at 1 CoP per movement bound. Each movement bound is 10cm, if the Command is foot or mixed, or 15cm, i the Command is entirely f mounted. All the units must deploy for combat on the initial round of entry. Commands with regular commanders may deploy for combat on any bound of their round of entry (i.e. do not need to expend all the CoPs rolled on the D4). Commands with irregular commanders must deploy at least one of their units at the full extent required by the D4, or until they reach an opponents ZOC. Units deploying in this way cannot breach an enemy ZOC unless they are part of an Outflank [see below] and may not end up in contact with enemy units. If a deploying unit falls on an ambush and deploys within an enemy ZOC, its units must deploy on the spot, but may not approach enemy unit(s) any further for that round. [See 13.Ambushes]

To attempt an Outflank a player may send off-table an entire Command to arrive in any one of the side sectors. This force must represent no more than a third of the total value of the army and must be led by a Command element. Its composition, expected time of arrival and entry sector must be clearly noted beforehand. The player must inform his opponent of the outflank attempt at the start of the round it is due to arrive and the attempt to enter will take place during the Normal Movement phase of the specified round. On its first attempt an outflanking force will enter on a D6 roll of 4, 5 or 6. On the two (2) subsequent rounds on 5, 6 and on the last three (3) on a 6. If it fails to arrive over these six attempts, the Command is considered lost or terminally delayed. A Command arriving as an Outflank must enter from the sector chosen and for its round of arrival will have the initiative over any opponents regardless of dice results. It must arrive in Deployment mode, and must throw a D4 to move and deploy, as above. The outflanking units must be able to complete at least one move (10cm or 15cm if mounted) on arrival. If the chosen sector is occupied by visible enemy troops these will be contacted and pushed back disordered to allow the arriving forces their one minimum move. (The outflank move will thus be considered as a charge from ambush). Enemy troops cannot be contacted or pushed back if they are in a built-up area or fortification or in ambush themselves, or impassable terrain to the outflankers or if already engaged in charging or fighting, in which case, the outflankers must deploy at least 3cm away from them. If the outflanking force encounters unformed or routing troops, these will immediately rout (again). Once outflankers have completed their one mandatory move, the normal ZOC rules apply. If both players have sent outflanking forces that are due to arrive in the same sector, regardless of the round of arrival, calculate the points of each outflanking force. The one with the greater value of mounted troops in points may attempt to arrive as an outflank in its chosen sector, while the other will have to attempt to arrive behind the nearest own side sector. Alternatively, if time and space is available, the players may choose to fight a separate mini-battle aside of the main event, to see which force arrives and at what strength. The minibattle can be fought on a table up to half the size of the original table and lasts no more than


6 rounds. Only the victor will be allowed to arrive in the main battle as an outflank minus any losses incurred. The defeated outflanking force is a total loss.



MOVEMENT Heavy Chariots and Wagon Laager move at full move, minus one element depth. No charge bonus for any troop type moving uphill. Only LO and OO foot and OO mounted enter at full move. Others enter at full move, minus one element depth. Prohibited to Heavy Chariots. Only OO foot and Camels (in dunes) enter at full move. Others enter at full move, minus one element depth; Mounted (except Camels) only in column. Prohibited to Chariots, Cataphracts, WE, WL. Only LO and OO foot and Elephants enter at full move. Others enter at full move, minus one element depth. Mounted may only charge from wood edge, out, but may follow-up or pursue opponents inside. Prohibited to Chariots, Sarissae, WE, WL. Movement only through road, or from house-to-house, one per round. Only OO foot in order. Troops inside building may only charge other buildings. At bridges and shallow passes all cross in single file. If river bed is passable, allowing troops to cross, there is no charge bonus and all cross at full move, minus one element depth. Columns move as Cv if mixed (10cm), or as Light Horse, Fast if mounted (15cm). Troops do not expend additional CoPs after second bound of march move.

COMBAT +1 Melee Factor for all fighting uphill of opponents. Shooters uphill have priority over same shooters below. No cohesion bonus for CO troops and any mounted; Heavy Chariots and Cataphracts are automatically killed if pushed back. Light Chariots may not evade No rear support or cohesion bonus for any CO, LO or any mounted; -1 Melee Factor for CO foot. Mounted are automatically killed if pushed back.

Gentle hill, low ridge (Any) 2 p.

Rough: rocky, bush (Any) 2 p.

Difficult: swamp, shallows, steep hills, dunes (only 3 per player) 4 p.

Woods (only 3 per player) 3 p.

+2 Defence Factor when shot at and visibility limited to 6cm. No rear support or cohesion bonus for any CO foot or any mounted; Knights and Cataphracts are automatically killed if pushed back.

Town (4 buildings) (1, defender only) 5 p.

Defender advantage in morale, Combat Factor (see 14. Fighting in built-up areas) Troops cross either over rough (dry riverbed) or difficult terrain (shallows). Troops defending on river bank, are uphill, but must be halted and have no rear rank support.

River or coastline (only 1 per game) 4 p. Road section per sector p. or Open space (an entire sector) 1 p.

No effect

NOTE 1: For any element to be affected by terrain, at least half of the element base must be in that terrain. For 2E elements, calculate half of the front half of the element. NOTE 2: The loss of speed due to terrain affects a unit, in depth, only as long as its front enters or is moving through it. Once the front element has cleared the limiting terrain, the whole unit will move normally. If part of a unit, in extended front, is in delaying terrain and part not, only the part inside the limiting terrain is affected and the rest may either move on or hold back to maintain cohesion. NOTE 3: If part of a unit, only those elements that are affected by the terrain will suffer the immediate consequences, in combat. However, those elements not directly affected by the


terrain may be affected indirectly. If, for instance, 1/3 of a unit is in unsuitable terrain only that part of the unit will no longer be able to benefit from a cohesion bonus, the rest may still benefit from cohesion.


Rivers are a special feature, which determine the nature of the battle itself and thus, if they extend along the width of the table or diagonally, may only be allocated by scenario or by common agreement between the players. A river or coastline may be purchased by one player only (see Terrain Table) and used only if it runs along one flank of the table. They may be used to allow landings and/or support from naval shooting by those armies equipped to do so. Rivers and coastline may extend inland at any depth of the flank sectors. If the scenario allows for engineers, a pontoon bridge can be built. [see below 8.2.Engineers-Fortifications] Rivers must be specified or must be diced for as 1 or 2 = dry 3 or 4 = passable 5 or 6 = impassable Passable rivers can be crossed only through shallow passes or over bridges. Crossing a bridge must be in single file. For combat purposes, dry riverbeds should be treated as rough and river shallows as difficult terrain. Any defenders on a river bank, are always uphill of opponents trying to cross, but cannot count on any rear ranks and must receive enemy charges halted. Rivers, unless specified as small streams, are considered wide enough to prevent short range shooting (with javelins, heavy throwing weapons etc.). Shooting across a river is, therefore, allowed only for long-range archery, slings and artillery etc. regardless of the actual width of the river. If either army is using naval units, it may land forces or shoot in support of the battle from its ships. If both are using naval forces, a clash will have to take place at sea, off the coastline before one navy can operate independently. Naval battles involve element-to-element clashes: Add one D6 to the vessels combat factor plus or minus any modifiers [see Appendices II.6.Naval Combat Table]. - If one side wins most of its clashes, the naval battle will continue with the defeated side at a disadvantage.


Most armies may use elements as Engineers to build bridges and/or fortifications if required by a scenario. A pontoon bridge over a small river will take two rounds +D3 to build if the engineers are working in safety. If they are being shot at, at long range, add a further round to the total. An Engineer unit cannot be destroyed by shooting, but can only be delayed. To stop an Engineer unit it is necessary to attack it. (Engineer elements will either deploy in combat formation and fight as Peltasts or must flee). Some armies have a structure allowing them to construct obstacles on the battlefield. Placing obstacles (stakes, trenches etc.) as specified in the Army Lists, is allowed once per battle, takes one full round and no other move or combat is allowed (in either phase) by those elements placing the obstacles. Field fortifications and obstacles may also be purchased at the beginning of the battle, as already emplaced. They cost 2 points each per element of 4cm. Once in place the obstacles cannot be removed voluntarily and they may affect both friendly and enemy troops. [See 14.Fighting in Built-Up Areas & Fortifications]. Pavises are a mobile fortification against missiles. They do not count as fortification when pavisiers charge, follow up or pursue. Their protection is negated only by Medium or Heavy WE.



Morale Test of a Command, if required. [See 16. Demoralisation & Withdrawal] Command and Rally phase. Both players dice for each of their Commands to determine initiative and CoPs. Command Elements have one free move, reform unengaged unformed units and rally routed units. Charge and Normal Movement phase. All moves take place by order of initiative or troop type. Each player first declares any break-offs; then declares and initiates charges; non-charging units declare their reaction to charges (evade, stand to receive or initiate counter-charge), and then all other eligible units complete their normal moves. Troops can either charge against eligible targets or move normally, not both. Units of Commands deploying for battle or just arriving on table in Deployment mode may not charge. Shooting and Charge Testing phase. All missile-armed troops may fire at eligible targets, by order of range or troop type. Troops with a Shock/Missile distinctive may only shoot against or in support of charges. Shooting results are immediate. Formations that refuse to charge or fail to stand and receive a charge due to shooting make compulsory moves. Combat and Rout Movement phase. Successful charges, counter-charges, break-offs, evades and resulting melees are concluded, by order of initiative. All combat is considered as simultaneous for a given round and the effects of one clash shall not affect others. If this is unavoidable, any combat results -recoils and follow-ups- will be resolved when all neighbouring melees have been concluded. Any break-off, rout and pursuit moves that follow combat will be concluded last. If, after the first round of combat, any pursued are caught, combat will be resumed on the following round

Movement takes place in the Charge and Normal Movement phase. Movement includes Tactical-March Moves, Changes of Formation and Mounting or Dismounting when applicable. 1. Tactical and March Moves - Zone of Control (ZOC). All troops may make either tactical or march moves during the same round, not both. Tactical moves are limited to one per round and take place within, or to enter, the 3cm or 10cm Zone of Control (ZOC) exerted by enemy combat-capable formations. Charges, recoils, follow-ups and evades are in effect tactical moves except that rout moves and withdrawals ignore all ZOCs. Open Order troops, single elements outside friendly ZOCs, troops inside built-up areas, or behind uncrossable rivers, or troops in rout, or withdrawing, have a lesser ZOC of 3cm. All other troop types and formations plus Command Elements, Elephants and War Engines (which cannot form units) exert a ZOC of 10cm. March moves are multiple moves beginning outside enemy ZOCs and must stop when they reach an enemy ZOC (except troops of a demoralised Command, which ignore ZOCs). When marching, all troops must expend an additional CoP after the second consecutive move to simulate fatigue, except if on road or in Deployment Mode. 2. Changes of Formation refers either to a change of formation (expanding or contracting elements), or to a change of a front. Changes of formation may be combined with movement and are allowed within enemy ZOCs in addition to a tactical move, if the troop type is eligible to do both. [See 10.2. Movement by Type of Troop]. a) In changing formation, each CoP expended means an expansion or reduction of the frontage of formation by one element on each side (including any rear support), if space is available, regardless of distance covered [see examples below]. The new formations must expand facing in the same direction as the original formations and should generally form around the centre of the original unit13. Expanding elements may end up in contact with enemy elements only if part of a charge or in reaction to one on itself or to provide overlap support for friendlies that are being charged where they stand. It cannot be used as overlap

If unhindered, an expansion should take place from the centre of a unit around both sides. If hindered in any way by enemy or friendly elements, it must be made only on the one side possible, not both.


support if the friendlies have charged or moved themselves. Changes of formation may never be used to avoid an enemy charge or to block a charge against a friendly element or unit. [See Example below]

The spearmen unit deployed in depth (fig 1), deploys for combat and expands its rear elements (shaded) by expending one CoP. (fig 2)


fig. 2

By expending another CoP, it could further extend its formation as a single line supported in the centre. (fig 3)

o o

b) In changing front, elements may turn in place to re-deploy by 90 or 180 . The number of elements forming the new front depends on the number of elements, not the number of figures on them. [See Example below] Regulars of the same Command and same troop type may change front as a group.

The cost of changing formation in CoPs will depend on the troop type of the formation, (Regular or Irregular and Open Order or denser formation). The Spearmen deployed in column, 2 elements wide, and 4 deep, want to re-deploy to their right. Their new formation will have a front of 4 elements and a depth of 2 (fig.1). The Light Cavalry will deploy in single line (Fig.2)


fig. 2

3. Mounting-Dismounting. Mounted units designated as Dismounting may dismount and fight as foot. Foot units designated as having mounts may move at cavalry speed and dismount (but only once, either in their initial deployment or as an Outflank ). Both may only do so during the Normal Movement phase, outside enemy ZOCs (if they need to do so within an enemy ZOC, they will lose their mounts for the duration of the battle). Dismounting/mounting requires 1 CoP and may be combined with other movement by subtracting one element depth (3cm for Cavalry, 4-5cm for Chariots and so on) from the total distance covered. When doing so, an element of mounts14 or a chariot may follow behind the dismounted formation until it charges (or stay back out of harms way). If the dismounted troops charge, their mounts must stay behind. If a dismounted element is destroyed the corresponding mount is also removed from play. If the mounts themselves a contacted they are instantly captured and removed re from play. If shot at, they are treated as Cavalry. To remount, the dismounted elements must be in contact with their mounts. Remounting may be combined with other moves by subtracting two element bases depth, from the full move of the mounted element (6cm), or one move for 2E elements, Chariots and so on. Mounts move as Cavalry.

A couple of mounts or an empty chariot with a handler would suffice, but artistic license should dictate their appearance. Mounted infantry do not require this for it is not allowed to remount during a battle anyway.


Mounted troops that dismount as a denser formation (for example, Loose Order Norman Knights dismounting as Close Order Spearmen), must subtract the first of every 4 of their mounted elements. For example, the Normans would have 1 Spearmen element for 2 Knights, 2 Spearmen for 3 Knights and 3 Spearmen for every 4 or 5 Knights dismounting. Single elements within a Command may not dismount at all, unless they are Command Elements. Command Elements may always dismount and do not count towards the total number of elements dismounting). Chariot crews are always considered as Open Order for dismounting purposes and must subtract 1 element for every 4 dismounting if they dismount as Loose Order foot and 2, if they dismount as Close Order foot. Any mounted dismounting as Psiloi can do so without subtracting any elements.


Within a Command, troops may move by expending CoPs as a single group (of formations). To form a large group for movement purposes, the constituent elements must have contact on at least one side and should be facing in the same direction. Should this contact be lost, due to combat loss or other causes, the formations of the group will have to move independently expending CoPs separately.
In the example, left, the unshaded Spearmen elements form a group, having side or frontal contact and facing in the same direction. The shaded elements have no contact and must expend CoPs separately in order to move.

Units of a Command may move together as a single group even if of different troop types, as long as they do not include in their group any troop types that must make mandatory full moves (like Barbarians, and Irregular Knights or Heavy Chariots) which must expend CoPs separately 15. Independent elements may move together as a group only if of similar troop type, except if Open Order, Elephants and Light Chariot troops, which may accompany any other formation at up to their own maximum speed16 [see 10.2.Movement by Type of Troop]. There is usually no group move for charging, either by units or independent elements and charges are declared by each formation separately, except if a group of units of the same Command and same troop type are charging against the same target.


In general, Psiloi and Light Horse troops may move in any direction (sideways, backwards, obliquely), change formation and move on the same round and refuse to follow-up after combat. Single, non-impetuous, elements may also move in any direction, expending a single CoP, as long as they move within 4cm. Also, all troops in column of one element frontage (in single file) and single elements may wheel at no extra cost. Otherwise (all distances per bound):
15 16

Such troops , however, may move as groups if they do not include different types than their own.

Some armies [see Army Lists] allow specially-trained Psiloi to accompany Cavalry or Chariots as Hamippoi. These are allowed to move along at up to their own speed (7.5cm).


I. Foot.
Close Order and Foot Knights Loose Order, Open Order, Fast troops and Barbarians and Greek hoplites charging. Move at 5cm (2 in.) Move at 7.5cm (3 in.)

Irregular Close Order and Loose Order troops may:

Move or change formation. Make single wheel in any direction (Close Order at double CoP cost). Turn 180 or 90 expending 1 CoP per file and move no further. If Close Order, in disorder.
o o

Regular Close or Loose Order and any Foot Knights (CoPs permitting) may:

Move and change formation on the same round, even within enemy ZOC. Double wheel (two successive wheel moves) in any direction. Turn 180 or 90 in any direction as a unit and move (but not charge) Refuse to follow-up after combat (may rally back) to maintain order.
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II. Mounted.
Wagon Laager Knights, Cataphracts, Heavy and Scythed Chariots, Camelry and Elephants Cavalry, Knights Fast or charging, Light Camelry and Light Chariots Light Horse Light Horse Fast (horse archers) Move at 5cm (2in.) (only outside enemy ZOC) Move at 7.5cm (3in.) Move at 10cm (4in.) Move at 12.5cm (5in.) Move at 15cm (6in.)

Irregular troops (except lights) may:

Move and change formation as above, only if charging, otherwise move or change formation. Make single wheel in any direction at 1 CoP, double wheel at extra cost. Turn 180 or 90 in any direction expending 1 CoP per file, and move.
o o

Regulars, Pro Irregulars and Light Chariot troops (CoPs permitting) may:

Move and change formation on the same round, even within enemy ZOC. Double wheel in any direction. Turn 180 or 90 in any direction as a unit and move.
o o

NOTE: Untrained, Regular mounted or foot troops may manoeuvre as other Regulars but at double the cost in CoPs.


III. Professional
Professional troops may repeat their last move of the previous round (only a single move, not multiple moves) without expending any CoPs. If they had charged, they may charge again, if evaded, they may evade again. If they had moved forward, they may do so again. Note, however, that any change of formation or change of direction is a new move and requires CoPs. Professionals may react to enemy charges according to their primary function without expending CoPs. If mounted and primarily Shock they may counter-charge and if eligible to evade and primarily Missile they may evade for free.

IV. Impetuous
All Irregular: Knights, Heavy and Scythed Chariots, Barbarians and Rabble, must make full march (up to the enemy ZOC) or tactical moves, including charge moves, otherwise they need one additional CoP per unit or element to slow down. In addition, Irregular Knights and Heavy Chariots, Horde S (fanatics) and Barbarians 17 become impetuous when they reach an enemy ZOC (and there are no intervening troops blocking their way, except Psiloi, which they ignore) or when they are shot at by enemy missiles. When impetuous, they will make an uncontrolled advance towards the nearest enemy or shooter respectively, disordered, before all other troops, regardless of Command initiative 18. They can only be held, as above, at 2 CoPs per unit or element.

V. War Engines
War Engine elements move normally as other units at 5cm (Fast at 7.5cm) a bound and may make multiple tactical moves outside the enemy ZOC. If Medium, Heavy or Siege, they may move only until emplaced. Once emplaced, they may never move forward again for the duration of the battle. They may of course pivot to acquire a different target. Also, War Engines cannot recoil or rout: if their crews are forced to fight in melee and are pushed back the element is destroyed and if their Command is demoralised or withdraws they must be abandoned to the enemy. When War Engines have moved, they may not shoot during the same round, (unless Fast, in which case they shoot at 1 each for that round.) They may shoot or bombard normally in the Shooting and Charge Testing phase of the following round. Pivoting in place to acquire a new target requires no CoP expenditure and is not considered as movement.

VI. Naval Units

Naval units move at 15cm per round if Trireme and at 10cm per round if War Galley or Boat. Disembarking troops is immediate upon landfall and costs no extra CoPs.


Close Order foot, Foot Knights, War Engines, Wagon Laager Loose, Open Order or Fast foot, Close Order Barbarians or Greek hoplites charging, Knights, Camelry, Cataphracts, Heavy Chariots, Elephants Cavalry, Knights Fast or charging, Light Chariots, Light Camelry, War Galleys, Boats Light Horse Light Horse Fast, Triremes March column mixed or foot March column of mounted units only

cm 5 7.5 10 12.5 15 10 15

in 2 3 4 5 6 4 6

17 18

Barbarians only against foot troops. Barbarians only against foot troops.


In normal movement, interpenetrations between troop types are allowed, when both are facing in the same direction, in accordance with the table below. If the interpenetrating troops are not facing in the same direction, they will both be disordered until all are clear. Normally mounted troops may not charge through foot, unless they are Psiloi, Bowmen or Rabble and only if both are facing in the same direction. If any charge through or if any rout through Rabble Ordinary or Inferior, they will cause them to rout immediately. Interpenetration with Baggage is allowed to all troop types. Troop types eligible to interpenetrate have as follows: Troop Type Ps Plt Sw FKn Bw
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes2 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes


Yes Yes Yes1 Yes2

Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes

Kn Cat
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Psiloi Peltasts, FKnights Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes1 Swordsmen 3 Yes Yes Yes Bowmen Yes Sarissae Yes Yes Yes1 Spearmen Yes Yes Barbarians Yes Yes Rabble Yes Yes Knights Yes Cataphracts Yes Yes Cavalry/Camelry Yes Yes Yes LH/LCm Yes Yes Chariots Yes Yes Elephants Yes Yes Yes WE/WL 1 Roman legionary Swordsmen of ranks.
2 3

Cv LH Ch Cm LCm
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes Yes Yes

may interpenetrate Swordsmen or Spearmen in exchange

Only if allowed by army and period [see Army Lists]. Bowmen attempting to break-off when defeated in melee interpenetrate as Psiloi.

In order to interpenetrate, troops must be able to clear the elements interpenetrated and any elements that cannot complete the move must be left behind. CoPs permitting, however, both elements interpenetrating may make additional moves in opposite directions to allow their elements to clear regardless of enemy ZOCs. Exceptions

Psiloi, and Bowmen elements which automatically move to the rear of the elements they are inter-penetrating without expending additional CoPs ( Bowmen only if facing in the same direction). Light Horse may move to the rear as well, but only if it can expend extra CoPs to do so. Legionnaire Swordsmen, who may exchange ranks at a single CoP. [See Appendix 1.4]


In the example, left, the Spearmen and Cavalry units (unshaded below) want to charge the Peltasts above. The spearmen unit, screened by Psiloi may charge through them, with the Psiloi elements moving automatically behind them. The Cavalry may do so if the Light Horse can expend 1 CoP to move back.


Recoiling and routing are compulsory moves and do not cost CoPs. Following-up, breakingoff and pursuing are potentially compulsory moves, depending on the type of troops and may require CoPs. All take place regardless of other moves. [See 12.4. and 12.5.] Recoil and follow-up moves take place immediately after each melee and are one element deep (or half for 2E elements), either to the depth of the defeated or, if followed up, that of the victorious element. Break-offs, compulsory or not, take place before charge declarations, regardless of initiative. Rout and pursuit moves take place at the end of the Combat phase. Initial rout moves for all, are, facing away from enemy troops and generally towards the own table edge or point of entry. TROOP TYPE Mounted troops, with the exception of Elephants, Chariots and 2E elements All eligible foot troops plus Elephants, Chariots and 2E elements INITIAL ROUT MOVES Two elements deep plus two D6 One element deep plus two D6 PURSUIT MOVES Two elements deep, plus one D6 One element deep, plus one D6

Subsequent rout moves, after the initial one, are normal tactical moves plus one D6. Movement by demoralised Commands is dealt with in 16. Demoralisation & Withdrawal.

There are three categories of shooting: Mass, Secondary and War Engines. All have a basic factor of 1 (or 2 for Medium and Heavy WE) and kill at a final modified score of 10 or above. Mass shooting is used by Close Order foot -Bowmen- that have massed archery as their primary function. Bowmen may shoot with the second rank as rear support 19 and unit cohesion bonus. Mass shooting may kill up to three elements per target (one per main shooter). Bowmen may be either purely Missile troops, in which case they may not charge any opponents with a Shock distinctive unless they are fleeing troops, or Missile/Shock in which case they may charge and use their unit cohesion bonus in melee as well. They may always provide overlap support. Secondary shooting can be used by any troops (other than Bowmen) that have a Missile or double-armed distinctive. These troops shoot in single rank only, without cohesion bonus. Secondary shooting may kill up to one element per target regardless of the number of

Only the main elements shooting may have rear support; overlap supports may not


elements shooting. Secondary shooters may add their factors to Mass shooters, in which case the result is treated as Mass shooting. War Engines may kill up to one element per War Engine. Heavy, Medium, or Siege War Engines may not move once emplaced (they may, however, pivot in place). Other War Engines may move, but may not shoot for that round, except War Engines Fast may fire after movement, but then with a 1 each. Siege (or High Trajectory) War Engines may shoot at non-stationary targets with a factor of 1. All shooting takes place per target formation, (not per shooting element), during the Shooting and Charge Testing phase. Shooting is compulsory for all eligible troops, except for War Engines and Professionals who may opt to wait for a better target. No shooting is possible by or against elements that are already engaged in melee either in direct contact or as overlap or rear supports. Elements of the same target unit not involved in the melee may be shot at, but their unit morale will only be affected if total losses exceed their formation stamina (over 50%, which will then force them to take a morale test) Any target may normally be shot at once per round, the only exception being pursuers meeting fresh opponents during a pursuit, who may be shot at even if they had already been shot at previously. Elements may only shoot once per round, even if they are pursuers meeting fresh opponents.


A shooting element must have line of sight to the target element and at least an element -wide (4cm) clear space to shoot. When shooting in support or against a charge, the target needs to be visible at any point during the charge to be eligible as target. NOTE: If only part of a target element is visible through the 4cm window it is still an eligible target.
In the example left,

The Kill Zone (shooting angle) is the Bowmen cannot determined by the shooting elements provide missile frontage (4cm), plus 4cm on either side support to the (total frontage of 12cm). If an element Spearmen that are has no target directly to its front it may being flank-charged shoot at an adjacent one or it may shoot as they have less as overlap support if it is adjacent to a than 4cm clear space friendly one that has. Elephant, Chariot to their front. and Wagon Laager crews and troops in closed fortifications have all-round shooting ability without angle limitations. In depth, the kill zone is determined by the weapons' range: 30-50cm for War Engines, 12cm -long range- for all kinds of bows and slings and 3cm for close range weapons (fire syphons) or hand-thrown missiles. Overhead shooting is possible when the shooting elements are on higher ground than intervening friendly elements and the intervening elements are entirely within 6cm of the units front. Missile troops may also shoot from behind a differently armed front rank if part of a mixed element (like Byzantine or Arab Spear/Bow combinations or Psiloi-supported foot) as specified in the Army Lists. In this case, distances are calculated from the front element. Troops screened by Psiloi, but on higher level than their screen and Elephants on any level, will also become eligible targets if their screen is not in contact. War Engines may ignore Psiloi screens, even on flat ground, if the screen is not in contact with the protected unit.


Target priority. Choice of target for the shooters is not free, (except for War Engines ) and any shooting element with a choice of targets must first satisfy its target priority criteria. If multiple targets meet the criteria, then the shooting player chooses the target. Results are


immediate and the priority can only be surrendered voluntarily 20. Target criteria have as follows:

Target charging or being charged by the shooters friendlies. Target directly in front of shooting unit. Target in kill zone of shooting unit.

The same priorities determine who the main shooter and who the support shooters will be in case of more than one elements shooting at the same target from different directions. Shooting priority. Between similarly armed missile troops shooting takes place simultaneously and losses may be reciprocal, except if one is uphill of the other (the shooter uphill having priority). If shooters are differently armed, but still within range of each other, shooting takes place by priority of their weapons as follows:

War Engines (range 30cm Fast/Light, 40cm Medium, 50cm Heavy/Siege) Bowmen with longbows (range 12cm 5 in.) Bowmen with ordinary bows (range 12cm 5 in.) Bowmen with crossbows (range 12cm 5 in.) Other troops with bows (range 12cm 5 in.) Other troops with crossbows, slings (range 12cm 5 in.) Hand-thrown missiles [javelins, darts, pila, etc.] and handguns (range 3cm 1 in.)


1. The shooters designate their target, which must be a formation (a unit, or independent elements). 2. They add up the Shooting Factors, of those elements shooting directly at an enemy element (i.e. one shooting element per target element)21, add or subtract tactical modifiers, add any overlap supporting elements and, if Bowmen, add any rear supporting elements and unit cohesion bonus. The total determines their Attack Factor (AF). 3. The target adds up the Target Factors of its elements being shot to determine its Defence Factor (DF). 4. To resolve shooting, the player that is shooting throws two D6 dice and adds or subtracts the difference between AF and DF. The maximum difference between AF and DF for each target ranges from +5 to 2. Only Mass shooting or War Engines [see Appendices II.2.Shooting Results] may kill more than one element of each target and each main shooting element may kill only one target element (i.e. support elements do not count for additional kills). Thus, when shooting against an enemy formation, at least two main shooting elements are required for a double kill and three for a triple kill, three kills being the maximum for any target. Secondary shooting may only kill one target element. Independent elements, Elephants, Scythed Chariots and CEs are shot at separately. In shooting, the defending player may select precisely which element(s) will be killed or must recoil, flee etc., but only from those targeted directly or their rear supports. Mixed elements of mixed protection benefit from the better target factors of the two, but have a 1 penalty towards the total defence factor and any losses must be removed alternately with the lesser protected element going first.

If units of two (or more) different weapons are involved in a shoot-out resulting in mixed priorities, the player having the overall priority may opt either to shoot with only those troops that have priority or, if he insists on combining all missile-power on the enemy target, to use the lowest priority of his shooting troops. In the first case, the remainder of his missilemen will not be able to shoot at the same target for a second time.

If more than one may shoot directly at a target element, the shooter decides which is the main and which is support.


Elephants and Scythed Chariots may become uncontrollable when shot at for the first time. Elephants and Scythed Chariots suffering any hit (except by War Engines) of 10 or above, (they disregard 9 completely), must throw a D6. At 5 or 6 they are treated as normal troops (killed). At 1, 2, 3, 4, they will become uncontrollable and move randomly in any direction. For the random effect, throw a D6 to find its direction:

6 North (forward)

1 Northwest

5 Northeast

2 Southwest

4 Southeast

3 South (back)

An uncontrollable element will hold this course and attack anyone in its way, friend or foe, until killed either in melee or through a second missile kill result, or until it exits the table.


Support shooting takes place in support of or against charges by any troops with a Missile distinctive. 22 The aim of support shooting is to cause enemy troops to refuse to obey orders, by destroying their morale before a melee, or to unform or disorder them. Support shooting may stop an enemy charge or counter-charge from closing or may break a unit standing to receive, depending on the severity of the missile attack and the troop quality23 [see Appendices II.2.Shooting Results]. Defending elements being charged that refuse to obey (to receive a charge), must rout immediately together with any rear support they may have. If these represent at least 50% of the formation front, the entire formation will be affected. Attacking elements that refuse to obey (to close with the enemy) must recoil a full move distance, space permitting. If Inferior, they must also roll a D6 for rout (rout on a 1). Recoiling from support shooting follows the same rules as for melee but in general must move away from the shooters and, if possible, not closer to combat-capable enemy troops [see 12.4. Recoiling-Following up]. Elephants, Scythed Chariots and some fanatic types [see Army Lists] are not affected by the above, but will continue to charge out of control, until killed or diverted. Shooting in support of charges is allowed if the target was visible at any point of the charge (so, a charging unit that screens a target when it moves up close does not negate the support shooting of its friendly units). Other units on both sides may move in the Normal Movement phase to bring an attacker or defender within their range before the charge is concluded. Support shooting is short range as long as the main shooters are within 3cm of the target. Overlap and rear support shooters maintain their +1 support regardless of distance. The exchange of missiles takes place after all movement is complete and by order of shooting priority24. If a charge is declared against the flanks or rear of a unit with a Missile distinctive,

Shock/Missile troops may shoot only in support of charges except if Elephant crews, mixed Spearmen/Bowmen elements and Wagon Laager who can shoot at all times.

Independent elements are shot at individually. A group of independent elements, however, is treated as a normal unit for casualty and morale purposes.

When shooting in support or against a charge, results should strictly follow the order of priority, (if the opponents are differently armed) and morale results affect shooting. For example, if a charge by Light Horse archers is stopped


any elements of the Missile unit may turn to shoot, CoPs permitting. If the charge is from two or more directions, the shooters may choose, which elements to turn.
The attacking Peltasts (Reg O, H, Shk/Msl) on top are being shot at by the Bow (O) unit. Only the shaded elements may shoot, two as main shooters and three as support. Casualty resolution has as follows: 2 Bow Elements x 1 = 2 +2 (rear support) +1 (overlap support) = 5, +1 (cohesion bonus) = 6 [Attack Factor] 2 Plt Targets x [1 + 1(Heavy)] = 4 [Defence Factor] The Bow unit throws two D6 dice at +2: 11 + 2 = 13 - Kill The Plt unit will lose one element (defender chooses) and being Ordinary (Shk/Msl) will refuse to charge home, will not shoot back with javelins and must recoil one full move back.

Shock/Missile, Loose or Close Order foot or mounted troops with hand-hurled missile weapons (javelins, pila, franciscas etc.) are considered to have a limited supply of missiles and a unit may only shoot once in support of a charge regardless of how many of its elements actually shoot. Open Order troops, Elephants, Chariots and Wagon Laager are excluded from this limitation as having the ability of either replenishing their stocks due to their flexibility or through carrying a larger supply of reloads.


Any element except Elephants, Chariots, Cataphracts, Open Order, or any in hard cover, are vulnerable when shot behind their flanks or rear. A shooting element is considered to be shooting behind the flanks of an enemy unit only when it is entirely behind its target. Troops shooting behind the flank or at the rear of their target, (except the above mentioned troop types), will count a +1 to the total Attack Factor and those elements being shot at from the rear or flank cannot count as Heavy. If any kill results include flank/rear shooting on an Inferior unit, it must roll a D6 for rout (rout on a 1).

11.6. COVER
Troops in cover enjoy an advantage in defence (-2 per element to the shooters Attack Factor) when shot at. Cover includes any of the following:

Troops in buildings Troops behind fortification or pavises or in Shieldwall formation (from their front only) Troops in woods or Psiloi in difficult terrain


Charges are declared and executed by order of initiative during the Charge and Normal Movement phase. All other movement is concluded and shooting is resolved. If the opponents obey orders the two sides come will come into contact and melee will ensue. The target of a charge must be visible at the moment of the initial declaration and within charge distance, except in the case of mounted troops that meet fresh opponents while pursuing.
by Bowmen, who have priority in shooting, the horse archers will have to recoil and will not be allowed to shoot for that round, even if still within range.


The charge must be as direct to the target as possible. Wheeling to bring the target within its o charge distance is allowed, up to 90 , but charging obliquely is allowed only for Open Order o troops. Mounted may first turn up to 90 to face their target, in some cases disordered. [See 10.2. Movement by Type of Troops]. All declared charges expend necessary CoPs, upon declaration of the charge, separately for each formation (unit) charging, regardless of their ultimate success. A formation may charge as many targets as possible within its charge move, but it expends CoPs for each charge as a whole, not for each separate target. Charging as a group of multiple formations(units) is only allowed for troops of the same Command, in contact, of the same type of troops and attacking a single enemy formation. If a unit is facing two or more enemy formations, the unit may choose25 to split into detachments to meet both opponents. In this case, the detachment(s) whose strength falls below two thirds of the original unit strength will lose its cohesion bonus and fight as independent elements. Charge distances are the same as tactical ones except that all Knights, Greek hoplite Spearmen and Barbarians have a charge bonus of 2.5cm and charge as Fast troops of their type. Troops in cover (buildings, forts) may never charge outside. They may charge from house to house [see 14. Fighting in Built-Up Areas & Fortifications]. All charges in a given round are considered as 'simultaneous' for combat resolution purposes, but their actual game order is determined by the Command with the higher initiative and by their type (frontal or in flank, by mounted or by foot). Troops of higher priority may chose whether to charge or not. Troops of lower priority may initiate charge if they are not being charged themselves. Charges against flanks or rear always have priority over frontal charges and mounted always have priority over foot (except if charged in flank). o However, there are exceptions: Impetuous Barbarians may charge foot troops to within 90 , regardless of Command priority, but disordered. If they are held back to maintain order they will be subject to normal initiative rules. Purely Missile troops may not frontally charge other combat-capable troops, mounted or foot, unless they are purely Missile troops as well. They may charge routers and they may provide overlap support for other friendlies as long as they do not come into contact with Shock opponents. Primarily Missile, double-armed troops may declare charges normally. Elements that are within or move through the vacant Combat Zone of an opponents element, may not move away at will or attack a different target. The only move possible in such a case is either to attack the element opposite itself or to retreat directly away or to move to provide overlap support for an adjacent friendly element, but only within 4cm.


Open Order troops and primarily Missile Light Chariots may evade all charges. Light Chariots may evade all foot, Elephants, Scythed and Heavy Chariots. Cavalry and Knights Fast may evade flank and rear attacks by foot and all attacks by Elephants and Scythed Chariots. Mounted troops with a Shock distinctive being charged may, CoPs permitting, declare a counter-charge, except if charged in flank or rear, in which case they may countero charge only if the attackers are within 90 . Close and Loose Order foot being charged must stand and receive. Any troop types that stand to receive charge may, CoPs permitting, change formation to improve their combat performance. They may not, however, use a formation change to avoid an enemy charge or block a charge against an adjacent friendly formation.


However, troops being charged in the flank or rear do not have the option of splitting up unless Professional.


A unit being charged in flanks or rear will automatically become disordered and, if unable to counter-charge, must stand to receive the flank or rear charge. Professional troops only, may detach elements to face the flank/rear attack, without expending extra CoPs, and initiate their own charge or movement as well. Impetuous troops cease to be impetuous when attacked in the flank or rear, but always have o the option of charging foot first if within 90 of their front, albeit disordered. When being charged, Professional troops may react according to their main function freely. For example, Mounted Pro (Shk or Shk/Msl) may counter-charge if charged and any Pro eligible to evade may evade a charge without expending CoPs. When any horse-mounted troops are charged by or attempt to charge Elephants or Camelry, they will react in morale as Inferior, regardless of their class. Some specific armies, however, may have horses specially trained to fight alongside camelry and/or elephants and are specified as such in the army lists.


Moving into Contact. Only elements that are being charged, or have declared charge, or are part of a formation already in combat, or have moved to provide overlap support for a friendly element 26, or are encountered by pursuers, may be contacted for close combat. Friendly elements may move during the Normal Movement phase, after the charges go in, to provide overlap support, but they may contact enemy elements only if their friendly formation remains stationary to receive charge. It cannot contact enemy elements if the friendly h as charged or has changed position in any way. If both opponents wish to provide overlap support but their overlapping elements would then come into contact themselves, then only the elements of the Command with the higher initiative may do so, their opponents stopping just short of contact. When calculating distances for a charge against a stationary formation, at least one attacking element must be able to line up with any side of its target. If the other elements of the attackers fail to reach that far, but those elements that fall short are within their own base depth of the intended target, then they may line up with the target as intended. If any elements of a unit are beyond their own base depth and cannot reach the target, then they may not come into contact. Conforming to an enemys front must be undertaken to permit contact by allowing minor adjustments in lining up the opposing elements. It is generally the attacker that must conform to the defender. The following exceptions apply (the defender having to conform to the attacker):

If the target is a single element (except War Engines the crews of which fight all-round) or has a frontage of one element (as in a column). However, if the contacted element is part of a column, only its rear supporting element will have to conform along with the contacted element, not the entire column. If the target is Psiloi (but not charged by Psiloi).


Purely Missile troops may only provide overlap support if they do not contact Shock opponents.




In this example, the attacking Barbarians (shaded unit, on top) should conform against both Spear units, to its right and to its front, but is practically unable to do so. Therefore, it is the Spear unit on the left, that must conform, but it is so arranged as to be able to recoil without obstruction (fig.1) and doing so would penalize its recoil (fig.2). In this case, the Spear unit on the left will conform by moving forward sufficiently to clear the obstructing elements to its rear in case it recoils. If this would result in the Barbarians splitting up, then it is for the attacking player to decide whether to attack both Spear units split-up or to attack only the Spear unit to its front with part of its elements.

Flanks & Rear. An element may charge the flanks or rear of an element if : a) It starts its charge move within a single wheel of no o more than 90 of its targets flanks or rear. b) It is outside the frontal area of its target and outside its Combat Zone. Flanking an opponent is a charge move and cannot be initiated as a normal move 27.

In the example, the Cavalry element on the left is within 90o of the flanks of the enemy unit and outside its Combat Zone, but still cannot flank charge since it is within the units frontal area. The Cavalry on the right is outside 90o of the enemy flank. Both Cv elements could charge their opponent frontally.

If a unit is being flank-charged, it automatically becomes disordered regardless of its frontage. A flanked element not engaged with, or charged by, other enemy to its front, must turn to meet the flank charge ( without expending CoPs), along with up to one rear rank and must also recoil to maintain contact with the rest of its unit [see example and Note below). If charged or engaged to its front, it cannot turn and will have to fight with a handicap of 1 for each flank being attacked and 2 if contacted to its rear. A recoil would then be an automatic kill. If the flanked element has rear rank support, the attackers must conform to its immediate rear support, which must turn to face them. If the attackers are unable to conform, due to insufficient space, the flank attack will not be possible. If the rear support is a deeper column of more than two elements, only those elements that provide rear combat support (two in the case of Sarissae, or Barbarians) will turn to face the flank charge [See example below]. Any additional elements must recoil sufficiently to allow them to turn.


Foot troops moving at 5cm a bound, like Spearmen or Swordsmen may wheel into an enemy flank in one bound even if this slightly exceeds 5cm. However, non-Professional Sarissae and Untrained Spearmen may only initiate charge as units.


In fig.1, a formation is attacked only in the flank. Both flank elements may automatically turn to face the flanking force and the entire formation is disordered. After the charge moves, the third rank element may also turn (CoPs permitting) to provide overlap support for the defenders.


In fig.2, the formation is attacked from two sides simultaneously and becomes disordered. The flanking force must conform with the second rank, which may turn together with its own rear support.

fig.2 NOTE: When a flanked element without rear support turns to meet its opponents, it may lose contact with its parent unit because its width is usually greater than its depth. Flanked elements must recoil sufficiently to maintain contact with their unit.

12.3. M ELEE
Melees take place element by element and combat is considered as simultaneous. To resolve melees, for each of the opponent elements [A and Z] in contact a) add their respective Basic Combat Factors (BCF); b) add or subtract tactical modifiers (for details of which, see Appendices II.3. Melee Table) and c) throw a D6 to determine their Melee Factors (MF). Then compare results, following the principle below: Melee Factor (A) < Melee Factor (Z): Z win; Defeated A recoils Melee Factor (A) > Melee Factor (Z): A win; Defeated Z recoils Melee Factor double its opponents: Defeated element killed Melee Factor (A) = Melee Factor (Z): Draw; A and Z remain in contact and react according to formation result.

A recoil will become an automatic kill in the following cases:

N Non-Fast Knights, Heavy Chariots defeated by Foot Knights. N Foot defeated by all Knights, Cataphracts, Heavy Chariots [subject to terrain limitations] N Non-Fast Knights, Foot Knights, Cataphracts, Wagon Laager, Heavy Chariots defeated
by Elephants.

N Purely

Missile foot defeated by mounted.

N Any Close Order foot defeated by Barbarians, Scythed Chariots [for exceptions see 6.
Troop Types Basing].

N Elephants defeated by good quality (not Inferior or Untrained) Shock Psiloi or Peltasts.


N War Engines, Baggage, Scythed Chariots defeated by any and Wagon Laager defeated
by foot.

N If defeated while contacted simultaneously in front and flank (or rear), either in melee or
due to formation defeat.

N If forced to recoil and followed up over impassable terrain or obstructing units.

If an element is killed, its victor may -or must- occupy the vacant position by following-up. [See 12.4. Recoiling-Following up] Losses from melee should be removed from the ranks actually in combat (unless it is a 2E element or a supported Swordsmen element, in which case both are lost). Melees may affect the morale of an entire formation if the number of elements engaged represents at least 50% of the formations total frontage area28 as follows:

If total wins equal total defeats (Draw), both sides stay engaged in combat with their losing and winning elements recoiling and following-up respectively, depending on their troop type. If defeats exceed wins (Partial Defeat), all the elements of the losing formation must retreat one base depth, (including any that were winning, but not those already pushed back in melee or any impetuous troops, like Barbarians) their unit becoming unformed. If any cannot recoil due to being outflanked, they are removed from play (prisoners). Those elements of the winning side that won or drew may follow-up their opponents depending on their troop type. Those of the winning side that were defeated must still recoil and try to rejoin their unit on the following round. If all engaged elements are defeated (Total Defeat), the defeated react the same as above, but their formation must also check for morale:

Inferior and Ordinary Missile 29 troops will break if at least one of their defeated elements were kills in the melee. Superior Missile and Ordinary Shock troops will break if at least two of their defeated elements were kills. 30

All troops (including Superior Shock) will break if defeated and their unit has dropped to under 50% of its original strength (exception, see NOTE below).

NOTE: If an element is victorious, but its unit has been defeated and has suffered losses of over 50% of its original strength, it may only fight on -until defeated itself- if Superior. If not, it must flee along with any remnants of its unit.


Recoiling. Elements defeated (and not automatically killed) in combat including those in contact attacking flanks or rear, but not those providing overlap support must recoil their own or their opponents (if followed up) element base depth. Recoiling elements meeting other elements and unable to complete their recoil move will either push the obstructing elements

If, for instance, a unit had a frontage of 3 elements and one of its elements was engaged and defeated, only this engaged element would have to recoil. If, however, a second element was also defeated, either on the units flank or on its front, the two would then represent over 50% of the units 3-element frontage and the entire unit would have to recoil becoming unformed in the process.

Also Shock/Missile and Missile/Shock troops respectively.


In calculating losses for unit morale, at least one kill must always be from melee, but extra losses sustained from that rounds support shooting must be included in determining a units morale. Any additional losses sustained from an entire formation having to recoil after combat do not count, however, as this is the result of the morale reac tion itself.


back (if Psiloi), destroy them or be destroyed themselves. For any kills to take place through inability to recoil, the victorious elements must follow up their defeated foes:
Any element, except Elephants, that is forced to recoil on to an enemy element will be

lost. If the obstructing enemy element is facing at a different angle to the recoiling element and the recoiling element is Knights, Cataphracts or Heavy Chariots or if the enemy obstructing element is of Psiloi, it will be destroyed along with the recoiling element.
Any recoiling element, except Psiloi, that meets a friendly element, except Elephants,

facing in the same direction will simply push it back and may cause disorder. Any, except Psiloi, that recoil on friendly Elephants will be lost.
Any recoiling element, except Psiloi, that meets a friendly element facing in a different

direction, will be lost. If the recoiling element is Knights, Cataphracts or Heavy Chariots, it will also destroy the obstructing element.
Psiloi recoiling may interpenetrate all friendlies, in any direction, without penalty. Bowmen

recoiling may interpenetrate friendlies freely as Psiloi, if facing in the same direction, otherwise treat as other foot. Any friendly element recoiling may push Psiloi back in any direction without penalty to either.
Any element contacted on its flank and forced to recoil, either from combat or due to

formation defeat, will be lost (but if due to formation defeat will not count towards a units after melee morale).
Any element forced to recoil over impassable terrain (and followed up) will be lost. Recoiling or uncontrollable Elephants meeting any elements, enemy or friendly, will attack


Example of Melee 1




The Sarissae unit (Ss) is facing a Peltasts (Plt) unit (shaded) frontally and is being charged on its exposed right flank (fig.1). Having rear support, the Ss have their two rear elements turn to fight and become automatically disordered. The outflanking Plt must conform to the two rear elements (fig.2). The top left Ss element will fight with rear support, but disordered. The top right Ss element will fight frontally without support, disordered. The rear elements that have turned will fight with one support, disordered. If these two recoil or if the top right element has to recoil, one each will be destroyed (fig.3).

NOTE: In the example above, if the charging pikemen were Professional, they could have detached any rear elements to face the flanking attackers and continue their charge forward disregarding the flank attack. Their detachment would then have fought as independent elements, but the main body would not have been disordered.


Example of Melee 2

fig. 1



The Roman Auxilia Peltasts (shaded) [4 x Reg Plt(O), Pro2, H, Shk/Msl] are attacking spearmen [6 x Reg Sp(O), Shk] and being double-armed they throw Jls in support of their charge: a. 2 x [1+1(Pro)]= 4 vs. 2 x 2 = 4; AF to DF = 0; Die roll of 2 x D6 = 11: - kill The Spearmen lose an element, become unformed and lose their spear advantage over Loose Order troops (fig.1), but being Shock Ordinary troops, they stand and fight. b. The two units will clash on the first round (fig.1) as follows: 2 (Plt Melee)+1 (rear support) +2 (cohesion) +1 (Pro)= 6 +3 (D6) = 9 support) 1 (unformed)= 2 + 4 (D6) = 6 - Sp defeat 2 (Plt) +1 +2 +1 1 (enemy overlap)= 5 +2 (D6) = 7 vs. vs. 2 (Sp Melee)+1 (rear

2 (Sp) 1 = 1 +6 (D6) = 7 - draw

The spearmen have lost in one melee and drawn in a second for a partial defeat with over 50% of their unit frontage engaged. The defeated unit recoils one (enemy) base depth and becomes unformed (if not already). The Romans have the option of following up for a second round or rallying in place to charge again on the following round. Being Plt against Sp, they prefer to push on so as not to allow the Spearmen to reform. The Spearmen -not being Untrained- have the opportunity of charging into the Romans flanks with their two right wing elements, lining up with the Plt rear rank, and automatically disordering them. The rest of the spearmen unit will then fall under 2/3 strength and can only fight as independent elements. The second round (fig.2) will then have as follows: 2 (Plt) +1 (rear) +1 (Pro)= 4 +5(D6)= 9 vs. 2 (Sp) +1 (rear) = 3 +1(D6) = 4: - Sp kill (Flank) 2 (Plt) +1 (Pro)= 3 +1 (D6)= 4 vs. 2 (Sp) +1 (rear) = 3 +2(D6) = 5: Plt defeat-recoil 2 (Plt) +1 (Pro) =3 + 3 (D6)= 6 vs. 2 (Sp) = 2 +5 (D6) = 7: Plt recoil-kill

The opponents have killed one each, but the Plt have suffered a partial defeat (2 to 1) and must recoil. Both may continue to fight on as in fig.3, but no longer as units. The clash has degenerated into a freefor-all (fig.3) with the more flexible Roman Professionals having a small advantage.

NOTE. If the second melee on the flank had gone the other way, the third Peltast element, that had no room to recoil, would have survived.

Following up. This is an advance up to one base deep for elements that have defeated their opponents. All impetuous troops and all Irregulars that have charged must always follow up. Irregular and Untrained troops must test regardless of having stood to receive charge and must follow-up their victory on a D6 roll of 1, 2. All Regular, trained troops that have stood to receive charge, may hold their elements (rally back) without expending CoPs.


Following-up has implications for the status of a unit: if a unit had been unformed, a follow-up after a victorious combat will automatically restore it. If it was in order and by following-up, its front became broken, it will become disordered and conversely, if the follow-up redressed its front, it will cease to be in disorder. The only exception is troops that have become impetuous and are thus out of control, requiring commander intervention to bring them to order. NOTE: When a formation has suffered a partial or total defeat all the elements that fought against their victorious formation must recoil, including those that either were equals to or defeated their immediate opponent elements. If the formation was fighting against two or more different formations and winning against one and losing against the other, the part that was victorious will not be affected by the defeated part, but will react normally, following up or rallying back. The only exception to the above is impetuous troop elements that may still continue to fight and follow-up their victories, even if the rest of their unit has had to recoil. If these have no opponent to their immediate front they will attack their closest opponent within reach. If none is within reach, they will then recoil along with the rest.


Routing. Units that have been totally defeated in melee [see 12.3.Melee] or have sustained debilitating casualties or have failed a morale test, may, under circumstances, rout. Units that rout flee in disorder. The rout move must be generally away from any opponents and may go around intervening friendly troops as long as there is a gap 4cm wide and the routers do not pass through, or end up in, the Combat Zone of combat-capable enemy troops (in which case they are removed from play as captured). Routing elements (except if Psiloi) that cannot avoid intervening friendlies must attempt to go through them, if eligible to interpenetrate them, otherwise the friendlies must check for reaction:

Professional or Superior troops -except Rabble- or any troops behind fortifications, buildings etc. may refuse to allow routers through, in which case the routers will halt on the spot (still as routers); Ordinary troops may refuse to allow them through, becoming unformed, or must react as Inferior. Inferior troops and Rabble must test for reaction whether interpenetrated or not. They will rout on a die roll (D6) of 1 or 2. Open Order troops may interpenetrate freely with any troop type with no additional effect.

Interpenetrating routers that fail to clear the base of any obstructing friendlies will continue to affect the interpenetrated troops until they are all through, except if Psiloi or Bowmen, who move behind them automatically. Evading. The evade move is identical to the rout move, above, except that evading units, may shoot with missile weapons before evading and, if successful in stopping the enemy charge do not have to execute the move. If they have to evade and manage to outdistance their opponents they will end their move facing their opponents. If caught, however, they will be treated as if caught while routing. Breaking-off. If defeated in a round of melee, any mounted, except Elephants, Heavy/Scythed Chariots and Cataphracts and any Bowmen and Psiloi may attempt to breakoff combat. Break-off moves are compulsory (and free) for defeat ed Open Order formations (foot or mounted). The break-off move is identical to the evade move, above, and takes place at the beginning of the following round. Pursuing. When a formation routs, or evades a charge, or breaks-off contact after combat, its opponents opposite may, or must, pursue with their unengaged elements, for at least one round. If the pursuit move is compulsory the pursuers will become disordered in the process. This is determined as follows:

Cataphracts, Bowmen and Regular, trained, Close and Loose Order foot may never pursue.


Psiloi always have the option of pursuing, but may avoid contact with any new opponents they may encounter. Irregular Knights and Heavy Chariots, Barbarians, and Rabble S, become impetuous and must always pursue. All other mounted, except Cataphracts, must pursue on a D6 roll of 1, 2, but Regulars and Professionals can be held back with 1 CoP per formation. All Irregular or Untrained foot must pursue on a D6 roll of 1, 2.

If t he pursued are caught, the first round of combat (or massacre) will be resolved immediately. If the pursuers win again, the pursuit must continue with a new rout and pursuit move, but any consecutive p ursuit move will be limited to only one D6. Any subsequent round of massacre will be resolved during the Combat and Rout Movement phase of the following round and so on, until the pursued are either destroyed, or manage to beat off, or outdistance the pursuers. When fighting against routers, both sides use their combat factors, but the routers can count no depth (rear support), or overlap advantages (side support), no cohesion bonus and have an extra 2 handicap for being hit in rear. If the routers should defeat their pursuers or if the result is a draw, the pursuers must stop the pursuit and rally where they stand. The Pursued cannot kill their pursuers, regardless of result and any kill should be treated as a simple defeat. If any pursuers meet any new enemy on the way and within their pursuit move, they may charge against them with part of their troops, without expending CoPs, while at least one element continues the pursuit of the routers. If pursuers are unable to avoid the new target, they must automatically charge against it. If the pursuing unit had previously been disordered, it will fight any new melee disordered31. The new enemy (with any supporting units) will be able to shoot with missile weapons against the pursuers even if these had already been shot at, this being the only occasion that a unit may be shot at twice during the same round. If the new target is also broken, the pursuers must pursue consecutively (but with a D6 only). Only Open Order pursuers may halt their pursuit to avoid contact (for free) and must stop 1 cm before contact. NOTE: Troops, which have retreated off table when routing can never return to the table and are considered casualties. If elements retreat off-table when pursuing, breaking-off, recoiling or evading, they may return to the table after two rounds (including the one it exited) as an Outflank (needing 5 or 6 on a D6 for three rounds or 6 for another three). If they fail to reenter, they will not be considered as casualties for a Demoralisation test or the final tally, but neither will they be counted as part of the Command, making it more vulnerable to a Demoralisation test. It will enter during the Normal Movement phase from the same sector it exited, or an adjacent one, from the point closest to its Command Element and at least 10cm from any combat-capable enemy element. If there is no entry point free of enemy ZOCs the unit must enter from a different sector closer to its Command Element. If no sectors are free of enemy ZOCs, it may not enter until one is liberated. If it enters the table out of Command Control, it must expend additional CoPs as necessary.

Rallying is either for troops in rout or for units that have become unformed. It is not a compulsory action but it is recommended. Units that have become unformed may be rallied either during the Command and Rally phase of the following round, by expending CoPs, or, automatically, by winning a round of melee and then following up. Units losing or drawing and still in contact with an opponent may not rally their unformed troops 32. Rallying unformed troops expends 1 CoP per formation if Regular or Open Order, 2 CoPs if Irregular or Untrained.
31 32

If it was unformed its victory would have restored it to its normal status. An exception are the Roman legionnaires that have the ability to rally their unformed units even when in contact.


Troops in rout may rally and become combat-capable after three rounds of routing (including the initial one). To rally from rout they must be in Command Control and expend 2-4 CoPs per formation, depending on troop type [see Tables II.6. Rout Rallying Table]. Non-Inferior troops can also be rallied out of Command Control at additional CoP cost [see Tables II.5. CoP Expenditure Table. If CoPs are unavailable, they must continue to rout. If they exit the table, routers may never return. Command Elements, Inferior troops, Rabble and any elements of units that are under 50% of their initial unit strength, can never be rallied from rout.

Ambushes constitute a special form of attack, allowed only in set battles, to the side that deploys first (by choice or not), and only by Fast, Loose and Open Order troops (foot or mounted). Ambushes can be set in towns, woods, rough or difficult terrain or behind hills, at up to half the table depth. Town and woods hide all ambushing troops; Rough and difficult terrain hides only foot troops; Hills hide all troops but only from line of sight. Ambushing troops are not visible, but must be clearly marked on a sketch map before the opponent begins to deploy. More than one formations may take part in an ambush as long as there is room in the terrain feature chosen 33. Their exact positioning, however, is the prerogative of the ambushing player. Any ambushing troops inside towns or woods and foot in rough or difficult terrain, become visible only if approached within 6cm or if they decide to trigger the ambush by shooting and charging. Any troops laying in ambush behind hills become exposed when they are acquired through line of sight (enemy troops do not obstruct line of sight). Once exposed, troops must be placed on table immediately and cease to be in ambush. Ambushes are sprung at any moment during the Charge and Normal Movement phase even during the opponents move and may involve charging or shooting or both. The ambushing units have priority over their ambushed opponents regardless of their Commands initiative for that round. When the ambushing player wishes to reveal an ambush, he declares it and may then either make a tactical move and shoot or may declare charge. Any enemy units engaged must immediately stop their movement on the spot and if charged, stand to receive charge disordered. They may not shoot back or countercharge during that round. If the attack is aimed against a flank or rear, the unit engaged will become automatically unformed. If already unformed, it will automatically rout. Inferior troops that have been ambushed must throw a D6 and will rout automatically on 1 or 2. If the target-unit of an ambush is in deployment mode, its entire Command must deploy immediately, disordered.


Fighting in built-up areas & fortifications involves combat against troops in buildings or behind fortifications (palisades, walls) or Wagon Laager or field defences like stakes. Unless differently specified by scenarios, a built-up area (or town) consists of four buildings, each of which may hold up to 4 foot elements, represented (when visible) by placing one element on each side of the building. Another 4 elements, mounted or foot (not Chariots, Wagons or Elephants), may be p laced inside the town and can exit only through the main thoroughfare of the town. The total number of elements in a town may not exceed 16. Units inside built-up areas and permanent fortifications (not field fortifications) exert only a 3cm ZOC. For a formation to enter a building it suffices for its front element to reach it. Exiting a building does not require any special procedure and elements may exit from any of its sides, but charging is prohibited. In order to charge, a unit must first exit a building and then

For ambushes set in towns, the same limitations apply as per Chapter 14. Fighting in Built-up Areas & Fortifications


declare charge on the following round. Charging from one building directly to another is allowed for foot troops, but without rear support, or cohesion bonus. Troops may normally enter or exit a fortification through its gate, in which case they move in single column. If the defenders wish to exit from any other point, they may only do so (foot units only) one element at a time (i.e. not as a group) expending separate CoPs for each one. When any formation exits a fortification in this way, it will remain disordered until the end of the round. Field fortifications are elements 4cm wide, each of which may protect one element of troops. The total number of fortifications (if available) will be specified in the Army Lists. Troops defending a building or behind any permanent fortification have their morale class upgraded by one and add a +1 to their melee factor. Also, there is no rear support or automatic kills (like Barbarians against Close Order foot) for either defenders or attackers and no follow-ups or pursuits for the defenders. Finally, Open Order troops do not need to breakoff and evade if defeated. Every assault against a building involves element -to-element combat, but the final melee outcome will affect all the defending elements inside as if they were a unit. If the defenders are defeated overall, they will recoil unformed and the melee will continue for another round inside the building, or over the fortification, without any defenders bonus. If they are defeated again in the second round, the defenders must rout, regardless of losses, and the attackers may enter and capture the building. If the attackers lose they must recoil, unformed. Any troops that recoil from assaulting buildings or fortifications already unformed by support shooting or other causes, shall suffer an element kill. If the result is a draw, the attackers shall recoil in order. In the case of field fortifications (stakes e tc.), if a defender has to recoil, the obstacle is immediately removed from play and cannot be replaced. Troops recoiling from melee on to fortifications (temporary or permanent ones) should treat them as impassable terrain, (resulting in an automatic kill if the recoiling elements are followed up). Mounted troops may not assault permanent fortifications, buildings or Wagon Laager. Elephants only may assault Wagon Laager and destroy it automatically if they push it back. All may assault elements behind field fortifications. Missile troops in buildings and closed fortifications (like towers) have the ability to shoot allround regardless of angle. The range to and from the shooting element should be measured from the walls of the building itself. Missilemen behind field fortifications shoot with the same angle limitations as they would in the open.

Baggage trains may affect both combatants: 1. Any unengaged and free to move 34 elements opposite enemy baggage 35, within 40cm, must pass (once) a reaction test during the Command and Rally phase of the following round. If they fail the test they become terminally impetuous and turn to attack the closest baggage element, without possibility of being controlled. They will continue to attack the baggage elements until these are destroyed or until they themselves are defeated, in which case they lose their impetuosity and regain their control. 2. Unengaged elements of a combat-capable Command that have line of sight and are within 40cm, of their own unprotected Baggage train being attacked 36 (or troops of any Command -if the entire baggage train is assembled in one place-) must pass the same reaction test. Any elements that fail it must make an uncontrolled move towards their threatened baggage elements. Such troops can be controlled (held back) by expending 1 CoPs, for each -2
34 35

i.e. not in combat or within an enemy Combat Zone.

If an element is partially opposite a combat-capable enemy and partially opposite a demoralized Command or routers, it does not need to test and will remain under control.

Baggage under attack may denote either unimpeded enemy within charge distance, missile shooting or actual combat.


formation, as if being rallied from unformed. If the baggage is defended by any friendly troops the reaction test is not required. For the reaction test throw a D6 (Professional troops add 1 to the die roll):

Irregulars and Inferior troops or Open Order mounted, become uncontrolled on 1 - 4. Mounted Regulars except if Inferior on 1 - 3. Foot Regulars except if Inferior on 1 - 2.

Any uncontrollable troops attacking unprotected Baggage or meeting enemy combat-capable troops on the way, will engage them disordered, regardless of their troop type, class etc. Troops stopped or defeated in combat lose their impetuosity. Once under control, these troops will obey orders normally until they meet other routing or demoralised enemy troops, which may induce another impetuous rush out of control. The loss of a baggage train is cause for morale test for each Command affected, or all of them if it is concentrated in one area.


I. Demoralisation. When a Command has lost at least one third of its elements (Psiloi count half), either in rout, fleeing off-table or destroyed, or upon losing its CE or its entire Baggage train, or witnessing its CE evading or breaking off combat without its troop type being eligible to do so, or witnessing the demoralisation of the C -in-Cs Command, it must take a morale test. Morale tests take place at the beginning of the following round, before the Command and Rally phase . To test, the testing player throws either 2xD4 if the Command had an initial strength of up to 35 elements, or 3xD4, if its initial strength was 36 elements or more, or 1xD4 less if the Command has lost at least half of its elements and: 1. Subtracts points for its killed and routed elements as follows:

point for each Rabble, or Psiloi element. 2 points for each Baggage, Knight, Foot Knight, or Heavy Chariot element 37. 1 point for each element other than the above. 1 additional point for each of the above if Professional or Superior 38 ( if Psiloi)

2. Subtracts 1-4 points (see Army List) if the CE is also lost or in rout, plus its BIF. 3. Subtracts 2 points for each demoralised (on or off-table) or withdrawing (on-table) friendly Command, including any reliable and any cautious allied Commands, but not unreliable ones. Also subtracts 2 points for each combat-capable Inferior unit that exceeds the number of combat -capable non-Inferior units within the same Command (i.e. If there are 4 Inferior units and 2 Ordinary or Superior units: 4-2 = 2 x 2; subtract 4 points.) 4. Adds 1 point for each combat -capable Professional or Superior 39 element of the Command on table ( if Psiloi). If the Command Element is still in play, the player also adds the commanders BIF. 5. Checks the result in the table below: I. If the result is positive, the Commands morale is unaffected and its units may continue in action until the next loss or rout is incurred. II. If the result is zero, the Commands troops are unwilling and may not make any charges or approach enemy troops within their ZOC, unless they are mounted being charged, in which case they may counter-charge, or are moving to provide support for engaged friendlies. Its missile troops may still shoot normally.
37 38 39

Dismounted elements are valued as mounted. Rabble S and Fanatics never count for more than half a point regardless of their class. Same as above.


III. If the result is negative, the Command is considered to be demoralised and must begin to test for each of its formations to flee the battlefield. Each of its unengaged formations must immediately throw a D6 and will flee, regardless of morale class or troop type, on a die roll of 1 to 4. Such fleeing troops only exert a ZOC of 3cm and disregard enemy ZOCs. When fleeing they must continue towards their own table edge or entry sector (if they had arrived as an Outflank ) until they have all exited the table. Any remaining troops of a demoralised Command may remain on table, but will react as Inferior. They may not initiate attacks of their own or counter charge and, if charged must either stand to receive or evade, if eligible. If already in contact, they will continue to fight with a handicap of 2 per element. Also, they may not voluntarily approach enemy ZOCs, unless they are withdrawing (disregarding e nemy ZOCs). Impetuous troops (like Barbarians, Irr Knights) that have not fled, must still attack if out of control, despite the demoralisation effect, but will still react as Inferior and fight with the 2 handicap. Baggage, Wagon Laager and War Engines cannot flee and must be abandoned to be captured.

Demoralised Commands can be rallied off table, only if the CE is still combat-capable, if not pursued by any opponents and 3 rounds after the exit of their last routing unit and must then dice (D6) for their surviving troops: Inferior or Untrained will rally at 5, 6 and all other troops at 3, 4, 5, 6. Such troops as are unable to rally, are lost. Troops returning to battle must enter from the same sector they exited or, if it is enemy-occupied, by the closest free sector. They enter in Deployment Mode and count as a fresh Command for demoralisation purposes with those troops that are available there and then. II. Withdrawal. If a player wishes, a combat-capable Command may voluntarily be given the order to disengage and withdraw at some risk since any Inferior or Untrained troops may misinterpret the order and flee, instead of withdrawing, on a D6 roll of 1 or 2. The order to withdraw is given at the beginning of a round, after any compulsory morale tests and is executed during the Normal Movement phase, after all charges have been concluded. Withdrawing troops remain combat-capable, but have a lesser ZOC of 3cm. They may not initiate charges, even against routers (but see exception below), and must continuously move away from the enemy and towards their entry sector, as if executing a rout. They may, however, ignore enemy ZOCs. To execute a withdrawal, all unengaged mobile elements (i.e. not Baggage, Wagon Laager, M edium, Heavy or Siege War Engines) of a withdrawing Command, even if within an enemy ZOC, must move away from their opponents, towards their own table edge or entry sector, by executing standard rout moves, as above. A single formation as well as the CE may be kept back, at the beginning of every round, to cover the withdrawal and delay any pursuers and this will be considered as a fully combat-capable force. Withdrawing moves take place before any charges are declared, but may not be used to evade enemy charges by troops not eligible to do so. Mounted troops being charged while withdrawing may counter-charge if eligible but may not pursue if victorious and foot troops must stand and receive charge (they turn automatically when being charged). Impetuous troops, like Barbarians or Irregular Knights, however, may become uncontrollable and attack regardless of the withdrawal. If unable to continue the withdrawal due to enemy troops, withdrawing troops may attack them but only to force their way through. Impassable terrain must be circumnavigated. A withdrawing Command counts as demoralised for other friendly Commands that need to test for morale, as long as its troops remain on table, but not once they have exited. Once issued, an order to withdraw may be rescinded three rounds after its last troops have exited the table, only if the CE is still combat-capable. If so, the Command must dice as an Outflank to rejoin the battle and then from the sector it exited or, if enemy-occupied, from the closest free sector. Any of its troops that fled the battlefield in rout must test to return as in the case of a routed Command. Enemy troops (including CEs) not in contact with, or within the Combat Zone of combatcapable opponents and within 40cm of fleeing troops of a demoralised or withdrawing enemy Command, may become impetuous as in the case of Baggage and must pass the same test [see 15.Baggage]. Troops that become impetuous must attack or pursue immediately their


closest routing opponents or move towards the enemy baggage train, whichever is closer, without possibility of being controlled.


To win a battle decisively each side must either demoralise over half the enemy Commands including any reliable or cautious allied Commands, -but not unreliable ones- or at least one enemy Command, but representing (together with any losses sustained in its other Commands) over half the value of the entire army in troop and command points, without suffering the same itself. Should both sides suffer similar conditions on the same round, or if the battle duration exceeds 4 hours (not including the initial set-up and deployment) and at least 15 rounds of play, the battle is declared a winning o losing draw and the two sides r should compare total points of combat-capable troops, plus command points, still remaining on table to determine which side is the marginal victor and which the marginal defeated. Any troops that have exited the table in pursuit or withdrawing and have been unable to return shall not count as combat-capable for the above purposes. For campaign purposes an easy rule-of-thumb for calculating actual losses is the following (round odds down):

25% of kills sustained from shooting, or Demoralised Commands that have failed to rally. 50% of kills sustained from melee. 100% kills sustained from massacres during pursuits or when surrounded.


1. W EDGE. Certain units (Alexandrian Macedonian
Companions et al.) may adopt a Wedge formation against most opponents in good going. A Wedge cannot be employed by Untrained troops or independent elements. Only units may form Wedge. [See example below]. A Wedge may be formed upon initiating a charge (by expending an extra CoP) except if by Professional troops, which may form Wedge automatically. A unit in Wedge, as long as it is advancing, either charging, following-up or pursuing, augments its cohesion bonus by 1 and its own elements as well as those of the enemy disregard any overlaps. Also, enemy missilemen shoot at w edge elements without overlap support, (although rear support is still possible.)
Examples of mounted troops in Wedge formation of three, four, five and six elements.


An Alexandrian Companion (Reg Kn S/F, Pro, Shock) unit in Wedge charges Persian cavalry (Irr Cv O, Shock/Missile). The Persians throw javelins at the point element (without overlap support): 1 +1 (target Fast) vs. 2 = 0 +8 (2xD6) = 8 -No effect In the initial contact (fig.1) Knights fight at: 3 +1(Pro) +2 (cohesion + wedge) = 6 +4(D6) = 10 vs. 2 +1 (cohesion) +1 (rear) = 4 +5(D6)= 9. The Persian element recoils, their unit becomes disordered and the Companions follow up. In the second round (fig.2) the point element fights at: 6 +5(D6) = 11 vs. 2 +1 (rear) = 3 +2(D6) = 5 -Kill The other two Companion elements have the same factors (6 vs. 3). They both score kills and the remaining Persians are routed. (fig.3) If any of a Wedges elements are either defeated or stopped by a draw, the Wedge ceases to function as such and the unit automatically reverts to a normal formation to continue fighting (fig.4).





If the unit is unformed by missile shooting, it may still function, but without any of the Wedge advantages.

NOTE: The initial recoil of the Persians was not a partial defeat since the engaged element represented less than 50% of the units frontage. Only the defeated element will be pushed back and the unit will not become unformed, but disordered.

2. M IXED UNITS. A number of armies may use different troop types within the same unit usually combinations of shock and missile troops- to improve their performance. The main advantage of these mixed units are that they may use methods normally not allowed to other troop types: If the support is of a Missile type (e.g. Psiloi with bows supporting Spearmen) they can shoot from behind a front rank (which normally only Bowmen can do), measuring distances from the front rank itself. If they are of a Shock type (e.g. Shock Psiloi supporting Swordsmen or Cavalry) they can add their support to the melee factor of the front rank. If mixed elements are of different protection level, they use the better target factor of the two, but with a total penalty of 1 for the unit. Mixed troops come in two categories, Combination and Double-depth Elements: i. Combination elements allow different types of troops, on their own specific bases, to move and fight either separately or together, one in support of the other. When Combined Elements fight together and if they are of different roles (i.e. Shock and Missile) the destruction of one may affect the other. [See examples below].


A Combination Spearmen/Psiloi archers unit (Assyrians) in normal formation (fig.1) Only the front Spearmen can fight, supported by their rear archers. If a Spearmen element is killed, its rear Psiloi support (being Msl) must flee. In dense combat formation (fig.2) both ranks of Spearmen can fight with missile support from one rank of Psiloi archers.



In both cases, the Psiloi may move independently to overlap opponents or protect the flanks of the Spearmen. A Combination Cavalry/Psiloi shock unit (Greek Cavalry with Hamippoi) (fig.1) The Cavalry unit may take the Psiloi along as long as it moves at their own maximum speed (7.5cm). The cavalrymen will charge without counting Psiloi support, but if their advance is stopped, on subsequent rounds they can be supported by their Hamippoi. (fig.2) In both cases, the Psiloi may move independently to overlap or outflank opponents.



ii. Double-depth elements (2E) are troop elements of different type and role on a deep base (4cm x 4cm for foot, 6cm x 6cm for mounted), which forces them to move, fight (and die) as a single element, but costing less than the combined cost of the two individual elements. A 2E element must be composed of troops of the same morale class and training level and in calculating their combined cost all the distinctives that are common to both like RegularIrregular, Morale Class, Professional-Untrained, Double-armed, Wedge etc. are calculated only once, for the most expensive element of the two. The second element simply adds its basic Ordinary cost plus any distinctive applicable to itself, like Heavy. Finally, subtract 2 points from the total. In the example below, the Sp O, H element costs 4 +1 = 5 points. The armoured Bowmen cost 4 +1 = 5 points for Bw O, H. The combined cost of the 2E element will be 5 +5 +2 (Reg) +2 (Double-armed) 2 (2E ) = 12 points. Shooting distances for mixed elements are always measured from the front rank and when shot at, the defence factor per element will be that of the best protected, but with a 1 handicap for the unit because of the different protection level of the two troop types. A 2E element has the same movement limitations as specified by its primary role. In the example above, if Shock/Missile, they will move and manoeuvre as Spearmen; if Missile/Shock as Bowmen. In melee, unit cohesion depends on the primary role of the element: Shock/Missile allows the cohesion bonus of the Shock element (for example +3 for Spearmen); for Missile/Shock the cohesion bonus would be that of double-armed Bowmen (i.e. +1). None of the two can have rear rank support in melee and for the Shk/Msl to have rear rank support in shooting they will need to be deployed in two ranks as in fig.2 below. Both may shoot at any time, even if Shk/Msl.


On the left (fig.1) is Msl/Shk 2E unit (Achaemenid Persians). On the right (fig.2) a Shk/Msl 2E unit (10th century Byzantines or Arabs). fig.1 fig.2

A 2E element particular to very heavy shock cavalry is the single-element, deep Wedge unit (Byzantine Cataphracts, German Cataphract Knights etc.) This allows a 2E Cataphract element (with or without archer support) to fight as Unlike a standard Wedge a unit in Wedge. It reacts as a standard Cataphract element with an extra +1 to its [see I.1.Wedge], it always cohesion bonus. When stopped or disordered it has a frontage of one will still be a Wedge, but without the +1 bonus. element and a depth of two, When unformed, it loses all Wedge advantages, but with the limitation that like immunity from overlaps, and fights as a it is very vulnerable along supported Cataphract element. If Double-armed, it its deep flanks. may shoot in support of a charge like any double armed cavalry.

3. S KYTHIAN SKIRMISHING FORMATION. All Light Horse may evade charges, but may
still suffer missile attack before evading contact even if their opponents have shorter-ranged weapons. The effects of this may be minimized by adopting a specialized skirmishing formation -Skythian- for short. The main advantage of the Skythian is that skirmishing elements may shoot and evade opponents armed with lower-priority weapons before these can shoot back. They can also shoot to both their front and rear as a unit. On the adverse side, their own shooting will be less effective (only half the elements may shoot in each direction and at 1 per target) and if they fail to outdistance the range of their opponents weapons at the end of their evade move they may still suffer missile attack. Also, skirmishing elements in Skythian may never charge or counter-charge opponents. The Skythian may be used only by trained, purely Missile, Light Horse Fast units (not independent elements). The formation may be adopted or abandoned at any point, as a change of formation, but only outside an enemy ZOC. Examples of light horse archers in Skythian. The elements of the unit must be facing alternatively forward and back. The facing direction is not important for movement as Open Order troops can move freely in any direction, but alternative elements of the unit may shoot to either their front or rear on the same round depending on which direction the elements are facing.

4. R OMAN MANIPULAR LEGION. Republican Roman manipular legions had the ability
of replacing tired troops in the front rank with fresh reserves from the rear. To do this, the Roman manipular legions may deploy in three lines 40 (each a separate unit), with Hastati in front, then Principes and finally, Triarii. In melee, if the first line of Hastati becomes unformed during combat or suffers losses, the player may pull them back to the rear of the Triarii and

Plus Psiloi in front who are treated as normal light troops.


replace it with the second line of the Principes and so on with the third line so that its opponents will be fighting fresh, formed troops while becoming themselves unformed or disordered. This replacement takes place at the beginning of the next round and costs the same as troop rallying from unformed, but it can take place even if the combatants are still in contact with the enemy. To allow this, the normal recoil rules do not apply and the Romans will always recoil up to their own base deep (1.5cm), regardless of enemy following-up. Also, any engaged ranks may be supported by up to one rank from their rear, even if this means a Spearmen element (Triarii) supporting a Swordsmen element (Principes ) or vice-versa.




In the example above a depleted Roman legion is deployed in three lines to meet a Barbarian attack. The Hastati first line unit defeats one element (fig.1) but suffers one kill and becomes unformed. The Romans pull back their entire unit and exchange ranks, at a cost of 1 CoP. The Principes second line will be fighting in order, but the Barbarians will now be disordered and at a disadvantage losing an element (fig.2). If the Romans suffer a kill on the Principes as well (fig.2) they may exchange their second rank for the third line of Triarii (fig.3), which, with rear support from the Swordsmen should give them sufficient advantage to prevail over the weakened Barbarians. The reformed Hastati in the rear can engage the overlapping Barbarians on the right.


5. SHIELDWALL. Selected

foot troops may adopt a formation known as Shieldwall which improves their ability to resist attacks, but limits their mobility. The order to form Shieldwall applies to all eligible troops of an entire Command, not individual formations within it. To form Shieldwall these must be in order, in contact with each other, and outside known enemy ZOCs. The order is considered as a group change of formation which takes an entire round to form. Any elements in Shieldwall count as behind cover for missile defence purposes (+2), when shot from the front and react as Superior Shock for morale purposes when shot at or defeated in melee, having an additional +1 bonus when losing regardless of class, grade etc. On the other hand, if flanked or attacked from the rear, the unit(s) of the Shieldwall being attacked will instantly become disordered and will lose their special advantages (ceasing to be part of the Shieldwall until it can beat off the attack and rally). Troops in Shieldwall are not allowed to make any moves other than to redress their lines, fill gaps etc. They are not, however, immune to uncontrolled advance or follow-ups (individual elements may break formation to follow-up a victory.) If they do, the remainder of the Shieldwall will not be affected, as long as its elements can maintain contact with each other. To do this, a Shieldwall can automatically cover its gaps when losses are sustained, or when elements break formation, without expending CoPs. A Shieldwall can be broken up by the CE before any charges are declared, even if within enemy ZOC, or even if still in contact, but its troops will not be able to make normal moves for the remainder of that round. The Shieldwall will break into its constituent units when broken up, but if any of its units have fallen below 50% of their initial strength, they will be vulnerable and risk being routed if any defeats or kills are inflicted on them.


SHOOTING RANGES AND PRIORITIES War Engines Fast-Light/Medium/Heavy-Siege Bowmen with longbow Bowmen with bow Bowmen with crossbow Psiloi , mounted archers with bow Psiloi crossbow, sling Hand-thrown missiles (javelins, darts, pila etc.), handguns TARGET FACTORS Cataphracts, Wagon Laager, War Engines Spearmen, Sarissae, Swordsmen, Knights, Chariots, Elephants, Foot Knights Barbarians, Peltasts, Psiloi, Cavalry, Light Horse, Camelry, Baggage, Vulnerable Bowmen, Rabble SHOOTING FACTORS Type Mass Secondary War Engines Rear support +1 Overlap support 3 +1 ea. +1 ea. +1 ea.
2 1

30/40/50 12 12 12 12 12 3 FACTORS 3 2 1 0 FACTORS

Cohesion 4 +1 -

Unformed -1 -1 1 1 1 or 2

SHOOTING TACTICAL MODIFIERS Shooter Professional Target deeper than three ranks except if Psiloi Target Fast troops Target mixed with different protection levels Target shot in rear except if Elephant, Cat, Chariot or Open Order Target in cover or Psiloi shot by War Engines Shooter Unformed or in Skythian Shooting at long range (beyond 3 cm), except War Engines Shooter Untrained (per element) (per target) (per target) (per target) (per target) (per target) (per target) (per target) (per target) +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 -2 -1 -1 -1 -1

Target Heavy, except if shot by sling, longbow, crossbow, handgun (per element)
1 2

Maximum advantage for shooters per target is +5; maximum handicap is 2.

Any tactical modifiers like the Unformed handicap and qualitative modifiers like Professional or Untrained class, affect only the main shooters, not the supporting elements.


3 4 5

Up to a maximum of 2 per target, one on each side. The cohesion bonus applies to the unit as a whole, not each individual shooting element.

If mixed elements are of different protection level, they use the better target factor of the two, but with a penalty of 1 for the unit.


9 10 11 12, 13 14, 15 16+

- target disordered; non-S independent elements recoil one element base deep - target unformed; 1 kill
2 3

- target unformed; 1 k ill; all I or O (Msl) troops refuse to obey orders

- target unformed; 1 kill; O (Shk) or S (Msl) troops refuse to obey orders - target unformed; up to 2 kills; all troops refuse to obey orders. Inferior must test - target unformed; up to 3 kills; all troops refuse to obey orders. All must test
5 4

War Engines, Elephants, Scythed Chariots and Wagon Laager ignore it. Charging single elements will refuse to obey orders unless Superior. 2E recoil only half an element deep.

Elephants shot for the first time may either be killed or become enraged. The second time is always a kill.

Refusing to obey orders during a charge denotes that remaining elements either fail to close with the enemy, recoiling a distance of up to one full move space permitting if attacking or fleeing, if defending.

Any formation of Inferior troops suffering 2 kills must throw a D6 and flee at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 regardless of conditions, charges etc. (Secondary shooting may kill only one element).

Any formation suffering 3 kills, reacts according to its morale class regardless of conditions, charges etc. and must throw a D6: Inferior flee as above; Ordinary at 1, 2 ; Superior at 1. (Secondary shooting may kill only one element).

NOTE: Any unit suffering a kill at 50% of original strength, or less, must test as above, but subtracting 1 from their die roll.





Knights Cataphracts Heavy Chariots Light Chariots Cavalry Camelry L i g h t H o rse Light Camelry Elephants

Rear support 1
up to 1 2 up to 1 3 up to 1 up to 1 5 FOOT

+1 +2 +1 +1 4 +1 +1 -

-1 -1 -1 -

3 2 3 2 2 2 2 1 5

3 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 5


Foot Knights Swordsmen Spearmen Sarissae Barbarians Peltasts Bowmen Psiloi Rabble, Baggage War Engines Wagon Laager

Rear support
up to 1 7 up to 1 8 up to 2 1 or 2 9 up to 1 up to 1 12 -

+1 +2 +2 8 or +3 +2 8 or +3 +2 +1 or +2 +1 11 10

-1 -2 -1 -1 -

46 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 5

3 2 3 3 2 1 2 1 2 2 5

Mounted in Wedge 13 (except vs. Elephants or crossing obstacle) Scythed Chariots
14 (except

+1 +2 +1 +1 +1

+1 +2 +1 +1 +1

vs. Elephants or crossing obstacle)

Professional with Shock distinctive; Command Elements. Troops fighting uphill of opponents or defending fortification or building (S) troops when defeated in melee (except if mounted vs. Elephants)


(F) troops when defeated and (U) troops when drawing or defeated in melee 15 NonSs facing ordered Ss. Mounted, LO foot facing ordered Spearmen 16 Non-lancer Light Horse or Cavalry against lancer LH or Cv, respectively Elephant crew without howdah against Elephant crew in howdah Element overlapped17 Element contacted in flank 18 Element contacted in rear
1 2 3

-1 -1 -1 -1 -1 ea. -1 ea. -2

-1 -1 -1 -1 -1 ea. -1 ea. -2

There is no rear support for any attackers crossing obstacle. Knights and Cataphracts do not count rear support when unformed. Cataphracts count rear support only against foot and always (exc. El) benefit from +1 when losing. Light Chariots only count cohesion bonus against foot and are disadvantaged when fighting against Heavy Chariots. Each LCh formation must attempt to break-off if defeated in melee by HCh. Only Shock Light Horse have rear support and only against any Open Order, Bowmen, Baggage, Rabble and War Engines, plus against any mounted in rough terrain. Foot Knights always count 1 when drawing against foot regardless of class, grade etc. Regular Swordsmen can count rear support, except when initially charging, and at risk of suffering both ranks killed. Spearmen count rear support only when defending, recoiling etc. except if Greek hoplites. Untrained Spearmen and Sarissae have a cohesion bonus of +2. Close Order Bb fight in 3 ranks in good going, 2 in rough; Loose Order Bb, 3 ranks in all terrain. Regular Peltasts have cohesion bonus of +2 in all terrain; Irregular +2 in rough, +1 in good going. Only for Double-armed Bowmen (with a Shock distinctive.) Only Shock Psiloi and only against other Psiloi, Bowmen, Elephants, Scythed Chariots, Baggage, Rabble and War Engines, plus against any in rough or difficult terrain. The Wedge bonus of +1 augments the cohesion bonus not the basic combat factor. The +2 bonus is given only if the Scythed Chariots are advancing in good going. The Untrained or Fast handicaps have priority over the troop class bonus. Thus, a Superior Fast or Superior Untrained element will count 1 when losing, not +1. Handicaps are not cumulative so an Untrained Fast will only count the 1 of the Untrained not both. The Professional bonus is never negated. Thus, a Professional Fast element will count both +1 in melee and 1 if it loses. Finally, the Superior Professional troops may count only the Pro +1 bonus, not both. Only on level, open ground. Not if uphill, or in rough or difficult terrain. Except if overlapping a Wedge; Except if unaccustomed horse troops against Elephants, Camelry; Except if any but Psiloi against Scythed Chariots. An element of a formation in Wedge contacted in flank will have the -1 handicap and will be unable to recoil if defeated. Except if any but Psiloi against Scythed Chariots.

6 7


11 12

13 14 15

16 17




If all engaged elements are defeated (Total Defeat), the defeated react the same as above, but their formation must also check for morale:

Inferior and Ordinary Missile 41 troops will break if at least one of their defeated elements were kills in the melee. Superior Missile and Ordinary Shock troops will break if at least two of their defeated elements were kills. 42

All troops (including Superior Shock) will break if defeated and their unit has dropped to under 50% of its original strength (exception, see NOTE below).

NOTE: If an element is victorious, but its unit has been defeated and has suffered losses of over 50% of its original strength, it may only fight on -until defeated itself- if Superior. If not, it must flee along with any remnants of its unit.


1 1 2 1 per file 1 +1 1 2 check text 1 +1 +1

Move for any troops straight ahead. Any move by Open Order troops March bound for an entire Command Wheel for Irregular Close Order foot Formation change for Irregular Close or Loose Order troops Wheel or formation change for Regulars or any in single file Wheel or formation change for Untrained Regulars Unformed rally for Regulars, or Open Order troops Unformed rally for Irregular or Untrained troops Control of impetuous troops Disembarkation of naval infantry or mounting-dismounting Any move after the second consecutive march move, except if on road Any move or rally outside command control or of Untrained troops


Also Shock/Missile and Missile/Shock troops respectively.


In calculating losses for unit morale, at least one kill must always be from melee, but extra losses sustained from that rounds support shooting must be included in determining a units morale. Any additional losses sustained from an entire formation having to recoil after combat do not count, however, as this is the result of the morale reaction itself.



All Regular, or Open Order, or Superior, or Professional troops Irregulars (except the above) Irregular Knights, Barbarians, or Untrained troops CO PS 2 +1 +1


War Galley Trireme Boat


5 4 2

Greek Fire Crew, Marines Professional Naval War Engines Crew Inferior Defeated in first contact

+3 +2 +2 -1 -2