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COOLING ENERGY PRODUCTION / DISTRIBUTION PLANT

TRAINING PROGRAM

OLIVIER DELALANDE MEP QA/QC MANAGER OGER EMIRATES

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FOREWORD

The purpose of this training program is to provide maintenance and project staff with overall view and broad understanding of cooling energy production and distribution systems of large capacity specifically located in Asian countries nonetheless applicable to other tropical areas. It has been designed through ten years of technical assistance experience over the Asian continent in order to offer the primordial knowledge required for whoever involved in HVAC engineering field.

This training does not focus on calculation. It has a pragmatic and easy manner of explanation. We however assume the trainee has all physics fundamental knowledge and is comfortable with technical environment.

If the trainee is not so familiar with all physics fundamental and wish to learn some basics in this field, we suggest the following books to be overlooked. These books cover the field of production and distribution of heating and cooling energy and are designed for technician level.

Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning Library By James E. Brumbaugh Volume 1, 2 & 3 AUDEL

Refrigeration home and commercial By Edwin P. Anderson revised by Rex Miller

Macmillan Publishing Company

For further details of the subjects covered by this training and for very much more comprehensive information and knowledge concerning the high level engineering field of production, distribution of heating and cooling energy, we suggest the following book to be read.

HANDBOOK OF HVAC DESIGN By Nils R. Grimm & Robert C. Rosaler McGraw-Hill Publishing Company 1221 Avenue of the Americas New York NY 10020

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CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................Page 5

KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED IN AIR CONDITIONING FIELD ................................Page 5

COOLING PLANT SAMPLE ................................................................................Page 8

COOLING CAPACITY AND HEATING LOAD ...................................................Page 10

BUILDING HEATING LOAD. ...............................................................................Page 11

PHYSIOLOGY OF COMFORT.............................................................................Page 12

COOLING CAPACITY SUPPLIED BY AIR ..........................................................Page 14

AIR DUCT SYSTEM.............................................................................................Page 17

AREAS SUPPLIED BY ONE COMMON AIR HANDLING UNIT ..........................Page 17

AIR DISTRIBUTION .............................................................................................Page 19

PHYSICS OF FLUID ............................................................................................Page 21

AIR SYSTEM BALANCING EFFECTS ................................................................Page 24

FAN TECHNOLOGY ............................................................................................Page 28

AIR AND WATER THERMAL EXCHANGE..........................................................Page 30

WATER DISTRIBUTION ......................................................................................Page 33

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COOLING CAPACITY SUPPLIED BY WATER ...................................................Page 33

PHYSICS OF LIQUID ..........................................................................................Page 34

WATER SYSTEM BALANCING EFFECTS..........................................................Page 39

ASSOCIATION OF PUMPS .................................................................................Page 41

PARTICULAR CHILLED WATER PIPE SYSTEM................................................Page 45

HEATING GAIN VARIATION ...............................................................................Page 47

TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS............................................................................Page 48

CONTROL SYSTEMS .........................................................................................Page 51

AIR CONTROL SYSTEM APPLICATIONS ..........................................................Page 57

WATER CONTROL SYSTEM APPLICATIONS ...................................................Page 64

CHILLED WATER PIPE SYSTEM AND CHILLER ..............................................Page 66

CHILLER OPERATING CONDITION ...................................................................Page 70

TROUBLESHOOTING .........................................................................................Page 71

MEASUREMENT .................................................................................................Page 83

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INTRODUCTION

Ventilating and air conditioning systems are mainly designed to create a comfortable environment. This training is therefore limited to space indoor dry temperature to be maintained for human comfort. Air contaminants, differential pressurization, air motion, noise level, systems of small cooling capacity ( window unit, split unit, air cooled package unit, etc ) and systems for specified process are not included in this material but can be discussed with the lecturer.

As a first step required and for a better understanding, we will present an air conditioning installation not having any automatic control systems ( no regulation loop ) at the beginning. Then, as the air conditioning process itself will have been presented, control systems will be discussed.

KNOWLEDGE REQUIRED IN AIR CONDITIONING FIELD

The term air conditioning engineering is a bit inappropriate for evasive. Air conditioning engineering itself is actually just one of the engineering fields we must master in production and distribution of cooling energy. To be familiar with this discipline requires knowledge of the following in sequence besides all physics fundamental.

Civil engineering ( Building heating load ): Structure, architecture, material and insulation of the building. Local climate and weather undergone by the building.

Air conditioning engineering ( Thermal distribution by air system ):

Indoor activity and notion of human comfort. Duct system, air diffusion and coanda effect. Air handling equipment. Ventilating and fans. Air/water coil exchange.

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Hydraulics engineering ( Thermal distribution by water system ):

Hydronic network ( mostly chilled and condenser water pipe systems ). Pumps. Cooling towers. Water / water exchanger. Water supply systems. Air / water exchange.

Refrigeration engineering ( Cooling production ):

Refrigeration mechanical cycle. Reciprocating refrigeration units. Centrifugal chiller. Screw compressor. Absorption chiller.

Control system and electrical engineering: Regulation loops and automation systems. Electrical power and control circuits.

Each of the above mentioned subject is comprehensive engineering field having its specialists. The ventilating and air conditioning ( called VAC which is more appropriate a term than air conditioning ) engineer must have the overall view and understanding of each of them and above all to understand their interacting and connections ( see flow chart next page ).

Each of the systems, has the function both to remove the heating load from one side and to reject it on the other side.

A, B, C, D, C,

E has the functions to control and to supply electricity to the systems A, B, C, D, C.


The system

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Heating load accumulated by the building

B
The control systems and electrical power supply over the whole equipment

The air distribution system removes the heating load absorbed by the building

The water distribution system removes the heating load absorbed by the air distribution system

The chiller evaporator removes the heating load absorbed by the water distribution system. The chiller compressor transfers this heating load from its evaporator to its condenser

The water distribution system removes the heating load absorbed by the chiller condenser and rejects it out the atmosphere through the cooling tower

Between each of these systems, there is a thermal exchange or heat transfer which efficiency is as important as efficiency of each of these systems.

A, B, C, D, C,

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If one of these systems and if one of interfaces does not work The whole system does not work.

Each of these systems and interfaces can be compare with links of one chain If one link of the chain is weak, the whole chain is weak

It appears that production and distribution of cooling energy involves many engineering fields therefore many important technical details that are moreover to be mastered. This training program does simplify the overall view of the installation by presenting the subjects covered through a very simple manner of explanation in a first time to gradually go into the details as your questions need to be answered afterwards.

COOLING PLANT SAMPLE

For a better understanding of the hereabove principle, a very simplified sample of production and distribution of cooling energy plant is sketched at the next page

Such installation is not actual but to give an idea only. Some operating temperatures are displayed. Their value, which must not be strictly taken but interpreted ( + / - 1 or 2deg.C ), also depend on the followings:

This plant sample is running at its maximum capacity and load without interference of any control systems.

The design and operating of this plant sample are normal ones.

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Duct system

14c

Air supply 14 c

Air return 25c

Cooling coil 25c

Ambient air 23c

Fan
12c

Space to be cooled
6c

Chilled water supply 6c 32c Condenser water pipe system C O N D E. 27c Air draft
32c

Chilled water pump Chilled water pipe system

Compressor Chiller

E V A P O.

Chilled water return 12c

Cooling tower

water fall Cooling tower fan 27c

Condenser water pump

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COOLING CAPACITY AND HEATING LOAD

Distribution of thermal energy, whatever cooling capacity supplied or heating load removed, is done by fluid ( called medium ). Water or /and air are the usual mediums flowed to convey this thermal load. Some other fluids are used for specified applications like refrigerant gas for chillers.

Cooling capacity makes temperature decrease. Heating load makes temperature increase. Cooling capacity is supplied to overcome heating load in order to maintain an average temperature. There is a thermal exchange or heat transfer between the cooling capacity supplied and the heating load. The cooling capacity actually removes the heating load resulting in a lower temperature. If the heat transfer does not occur, the heating gain cannot be removed. If the cooling capacity supplied is more than the heating load, the resulting temperature will be lower. If the heating load is more than the cooling capacity supplied, the resulting temperature will be higher.

Higher level of temperature ( + )

Higher level of temperature ( + )

Cooling capacity makes the temperature decrease

Exchange or heat transfer between the heating gain and the cooling capacity makes an average temperature

Thermal gain or heating load makes the temperature increase

Lower level of temperature ( - )

Lower level of temperature ( - )

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BUILDING HEATING LOAD

The building heating load or thermal gain is the quantity of heating energy accumulated into the building space and structure by various means during a period of time. Outdoor and indoor conditions, building structure and architecture, its material and insulation, the region climate and local weather undergone by the building all these among others are parameters affecting the building heating gain.

Outdoor conditions: Outdoor wet and dry temperatures. Rainy, cloudy or sunny weather ( solar radiation effect ).

Indoor conditions: Lighting; fluorescent tube, bulb... Machine; computer, electrical apparatus... How many people inside and their activities... Indoor temperature to maintain.

Because of the outdoor conditions, the heating gain is always varying within one day, from one day to the next and this all year round. Even by night in tropical area the building is heated up.

PHYSIOLOGY OF COMFORT

People are the one complaining about too cold or too warm indoor conditions so it is important to know that people perceive a feeling of comfort which is not always seen through temperature measurement.

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Radiation effect:

A body gets radiation effect not measurable directly whatever the thermometer probes used. Radiation can be measured by a special instrument. About radiation, we usually have in mind the sun rays which radiate a huge amount of heat at a very high rate. However, a hot surface radiates as well some heat that is perceived by human body.

If someone is near a wall or window having a temperature higher than the ambient one, this persons body will feel a higher temperature than the ambient one.

Window

Window surface temperature measured by surface probe displays the reading 34c

Wall

Ambient temperature measured by static probe displays the reading 22c

The body undergoes both ambient temperature and window radiation effect. What really feels this body can be determined by the following rule of thumb.

( 34C + 22C ) / 2 = 28C.

Whatever the ambient temperature, the person will always tend to complain about air conditioning. There is no use in supplying more cooling capacity in this case.

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The only solution to this problem is to put curtains at the window, even if it is a tanned one, or change the working emplacement of the person but not readjust to a lower set point since the air conditioning system works well according to the ambient temperature measured.

Air stream effect:

In a room having a very bad diffusion, peoples body will tend to feel cold if there is an air stream on their back of neck or their heels.

In general:

After lunch people feel hot. Dressing and activity of the person complaining is of importance. The feeling of comfort may be perceived by a difference of temperature instead of the temperature itself. For instance, the corridor of a shopping center must have a higher temperature than the shop indoor temperatures. The air conditioning systems must be balanced and adjusted in order to maintain indoor temperatures in cascade.

Outdoor

Indoor corridor set point at 25C Outdoor gate

Indoor room set point at 24C

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COOLING CAPACITY SUPPLIED BY AIR

Distribution of thermal energy can be done by air. Air is flowed to deliver cooling capacity and remove heating load through a supply and return network ( duct system for air ).

Cooling capacity is supplied to overcome the heating load in order to maintain an average temperature.

There is a thermal exchange or heat transfer between the cooling capacity supplied by air and the air heated by the building heating load. The cooling capacity actually removes the heating load resulting in a lower temperature.

Diffuser

Grille

Air supply 14c

Ambient air 23c

Air return 24c

Space to be cooled

In the space to be cooled:

1. There is a cool air flow entering the room through supply diffuser ( cooling capacity supplied ).

2. Through air diffusion, there is a mixing of this supplied cool air with the ambient air heated by the building heating gain ( heat transfer ).

3. The air flow leaves the room through the return grille ( thermal load removed ).

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Air flow conveys cooling capacity and thermal load. There is an air flow throughout the room or the space to be cooled, this air flow and the air supply temperature ( or temperature of the fluid entering the system ) represents the potential of the cooling capacity.

This potential will be effective if there is a heat transfer between the heating load and the cooling capacity supplied.

Between the air supply ( entering the room ) and the air return ( leaving the room ) there is a difference of temperature which depends on the cooling capacity potential , the heating gain removed and efficiency of the heat transfer.

The difference of temperature between the air entering and leaving the room and the air flow throughout this room is the effective total cooling capacity operating.

Cooling capacity of the system = Air flow X Difference of air temperatures.

Difference of temperatures = Leaving air temperature of the system minus entering air temperature of the system.

Flow factor:

If the heating gain is more than the cooling capacity supplied, the indoor temperature rises. If the heating gain is less than the cooling capacity supplied, the indoor temperature drops. If there is no flow, there is no cooling capacity so the heating gain makes the indoor temperature rise. If there is not enough flow, the cooling capacity is less so the indoor temperature rises if the heating gain is more than the cooling capacity. If there is too much flow, the cooling capacity is more, so the indoor temperature drops if the heating gain is less than the cooling capacity supplied.

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Temperature factor with correct air flow:

If the room entering air temperature is higher, the cooling capacity potential is less, so the indoor temperature rises if the heating gain is more than the cooling capacity operating. If the room entering air temperature is lower, the cooling capacity potential is more, so the indoor temperature drops if the heating gain is less than the cooling capacity operating. If the room leaving air temperature is the same as the room entering air temperature, it means that there is no heat transfer or no heating gain at all in the room.

Temperature and air flow factors:

Both air temperatures entering the room through the diffuser and the air flow throughout the room are the potential of cooling capacity. If there is not enough air flow throughout the room or a high air temperature on the diffuser, this potential is lower so could be the cooling capacity operating. If this potential is high enough, the thermal exchange efficiency ( between the air cooling capacity and the heating gain of the room ) and the room heating gain itself determine the indoor temperature and the difference of air temperatures between leaving and entering which combined with the air flow rate is representative of the cooling capacity operating.

Temperatures:

Temperature measurement is practically the only way to diagnose the operating condition of the plant, part of it and equipment. It is therefore very important to understand the temperature variations with the many parameters involved in air conditioning.

The indoor room temperature, the room entering air temperature, the room leaving air temperature and the room air difference of temperature depends on:

The air cooling capacity potential ( air flow throughout the room and the air temperature entering the room ). The room heating gain ( outdoor and indoor conditions plus building civil engineering characteristics itself ).

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The heat transfer between cooling capacity and heating gain ( efficiency of the air diffusion ).

If one of these parameters varies, all the others vary as well.

AIR DUCT SYSTEM

Air flows throughout the space to be cooled down, a return and supply duct system, a cooling coil, a fan ( and actually other components ) and supplies the cooling capacity required to overcome the heating gain of the space and to remove it. The air is cooled down as it passes through the cooling coil of the air handling unit called AHU.

Air duct return ( higher temp. )

Cooling il

Fan Air duct supply ( lower temp. ) Space to be cooled down

AHU

AREAS SUPPLIED BY ONE COMMON AIR HANDLING UNIT

Several areas can be supplied by the same AHU. In that case the different areas have ( more or less ) the same supply air temperature at their diffusers.

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Since the air supply temperature and the air flow rate are the potential of cooling capacity available, if the areas are too hot, the only ways to increase this potential of cooling capacity required is by lowering the air supply temperature or increasing the fan air flow rate.

If only one of the areas is too hot or too cold and since the air temperature supply is the same for all the areas, we can only adjust the potential of cooling capacity required in this area by varying the air flow rate throughout this area.

Duct system

14c

14c

14c

Air flow supply and return

Area one

Area two

Area three

14c

Xc

Fan Cooling coil

AHU

Beware

Changing the air flow to one diffuser in order to adjust the potential of cooling capacity in one area makes the air flows change on the other diffusers so through each of the other areas. The cooling capacity supply therefore changes into each area and so does the indoor and return air temperatures.

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Duct system

25c

14c 23c

25c 23c

14c

25c 23c

14c

Air flow supply and return

Area one

Area two

Area three

If you close the damper A, the flow will decrease on the diffuser A, the flows will increase on the diffusers B and C. We consider at this step of the training that the air flow through the fan will keep operating at a constant rate.

AIR DISTRIBUTION

We repeat that for a better understanding we consider the air systems of our following demonstration not having any automatic control systems ( no regulation loop ).

Each room has a different heating gain so needs a different cooling capacity supply. Since the cooling coil of the air unit system supplies a common air temperature for each room, the only way to adjust each room cooling capacity to match each room heating gain is by adjusting each room air flow rate.

The duct system is therefore balanced through return and supply dampers to provide each room with a correct air flow so a correct indoor air temperature is roughly maintained in each room.

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For a constant air flow rate, each area leaving air temperature and difference of temperatures between the supply diffuser and the return grille will depend on each area heating gain and heat transfer efficiency. Therefore, this temperature difference and the indoor temperature is never constant since there is always variation of the heating gain in each area. This variation can be quite acceptable and even not perceived by people working in the area.

Duct system Return and supply dampers


25c 23c 14c 25c 23c 14c 25c 23c 14c

Air flow supply and return

Room one

Room two

Room three

Cooling coil 14c 25c

Fan

The balancing of the air duct system offers the total cooling capacity of the AHU to be divided into several areas so that each of these areas can be supplied by its own cooling capacity required to maintain a comfortable indoor temperature.

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The air flow rate for each area is calculated at the design stage of the air conditioning project

Room 1 Thermal load 20kw


Air flow 5000m3/h

Room 2 Thermal load 15kw

Room 3 Thermal load 10kw


Air flow 2500m3/h

Air flow 4000m3/h

Air fan total flow 11500M3/h

( Specific heat of Air 1 kj/kg/c ) ( Air temperature difference taken around 10c )

Fan

Cooling coil

But to do a proper balancing requires having knowledge of fluid physics fundamental.

PHYSICS OF FLUID

Here this subject is in a first time covered to give understanding of duct systems balancing. Physics fundamental discussed in this training is very simplified. To understand fluid physics characteristics is important. The principle of fluid is the same for air or water ( actually different mathematically but our demonstration is to give an idea ) we will first discussed about air physics characteristics.

Fluid physics laws have the same effect ( but not in the same proportion ) as electrical ones so we can understand fluid network parameter variations by referring to electrical formulas.

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Electricity:

The voltage V = Resistance R X Current I The pressure drop P = Resistance R X Flow F


2

Fluid:

The voltage can be compare with the pressure drop, the current with the fluid flow rate.

If a current pass through a resistance, there is a voltage.

If R = 10 ohms

If I = 2 Amps

V = 20 volts

As the current passing through the resistance increases from 2A to 5A, since the resistance has a constant value ( 10 ohms ), the voltage will increase from 20 volts to 50 volts.

So for a constant resistance, the voltage varies with a current increasing or decreasing.

Like in electricity, any component of fluid ( air or water ) network has a resistance, for instance, a valve of a pipework or a damper of a duct connection.

As the component has a constant position, in other words as its resistance is constant, if you increase the fluid flow rate, the pressure drop or difference of pressure between the component inlet and outlet will increase.

A resistance curve can be plotted on a chart.

Pressure p

Curve of a fluid network component having a constant resistance

Flow m3/h
10 15

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A duct system has a resistance plus the resistance of every component installed on it. So the resistance curve can be the equivalent resistance of all the duct components installed.

Like in electricity, resistances mounted in series add their resistance to themselves and resistances mounted in parallel add their resistance inversely to themselves. If we connect more resistance or more components, the equivalent resistance varies and so does the network resistance curve.

Pressure p

Curves of a fluid network having a variable resistance

The resistance increases The resistance decreases

Flow m3/h

The air or water network has a resistance which is a receiver ( or consumer ) of an aerodynamic or hydraulic power supply like an electrical resistance is the electrical receiver of an electrical power supply.

A generator supplies electrical power ( voltage and current ). A fan or pump supplies aerodynamic or hydraulic power ( difference of pressure and water flow ).

A fan or a pump ( like an electrical generator ) does not supply a constant aerodynamic or hydraulic power, this power varies according to running condition.

Each fan and each pump has a performance curve given by the manufacturer on which is crossed the network curve displaying the flow rate throughout the network and the pressure drop overcome by the fan or the pump. The fan or pump curve is representative of the available power.

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By reading the difference of ( static ) pressure at the fan inlet and outlet , we can know what is the air flow rate by plotting this value on the fan performance curve given by the manufacturer. Practically, we will also need to know the fan speed since the manufacturer fan curve is given for several speeds.

Note: The difference of pressure given on the manufacturer chart is a total pressure. We do not in this training discuss the subject of static, dynamic and total pressures.

Fan performance curve ( 2 speeds ) given by the manufacturer:

Pressure p Mm.w

Fan curves speed 1 speed 2

Network curve

20 Mm.w

Flow m3/h 10 m3/h

The available fan power is displayed by both fan and air duct resistance curves. According to the fan curve performance, as the air duct resistance increases, so as the difference of pressure of the fan ( called also pressure drop ) increases, the air flow rate decreases.

AIR SYSTEM BALANCING EFFECTS

Balancing is required to match the cooling capacity to each room heating gain. The air flow rate conveys a quantity of energy so each room must have a proper air flow rate to overcome its heating gain.

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DUCT SYSTEM

Ar

Return dampers

Br Room 2

Cr Room 3

Room 1

As

Supply dampers

Bs

Cs

Fan

Cooling coil

Balancing is done by varying ( closing and opening ) the damper positions.

By closing anyone of the dampers Ar, Br, Cr, As, Bs or Cs, the resistance of the whole duct system increases so the fan flow rate decreases.

By opening anyone of the dampers Ar, Br, Cr, As, Bs or Cs, the resistance of the whole duct system decreases so the fan flow rate increases.

By closing one of the dampers Ar, Br, Cr, As, Bs or Cs, the air flow decreases through its duct connection whereas the air flow increases through the other duct connections meanwhile the total air flow through the fan actually decreases.

We remember the effect of any flow variation on the cooling capacity. A lower flow rate means a lower potential of cooling capacity. A higher flow means a higher potential of cooling capacity. By changing the damper position of one duct connection, it affects air flow throughout the whole duct system and each of its connections hence affecting each respective cooling capacity.

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Duct system

Ar

As

Br

Bs

Cr

Cs

25c 21c

14c

25c 23c

14c

25c 23c

14c

Room one Air flow supply and return

Room two

Room three

For example:

The room one is too cold, the cooling capacity is therefore more than the room heating gain. To rise the indoor temperature, we can decrease the cooling capacity supply by closing the dampers.

As you close the damper Ar or As:

The air flow rate decreases through the room one ( this is what we want ). The air flow rate through the rooms two and three will increase ( this is what we do not want ) and so will do the cooling capacity. The air flow rate decreases through the fan.

Changing the air flow on one diffuser to adjust the cooling capacity required in one room makes the cooling capacity supply change into the other rooms. The fan air flow changes and the fan motor operating condition changes as well.

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A fan operating must be within flow limits ( minimum and maximum ones ) out of which the motor fan does not operate in safe conditions. Protection will make the fan motor trip if these protections are properly designed, installed, rated and adjusted.

For instance, by varying the resistance of the air duct system, so by varying the pressure drop and the air flow of the fan, the resistance curve can be at the limits of the fan normal running condition.

Pressure p Mm.w

Flow m3/h

If the network curve intersects the fan curve in the zone A, the fan has not enough flow and too much pressure drop, the inlet current will tend to decrease, the power factor will be very low and the electrical coils of the motor will overheat due to both magnetic effect and not enough air flow rate which is also used to cool down the motor.

This is the worst case that can occur and the only proper protection is a thermal switch ( if any, since inserted in the motor by the manufacturer ) correctly connected and tested during testing and commissioning. Without this protection, the electrical coil will overheat till the motor electrical coil resins melt to finally short-circuit the motor.

If the network curve intersects the fan curve in the zone B, the fan has too much flow and less pressure drop, the inlet current will tend to increase, the motor will overload. As for this case, motors are usually protected with overload relay. It is important to check the motor protection system and its fan running performance before carrying out any modification and balancing on the air duct system.

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Since the motor inlet current is always varying with the fan flow rate, to change the damper positions or merely to open the access panel of an AHU for servicing also affects the fan motor operating condition especially if they are running at the limit of their curves.

FAN TECHNOLOGY

The above mentioned effects will be different according to the fan technology. It is enough to remember the two kinds of centrifugal fans we usually come across. The backward and the forward curved impeller.

Backward blades:

This fan has a few but large blades. We come across such fan for AHU or any ventilation system with high pressure drop to overcome. Its fan curve performance is a curved one which means that the air flow rate does not vary so much with the pressure drop. For this kind of fan, the motor running amperes does not obviously decrease with an air flow rate decreasing.

Pressure p Mm.w

Flow m3/h

In general, this type of fan is the most efficient and most stable.

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Forward blades:

This fan has many but small blades. We come across such fan for FCU or any ventilation with little pressure drop. Its fan curve performance is a flat one which means that the air flow rate does vary a lot with the pressure drop. For this kind of fan, the motor running amperes decrease with an air flow rate decreasing.

Pressure p Mm.w

A B

Flow m3/h

During this training we do not discussed about the following which is however very usefull to know:

Physics fundamental regarding pressure. Air diffusion and coanda effects. Stratification effects. Indoor pressure effects. Fresh and exhaust air. Association of fan in serie and parallel...

Fluid characteristics throughout a network operating will be more comprehensively discussed in chapters about chilled water pipe system.

The air duct system and ventilation running condition has a bit been overlooked because except for specified application the above explained is enough for the purpose of this training program. We consider that air duct balancing may be required to achieve more comfortable indoor conditions only. Energy saving can be more easily achieved by rebalancing a chilled water pipe system since the water specific heat ( 4.18 Kj / Kg / Deg. ) is four times more than the air one ( 1 Kj / Kg / Deg. ). Therefore the very difficult task of balancing a network for the purpose of achieving better comfort and energy saving is worth being carried out more on chilled water pipe system than on air duct system.

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AIR AND WATER THERMAL EXCHANGE

We remember the thermal relation between air system and the room to be cooled down. A room is a heat transfer system between the air distribution cooling capacity potential and the room heating gain.

1. Cooling capacity potential of air entering the room ( or potential of any fluid entering a heat transfer system ).

2. Heat transfer between the room heating gain and the air cooling capacity potential.

3. The removed heating gain leaving the room ( thermal load leaving a heat transfer system ).

Air duct return ( higher temp. )

Cooling il

Fan Air duct supply ( lower temp. ) Space to be cooled down

AHU

The air thermal load coming from the room heating gain is conveyed throughout the duct system and afterwards removed by the cooling coil.

There is exchange from the cooling capacity supplied by the water flowing inside the tubes of the cooling coil to the air passing through this cooling coil. The heat transfer through the tube wall cools down the air passing through and warms up the water leaving the cooling coil.

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The cooling coil is a thermal exchanger or a heat transfer system

Cooling coil

Entering air at higher temperature

Leaving air at lower temperature

Entering water at lower temperature

Leaving water at higher temperature

The possible variation of each of these parameters ( air flow, inlet and outlet air temperature, water flow, entering and leaving water temperature ) is a bit complicated to master.

1. The potential of cooling capacity of the heat transfer system which is the air / water thermal exchanger named cooling coil is both the chilled water flow rate throughout the inside cooling coil tubes and the cooling coil entering chilled water temperature.

2. The heating gain of the cooling coil is both the inlet air temperature and the air flow rate through the cooling coil.

3. The heat transfer operating depends on the cooling coil thermal exchange efficiency between air and water.

4. Whatever the heat transfer efficiency, the air distribution system heating gain ( which is the difference of temperatures between the coil air inlet and the coil air outlet by the air flow rate through the coil ) matches the water distribution cooling capacity ( which is the difference of temperatures between the water entering the coil and the water leaving the coil by the chilled water flow rate throughout the coil ).

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The cooling coil purpose is therefore to supply cooling capacity to the room, area or space to be cooled down and in a same time to remove the heating gain from it through the air distribution system.

Air factor:

For a constant cooling coil capacity potential ( correct chilled water flow rate and chilled water entering temperature ), if the air flow rate decreases or the inlet air temperature is lower, the air thermal load or cooling coil heating gain decreases so does the cooling coil chilled water leaving temperature.

Chilled water factor:

For a constant air flow and inlet air temperature of the cooling coil, if its cooling capacity potential is lower ( lower chilled water flow rate or higher chilled water entering temperature ) or if the cooling coil heat transfer efficiency decreases, the cooling coil outlet air temperature increases and the cooling capacity potential of the air system delivering the space to be cooled down decreases.

Remember:

Cooling capacity of a system = Air flow X Difference of temperatures. Difference of temperatures = Leaving temperature of the system minus entering temperature of the system.

So it must be noted that if the medium flow rate decreases at a fixed time during which the cooling capacity is constant, the first an immediate effect will be a difference of temperature increasing but the final cooling capacity will be less since a medium flow rate decreasing makes the cooling capacity decrease.

Note: Temperature measurement is practically the only way to diagnose the good running condition of the installation, it is therefore very important to understand the temperature variations with the many parameters involved.

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WATER DISTRIBUTION

The water thermal load coming from the cooling coil heating gain ( which comes from the air system and which comes from the building ) is conveyed throughout the chilled water pipe system and afterwards removed by the chiller. The water is cooled down as it passes through the chiller evaporator.

The chilled water flow passes throughout the cooling coil, the pipework, the pump and the chiller evaporator ( and other components ).

The water flow supplies the cooling capacity to the AHU cooling coils and returns the heating load to the chiller.

Cold water supply Chilled water pipe system Pump

Warm water return Chiller evaporator Cooling coil of AHU

COOLING CAPACITY SUPPLIED BY WATER

Since there are many AHUs in the building, each supplying a different cooling capacity to the building areas, the chilled water pipe system has many AHU cooling coils to supply. Each cooling coil requires a different cooling capacity.

The only way to adjust each AHU cooling coil capacity is by adjusting each AHU cooling coil chilled water flow rate since the chilled water temperature supply is the same for all the AHUs.

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The chilled water pipe system is therefore balanced through balancing valves to provide each AHU cooling coil with a correct chilled water flow rate.

The chilled water pipe system flow rate is provided by the pump. The chilled water pipe system supply temperature is provided by the chiller.

Chilled water temperature return 45Kw 30Kw 15Kw 55Kw

AHU cooling coils

2 Kg/s

1.5Kg/s

0.75Kg/s

2.5Kg/s pump

Chilled water temperature supply

Total pump water flow 6.75 Kg/s. Difference of temperature taken. Around 5 deg.C. Water specific heat 4.18 kj/kg/deg.C.

Chiller

Chilled water temperature return

PHYSICS OF LIQUID

The principle of fluid has already been seen above. We know that hydraulic physics laws have the same effect ( but not in the same proportion ) as electrical ones and so we can understand hydraulic network parameter variation tendencies by referring to electrical formulas.

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Electricity:

The voltage V = Resistance R X Current I The pressure drop P = Resistance R X Flow F2

Hydraulic:

The voltage can be compare with the pressure drop, the current with the water flow rate. If a current pass through a resistance, there is a voltage.

If R = 10 ohms

If I = 2 Amps

V = 20 volts

As the current passing through the resistance increases from 2A to 5A, since the resistance has a constant value (10 ohm), the voltage will increase from 20 volts to 50 volts. So for a constant resistance, the voltage varies with a current increasing or decreasing. Like in electricity, any component of hydraulic network like a valve has a resistance. As the valve is in a constant position, the resistance of the valve is constant. if the water flow increases, the pressure drop or difference of pressure between the valve inlet and outlet will increase.

Pressure p Bar

Curve of a hydraulic component having a constant resistance

2.25 Bar

1 Bar

Flow m3/h
10m3/ h 15m3/ h

Any hydraulic network has a resistance, the pipe line itself has a resistance plus every component connected throughout the network. So a resistance curve can be the equivalent resistance of all the hydraulic components installed.

Like in electricity, resistances mounted in series add their resistance to themselves and resistances mounted in parallel add their resistance inversely to themselves.

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If we connect more resistance or more components, the equivalent resistance varies and so does the network resistance curve.

Pressure p Bar

Curves of a hydraulic network having a variable resistance

The resistance increases The resistance decreases

Flow m3/h

The hydraulic network has a resistance which is the receiver ( or consumer ) of a hydraulic power supply like an electrical resistance is the electrical receiver of an electrical power supply.

A generator supplies electrical power ( voltage and current ). A pump supplies hydraulic power ( difference of pressure and water flow ). A pump ( like a generator ) does not supply a constant hydraulic power, this hydraulic power varies according to running condition.

Each pump has a performance curve given by the manufacturer on which is crossed the hydraulic network curve displaying the water flow rate throughout the network and the pressure drop overcome by the pump. The pump curve is representative of the hydraulic power.

By reading the pressure drop at the gauges connected at the inlet and outlet of the pump, we can know what is the flow, provided that we have the pump performance curve given by the manufacturer.

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Pump performance curve ( 2 speed ) given by the manufacturer:

Pressure p Bar

Pump curves speed 1 speed 2

Network curve

2 Bars

Flow m3/h 10 m3/h

The available pump power ( headpump running ) is displayed by both pump and hydraulic resistance curves. According to the pump curve performance, as the hydraulic resistance increases, so as the difference of pressure of the pump ( called also pressure drop ) increases, the water flow rate decreases.

Inlet pressure gauge 0.5 bar

Outlet pressure gauge 2.5 bar

Difference of pressure, 2 bars, so the flow is 10 m3/h according to the manufacturer pump performance curve at speed 2

Since the chilled water pipe system can be considered as the core of the cooling distribution whole system and is of such importance in term of energy saving and chiller running good condition so life span, more understanding to physics of liquid is required.

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In electricity, current is divided into connections in parallel, voltage is matched as connections are in parallel.

It is the same in Hydraulic, the difference of pressure matches itself as connections are in parallel and the water flow is divided into connections in parallel.

For a hydraulic network having connections in parallel, we have to theoretically divide each of these connection in parallel into several ones, each having a pressure drop equal to the other connection one.

F3/RX

F2/RY

F1/RZ

F3/RX

One pressure drop represented by A, which is the common pipe F3 / RX in serie with the connection F1 / RZ. Another one pressure drop represented by B, which is the common pipe F3 / RX in serie with the connection F2 / RY.

F1 / RZ and F2 / RY are two connections in parallel. A = B = P. Difference of pressure of the pump.

F3 is the total flow in the main pipe divided into the connections F2 and F1 that have their respective flow. The flow 3 = flow 2 + flow 1

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The resistances RY and RZ of the two connections in parallel have different values. The flows F2 and F1 of the two connections in parallel have different values.

However F2 X RY = F1 X RZ = the same difference of pressure of the two connections in parallel which added to the connection in series F3 X RX = A = B = P.

Whatever the resistance of each connection, the P of the pump is the same for each connection in parallel. So if the resistance varies in one connection, the P varies through all the other connections in parallel and so do all the connection flow rates, since they have their resistance remaining constant, till reaching a common P for every connection.

Like the duct system, if you decrease the flow of one hydraulic connection by increasing the resistance of this connection, this will make the water flow rates increase through the other connections in parallel and the water flow rate decreases through the pump itself.

WATER SYSTEM BALANCING EFFECTS

The water thermal load coming from each cooling coil heating gain is conveyed throughout the chilled water pipe system and afterwards removed by the chiller. The water is cooled down as it passes through the chiller evaporator. The water flow supplies the cooling capacity to the AHU cooling coils and returns the heating load to the chiller.

Each chilled water pipe connection supplies a specified cooling capacity through its own chilled water flow rate which is adjusted during the testing and commissioning of the project.

All these adjustments required for each AHU cooling coil chilled water flow rate is called balancing of the chilled water pipe system. For each adjustment carried out at a time, which means for each variation of flow in one connection due to the adjustment, the chilled water flow rate of all the other connections varies and so does the chilled water flow rate through the pump.

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Since the pump flow rate varies with the network resistance ( and so does the pressure drop of the chilled water pipe system which is affected by the chilled water flow rate adjustments at each AHU cooling coils ), the pump operating condition has to be known before any action driving to resistance variation to be sure that the pump is, and will be afterwards, operating within its acceptable limits.

Pressure p Bar

Flow m3/h

If the network curve intersects the pump curve in the zone A, the pump has not enough flow and too much pressure drop, the inlet current will tend to decrease, the power factor will be very low and the electrical coils of the motor will overheat due to magnetic effect. In that case, the only proper protection is a thermal switch ( if any, since inserted in the motor by the manufacturer ) correctly connected and tested during testing and commissioning. Without this protection, the electrical coil will overheat till the motor electrical coil resins melt to finally short-circuit the motor.

If the network curve intersects the pump curve in the zone B, the pump has too much flow and less pressure drop, the inlet current will tend to increase, the motor will overload. As for this case, motors are usually protected with overload relay. It is important to check the motor protection system and its pump running performance before carrying out any modification and balancing on the chilled water pipe system.

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ASSOCIATION OF PUMPS

In large buildings, the plant of condenser and chilled water pipe systems can be complicated because some pumps are associated in series or in parallel.

Since we know the flow variation interactings and effects on capacities and temperatures, the number of pumps running and the chilled water pipe system design is important to be mastered.

Two pumps mounted in parallel:

The flow of the two pumps add themselves and the pressure drop tend to match.

Network curve

Pressure p Bar Resulting pump curve of two pumps mounted in parallel

Flow m3/h

Beware:

To switch on two pumps mounted in parallel does not mean that the water flow will increase two fold afterwards. Actually to switch over one to two pumps in paralell makes the total flow rate increase of 30% to 60% around. Not more.

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Moreover three, four or more pumps can be associated in parallel, the resistance of the chilled water pipe system however sets a limit beyond which adding more pump will have only the effect to increase the pressure drop without increasing the chilled water flow rate that much.

Two pumps mounted in series:

The flows tend to match and the pressure drops add themselves. ( Pumps in series are seldom installed unless for retrofitting ).

Pressure p Bar

Resulting pump curve of two pumps mounted in series

Network curve

Flow m3/h

Association of pumps can be both in serie and in parallel that is the case for primary and secondary pumps installed at some chilled water pipe system. This particular design will subsequently be studied in the next chapter.

Two pumps in parallel with common header for two chillers:

As for operating of pump associated in parallel ( which is the most usual application come across ), to change over two pumps running in parallel to one pump can make this one works out of these limits and trip.

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It is important to understand the respective flow variation through the AHUs and the chillers and the variation of the pump inlet currents as well. The flow variations ( including operating of several pumps that makes the flow vary as well ) do affect the difference between entering and leaving temperatures of the AHUs and the chillers plus the running amperes of the pump motors operating.

1 1 2 2
Pumps 1 & 2 Valves 1 & 2 Chillers 1 & 2

From AHUs

To AHUs

The pump operating effect on the pump motor running amperes. The effects on the temperatures is herewith studied.

STATUS ONE

( See next page )

Reading taken as chiller one and its pump are running with the chiller one gate valve opened and the chiller two gate valve closed. The chilled water pipe system is running under the following conditions: The network curve B, the pump curve D, the pressure drop F, the water flow H.

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STATUS TWO

Reading taken as two chillers and their pumps are running with the two chiller gate valves opened. Now the chilled water pipe system is running under the following conditions:

The network curve A, the association of the two pumps curve C, the pressure difference E, the water flow I at the common header, the water flow G through each pump and each chiller.

B
P

E F D C

m3/h

From STATUS ONE to STATUS TWO:

The network curve resistance has decreased since there are connections in parallel ( from B to A ).

The pressure difference read at the pump one has increased ( form F to E ). The pressure difference is the same for each of the two pumps ( E ).

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The water flow of each pump has decreased ( from H to G ) and so has done the inlet current. The total water flow ( I ) is divided into the two pumps (G ).

The water flow in the chiller has decreased ( from H to G ). The total water flow ( I ) is divided into the two chillers.

The water flow at the common header has increased ( from H to I ). This water flow supplies to and returns from the AHUs.

Owing to the running amperes possible variation, it is therefore important to check the motor protection system and its pump running performance before carrying out any modification on the chilled water pipe system balancing or on the pump operating mode especially if they are running at the limit of their curves.

Each chilled water pipe system is different therefore sketches should be done on site before studying the system. Do never trust schematics and check by yourself.

PARTICULAR CHILLED WATER PIPE SYSTEM

You may come across many different designed chilled water pipe systems, you must be able to understand each of them. A chilled water pipe system can have primary and secondary pumps associated both in parallel and in series.

The project schematics and other drawings are presented in a way that must be simplified for a better understanding and interpretation of the pipework operating.

To understand each building chilled water pipe system can be approached by comparing the pipe system and its components with an electrical circuit, knowing that their physics fundamentals are almost similar, and to sketch the pipe system accordingly. As you come across such chilled water pipe system however, do not try to plot on a chart the interacting of the pump running effects because it is too much complicated.

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Primary pumps

Chiller one

Chiller two

Possible flow back Bypass pipe

Secondary pumps

Return from AHUs

Supply to AHUs

Depending on each pump hydraulic power or how many pumps running in the secondary and primary network, the direction of the flow through the bypass pipe changes.

If the secondary network hydraulic pump power is higher than the primary one, the direction of the bypass flow will be as indicated B. In this case, the secondary network water supply temperature will be a mixing of the chiller leaving temperature with the secondary network return water temperature. So the AHU supply temperature will be higher than the chiller leaving temperature.

If the primary network hydraulic pump power is more important than the secondary one, the direction of the bypass flow will be as indicated A. In this case, the chiller entering temperature will be a mixing of the chiller leaving temperature with the secondary network return water temperature. So the chiller entering temperature will be lower and the chiller water temperature difference will decrease.

Readings can be taken while the system is running under different conditions so that you can know the temperature variations. With this temperature readings, the flow direction of the bypass pipe and the flow variation through the chiller(s) can be understood.

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To make the chillers run under their best Coefficient Of Performance and running condition which results are energy saving and optimizing life span is achieved by operating the chillers under correct ranges of temperatures and flow rates ( which is estimated through temperature measurements ). To master chilled water pipe system parameters and chiller operating is essential since energy saving program and management are mainly achieved by rebalancing the chilled water pipe system and adequate operating of the chiller plant room.

Big variation of flow is mainly seen through pump motor running amperes. Variation of the thermal load or cooling capacity and variation of water flow are practically seen through temperature measurements.

HEATING GAIN VARIATION

In the building, each room maximum heating gain is actually calculated at the design stage of the project and the air conditioning installation is sized according to this design calculation.

Room 1 Thermal load 20kw


Air flow 5000m3/h

Room 2 Thermal load 15kw

Room 3 Thermal load 10kw


Air flow 2500m3/h

Air flow 4000m3/h

Air fan total flow 11500M3/h

( Specific heat: Water 4.18 kj/kg/c Air 1 kj/kg/c ) ( Air temperature difference taken around 10c ) ( Water temperature difference 5c )

Fan

Cooling coil

Chilled water flow 7.8m3/h

Chilled water pipe system return and supply

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During the project testing and commissioning, the balancing has been done to supply a maximum cooling capacity to each room.

Each room has a different maximum heating gain. The balancing is done for the cooling capacity to match this maximum heating gain.

For each room, this heating gain is not permanently maximum and is actually varying within one day and from one day to the next. Sunny or cloudy weather, day or night period, building indoor activity, installation just started up or running for a while, all these make important difference of thermal variation.

Heating gain in rooms and areas in the building loads the whole air conditioning installation ( air systems, water systems, chillers and cooling towers ) so the whole installation has thermal loads always varying.

TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS

It is very important to understand that the following temperature variations described are for an air conditioning installation without any control system interference.

In sequence:

Area thermal load decreasing

For a constant air flow and for a correct air diffusion so thermal exchange efficiency, the area air return temperature drops

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For a constant air flow and chilled water flow rate through the cooling coil and for an air / water correct thermal exchange efficiency, the cooling coil leaving air temperature drops

Cooling coil entering air temperature drops

The area air supply temperature drops

The cooling coil chilled water leaving temperature drops

The chiller entering water temperature drops

The chiller leaving water temperature drops

and so on... ...till reaching a lower temperature... that will damage the system by freezing for instance...

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The above explained is very simplified since the thermal exchange efficiencies ( and other parameters ) will actually vary as well as the varying temperatures therefore counteracting the general effect of temperature decreasing and offering a kind of natural auto control system.

What must be noticed is that for a constant flow rate as the entering temperature of a heat transfer system drops, the leaving temperature of this system drops but the difference of temperature between leaving and entering also decreases at a different rate that finally decreases the cooling capacity.

Before studying the chapter of control systems, it is important to understand a common effect on heat transfer system temperatures ( applicable within reasonable operation temperature limits ) having two different causes:

1. For a constant flow, if the thermal load varies then the temperatures vary.

2. For a constant thermal load, if the flow rate varies then the temperatures vary.

The cooling capacity will also vary in both cases. This variation will however be more important through temperature change than through flow rate change.

It must not be neglected that the cooling capacity supplied by the systems can more or less naturally adjust itself to the varying heating load. However, if we relied only on this fact, this auto control would be done through a lower thermal exchange efficiency of the interfaces and in counterpart of the equipment operating condition so life span. Temperatures will not be maintained anyway.

Some control systems have to be installed in order to maintain some essential parameters constant however the final result, which is indoor temperatures to be maintained constant, is actually varying as well but without affecting the comfort of tenants. The control system functions can therefore be minimized according to this variation tolerance.

Whatever equipment and systems; air, water or other fluid like refrigerant for the chillers, the cooling capacity must be more or less adjusted to match the thermal load. Since the potential of cooling capacity depends on the entering temperature of the system and the flow rate of this system, one way to match the cooling capacity to the heating gain is by varying either entering temperature or flow rate of the system. There are many ways to do it.

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CONTROL SYSTEMS

Control systems have function to adjust the cooling capacity to the heating gain by varying either entering temperature or flow rate of one heat transfer system through a regulation loop. When many heat transfer systems are interconnected through a common system or plant ( air ducting, chilled water pipe system ), variation of one of these systems due to regulation loop operating must not affect the other systems connected.

Control systems have to maintain the whole plant having many heat transfer systems interconnected operate under stable conditions and deliver the cooling capacity required. It must be noticed that any control system regulation loop is always a compromise between accuracy of the variable and stability of its process operating.

Control systems is a comprehensive and complicated engineering field moreover many brands and various technologies having their own characteristics are available in the market. In this training the most common and easiest control systems are presented that will allow the trainee to adapt himself to any equipment he comes across afterwards.

Regulation loop:

A regulation loop consists of several elements and is used to match equipment cooling capacity to the heating load by changing system variables whatever flow rate or temperatures.

Set point

Controller

Controller output

The output can be of two positions on / off or proportional.


Sensor

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A regulation loop system at least two inputs and one output. One input is what we want, one input is what we have, then, depends on the difference between the two inputs, an output is delivered.

A sensor is a device that measures the variable ( temperature or pressure ) and transmits it to the controller. The controller compares the value of the variable with the set point or desired value and outputs a signal based on the difference between the variable and the set point.

We will not discussed about proportional plus integral, proportional plus derivative, proportional plus integral plus derivative, floating control, time proportioning control systems and installation parameter time lags during this training. We will focus on proportional and two positions on / off systems only demonstrated with simple applications.

Proportional control:

A proportional controller has a linear relationship between the value of the incoming sensor signal and the controller output. This parameter is adjustable and called proportional band. This proportional band is a range within the output signal varies from its minimum to its maximum value.

What must be understood is since the output is proportional to the difference between the set point ( what we want ) and the measurement ( what we have ), there must be a difference for the output to come up.

The input is the measurement of the variable which must be representative of the heating gain to be overcome in case of temperature control, the output must be representative of the cooling capacity to be supplied.

Depend on the proportional band adjustment, the output can cover less than this difference ( not enough cooling capacity supply for the thermal load ), which means that we cannot reach back the set point, or the output can cover more than this difference ( too much cooling capacity for the thermal load ) and therefore reach back and go beyond the initial set point.

There is therefore a very important relation between the control system parameters and the plant design and operating parameters. The plant design and equipment installed must be compatible with the control system and vice versa.

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For a better understanding, we can refer to a mechanical regulation loop of a water make up tank.

Water tap water make up system Water level to be maintained Water Floating ball

Water supply system

Water pouring out

WHAT WE HAVE

CAN BE COMPARED WITH

The water level in the tank is what we want Temperature to be maintained in a room. to maintain.

The water flowing is the lost

The room heating gain.

The water filling the tank is the supply

The cooling capacity supply.

The water supply system capacity

The cooling capacity potential.

The water make up system ( tap water and The regulation loop or control system. floating ball system ).

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If the water supply system has too much capacity, ( if the cooling capacity potential of the system is too high ) as the tap is little bit opened soon a lot of flow will fill in ( as the regulation loop outputs a little demand, there will be soon too much cooling capacity supply ).

Whatever the water make up system adjustment ( whatever the regulation loop proportional band adjustment ), the water supply system capacity must be limited and adjusted to match the water flowing out rate or water lost ( if air or water system, balancing must be done to match the maximum heating gain and not to be more ).

The air conditioning installation process and its cooling capacity potential is therefore very important and we can now understand the function of balancing. The potential must be limited and the regulation loop will be working below this limit.

The stroke of the floating ball over the stroke of the water tap is representative of the regulation loop proportional band adjustment. According to this adjustment, the whole system ( process itself and the regulation loop ) will respond very differently.

Let us compare the two figures A and B:

Figure A: The stroke of the floating ball is longer than the stroke of the tap. It means that for a big difference of water level, the tap will open a bit.

water make up system Floating ball Water level to be maintained

water tap Water supply system Water

Water pouring out

The proportional band is a large one. For a big difference, the output is small.

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Figure B: The stroke of the floating ball is shorter than the stroke of the tap. It means that for a small difference of water level, the tap will open a lot.

water make up system Floating ball Water level to be maintained

water tap Water supply system Water

Water pouring out

The proportional band is a short one. For a small difference, the output is big.

The tank water make up system can be compare with a room which indoor temperature is maintained by a regulation loop controlling an air conditioning system whatever technology installed ( Split unit, Window unit, AHU VAV box, FCU... ).

The temperature measured is representative of a thermal load ( the sensor location is of very importance ) and the controller output must supply a cooling capacity. Depend on the installation parameters, the control system regulation loop and the proportional band adjustment, this cooling capacity can match, be too much or not enough to overcome the heating gain represented by the temperature measured.

If the potential of cooling capacity is too much, we can limit it by balancing or if not possible by adjusting a large proportional band. In this case the indoor temperature will be fluctuating within the range of this large proportional.

If the potential of cooling capacity is not enough, we can upgrade it by balancing or if not possible by adjusting a smaller proportional band. In this case the indoor temperature will be fluctuating within a smaller range offering more accuracy. It must be noticed that a smaller proportional band will make the system cycle maximum / minimum be high which is not good mechanically.

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Proportional band of 3C Output signal Proportional band of 2C P. B. of 1C 100%

0%

20C

21C

22C

23C

Set point ( depend on the controller brand technology, the set point may be at the middle or at the footer of the proportional band )

As already stated, the adjustment of a regulation loop is therefore a compromise between the accuracy of the system and its stability.

Two positions on / off control:

The output is not from a minimum to a maximum but minimum or maximum. For this technology, the proportional band is called differential. One typical application is the thermostat.

This on / off control system is applicable to equipment whom process has a potential of cooling capacity that is minimum or maximum. As the demand due to the thermal load is half the cooling capacity available, the differential or set point adjustment will make the output on therefore overpassing the set point or off therefore not reaching the set point.

Unless the cooling capacity supply does permanently match the thermal load, this system is inaccurate and unstable. It is commonly come across however and can be perfectly suitable for some applications.

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AIR CONTROL SYSTEM APPLICATIONS

Each room in the building has a different thermal load so needs a different cooling capacity supply limited by balancing and then permanently adjusted by controlling. The control and air conditioning systems must through their operating match the cooling capacity to the heating load. There are many ways to do it. Room by room, average of many rooms, by areas... with different systems, split unit, window unit, air handling unit with or without variable air volume system, fan coil unit...

Room by room:

By cooling coil control system:

The capacity of a cooling coil supplying a room can be modulated by controlling the chilled water flow rate through it. The sensor measures air temperature and the controller output adjusts the water flow through a regulating valve. The sensor location depends on the application of the system.

Chilled water pipe system B A Supply duct system Space to be cooled down C

Cooling coil

A Sensor B Controller C Three way valve ( in this case )

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Each room or area can be supplied by a fan coil unit or a small AHU and controlled by its own regulation loop.

The above sketch is practically what we usually come across in the area ( except that for the regulating three way valves that are not often installed and there is seldom duct system connected at the return ).

Fan Coil Unit and temperature control system:

The thermostat is the control system regulation loop which has both sensor and set point device in the same apparatus fixed on the wall. It outputs a signal to the regulating valve and can also output a manual or automatic control of the fan having one or several speeds.

RV BV GV AR AS F FCU

Regulating valve ( three way valve in this case ) or on / off or proportional Balancing valve Two gate valves to shut off this chilled water pipe system connection Air return, can be in false ceiling plenum or in duct system Air supply Return and supply Fan of chilled water Fan coil unit pipe system

BV

GV

FCU
AR

RV

GV

AS

Air return grille

Air supply diffuser

Thermostat

Space to be cooled down

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Area air temperature control system by air flow variation:

Since the cooling coil of the air unit system supplies a common air temperature for each room, the only way to adjust each room cooling capacity to match each room heating gain is by adjusting each room air flow rate.

25c

14c

25c

14c

23c

23c

Air flow supply and return

Area one

Area two

Air return duct

R Cooling coil Variable speed system Fresh air duct

Fan
R

Air filter
12c

Three way regulating valve

Balancing valve
6c

Chilled water supply and return

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For this kind of installation ( called Variable Air Volume system ), each area has its air ambient temperature regulation loop controlling a VAV box. This is air flow through the VAV box that is the variable parameter and the air supply temperature is maintained constant for all the VAV box by a regulation loop controlling the chilled water flow rate of the AHU cooling coil. Moreover, to maintain the air flow balanced in the whole duct system, there is an air pressure regulation loop at the air supply duct system at the AHU room.

This system supplies a cooling capacity to each room through air flow variation. When this flow variation is required at one duct connection, this must not change the air flow rate through the other rooms. This providing the control and the air duct systems are correctly designed, installed, tested, adjusted and balanced.

The duct system has been balanced through return and supply dampers to provide each room with a maximum air flow. Balancing provides therefore the system with a limited cooling capacity below which the regulation loop will work adjusting the cooling capacity to the heating gain.

We remember the fluid network characteristics, if the flow rate decreases through a connection this will disbalance the other flow rate connections. The air flow control system must therefore offer variation of air flow rate where the cooling capacity is varying but no variation at all where it is not required. For the VAV AHU, there is an air pressure regulation loop at the air supply duct system to meet this function.

AHU air pressure control system:

The supply air pressure at the AHU fan outlet is controlled by a regulation loop that adjusts the fan speed ( therefore affecting the pressure drop ) in order to deliver the air flow required in the whole duct system.

By controlling and maintaining the air static pressure in the supply duct system the required air flow is supplied whatever the terminal damper position of the VAV boxes and the duct system connections are kept balanced.

Practically the regulation loop pressure sensor controlling the fan speed does not measure the difference of pressure of the fan but the fan outlet static pressure. There are many little but important details to be mastered about sensor location and real measurement of control systems. We repeat again that the training is to give you an idea and broad understanding since each of the subjects covered is a comprehensive engineering field that could required months of training.

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Sequence of VAV system operating:

Pressure p Mm. W.

I G C

Flow m3/h

1. The duct system has a resistance curve A running at full load which means that the air flow E is maximum for the design. All the VAV box dampers are fully opened. The fan is running at full speed on the curve C. The pressure drop is G.

2. As one of the VAV box dampers closes itself ( which means that less cooling capacity is required in one room since the indoor temperature regulation loop outputs to decrease its air flow rate ), the duct system resistance increases to B, the difference of pressure increases to I and the air flow rate decreases to J through the fan but increases at the connection where the VAV box dampers have remained at the same position.

3. The regulation loop controlling the fan speed measures the pressure rise at the fan outlet and decreases the fan speed till reaching the set point representative of the difference of pressure to be maintained G. The fan air flow rate decreases to F.

4. From E to F, the air flow rate has decreased and the pressure drop has been maintained. The air flow rate has been decreased on the VAV box damper which closed itself due to less demand in its room and since less flow rate though the fan, the others VAV boxes did not get more air flow rate.

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The interacting between each room regulation loop and the fan speed regulation loop is therefore very important. If one of the room regulation loop is wrongly adjusted or balanced in a way that there is too much cooling capacity as soon as a demand is output, the VAV box damper position variation rate will be high therefore disturbing the fan speed regulation loop and the other room regulation loops.

If the fan speed regulation loop is wrongly adjusted, all the VAV box air flow rates will be affected as just one VAV box has its air flow rate changed by its indoor temperature regulation loop.

The VAV AHU system requires a flexible control system so that the testing and commissioning engineer can do the adjustment easily. By the way, it must be noticed that the BAS offers easy access to each regulation loop parameter. BAS is therefore a useful tool for the project or maintenance helping ensure it was properly designed, installed and commissioned.

Room average.

The regulation loop controls the average temperature of each room therefore each room has a different ambient temperature due to the heating gain that is different for each room.

The regulation loop has the same function and effect for every area. It measures the average temperature of the different spaces to be cooled down

Duct system

14c

14c

14c

Air flow supply and return

Area one

Area two

Area three

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To diffusers

From return grilles

Air return duct

Cooling coil

Fresh air duct

Fan

Air filter
12c

Three way regulating valve

Balancing valve
6c

Chilled water supply and return

For this kind of installation ( called Constant Air Volume system ), the return duct system should have a return fan with an exhaust duct system. Often this kind of installation has even not return duct system and there is no duct dampers for balancing but diffuser dampers only.

This air conditioning design and system can be acceptable if the areas are in communication through doors maintained opened or if the heating gain is not so different from one area to the next.

It must be noticed that if many AHUs are installed in the same manner at the same storey of a building, the air return can be the mixing of other AHU air returns so the heating gain of one AHU controlled by its regulation loop may not be the real one.

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WATER CONTROL SYSTEM APPLICATIONS

As already above explained, we have seen that if a flow varies in a connection by changing its resistance, this affects the flow in the whole hydronic network connections. Therefore, the control systems must not disbalance the chilled water flow rate of the chiller and the other connections ( AHU cooling coils ) of the pipe system.

In term of capacity, the difference between air and water distribution system is in the specific heat. Air one is of 1 Kj / Kg / Deg.C. whereas water one is of 4.18 Kj / Kg / Deg.C. so the variation of chilled water flow rate involves very much more cooling capacity variation.

Moreover, every chiller running must have a constant flow rate especially for the one which control system is at the outlet of the chiller. For a centrifugal chiller ( for instance ), any variation of flow will input the chiller regulation loop a temperature change that will be followed by outputting a load variation. Stability of chilled water flow rate determine the life span of the chiller.

Water flow control system and stability of the chilled water flow rate:

Two way valve mounted in a pipe system:

Pump Valve

The pipework resistance varies with the valve position. From 100% opened the valve can be closed to 50%.

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By doing so, the resistance of the hydraulic network has increased, the difference of pressure has increased, the water flow has decreased.

Pressure p Bar

A B

Valve 50 % opened

Valve 100 % opened

Flow m3/h

The two way valve system does not maintain a constant flow rate through the pump with the valve position varying.

Three way valve mounted in a pipe system:

Part A Part B

PartC

Whatever the three way valve position, the flow will be constant in the part A of the network providing the resistance is the same in the part B and C.

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Pressure p Bar

Valve 50 % opened

B/A

Valve 100 % opened

Flow m3/h

Actually, the flow rate will have a slight variation especially as the valve is 50 % opened. At this position, the part B and C of the network are in parallel, so their resistance are in parallel, so the equivalent resistance of the whole network decreases. The rate of this variation occuring as the three way valve is reaching its 50% position depends on the resistance of the network variable flow part B and C in comparison with the resistance of the network stable flow part A. The more important the resistance of the former, the more variation.

As a rule of thumb, the resistance of the network variable flow part must be at least four times less than the resistance of the network stable flow part.

CHILLED WATER PIPE SYSTEM AND CHILLER

Since a chilled water pipe system supplies many AHU cooling coils that have their own regulation loop so their own chilled water flow rate variation; the problem is that some parts of the chilled water pipe system must have from time to time variable flow rate and this without affecting the flow rate of some other parts, meanwhile the chiller must have a constant flow rate maintained. We know cooling capacity is a flow by a difference of temperatures and if any flow change, the temperatures vary as well. It is therefore very important that the chilled water pipe system offers through its design and installation a chilled water flow rate stable as much as possible through the chiller whatever variation of flow through the AHU cooling coils.

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The chilled water pipe system mounted with three way valves offers the most stable flow rate providing each AHU connection is correctly balanced. It means that each AHU cooling coil has its maximum flow rate as each of their three way valves is opened in a same time.

Chilled water pipe system mounted with three way valves:

C H I L L E R

Network constant flow part

Network variable flow part

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Whatever the three way valve positions, The flow rate will be always constant through the pump and the chiller. It will also supply the cooling capacity required in each AHU connection.

To install a chilled water pipe system with three way valves is more expensive than installing one with two way valves with regulating bypass valve.

Chilled water pipe system mounted with two way valves and regulating bypass valve:

C H I L L E R
Regulating Bypass valve

Network constant flow part

Network variable flow part

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The two way valve with regulating bypass valve system has a constant flow part of the network which has a resistance very much less than the variable one. This relatively affects the stability of the chilled water flow rate through the pump and the chiller as the two way valves and the regulating bypass valve positions are changing.

This system is acceptable for very large building where diversity factor has influence however this system is almost impossible to be correctly balanced without BAS.

Regulating bypass valve regulation loop:

The regulation loop sensor measures the differential pressure of the pump head. The controller outputs a signal to position the regulating bypass valve thus maintaining a constant chilled water flow rate though the chiller and the pump.

Pump

Chiller

AHU two way valves

Regulating bypass valve

P
Controller

AHU cooling coils

As the two way valves of the AHU are closed by their own regulation loop, the chilled water pipe system total resistance increases and so does the differential pressure ( or pressure drop ) that is immediately measured by the regulating bypass valve regulation loop and makes the regulating bypass valve open till the original differential pressure is reached back.

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A
Pressure p Bar

Two way valves 50 % opened with the regulating bypass valve closed. The total resistance increases.

Two way valves 50 % opened with the regulating bypass valve 50 % opened. The total resistance is maintained. Flow m3/h

Whatever the two way valve positions, The flow rate will be always constant through the pump and the chiller. It will also supply the cooling capacity required in each AHU connection.

CHILLER OPERATING CONDITION

Constant chilled water flow rate:

For any change of the chilled water flow rate, the regulation loop of the chiller, having at this time its cooling capacity on, will input a chilled water temperature changing because of the flow variation, it will then unload or load its capacity. This especially for the chiller regulation loop controlling the leaving temperature of the chiller.

A constant flow rate must be maintained through the chiller. The chiller manufacturers allow a flow rate variation of 10%.

The chilled water pipe system must be properly balanced whatever two or three way valve system. This is done by adjusting the balancing valves during the testing and commissioning of the project. Regulating valves do not have this function. Regulating valves and balancing valves must be both installed on the chilled water pipe system. Regulating valves are different with balancing valves. They have different technology and function.

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Even with a well balanced chilled water pipe system, the regulating valves must have position variations within a reasonable range so their regulation loop must have a stable operating. This especially for a two way valve chilled water pipe system whom the bypass regulating valve must be strictly adjusted during the testing and commissioning of the project.

TROUBLESHOOTING

By overcooling some areas so wasting energy, some air conditioning equipment and system problems may be hidden. As the energy saving program is implemented, these problems can suddenly appear and troubleshooting be required. In this case, the cause of the problem is not the energy saving program but a specified problem which has to be identified and overcome.

The following is a procedure that will help you to identify and overcome any minor trouble about which people complaint however. Too hot or too cold are the common complaint. Solution is at 90% solved through a proper servicing. However, there is 10% left in which very much more important problems can be. These problems can be beyond the person in charge knowledge. In this case, the correct procedure and approach required will make the maintenance team save time and money.

THE AREA SUPPLIED

When you attend to a complaint in a area, you must first have a view and idea of all the following things in a wink - outdoor condition - indoor condition and activity people complaining - Then, check the air conditioning system itself. Some complaints may not be due to the air conditioning system itself.

Remember in the air conditioned space:

For a correct design and with normal running condition

air supply temperature < air ambient temperature < air return temperature

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Since no flow = no cooling capacity:

Be sure that the air flow is correct throughout the room or area. Check if there are supply and return grilles in the same room or area. Check if the supply and return flows are effective ones. Even if the flow is correct, be sure that the diffusion in the room is good enough to make an efficient exchange.

Beware: If you think the air flow supply is too low, do not open the diffuser dampers without being sure that this is the only reason there is not enough flow. The dampers were adjusted during the commissioning, they may have been closed since then inadvertently during the routine servicing. Anyway, be aware of changing the damper position will affect the whole duct system by causing unbalanced effect. Changing the air flow on each diffuser makes the cooling capacity supplied change into each room.

If the air flow and diffusion are correct throughout the room, if the air supply temperature is constant, the air return temperature will vary with the heating gain, the more the heating gain, the higher the air return temperature, the higher the difference of temperature.

If there is no heating gain, there will be no difference of temperature since the air supply temperature will match the air return temperature.

However, if the air return temperature tends to match air supply temperature while a heating gain occurs, it means that there is a by-pass effect between air supply and air return due to a bad diffusion.

Do not forget Cooling capacity = A flow by a difference of temperatures.

So we must have both correct flow and difference of temperatures throughout the air supply diffusers and air return grilles of the room.

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On the air diffuser, even if the supply air flow is not enough, the air temperature on this diffuser may be normal.

On the air diffuser, if supply air temperature is too high, it may be due to not enough air flow.

Since there could be a regulation loop that may control the air flow rate or the air supply temperature, it may be normal that there is not so much air flow rate or a high air supply temperature. However, if the heating load seems to be maximum in the space and if the regulation loop properly works, both air flow and air supply temperature should be as expected.

SUMMARIZE OF PROCEDURE

Attend to a complain too hot in a building area. Do the following in sequence:

1. Take note of the time and outdoor weather.

2. As entering the area, feel yourself the ambient temperature.

3. Check the area to see if there is abnormal heating gain.

4. Check if the air diffusion is correct ( supply and return ).

5. Check the air flow supply on diffuser ( by putting your hand on it ).

6. Check the air supply temperature on diffuser ( by putting your hand on it ).

If there is not enough air flow on the diffuser, do not open the damper diffuser, check the duct and AHU systems which will be explained at the next chapter.

If the temperature is too high on the diffuser, check the duct and AHU systems.

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THE DUCT SYSTEM

On air diffuser, if there is any problem of flow or temperature, check the duct system into the ceiling.

Be sure that the supply and return flows are connected to the same unit supplying the same area.

Be sure that the diffusers are really connected to the AHU duct system concerned.

The duct system connection may be wrong. The duct system can have some leakage.

Insulation of the air supply duct system may be depreciated. An extra heating gain can occur in the ceiling and so raises the supply air temperature through the duct system wall by heat transfer.

If the duct system is correct, the AHU outlet air temperature must match the air temperatures on the diffusers ( 1C of difference is acceptable, depends on the duct length for no insulation is perfect ).

Each duct system connection must be balanced by dampers. Like on diffusers, be aware that dampers are installed to be adjusted during testing and commissioning, so avoid touching them unless you are sure they have been adjusted to the wrong position.

So for either/both temperature or/and air flow problems on diffusers or return grilles and if the duct system is correct, check the AHU.

At the ahu fan outlet:

If the air flow is too low with a fan motor running

1. Air filter clean?

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2. Cooling coil clean? 3. Fan blades clean? 4. AHU dampers ( if installed ) fully opened?

Like on diffusers, be aware that dampers are installed to be adjusted during testing and commissioning, so avoid touching them unless you are sure they have been adjusted to the wrong position.

In general, check everything that could increase the resistance of the air passing though the AHU.

If any electrical modifications were previously done in the control panel, be sure that the fan direction of rotation is correct, be sure the motor starter system is correct, for instance, with a delta star system, be sure that the delta stage was reached.

For an air flow too low at the fan air outlet, the air temperature can be correct.

If the air flow is correct but the fan outlet air temperature too high.

Check the entering temperature of the system ( for most AHUs , it is a mixing of return and fresh air ).

The AHU air inlet temperature may be too high for the designed cooling coil capacity. So the AHU, even running at its full capacity, cannot maintain a correct air outlet temperature. ( For an AHU having only a cooling coil, the leaving temperature is measured at the fan air outlet, the entering temperature is measured before the cooling coil ).

If this return temperature ( entering the AHU ) is too high.

Check why there is an extra heating gain, it can come from the air return system ( especially if this is one has no duct system ) or it can come from too much fresh air.

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If the entering air temperature of the AHU is correct but the leaving air temperature too high.

The thermal exchange between the air flow and the chilled water through the cooling coil is not efficient. ( If the cooling coil fins are not clean, this will affect both air flow rate and efficiency of the heat transfer ). The cooling coil fins can be depreciated by corrosion or dented for instance.

If the cooling coil thermal exchange efficiency is correct but the leaving air temperature too high.

The cooling coil does not supply a correct cooling capacity so check the cooling coil chilled water parameters

SUMMARIZE OF PROCEDURE

1. Check the air diffuser temperatures matching the AHU air outlet temperature. 2. Check the duct system connections into the ceiling from the area to the AHU. 3. Do not touch dampers ( on diffuser, duct connection, AHU ). 4. Check cleanliness of AHU components. 5. Check the fan direction of rotation. 6. Check the fan motor electrical supply. 7. Check the AHU air inlet temperature. 8. Check the AHU cooling coil efficiency,

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CHILLED WATER PIPE SYSTEM

Correct water flow and correct water temperatures on the cooling coil:

Practically we can know if there is a correct chilled water flow rate by measuring the entering and leaving chilled water temperature of the cooling coil. The water pressure gauges installed are seldom accurate and we often do not know the cooling coil pressure drop curve given by the manufacturer.

Whether there is a flow or not throughout a pipe can be heard by closing a gate valve and as the valve is about 95 % closed, a sound heard can give you an idea of the flow rate.

Whether the flow rate is correct or not throughout the cooling coil can be known by measuring the chilled water pipe temperatures.

As you measure the entering water temperature of the cooling coil.

If the entering water temperature of the cooling coil does not match the leaving water temperature of the chiller ( be sure that the chilled water pipe system insulation is in good condition ). It means that there is no flow at all in this connection of the network. If there is no flow at all in the whole chilled water pipe system, the chiller must have tripped already.

If there is no flow at all in the connection of the AHU.

It may be due to:

Air locked. Dirty pocket. A valve closed ( balancing valve, gate valve, regulating valve ). Like the dampers of the duct system, AHU or diffusers, avoid touching a balancing valve since it has been adjusted during the testing and commissioning.

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A strainer totally choked ( very rare )

If the entering chilled water temperature of the cooling coil is correct, check the leaving chilled temperature of the cooling coil.

Beware:

You must interpret this measurement since you must have an idea of the heating gain ( thermal load ) passing through the cooling coil as you are doing the measurement.

If the AHU is running with a correct air flow, with a correct chilled water flow rate, at its maximum cooling capacity matching its designed heating load, the cooling coil chilled water difference of temperature must be around 4 to 6 deg. C. ( 7 deg. C can be acceptable ).

If the temperature difference is below this value, it means there is too much chilled water flow.

If the temperature difference is above this value, it means there is not enough chilled water flow rate.

The latter case is the most difficult one. Even if the chilled flow throughout the cooling coil is very low, the entering chilled water temperature of the cooling coil will match the chiller leaving water temperature but the leaving chilled water temperature of the cooling coil can be very high.

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If there is not enough chilled water flow rate

It can be due to:

Valve not fully opened ( gate valve ). Balancing valve wrongly adjusted. Regulating valve not fully opened. Strainer choked. Everything increasing the resistance of the water flow passing through. Air entrapped Network disbalanced.

For the latter possibility, it is possible that the balancing of the chilled water pipe system made during the commissioning does not respond to the real requirement of the building.

It is also possible that a non qualified technician inadvertently opened or closed some balancing valve without putting them back at their previous positions, so disbalancing the whole chilled water pipe system of the building.

To know if the chilled water pipe system is disbalanced, check the other AHUs connected to the same network.

SUMMARIZE OF PROCEDURE

1. Check the AHU cooling coil pipe flow. 2. Check the cooling coil entering temperature matching the chiller leaving temperature. 3. Check the cooling coil leaving temperature. 4. If not enough flow, check the valves but do not touch the balancing valve.

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5. Check the other AHU cooling coil water flow if doubt of disbalancing.

CHILLER RUNNING CONDITION

For the technician, it is important to check the leaving and entering chiller temperatures of both condenser and evaporator and to know what is the chiller load by checking its inlet current.

The chiller evaporator difference of temperature must not be more than 7C. and must not be less than 2C. The leaving temperature should be from 6C. to 8C. around.

The chiller condenser difference of temperature must not be more than 6C. and less than 2C. The entering temperature must not be more than 29C.

The cooling tower water level and cleanliness must be checked. The water cleanliness to be sure that the chiller condenser will be properly running. The water level to avoid overflowing or air suction. Too high water level may overflow leading to a high water consumption. Too low water level can make air be sucked by vortex effect into the suction pipe of the cooling tower. This air then being entrapped in the condenser will make the chiller trip and high pressure alarm display.

As many cooling towers are connected in parallel with a common header, despite the common balancing pipe connecting all cooling towers and an adjustment of the water make up float system, the water level may vary when the number of cooling towers running changes. Even if both suction and discharge pipe gate valves are closed.

CONTROL SYSTEMS

As you check from the area to the chiller plant room, you will come across control system regulation loops.

Usually AHU control systems are more complicated than the FCU ones, most FCU control systems are by thermostat that is seldom the case for the AHU.

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Even if you do not know the installed control system technology, you can see if it properly operates or not by checking first the location of the thermostat or sensor device, then be sure the thermostat is in demand and that it works by changing the set point above and below the temperature measured. The output must on and off as you are doing it or the regulating valve must vary its position.

We must note that if many AHUs are installed in the same manner in the storey of a building, the air return can be the mixing of other AHU air returns so the heating gain of one AHU controlled by its regulation loop is not the real one.

For instance, in shopping centers, some split unit condensers are mounted in the ceiling plenum adding heating load to the AHU.

Area air temperature control system by air flow variation:

The terminal regulation loop controls the air flow supply through damper installed in the VAV box to maintain the area ambient temperature. In the area, the difference between the set point and the ambient temperature outputs the signal varying the damper position in the VAV box. The air flow on the diffuser varies accordingly. So the VAV box regulation can be easily checked by changing the set point and noticed the air flow rate variation at the diffuser.

As for the supply air temperature at the AHU fan outlet, which is controlled by a regulation loop that controls the chilled water regulating valve position, and the supply air pressure at the AHU fan outlet, which is controlled by a regulation loop that controls the fan speed in order to deliver the air flow required in the whole duct system, to check or adjust this kind of regulation loop should be done by a testing and commissioning engineer only. Control system adjustment and even installation is a matter of expertise, especially for pressure control system. In other words, do not improvise yourself in this matter.

SUMMARIES OF ALL PROCEDURES

As you do the following, fill up some forms or at least take some notes.

1. Take note of the time and outdoor weather.

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2. As entering the area, feel yourself the ambient temperature. 3. Check the area to see if there is abnormal heating gain. 4. Check if the air diffusion is correct ( effective supply and return in the same area ) 5. Check the air flow supply on diffuser ( by putting your hand on it ). 6. Check the air supply temperature on diffuser ( by putting your hand on it ). 7. Check if any area regulation loop sensor or thermostat. 8. Check if area regulation loop works ( include correct sensor location ). 9. Check into the ceiling what kind of unit and if air return has a duct system. 10. Check the air diffuser temperatures matching the unit fan outlet air temperature. 11. Check the duct system connections into the ceiling from the diffusers and grilles of the area to the unit. 12. Do not touch dampers ( on diffuser, duct connection, unit ). 13. Check cleanliness of unit components. 14. Check the fan direction of rotation. 15. Check the fan motor electrical supply. 16. Check the unit air inlet temperature. 17. Check the unit cooling coil efficiency ( by seeing if there is condensation on it ). 18. Check the AHU cooling coil pipe flow ( by hearing ). 19. Check the cooling coil entering temperature matching the chiller leaving temperature. 20. Check the chiller plant room pumps. 21. Check the leaving and entering temperature of the chiller condenser and evaporator. 22. Check the cooling tower running condition if any abnormal temperature. 23. Check the cooling coil leaving temperature.

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24. If not enough flow, check the valves but do not touch the balancing valve, check the regulating valve position. 25. Check the other unit cooling coil water flow if doubt of disbalancing.

DO NOT TOUCH:

Any balancing components on duct or water systems. Any regulation loop controller adjustment but set point.

MEASUREMENT

Most pressure gauges are inaccurate and not reliable. To measure any air or water flow is practically more or less inaccurate whatever the system used. So the only means to identify flow rate is by measuring temperatures.

Proper instrument and sensors are required to take temperatures. Attention is essential to do a correct measurement and each one requires interpretation due to the margin of error. Taking measurement is not easy matter. As you take measurement, take time to do it.

- Dynamic probe:

Probe

Handle

Digital thermometer

To measure fluid in motion.

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It can be inserted into a duct system, an air diffuser, a return or an exhaust grille. It can be immersed in liquid. It can measure outdoor temperature under wind effect.

- Static probe:

Probe having filament inside

Handle

Digital thermometer

To measure still air only. To take ambient temperature. Outdoor temperature can be taken, if it is shielded from wind. Never immerse it in liquid.

- Surface probe:

Probe Handle

Digital thermometer

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To measure temperature of a surface. Surface of a wall to know radiation effect. Surface of the pipe of a refrigeration circuit to know the superheat and undercool of the refrigeration cycle. Surface of the pipe water system to interpret inside water temperature.

You can check yourself accuracy of the thermometer easily for the sensors that can be immersed in liquid by putting it into melting ice. The reading must be 0 Deg.C.

In case of litige about measurement, calibration should be made every year. A certificate of calibration is given along.

Water pipe measurement:

Thermometers are always connected but seldom working. They moreover have a time lag. One way is to measure the pipe surface that is representative of the water temperature flowing inside the pipe. As measuring the return and the supply with the same probe and method, any error remains the same so the reading is accurate for a difference of temperature.

As measuring the supply pipe surface temperature, the cooling coil chilled water entering temperature should match ( one degree above is considered normal depends on insulation and length of the pipe ) the chiller chilled water leaving temperature. In case of large pipe with a little flow however, stratification effect will make the surface pipe temperature 1 or 2 deg. C different with the water temperature inside the pipe.

The above mentioned is for most cooling application whom the chilled water pipe system design offers cooling capacity of the air unit cooling coil varying with the water flow rate. In that case only, it is true that the cooling coil water entering temperature ( we speak about the water flowing inside the pipe ) matches the chiller water leaving temperature whatever the flow rate.

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Often in heating application or recovery system but seldom in cooling application the water coils have their cooling capacity varying with a water entering temperature varying and a water flow rate constant. Understanding of the chilled water pipe system is of importance to understand the relation between flow and temperature adding the fact that measurement done can be wrong. Interpretation of measurement has to be done along a clear view of the flows and temperatures operating throughout the installation.

Connection for surface pipe measurement:

Insulation cork to plug back after reading The bottom of the connection is the pipe surface and this must be clean

Connection in which you insert the surface probe PVC tube

Chilled water inside pipe

Insulation pipe

Insulation shell

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