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DNA Replication

DNA Replication Mutations (#17)

1. 2 DNA helicases separate the double helix 2. DNA polymerase III attract triphosphates (elongation) to DNA strand 3. 5 --- 3 (leading stand), 3 5 (lagging strand) a. lagging strand makes small DNA pieces called okazaki fragments 4. DNA ligase: reforms the hydrogen bonds the staircase is unwind = double helix separates the staircase gets longer because the construction worker (DNA polymerase) added more stairs (triphosphates) = elongation there is now a new staircase (5 3) = new strand of DNA

* Remember *

Menselson and Stahl proved how DNA replicates using E.coli, Nitrogen-14 (normal), Nitrogen-15 (radioactive)


conservative = reluctant to accept change = resembles original dispersive = dispersed = all over semi-conservative = semi = half/half requires 1) m-RNA uracil (NOT thymine!)

* Remember *

Protein Synthesis

codon: every 3 bases; responsible for 1 amino acid moves 5 3 1) t-RNA: strand of nucleotides anti-codon: bottom three bases 1) enzymes 2) triposphates M T E T = M E T T = m-RNA, enzymes, t-RNA, triphosphates


* Remember *

Genetic Code = DNA

64 codons (20 amino acids) AUG = start, UAA/UGA/UAG = stop Wobbler Effect: last base in codon has no effect in determining amino acid

stop codons begin with U Mutations: any change in a codon of DNA 1. point mutation: change in single base i. missence mutation: single base is changed and different amino acid produced (ex: sickle cell) ii. silent mutation: codon is changed to codon for same amino acid (ex: GUU & GUC = valine) iii. nonsense mutation: codon changed to stop codon; results in incomplete, non-functioning protein 2. insertion/deletion: (frame shift mutation) bases are added or deleted results in incomplete, nonfunctioning protein A. point mutation can only point at one thing at a time = single codon changes at a time B. missence mutation mis = mistake change one thing and get something completely different C. silent mutation silent = hear nothing = see nothing (see no changes) D. nonsense mutation nonsense = non-functioning protein

* Remember *

* Remember *

1. An anti-codon appears on the a. genetic code b. t-RNA c. protein sequence d. m-RNA 2. All of the following are stop codons except a. UGA b. UAG c. UAA d. AUG 3. A mutation that signals for the same amino acid is a(n) _____ mutation. a. silent b. point c. insertion d. nonsense 4. Menselson and Stahl proved DNA replicated by ______ replication. a. point b. semi-conservative c. dispersive d. conservative 5. During protein synthesis, m-RNA uses ____ instead of thymine. a. adenine

Multiple Choice

3 b. cytosine c. uracil d. triphosphate

Answers: B, D, A, B, C

Explain Menselson and Stahls experiment. Tried to prove: how DNA replicated Used: E.coli, Nitrogen-14, Nitrogen-15 (radioactive) Procedure: 1. Bacteria grown in 14N or 15N medium. 2. Samples removed and DNA extracted. Results:

Possible Essay

Concluded: DNA replicated by semi-conservative replication.