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INDEX

SR. NO. 1 2 3 4 5 TITLE INTRODUCTION GENERAL OPERATING PRINCIPLES AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATOR SALIENT FEATURES OF STAMFORD ALTERNATORS STANDARD REFERENCE CONDITIONS GENERAL COMMENTS ON LOAD CONDITIONS SELECTION OF AC GENERATORS FOR DIFFERENT LOAD CONDITIONS PARALLEL OPERATION OF AC GENERATORS ALTERNATOR RATINGS TECHNICAL PARTICULARS GENERAL ARRANGEMENT DRAWINGS PAGE NO. 1 2 5 8 10

6 7 8

11 13 14

9 10 11 12

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BRUSHLESS AC GENERATORS

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1.0 INTRODUCTION
CG NEWAGE ELECTRICAL LTD. is a Joint Venture Company in technical and financial collaboration between Newage International Ltd., U.K. and Crompton Greaves Ltd., India. The company is located at Ahmednagar in Maharashtra. Newage International, UK are world leaders in the alternator market. The Stamford range of AC Generators have emerged as the most dependable ones, and are manufactured in line with international standards and well accepted by the market as a quality product. Crompton Greaves Ltd. is a highly reputed electrical equipment manufacturer in the country having a large network of sales & service branches CG Newage is engaged in the manufacturing of the brushless AC Generators in the range from 30 KVA to 1250 KVA. These alternators have proved themselves in every critical environment, in arduous marine applications and in vital industries like hospitals, telecommunication, information technology and hotels. The company strongly believes that quality is a fundamental requisite for success and is committed to excel. The awards won reflect the commitment to quality. 1. ISO 9002 certification from BVQI in 1996 2. Rajiv Gandhi National Quality Award in the Large Scale Manufacturing Category for year 1996, 2000. 3. H.N. Thadani Award for best industrial engineering practices from IIIE in 1998. CG Newage is confident of continuing its effort towards producing and supplying the best of products to its customers making them proud owners of a STAMFORD alternator.

BRUSHLESS AC GENERATORS

STAMFORD

2.0
2.1

GENERAL
TYPE : STAMFORD HC4, HC5 & HC6 AC generators are of salient pole, revolving field, brushless, horizontally foot mounted, single/double bearing type. These ac generators are available in : a) SELF EXCITED SELF REGULATED SYSTEM b) SEPARATELY EXCITED SYSTEM (with unique Permanent Magnet generator Excitation system)

2.2

DESIGNATION For Industrial Generators : H C 4 4 4 C 2

GENERATOR TYPE HC FRAME TYPE TYPE OF CONTROL SYSTEM NUMBER OF POLES 2, 4 OR 6 CORE LENGTH NUMBER OF BEARINGS 1 OR 2

For Marine Generators :

H MARINE APPLICATION

NOTE : The base machine in a HC444C2, HCM444C2 or HC434C1 is referred as HC4C only.

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2.3

CONSTRUCTION :

2.3.1 STATOR FRAME : The Stator frame is fabricated steel which has less weight and better aesthetics. It is designed to ensure correct distribution of air flow over the stator core and windings. 2.3.2 STATOR CORE : The stator core is made of high quality low content silicon steel stampings with C-4 coating for better welding of core packs. These are oriented 90 deg. after every one fourth length for better magnetic properties. The slots are skewed to reduce the tooth ripples in the voltage wave form. 2.3.3 STATOR WINDING : The armature coils are made from dual coated, class 200 copper wire & wound with a 2/3 pitch. The 2/3rd pitch winding eliminates the effect of triplen harmonics. This reduces the voltage distortion and increases the capability of the alternator to cope with non-linear loads. 2.3.4 STATOR / ROTOR INSULATION SYSTEM : The insulation system is class H. Main stator windings are vaccum pressure impregnated in an unsaturated polyster resin and main rotor windings are wet wound with epoxy resin. These processes are designed specifically to provide protection against the harsh environment encountered in the generator applications. Resins are selected and developed to provide the high build required for static windings and the high mechanical strength required for the rotating components. The rotating components can withstand on overspeed of 2250 rpm for three minutes. 2.3.5 ROTOR CORE : The Rotor core is made of high quality low content silicon steel stampings. The poles carry continuous damper windings to facilitate parallel operation. 2.3.6 END SHIELDS : End shields are of cast iron construction and are fixed by easily accessible high tensile bolts. 2.3.7 BEARINGS : The bearings used are of sealed bearing type. The bearing life is 30,000 hours of operation and is subject to working conditions and environment. High axial vibration

BRUSHLESS AC GENERATORS

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from the engine or misalignment of the set will also stress the bearing reducing its life.

2.3.8 SHAFT : The shaft is made of high quality grade steel. The shaft is liberally designed for overload & short-circuit conditions.

2.3.9 THE ROTATING RECTIFIER ASSEMBLY : The rotating rectifier consists of the rectifier hub made of dough moulding compound, the rectifier fins and the rectifier diodes which is specially designed to withstand the centrifugal forces during rotation. The surge suppresser fitted across the field ensures the protection of the diodes in case of surges.

2.3.10 TERMINALS AND TERMINAL BOX ASSEMBLY : HC4 & HC5 generators are 3 phase reconnectable with 12 ends brought to the terminals & AVR is fitted on the NDE panel of the terminal box as a standard supply. HC6 generators are 3 phase with 6 ends brought to the terminals. The terminal box has removable panels for easy access. 2.3.11 ENCLOSURE : IP23 is standard for all industrial generators. The machine is protected against spraying water i.e. water falling as a spray at an angle up to 600 from the vertical shall have no harmful effect. Air filters are available as an option for all generators at reduced rating (5% de-rate).

2.4

BALANCING : All generator rotors are dynamically balanced to better than Grade 2.5 (BS 6861 : Part 1) for minimum vibration in operation.

2.5

RADIO INTERFERENCE : The absence of brush gear and the high quality of AVR design ensure low levels of interference with radio transmission. Additional RFI suppression kit can be supplied if required.

2.6

STEP LOAD CAPABILITY : Additional function controls of DIP and DWELL are provided to enable the load acceptance capacity of the generator set to be optimised. The Dip feature is available in SX421, MX341 & MX321 AVRs & the DWELL feature in MX321 AVR. The Dip feature helps to reduce the block load coming on the engine & the DWELL introduces a time delay in the recovery of voltage to allow the engine to have an improved speed recovery.

BRUSHLESS AC GENERATORS

STAMFORD

3.0
3.1

OPERATING PRINCIPLES :
SELF EXCITED AND SELF REGULATED MACHINES :

Set Reference Power Output

Sense

A.V.R.

Main Stator

Exciter Field (Stator)

Main Field (Rotor) Rotating Diodes Mechanical Rotational Power Input

Exciter Rotor (Armature)

Fig. 1 Block Schematic Diagram

I. Here the excitation power is derived from the main output winding. Referring to figure 1, initially the machine builds up voltage with the help of residual magnetism. II. The automatic voltage regulator (AVR) will sense this low voltage and compare it with the set reference voltage level and provides such power as is available from the main stator winding in order to establish the exciter field. III. The power from the main output winding is rectified in the AVR and added to residual voltage level of exciter to produce a greater magnetic field strength. This in turn increases output voltage from the exciter rotor. IV. The output from the exciter rotor is rectified by the rotating diodes which adds to the field strength and increases the output voltage from the main stator. V. The AVR senses this increase, compares it with the set reference and uses the increased power from the main stator to further increase the exciter field excitation as required. In this way the main stator voltage is progressively built up until the sensed voltage is the same as the set reference voltage.

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STAMFORD

3.2

SEPARATELY EXCITED MACHINES


Power Set Reference

Sense

A.V.R.

Output

Main Stator

Exciter Field (Stator)

Permanent Magnet Stator Permanent Magnet Field (Rotor)

Main Field (Rotor) Rotating Diodes Mechanical Rotational Power Input

Exciter Rotor (Armature)

Fig. 2 Block Schematic Diagram

I. In the separately excited system (PMG) there is a separate source of exciter field power from a small permanent magnet field a.c. generator mounted on the same shaft as the main machine. Hence the machine title is separately excited II. The permanent magnet produces an output voltage that is only dependant on speed and is independent of load conditions. This constant output voltage is fed to the exciter field winding through the AVR. III. By comparing the main output sensed voltage with the set reference voltage, the AVR decides on the proportion of permanent magnet machine output to rectify and feed to the exciter field. IV. The exciter rotor output would then increase, establishing a strong main field and therefore a marked increase in main output voltage. V. The AVR senses and compares voltages and adjusts exciter field excitation until desired output voltage is developed.

BRUSHLESS AC GENERATORS

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3.3

ADVANTAGES OF PMG EXCITATION SYSTEM : 1) Better motor starting characteristics with lower transient voltage dips.

2) Ability to sustain short circuit current in the event of fault. This presents circuit breakers enough time to effect a trip to eliminate the fault and provide better discrimination in the protection of sub-circuits. 3) Since the AVR is supplied from PMG, isolated from alternator output terminals, the harmonic currents from the load are prevented from passing to the AVR. This reduces voltage distortion. 4) The process of initial voltage build up is very positive in this system, as residual magnetism is no longer continually depended upon.

BRUSHLESS AC GENERATORS

STAMFORD

4.0
4.1

AUTOMATIC VOLTAGE REGULATOR


SALIENT FEATURES OF AVR 1) Fully encapsulated AVR aids to withstand conditions. 2) Typical system response : Field current to 90% - 80 ms Machine volts to 97% - 300ms 3) Operating temperature : Storage temperature : -400C to +600C -550C to +800C humid and corrosive atmosphere

4) SX 440, SX460 & SX 421 are used in self excited machines and MX 341 & MX 321 are used in Separately Excited Machines. 5) Soft start circuitry is included to provide a smooth controlled build up of generator output voltage 6) Under frequency protection is set at 97% Hz. The light emitting diode (LED) indicator, is lit when the generator is running below 97% Hz. 7) Remote voltage adjustment possible in all the AVR types. 8) It is usually fitted on a panel of the terminal box on anti-vibration mounts. It can also be separately fitted in a switchboard, if required.

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4.2

AVR CHARACTERISTICS & ACCESSORY SELECTION SX 440 2 1% _ YES _ _ ACCESSORIES SX 421 3 0.5% _ YES YES _ MX 341 2 1% REQD YES YES YES MX 321 3 0.5% REQD YES YES YES

CONTROL SENSING REGULATION PMG UFRO ENGINE RELIEF FEATURE OVER EXCITATION PROTECTION

HAND TRIMMER DROOP KIT CURRENT LIMITING OVER VOLTAGE CIRCUIT BREAKER MANUAL VOLTAGE REGULATOR POWER FACTOR CONTOLLER DIODE FAILURE DETECTOR EXCITATION LOSS MODULE FREQUENCY DETECTION MODULE

YES YES _ _ _ YES YES YES _

YES YES _ YES _ YES YES YES _

YES YES _ _ YES YES YES YES YES

YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES YES

BRUSHLESS AC GENERATORS

STAMFORD

5.0
5.1

SALIENT FEATURES OF STAMFORD ALTERNATORS


ELECTRICAL PERFORMANCE

1) AVR used on the machines is imported from Newage International and is of proven design, reliability and performance. These are uniquely encapsulated against moisture, sand, salt, humidity and corrosive atmosphere ensuring trouble free operations under the most demanding conditions. The voltage regulation offered is from 1.5% to 0.5% depending on the type of AVR used. 2) There are 12 output terminals which are reconnectable to provide output from 190 volts to 440 volts depending on the requirement .Refer to the factory for supply of reconnectable links. 3) Transient voltage dips are lower. 4) Wave-form distortion on no-load is less than 1.5% .Total harmonic distortion and the telephone interference is less than 2%. 5) All stators are wound to 2/3rd pitch, which alongwith PMG excitation system and 3 phase rms sensed AVR provides better system performance. 6) Damper winding on poles ensure smooth parallel operation with similar and dissimilar machines and with the grid. Power factor controller is recommended when balancing with grid. 7) Liberally rated diodes used in rotating rectifier assembly ensures high reliability. 8) The rotating diodes are protected by a surge suppresser which has the ability to chop the transients.

5.2

PROCESS

1) Gelcoat application is a standard feature which enhances the mechanical strength of the stator overhang and ensures trouble free performance in humid and corrosive atmosphere. 2) Burr free stamping pack construction and file free winding results in excellent quality of winding and also better machine life. 3) Hammer free assembly and sealed bearing increase bearing life.

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BRUSHLESS AC GENERATORS

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6.0
6.1

STANDARD REFERENCE CONDITIONS


TEMPREATURE These alternators are designed for an ambient temperature of 400C For marine and other applications where the ambient temperature is greater than 400C, the alternators must be de-rated to ensure that the actual temperature does not exceed the specified maximum. Outputs are normally quoted at 40 deg. C. These outputs must be multiplied by the following factors for higher ambient temperatures. TEMPERATURE ( 0C) 45 50 55 60 MULTIPLIER

0.97 0.94 0.91 0.88

6.2

ALTITUDE Above 1000 m the effectiveness of the air is reduced sufficiently to make de-rating necessary. For altitudes above 1000 m outputs must be multiplied by the following factors. ALTITUDES 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 MULTIPLIER 0.97 0.94 0.91 0.88 0.85 0.82

6.3

CLIMATE AND ENVIRONMENT

1) Anti-condensation heaters (SPACE HEATER) Space heaters are recommended in areas of high humidity. Condensation or dew will form on all surfaces which are cooler than ambient temperature. To avoid this, anti-condensation heaters can be fitted which will ensure the winding temperature remains a few degrees above the ambient temperature and hence no condensation will form. Note that the anti-condensation heaters should be ON only when the set is OFF, and they should be switched off whilst the set is in use. They can be retrofitted at site.

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2) Air Filters Under site conditions where the air may be heavily laden with fine dust or sand we strongly recommend the fitting of inlet air filter. The sizing of these is important to avoid airflow restrictions and advice should be sought from the works. Recommended deration is 5% for machines fitted with air filters.

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BRUSHLESS AC GENERATORS

STAMFORD

7.0

GENERAL COMMENTS ON LOAD CONDITIONS :

7.1 Where a specification exists for any particular load or installation, it is always advisable to forward a complete copy to the factory for examination. As a result of such an assessment it is sometimes possible to incorporate design changes to provide a more economic machine which still meets the specification. 7.2 There are two basic conditions to check when sizing machines. The steady state Condition, which is mainly concerned with normal operation of the machine within temperature rise limits; and the transient condition of the machine voltage deviations when suddenly applying high current loads (e.g. during motor starting). It is essential that both these conditions are checked as a rating sufficient for the steady state condition is often not large enough to meet motor starting or voltage dip requirements.

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BRUSHLESS AC GENERATORS

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8.0

SELECTION OF AC GENERATORS FOR DIFFERENT LOAD APPLICATIONS


The different types of loads encountered by an AC Generator can be broadly classified as a) Linear Loads b) Motor Loads (part of linear loads,considered separately) c) Non-linear Loads.

8.1 Linear Loads are characterised by * Constant load impedance regardless of applied voltage. * The load current increases proportionately as the voltage increases and decreases a s the voltage decreases. Examples of linear loads are motor, incandescent lighting and heating loads.

8.2

SELECTION OF ALTERNATOR FOR LINEAR LOADS To select the rating of ac generator for linear loads the maximum connected load and the base load which is always connected has to be considered. In arriving at a total load figure it is always wise to select the standard rating larger than that estimated.This despite the fact that all the loads may not be operating at the same time and hence a smaller machine could have been selected. Future operating conditions and future growth are very difficult to estimate. An allowance of 15% to 20% excess capacity designed into a set now is a small price to pay compared with the cost of completely new larger unit that may be required to drive additional loads in a few years time.

8.3

POWER FACTOR

It is the nature of the applied load that dictates the system power factor. a) The loads which operate at or very close to unity (1.0)power factor include most forms of lighting, all heating elements, rectifier and thyristor type loads & all domestic loads which are fractional hp motors (washing machine,refrigerator, etc.) b) For all remaining load types, some knowledge of operating power factor is required, which for motors depends a great deal on their size and power rating. Stamford a.c. generators perform satisfactorily at any power factor in the range of 0.8 p.f. lag to unity p.f. Operation at leading and lagging power factors (below 0.8)demands a derate and reference to the factory must be made.

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BRUSHLESS AC GENERATORS

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8.4

MOTOR LOADS During the starting of an induction motor, a very large current is demanded from the power source, which is known as the starting or locked rotor current. For sizing alternators which have to cater to motor loads, the following guidelines can be referred to. METHOD OF STARTING DIRECT ON LINE STARTING CURRENT 6 TIMES MOTOR FULL LOAD CURRENT If starting current is not given starting kVA is 7.1 X hp rating of the motor. APPROX. 3.5 TIMES MOTOR FULL LOAD CURRENT. 1.5 TO 2 TIMES MOTOR FULL LOAD CURRENT.

STAR / DELTA ROTOR RESISTANCE AUTO TRANSFORMER STARTING 65% Tapping 80% Tapping

4 Times motor full load current. 4.8 Times motor full load current.

For motor applications the following information should be furnished : a) Rating of the motor /motors. b) Type of motor (slip ring /squirrel cage) c) Method of starting d) Rated full load current e) Starting power factor f) Any restriction on Transient Voltage Dip? (Details of the same) g) Frequency of starting. h) Base load at the time of starting induction motor. i) j) Any other load apart from the motor loads?(Details there of) Sequence of starting of motors.

8.5

NONLINEAR LOADS

Over a period of time the loads applied to AC generators have become more complex and more care has to be exercised in the sizing of the generators to ensure satisfactory performance. 8.6 CHARACTERISTICS OF NON LINEAR LOADS a) A non linear load is one in which the load current is not proportional to the instantaneous voltage. Often the load current is not continuous. b) These are essentially electronic loads such as Computers, UPS equipments and variable speed motor drives.

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8.7

EFFECTS OF NON LINEAR LOADS

a) Non linear loads generate harmonics in their current waveform which in turn leads to distortion of the ac generator waveform. Depending upon the degree of voltage waveform distortion this can lead to instability of the excitation system and impact on other loads being supplied by the generator. b) Odd order hormonics cause overload of neutral conductors.

8.8

GENERAL GUIDELINES ON DERATION FOR NON LINEAR LOADS LOADS a) Fluroscent lighting load DERATING FACTOR No derate required.

b) UPS & Telecom load Non linear load should not exceed controlled by a 12 Pulse Thyristor 90% of alternator rating bridge plus a filter. c) UPS & Telecom load controlled by 6 Pulse thyristor bridge plus a filter. d) UPS & Telecom load controlled by 3 Pulse thyristor bridge plus a filter. e) Variable speed 6 pulse thyristor bridge controlled drive. Non linear load should not exceed 66% of alternator rating Non linear load should not exceed 35% of alternator rating Non linear should not exceed 50% of alternator rating

The above percentage figures are guidelines. There may be a problem with electronic load trying to cope with distorted waveform if distortion levels are unacceptable to the load. Better sizing of machine is possible on furnishing following information : a) Number of system pulses : 3, 6, or 12. b) Level of current distortion produced by the non-linear load. c) What is the maximum acceptable level of voltage distortion the Non-linear load can accept? d) Operating voltage and frequency. e) If Non-linear load power requirement is stated in kW, then some guidance regarding operating power factor & system efficiency is required to establish the alternator load. With the information guidance should be sought from the factory regarding alternator sizing for compatible equipment operation.

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9.0
9.1

PARALLEL OPERATION OF A.C. GENERATORS


INTRODUCTION AND THEORY No one aspect of the a.c. generator set operation causes more misunderstanding than the parallel operation of two or more a.c.generators. Parallel Operation may be necessary for the following reasons : i) To increase the capacity of an existing system. ii) Size and weight may preclude the use of one large unit. iii) Allows non-interuption of the supply when servicing is required. In order to parallel a.c. generators satisfactorily, certain basic conditions have to be met. These are as follows : i) All systems must have the same voltage. ii) All systems must have the same phase rotation. iii) All systems must have the same frequency. iv) All systems must have the same angular phase relationship. v) Systems must share the load with respect to their ratings. The generator waveform plays a big part if successful operation is to be achieved when paralleling with the mains/utility supply or with similar or dissimilar machines.

9.2

INSTRUMENTATION REQUIRED : An ammeter, a wattmeter, voltmeter, power factor meter, synchroscope and a reverse power relay. A reverse power relay, although contributing a larger proportion of the instrumentation cost, is essential as any engine shut down, from low oil pressure, over-temperature etc. will result in other systems motoring the failed set with consequent overload to the remaining systems.

9.3

GENERAL NOTES : In Stamford machines, the droop CT is wired in the W-phase and its output dropped across the burden resistor within the AVR. The droop CT is connected to terminals S1-S2. The droop can be increased by turning the potentiometer in a clockwise direction. The burden resistor is connected such that the voltage produced across it adds vectorially with the sensing voltage. SX 440, SX 421, MX 341 & MX 321 are suitable for parallel operation. Stable parallel operation and accurate load sharing between no load and full load can only be obtained when the initial voltage settings and the droop kits are correctly set up. It is also important that the governor characteristics are similar otherwise incorrect kW load sharing can result when either increasing or reducing load. It is essential to have droop CT & SX 440 AVR in the alternator for parallel operation & in the case of PMG machines MX 341 & MX 321 AVR to be used. Remember : The generator droop kit can control only the kVAr sharing and circulating current. The sharing of kW load is determined by engine governors.

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9.4

NEUTRAL INTERCONNECTION : Stamford machine can be paralleled with other make machines but with neutrals not connected. On the other hand, two Stamford machines with similar winding pitch may be paralleled successfully with their neutrals linked. If during commissioning, it is found that neutral currents are flowing, then this will be a product of the characteristics of the load being supported on the local network. Therefore, neutral interconnections is an issue of system design.

9.5

PARALLELING WITH MAINS: The mains voltage waveform is very close to a sinewave and has a very few harmonics. To parallel successfully with the neutrals linked, the generator is required to have a good line-line and line-neutral waveform. With 2/3 pitch the line-neutral waveform is excellent and hence paralleling with mains will have no major problems. For parallel operation with mains, we recommend our Power Factor Controller. It has facility for adjusting the voltage of the generator to the fluctuating mains voltage for successful operation. It also improves the power factor of the system thereby reducing utility charges. A loss of generator excitation during parallel operation will result in heavy circulating currents. The Stamford Excitation Loss Module monitors the generator AVR output and signals any sustained interruption to an integral relay to initiate an indication / alarm.

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11.0 FRAME V/S OUTPUT


FRAME SIZE HC4C HC4C HC4C HC4C HC4D HC4D HC4E HC4E HC4F HC4F HC5C HC5C HC5D HC5D HC5E HC5E HC5E HC5E HC5F HC6W HC6Y HC6Y HC6Y HCK6Z General Notes : 1) All industrial ratings are 3 ph based on 40 0C ambient temperature 1000 m altitude & 415 V. 2) Marine ratings are available and are based on 50 0C ambient unrestricted use. 3) Please refer to factory for 60 Hz., 1800 rpm machines. 4) For ratings other than these please refer to Factory. 5) Continuous development of our products entitles us to change specification details without notice. KVA 210 225 237.5 250 275 285 300 320 350 380 400 437.5 475 500 520 550 570 600 625 750 800 900 1000 1250

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NOTES : A) THE VOLTAGE REGULATION CLAUSES ARE NOT APPLICABLE FOR NON - LINEAR LOAD AND UNBALANCED LOAD CONDITIONS. B) 10% OVERLOAD AND 50% MOMENTARY OVERLOAD CLAUSE IS AS PER IS 4722. THE VOLTAGE REGULATION AND TEMPERATURE RISE ARE NOR APPLICABLE FOR THIS CONDITION. C) THESE FIGURES ARE FOR GENERAL GUIDANCE ONLY AND ARE NOT TO BE TAKEN FOR INSPECTION AND HENCE FOR ACCEPTANCE OR REJECTION.

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