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PRESSWORKING TERMINOLOGY

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Air draw: A draw operation performed in a single-action press with the blankholder pressure supplied by an air cushion. Annealing: A process involving the heating and cooling of a metal, commonly used to induce softening. The term refers to treatments intended to alter mechanical or physical properties or to produce a definite microstructure. Bead: A narrow ridge in a sheet-metal workpiece or pan, commonly formed for reinforcement. Bead, draw: (a) A bead used for controlling metal flow; (b) rib-like projections on draw-ring or hold-down surfaces for controlling metal flow. Bend allowance: The developed arc length along the neutral axis of bent metal. Bending: The straining of material, usually !lat sheet or strip metal, by moving it around a straight axis which lies in the neutral plane. Metal flow takes place within the plastic range of the metal, so that the bent pan retains a permanent set after removal of the' applied stress. The cross section of the bend inward from the neutral" plane is in compression; the rest of the bend is in tension. Bend radius: (a) The inside radius at the bend in the work; (b) the corresponding radius on the punch or on the die. Blank: A precut metal shape. ready for a subsequent press operation. Blank development: (a) The technique of determining the size and shape of a blank; (b) the resultant flat pallern. Blankholder: The part of a drawing or forming die which holds the workpiece against the draw ring to control metal flow. Blankholder, multi-slide: A mechanical device. either spring- or earn-actuated, for firmly clamping a part in place prior to severing from the carrying strip and retaining in place for forming. Blanking: The operation of cutting or shearing a piece out of stock to a predetermined contour. Bulging: The process of expanding the walls of a cup, shell. or tube with an internally expanding segmental punch or a punch composed of air. liquids, or semi-liquids such as waxes or tallow, or of rubber and other elastomers. Burnishing: The process of smoothing or plastically smearing a metal surface to improve its finish.

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Bushing, guide-post: A replaceable inset usually filled in the upper shoe to provide better alignment. Cam action: A motion at an angle to the direction of an applied force, achieved by a wedge or cam. Carburizing: A process that introduces carbon into a solid ferrous alloy by heating the metal in contact with a carbonaceous material-solid liquid, or gas-to a temperature above the transformation range and holding it at that temperature. Casehardening: Any process of hardening a ferrous alloy so that the case or surface is substantially harder than the interior Clearance. die: The space per side between the punch and die Coining: A closed- die squeezing operation in which all surfaces of the work are confined or restrained. Cold heading: The process of upsetting the ends of bar, wire, or tu~ stock while cold. Cold working: Working of a metal. such as by bending or drawing. to plastically deform it and produce strain hardening. Complimentary output sensor: A solid slate sensor having both a normally open output and a normally closed output. Crimping: A forming operation used to set down or close in a seam. Cryogenic treatment: A low-temperature steel treatment process used to improve the toughness of hardened tool steel by continuing the transformation of ~tained austenite into the more desirable martensite at temperatures ranging from -120 to -300 F (-84 to -184 C). Cup: Any shallow cylindrical part or shell closed at one end. Cupping: An operation that produces a cup-shaped part. Curling: Forming an edge of circular cross section along a sheet or at the end of a shell or tube. Cylinder. nitrogen: A cylinder containing high-pressure nitrogen gas used as a die spring in pressure pad. draw ring. and cam return applications. These are available in individual,. manifold and self-contained styles. Deep drawing: The drawing of deeply recessed pans from sheet material through plastic flow of the material. when the depth of the recess equals or exceeds the minimum pal1 width. Deflection: The deviation of a body from a straight line or plane when a force is

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Dial feed: (a) A press feed which conveys the work to the dies by a circular motion: (b) a mechanism which moves dies under punches by a circular motion and into definite indexed positions. Die. assembling: A die which assembles and fastens pans together by riveting. press fining. folding. staking, curling, hemming. crimping, ~aming. or wiring. Die bending: A die which permanently deforms sheet or strip metal along a straight axis. Die. blanking: A die for cutting blanks by shearing. Die. burnishing: A die which improves surface or size by plastically smearing the metal surface of the pan. Die. cam: A die in which the direction of moving elements is at an angle 10 the direction of forces supplied by a press. Die, combination: A die in which a cutting operation and a non-cutting operation on a part are accomplished in one stroke of the press. The most common type of combination die blanks and draws a part. Die, compound: A die in which two cutting operations are accomplished in one press stroke. The most common type of compound die blanks and pierces a part. Die. compound-combination: A die in which a part is blanked, drawn, and pierced in one stroke of the press. Die, curling: A forming die in which the edge of the work is bent into a loop or circle along a straight or curved axis. Die, dimpling: A forming die which produces a conical flange (stretch flange) encircling a hole in one or more sheets of metal. Die, dinking: A die which consists of a press or hand-operated hollow punch with knife-edges for cutting blanks from soft sheet metals and nonmetallic materials. Die, double-action: A die in which pressure is first applied to a blank through the blankholder and is then applied to the punch. Die. embossing: A die set which is relatively heavy and rigid for producing shallow or rai~d indentations with little or no change in metal thickness. Die. expanding: A die in which a pan b stretched, bulged. or expanded by water, oil. rubber. tallow. or an expanding m~ cutting operation metal punch.

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Die, extrusion: A die in which a punch forces metal to plastically flow through a die orifice so that the metal assumes the contour and cross-sectional area of the orifice. Die, noating (or punch): A die (or punch) so designed that its mounting provides for a slight amount of motion, usually laterally. Die, forming: A die in which the shape of the punch and die is directly reproduced in the metal with little or no metal flow. Die. heading: (a) A die used in a forging machine or press for up~lIing the heads of bohs. rivets. and similar parts: (b) a die used in a horizontal heading machine for up~lIing the flanged heads on cartridges and similar shells. Die, hemming: A die which folds the edge of the part back over on itself: the edge may or may not be completely flattened to form a closed hem. Die, inverted: A die in which the conventional positions of the male and female members are reversed. Die. Joggle: A die which forms an offset in a flanged section. Die, lancing: A die which cuts along a line in the workpiece without producing a separation in the workpiece and without yielding a slug. Die. Multiple: A die used for producing two or more identical parts in one press stroke. Die, perforating: A die in which a number of holes are pierced or punched simultaneously or progressively in a single stroke of the press. Die, piercing: A die which cuts our a slug (which is usually scrap) in sheet or plate material. Die, progressive: A die in which two or more sequential operations are performed at two or more stations upon the work which is moved from station to station. Die, recovery: A die that produces a stamping or blank from scrap produced by another operation. Die, riveting: A die that assembles two or more parts together by riveting. Die, sectional (segmental): A die punch. or form block which is made up of pieces, sections, laminations, segments. or sectors. Die, shaving: A die usually having square cutting edges negligible punch and die clearance. and no shear on either the punch or the die.

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Die. shimmy (8.rehm trlmmin~ die): A cam-driven die which Cuts huerally through the walls of shells i}1 directions determined by the position of cams. Die. single-action: A drawing die that has no blankholder action since it is used with a single-action press without the use of a draw cushion. Die, swaging: A die in which pan of the metal under compression plastically flows into contours of the die; the remaining metal is unconfined and flows generally at an angle to the direction of applied pressure. Die, trimming: A die that cuts or shears surplus material from stock or workpieces. Die triple-action: A die in which a third force is applied to a lower punch in addition to forces applied to the blank holder and the punch fastened to the inner slide. Die, two-step: A drawing or reducing die in which the reduction is made in two stages or levels. one above The other. in a single: stroke of The press. Die. warne: A type of flattening die that sets a waffle or crisscross design in the blank or workpiece without deforming it. Die block: (a) A block or plate from which the die itself is cut: (b) the block or plate to which sections or parts of the die pro~r are secured. Die cushion: A press accessory located beneath or within a bolster or die block. to provide an additional motion or pressure for stamping operations: actuated by air. Oil, rubber, or springs or a combination thereof. Die height (shut height): The distance from the finished top face of the upper shoe to the finished bottom face of the lower shoe immediately after the die operation and with the work in the die.

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