Sie sind auf Seite 1von 12

Chapter 4.

Baseband Transmission
1. Digital PAM Signals 2. Power Spectra of Discrete PAM Signals 3. Intersymbol Inteference 4. Nyquist Criterion for Distortionless Signal Baseband Transmission 5. Correlative Coding and Equalization 6. Remarks on Channel Bandwidth and Transmission Rate

{an }, an {0, 1}

hc (t ) (t )

Y (t )

Y (T )

x(t ) Bandlimited Transmission modulator channel

+
n(t)

detector

decision device

Figure 1.1 Baseband Transmission

binary sequence a n {0, 1}

b n hT ( t nT )
modulator T = Tb: the symbol duration

binary sequence a n {0 , 1}

pre-coder

bn

pulse shape filter h T (t )

b n hT ( t nT )

We consider digital communications by means of PAM. The modulator does the following tasks: 1. The input binary data sequence is subdivided into k-bit symbols and each symbol is mapped to a corresponding amplitude level . 2. The amplitude level modulates the output of the transmitting filter, the output of the modulator is the transmitted signal.

Thus, we can describe the modulator as a model with a pre-code which performs the task 1 and a pulse shape filter or the transmitting filter which performs the task 2.

1. Digital PAM Signals

modulator

pre-coder

Pulse shape filter

Pre-coder: transforming {a n } {bn }, desired form, which is a pre-coded signal format.

1 or 0 {an }

{bn }
pulse shape

x(t)

binary source

pre-coder

hT (t )

bandlimited channel hc (t) (t)

r(t) + n(t)

y (T )

detector hd (t )

decision device
y (t )

{an }
"1" or "0"

x (t ) = bn hT (t nT ) : a pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) signal


n

Fig. 1.2. Block diagram of digital PAM system

Objectives
(a) a good utilization of transmitted pulse energy (b) a high bandwidth efficiency (c) a high transmission reliability (intersymbol interference (ISI) free transmission)

Two classes of digital PAM signals: Return-to-zero (RZ): a filter occupies a fraction (usually onehalf) of the signal duration.

Non-return-to-zero (NRZ): a filter occupies the full duration of a signal. Consider {an}, a binary sequence. Pre-coder:
an a bn

Pulse shaping filter: bn a bn hT (t nT ) where T is the bit duration and hT (t ) is an impulse response of the filter.

1). Unipolar (on-off) format (review):


an bn

d bn = 0

if if

an = 1 an = 0

bn hT (t nT )

1 0

d T 0
if if an = 1 an = 0

2). Polar (antipodal) format (review): bn = d d or equivalently, bn = d ( 2an 1)


an bn

bn hT (t nT )

1 0

d d

3). Bipolar format:

+ d , d bn = 0
4). Manchester code:

alternatin g 1 ' s in a n an = 0

bn hT (t nT ) an bn

1 0

d d

Binary data +1 NRZ unipolar +1 NRZ polar -1 +1 NRZ bipolar -1 Manchester +1 -1

0 1 1

0 1

PAM x(t) for different signing format

5). Polar quaternary signal (4-ary PAM):


an an bn hT (t nT )

Natural code 00 01 10 11

Gray code 00 01 11 10

Level 3 1 1 3

bn

2T

Binary data

0 1 1

0 1

+3 Naturalencoded +1 -1 -3

+3 Grayencoded +1 -1 -3 Polar quaternary format