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EcoTest 3

BIOGEOGRAPHY

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MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

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_____ A region that is inhabited by a characteristic set of taxa, with boundaries that prevent the spread of the distinctive kinds of life to other regions and the immigration of foreign species _____ The geographic distribution of living things _____ A major ecological community characterized a dominant vegetation type

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Similar environments in different locations lead to the evolution of species with: a) similar adaptations b) similar predators c) the same behavior, but different bodily adaptations d) symbiotic relationships e) different biotic provinces

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Biogeography refers to: a) distribution of organisms in the food chain b) charting the pattern of habitat destruction c) geographic distribution of living organisms d) distribution of introduced species e) changes in wildlife habitat over time The smallest units that are capable of sustaining life are: a) the Lotka-Volterra equations b) ecological communities c) ecosystems d) niches e) habitats

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Biogeography

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Common vegetation in the __________ biome include deciduous trees, and dominant animals tend to be small mammals, birds, and insects. a) temperate shrub lands b) wetlands c) tropical rain forests d) tropical savannas e) temperate forests __________ are dominated by dense stands of low vegetation sometimes known as chaparral that occurs in climates with seasonally-concentrated rainfall. a) Temperate shrub lands b) Wetlands c) Tropical rain forests d) Tropical savannas e) Temperate forests __________ occur in areas of high temperatures and where precipitation is abundant and distributed relatively evenly throughout the year. a) Temperate shrub lands b) Wetlands c) Tropical rain forests d) Tropical savannas e) Temperate forests Grasslands with scattered trees are known as __________. a) temperate shrub lands b) wetlands c) tropical rain forests d) tropical savannas e) temperate forests A species introduced into a new geographical area is called a(n): a) endemic species b) abundant species c) anemic species d) ubiquitous species e) exotic species The __________ biome consists of areas alternately exposed to air and covered by ocean water. a) intertidal b) fresh waters

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EcoTest 3 c) hydrothermal vents d) wetlands e) benthos 13) The __________ biome includes regions such as estuaries, rivers, and lakes. a) intertidal b) fresh waters c) hydrothermal vents d) wetlands e) benthos In the __________ biome, typical vegetation may include small trees such as mangroves, shrubs, sedges, and mosses. Animals may include mammals, reptiles, snakes, birds, as well as invertebrates such as crabs or clams. a) intertidal b) fresh waters c) hydrothermal vents d) wetlands e) benthos In the __________ biome, sulfur-rich brines and chemosynthetic bacteria form the base of the food chain. a) intertidal b) fresh waters c) hydrothermal vents d) wetlands e) benthos __________ refers to the bottom of the ocean. a) intertidal b) fresh waters c) hydrothermal vents d) wetlands e) benthos In which of the following situations is divergent evolution most likely to occur: a) where species evenness is high b) where species diversity is high c) in stable environments, with little change over time d) in arid climates e) where populations are separated by geographic barriers Which of the following is an example of an ecological island? a) a city park

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Biogeography b) c) d) e) 19) a pond in the woods a stand of trees within the prairie an oasis in the desert all of the above

Carolus Linneaus was one of the first scientific __________, and he is considered the ____________. a) botanists , father of modern taxonomy of plants b) biologists, father of modern ecology c) zoologists, introducer of biomes d) geneticists, first biochemist e) none of the above __________ are treeless plains in areas of low annual temperatures and low rainfall. a) Temperate grasslands b) Benthos c) Taiga d) Deserts e) Tundra The Gobi, Sahara, and Sonora are examples of the __________ biome. a) temperate grassland b) benthos c) taiga d) desert e) tundra Also known as boreal forest, __________consist(s) of forests located at high altitude or high latitude. a) temperate grasslands b) benthos c) taiga d) deserts e) tundra __________ include prairies of North America, steppes of Eurasia, plains of Africa, and the pampas of South America. a) Temperate grasslands b) Benthos c) Taiga d) Deserts e) Tundra

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EcoTest 3 Questions 24-26 refer to Figure TB8.1 below:

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The figure above illustrates the Earths major __________. a) realms b) geographical environments c) biomes d) precipitation zones e) ecotones In the figure above, the label on the left side of the diagram (labeled A) indicates _________ from the bottom of the triangle towards the top. a) increasing latitude b) increasing precipitation c) increasing human modification d) increasing aridity e) increasing biological diversity In the figure above, the label on the bottom of the diagram (labeled B) indicates _________ from the left of the triangle towards the right. a) increasing latitude b) increasing precipitation c) increasing human modification d) increasing aridity e) increasing biological diversity

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Biogeography 27) A large portion of the total primary production in the oceans, about 25%, occurs in: a) hydrothermal vent areas b) coral reefs and lagoons c) coastal areas and upwelling areas d) the open ocean e) estuaries

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An ecosystem must lie between a source of usable energy and a sink for degraded (heat) energy. What would happen if an ecosystem were suddenly closed to all energy, neither receiving nor giving energy to the outside? a) the system would slowly grow colder and colder b) the system would slowly grow hotter and hotter c) entropy death all energy would become evenly distributed through the ecosystem d) the system would reach a steady state, and all production within it could continue infinitely e) the system would undergo a local increase in order Biomass refers to the amount of organic matter. The Earths biomass may be measured in units of ________. The change in biomass is called ________. a) grams per m2; net production b) kg * m / sec2; deforestation c) m3; productivity d) hectares; organic flux e) kg; productivity What is meant by energy fixation? a) storage of light energy in the green parts of a plant b) the capture of light energy by plants c) the production of biomass d) the transfer of light energy to energy in chemical bonds of an organic compound e) the energy flow in ecosystems Self-nourishing organisms are called: a) exotrophs b) endotrophs c) autotrophs d) heterotrophs e) chemoautotrophs The concentration of methane in the earth's atmosphere is primarily due to

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EcoTest 3 a) the activities of bacteria such as those that inhabit marshes and the intestines of ruminant animals b) a by-product of the carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle c) burning of fossil fuels d) the release of methane by plankton organisms of the ocean e) gaseous releases from volcanoes during eruptions 33) The flow of energy through biological systems is analogous to energy flow in physical systems. The law of the conservation of energy in ecosystems has its equivalent in physical systems as: a) the laws of relativity b) entropy c) environmental ethics d) quantum physics e) one of the laws of thermodynamics How does chemosynthesis differ from photosynthesis: a) the energy in hydrogen sulfide is used by certain bacteria to make organic compounds b) chemosynthesis is more energy efficient than photosynthesis c) chemosynthesis takes place only in the absence of sunlight d) a and b are correct e) all of the above Matter and energy are both always conserved, both in physical systems and biological systems. This principle is stated in the: a) first law of enthalpy b) first law of entropy c) first law of thermodynamics d) the first law of energy efficiency e) the second law of thermodynamics The following is the chemical expression for photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H2O --> CaHbO6 + 6Oc. The correct values for a, b, and c are: a) a=12, b=12, c=12 b) a=6, b=12, c=2 c) a=12, b=24, c=12 d) a=6, b=4, c=2 e) a=1, b=2, c=1 37) Organisms that make their own food from the energy in sulfur are called: a) heterotrophs

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Biogeography b) c) d) e) 38) chemoautotrophs detrivores zooplankton chemozoans

Areas of especially high biological productivity in the oceans include: a) deep ocean trenches b) areas near coasts and in areas of upwelling water c) areas near the equator and in the centers of large oceanic circulation cells d) areas near volcanic islands e) areas where there is little change in water temperature with depth Energy content of organic matter varies. Which type of organic matter contains the least amount of energy? a) leaves and shoots b) fat c) woody tissue d) roots e) muscle Energy efficiency is generally defined as: a) gross production - net production b) energy input - energy output c) the temperature at which a system reaches steady-state d) the amount of energy per unit biomass e) the amount of useful work obtained from some amount of energy Net production equals: a) change in biomass over time b) gross production minus photosynthesis c) sustainable yield d) total production minus gross production e) biomass plus respiration Biological productivity is commonly measured as: a) net production - respiration b) change in biomass c) number of births per generation d) energy input - energy output e) the ratio of production of one trophic level to the production of the next low trophic level

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EcoTest 3

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Change in the amount of biomass is called: a) primary production b) secondary production c) net production d) biological production e) ecological production

Answers. 1. Answer: C 2. Answer: E 3. Answer: B 4. Answer: A 5. Answer: C 6. Answer: B 7. Answer: E 8. Answer: A 9. Answer: C 10. Answer: D 11. Answer: E 12. Answer: A 13. Answer: B 14. Answer: D 15. Answer: C 16. Answer: E 17. Answer: E 18. Answer: E 19. Answer: A 20. Answer: E 21. Answer: D 22. Answer: C 23. Answer: A 24. Answer: C 25. Answer: A 26. Answer: C 27. Answer: C 28. Answer: C 29. Answer: A 30. Answer: D 31. Answer: C 32. Answer: A 33. Answer: E

Biogeography 34. Answer: A 35. Answer: C 36. Answer: B 37. Answer: B 38. Answer: B 39. Answer: C 40. Answer: E 41. Answer: A 42. Answer: B 43. Answer: C