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Source: HANDBOOK OF PETROLEUM REFINING PROCESSES

CHAPTER 10.2

THE ROSE PROCESS


Tayseer Abdel-Halim and Raymond Floyd
Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. Resid Upgrading Technology Houston, Texas

BACKGROUND
The Residuum Oil Supercritical Extraction (ROSE) process is the premier deasphalting technology available in industry today. This state-of-the-art process extracts high-quality deasphalted oil (DAO) from atmospheric or vacuum residues and other feedstocks. Depending on solvent selection, the DAO can be an excellent feedstock for catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, or lube oil blending. The asphaltene product from the ROSE process is often blended to fuel oil, but can also be used in the production of asphalt blending components, solid fuels, or fuel emulsions. Other possible options for the asphaltenes include use as feedstock to conversion processes such as partial oxidation, coking, or visbreaking. The ROSE process was originally developed and commercialized by Kerr-McGee Corporation and first licensed by the company in 1979. In 1995, KBR (Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc.) acquired the ROSE process from Kerr-McGee. To date, 33 ROSE units with a total capacity of over 600,000 BPSD have been licensed and/or designed. All these units utilize supercritical fluid technology. KBR is responsible for the design or revamp of more than 400,000 BPSD of this total capacity, including the conversion of the worlds largest solvent deasphalting facility for Chevron in Richmond, California, to a 50,000 BPSD ROSE unit.

ADVANTAGES
Processing residues in a ROSE unit merits serious consideration for todays refiner. A processing scheme utilizing a ROSE unit offers several operational and economic advantages over competing schemes. These advantages include

Increased yield and improved quality of valuable DAO product compared to other deasphalting processes Significantly reduced fuel oil production for refineries blending vacuum residue to fuel Flexibility to process atmospheric/vacuum residues from varying crude sources with little difficulty

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THE ROSE PROCESS 10.16

SEPARATION PROCESSES

State-of-the-art supercritical solvent recovery that significantly reduces operating costs compared to other solvent deasphalting processes Significantly lower capital and operating costs compared to other upgrading processes

ROSE DAO YIELD AND QUALITY ADVANTAGE


ROSE technology offers significant DAO yield and quality advantages compared to other technologies. Superior process performance is ensured by utilizing state-of-the-art asphaltene and DAO separator internals (ROSEMAX). Achieving the maximum yield and quality benefits from countercurrent extraction requires that limits to mass transfer be minimized. The capacity of the separator vessels must be maximized for a given size for economical design. These issues are addressed by the new generation of ROSE separator internals. A brief discussion of the ROSEMAX internals is provided in the next few paragraphs. A commitment to enhance performance of the asphaltene and DAO separators for two ROSE licensees prompted KBR to consider significant design improvements to the previous Kerr-McGee internals design. KBR and Koch Engineering formed a team to identify design improvements and to quantify potential benefits. A significant amount of engineering analysis, pilot-plant testing, and computer flow modeling was done to support design changes that would significantly improve performance. A major advance resulting from these efforts was the development of our new proprietary ROSEMAX separator internals that are now available to all ROSE licensees. New packing capacity correlations were developed based on laboratory and pilot-plant test work done by Koch and KBR for both liquid-liquid and supercritical service. These correlations can be used for both structured and random dumped packing. The correlations were verified for the conditions found in the ROSE separators, i.e., very high phase rates, low interfacial tension, and near-critical and supercritical conditions. These correlations provide improved understanding of how the packing crimp size, crimp angle, and surface treatment affect extraction capacity and efficiency and coalescing capacity and efficiency. A complete understanding of how to vary packing parameters to achieve desired performance is required for proper selection of packing size and arrangement. The use of ROSEMAX internals allows the ROSE separators to operate at about twice the phase rates of conventional separators and provides about twice the mass-transfer efficiency of conventional extraction contacting devices.

ROSE OPERATING COST SAVINGS


ROSE utility costs (steam, power, fuel, and cooling water) are typically 40 to 70 percent of the costs associated with a conventional solvent deasphalting process. These savings are primarily a result of recovering over 90 percent of the extraction solvent as a supercritical fluid. Other processes remove the solvent from the DAO by flashing at low pressure. The solvent is then compressed and condensed before being reused in the process. These utility savings can play a significant role in minimizing total project costs associated with conversion of an existing solvent deasphalting unit to ROSE technology or for a grassroots installation. Conventional versus Supercritical Solvent Recovery Figure 10.2.1 illustrates the energy requirements to recover the solvent in the DAO for conventional solvent recovery processes. All the solvent exits the extractor as a solution of
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THE ROSE PROCESS


THE ROSE PROCESS

10.17

DAO and solvent at a relatively low-temperature and high pressure (point A). The stream is heated and flashed at some higher temperature and reduced pressure (point E). At this condition the majority of the solvent flashes from the solution and is condensed. The DAO and the remaining solvent are further heated and enter the product stripper (point F) at a greatly reduced pressure, where the remaining solvent is recovered. In this scheme, all the solvent is vaporized and condensed prior to being recycled to the extraction conditions. The energy requirements for this path are proportional to the quantity of solvent that follows each course. Figure 10.2.2 illustrates the energy requirements to recover the solvent in the DAO for a supercritical solvent recovery processes. All the solvent exits the extractor as a solution of DAO and solvent at approximately the same relatively low temperature and high-pressure conditions as the conventional scheme (point A). The DAO solvent solution flows through the ROSE exchanger, gaining heat from the recycled supercritical solvent (point B). The solution is further heated by gaining heat from the stripped DAO product and
Is In oth cr er e m Supercritical asin s gT Fluid

A Liquid Increasing Pressure Increasing Pressure

A - Extractor E - Flash F - Stripper Increasing Enthalpy

Vapor F

FIGURE 10.2.1 Conventional solvent recovery.

A Liquid

Is In oth cr er Supercritical eas ms in B Fluid gT C D

A - Extractor B - Heater Inlet C - DAO Separator D - Solvent Cooler E - Flash F - Stripper

Vapor F

Increasing Enthalpy
FIGURE 10.2.2 Supercritical solvent recovery.

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THE ROSE PROCESS 10.18


SEPARATION PROCESSES

steam or hot oil in the DAO separator preheater (point C). At point C, 85 to 93 percent of the solvent is recovered as a supercritical solvent. The supercritical solvent provides the majority of the heat for the DAO solvent solution (point A to point B) as it is cooled from point C to point D. The solvent is cooled to the temperature required for the extraction (point A) in a solvent cooler. The residual solvent in the DAO product exiting from the DAO separator is recovered by flashing and stripping. In the supercritical solvent recovery scheme, only 7 to 15 percent of the extraction solvent is heated to points E and F, compared to 100 percent of the solvent in the conventional scheme. Since the horizontal distances in Figs. 10.2.1 and 10.2.2 are proportional to the change in the solvents enthalpy and in both schemes the same amount (about 0.5 percent) must be stripped from the DAO product (point F), the energy requirement for the supercritical solvent recovery scheme is only 34 percent of the heat energy requirement for single-effect evaporative solvent recovery.

PROCESS DESCRIPTION
Summary In the ROSE process, DAO product is extracted from the vacuum residue (feed) with a light solvent such as n-butane or n-pentane. Asphaltene is produced as a by-product. The asphaltene product can be used as a blend component in the production of some grades of asphalt cement or in fuel oil. The asphaltenes can also be further processed by visbreaking, coking, or partial oxidation to recover additional products. Figures 10.2.3 through 10.2.6 and the process description that follows detail a two-stage ROSE unit producing DAO and asphaltene products only. The process flows for two-stage and three-stage ROSE units are very similar. The three-stage unit contains an additional train of resin product recovery equipment similar to the product recovery equipment for the DAO and asphaltene products. Detailed process design is normally performed to identify opportunities for heat integration within the resin product recovery system.

Feed System Vacuum residue is pumped to the feed surge drum. Feed from the drum is charged to the unit by the feed pump. The feed pump boosts the vacuum residue to a sufficiently high pressure to feed the asphaltene separator. The incoming feed is mixed with a portion of the solvent and is cooled against asphaltene solvent from the bottom of the asphaltene separator in the asphaltene/feed exchanger. The cooled feed is mixed with a second portion of the solvent prior to entering the top distributor of the asphaltene separator.

Asphaltene Separator The feed/solvent mixture feeds the top distributor of the asphaltene separator. Additional solvent required for the extraction enters the bottom distributor of the asphaltene separator, providing countercurrent flow. Asphaltenes are insoluble in the extraction solvent at the extraction conditions and therefore drop out of solution and exit through the bottom of the asphaltene separator. Slightly less than one volume of dissolved solvent per volume of asphaltenes exits as an

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Equipment List 8 NNF

SOLVENT TO SOLVENT CONDENSER

5 TC PC 6 2 TC 7 LC LC 10 DAO/SOLVENT TO DAO FLASH DRUM DAO TO B/L DAO FROM DAO STRIPPER 4 ASPHALTENE/SOLVENT TO ASPHALTENE FLASH DRUM 3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Feed Surge Drum Asphaltene Separator DAO Separator Asphaltene/Feed Exchanger ROSE Exchanger DAO/DAO Solvent Exchanger DAO Separator Preheater Solvent Cooler Feed Pump Solvent Circulation Pump

SOLVENT FROM RECYCLE SOLVENT PUMP

THE ROSE PROCESS

FEED FROM STORAGE

LC

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FIGURE 10.2.3 ROSE unit separator section.

OVERPRESSURE CONTROL SOLVENT 16 PC LC TC 15 LC 13

12

DAO/SOLVENT FROM DAO SEPARATOR

11

LC

RECYCLE SOLVENT TO SOLVENT CIRCULATION SYSTEM HD 17 SOLVENT FROM L. P. SOLVENT PUMP Equipment List

14

THE ROSE PROCESS

DAO/SOLVENT TC TO DAO STRIPPER

HD

ASPHALTENE/SOLVENT FROM ASPHALTENE SEPARATOR

ASPHALTENE/SOLVENT TO ASPHALTENE STRIPPER HEATER

11 12 13 14 15 16 17

DAO Flash Drum Asphaltene Flash Drum Solvent Surge Drum DAO Stripper Heater Asphaltene Flash Heater Solvent Condenser Recycle Solvent Pump

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FIGURE 10.2.4 ROSE unit preflash section.

Equipment List

23 22 TC STEAM HD PC TC 19 20 21 LC LC HD SOLVENT TO SOLVENT SURGE DRUM LC

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

DAO Stripper Asphaltene Stripper L. P. Solvent Drum Asphaltene Stripper Heater Steam Heater Stripper Condenser DAO Pump Asphaltene Pump Sour Water Pump L. P. Solvent Pump

MAKEUP SOLVENT

DAO/SOLVENT FROM DAO FLASH DRUM

THE ROSE PROCESS

18

DAO TO DAO/ DAO SOLVENT EXCHANGER

24 27 SOUR WATER TO B/L

ASPHALTENE/SOLVENT FROM ASPHALTENE FLASH DRUM 25 26

ASPHALTENE PRODUCT

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FIGURE 10.2.5 ROSE unit stripper section.

THE ROSE PROCESS 10.22


SEPARATION PROCESSES

28 MAKE UP HOT OIL LC 29 7 14 15 21 22 TRACING OIL 30

TC FUEL

Equipment List 7 14 15 21 22 28 29 30 DAO Separator Preheater DAO Stripper Heater Asphaltene Flash Heater Asphaltene Stripper Heater Steam Heater Hot Oil Surge Drum Hot Oil Furnace Hot Oil Circulation Pump

FIGURE 10.2.6 ROSE unit hot oil system.

asphaltene/solvent solution. This asphaltene/solvent solution flows to the asphaltene stripping section where the dissolved solvent is stripped from the asphaltene product. The lighter DAO is soluble in the solvent at the extraction condition. This DAO/solvent solution, containing the majority of the solvent, exits the top of the asphaltene separator as rich solvent. Operating temperature, solvent composition, solvent/oil ratio, and, to a lesser extent, pressure in the asphaltene separator affect product yield and quality. Since certain primary process parameters (i.e., solvent/oil ratio, solvent composition, and operating pressure) are fixed or set at relatively constant values, the asphaltene separator operating temperature is used as the primary performance control variable. The DAO yield is effectively controlled by the asphaltene separator operating temperature. Higher operating temperatures result in less DAO product extracted overhead. Lower operating temperatures produce more DAO, but of a poorer quality. The solvent cooler controls the asphaltene separator overhead temperature, thereby controlling the DAO yield.

ROSE Exchanger and DAO Separator The asphaltene separator overhead DAO/solvent solution (i.e., rich solvent) is heated above the critical temperature of the pure solvent by exchanging heat with recovered lean solvent in the ROSE exchanger, with DAO product in the DAO/DAO solvent exchanger,

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THE ROSE PROCESS


THE ROSE PROCESS

10.23

and with hot oil in the DAO separator preheater. The rich solvent then enters the DAO separator. Increasing the temperature of the solvent above its critical temperature takes advantage of the solvents low-density properties in this region. As the temperature increases above the critical point, the density of the solvent significantly decreases to values approaching those of dense gases. At this increased temperature, the DAO is virtually insoluble in the solvent, and a phase separation occurs. Approximately 90 percent of the solvent from the rich solvent stream is recovered by this supercritical phase separation. Supercritical phase separation in the DAO separator and subsequent heat recovery in the ROSE exchanger provide significant energy savings over conventional deasphalting processes. The conventional processes have substantial energy requirements to vaporize and condense subcritical solvent in the solvent recovery system. The DAO phase, containing slightly less than one volume of dissolved solvent per volume of DAO product, is withdrawn from the bottom of the DAO separator. This DAO/solvent solution flows to the DAO stripping section where the remaining solvent is stripped from the DAO product. The DAO separator operating conditions are set to achieve the density difference needed for good separation. Pressure is controlled by adjusting recycle solvent flow to the highpressure system from the recycle solvent pump. Temperature is controlled by adjusting the hot oil flow to the DAO separator preheater.

Solvent Cooler and Solvent Circulation Pump The recovered solvent leaves the DAO separator as lean solvent, also known as circulating solvent. Heat is recovered from the lean solvent in the ROSE exchanger. The solvent is then circulated back through the solvent cooler for temperature control of the asphaltene separator overhead. Sufficient excess duty is available to provide cooling for swings in feed temperature. The recycle solvent from the recycle solvent pump combines with the large volume of circulating solvent from the solvent cooler. The combined flow enters the solvent circulation pump, which boosts the pressure back to the asphaltene separator operating pressure, thus making up for the pressure drop in the circulating solvent loop. Flow valves downstream of the pump provide adequate control for splitting solvent between the top and bottom distributors of the asphaltene separator.

DAO Stripping Section The DAO/solvent solution is fed to the DAO flash drum on interface-level control from the DAO separator. At the flash drum, the pressure is reduced so that much of the solvent flashes overhead. A temperature decrease is expected from the flash. The DAO is then fed to the DAO stripper on liquid-level control from the DAO flash drum. Before entering the DAO stripper, the DAO solution is heated in the DAO stripper heater. The heater provides sufficient heat to the system to maintain the recommended operating temperature in the DAO stripper. Heat is provided by either steam or a closed-loop hot oil system. The DAO is contacted with superheated steam in the stripper to strip any remaining solvent to low levels in the product stream. Steam reduces the partial pressure of the solvent in the stripper, thus allowing more solvent to vaporize from the DAO liquid. For good stripping and to meet flash point specifications, stripping steam rates are on flow control and are usually set at 0.5 lb/h of steam per BPD of DAO product. The steam temperature should be at or above the recommended operating temperature of the stripper. Colder

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THE ROSE PROCESS 10.24


SEPARATION PROCESSES

steam can cool the DAO and impair stripping performance. Wet steam can cause foaming and operational problems. The DAO flash drum overhead solvent vapor is condensed in the solvent condenser. The condensed solvent is stored in the solvent surge drum. The solvent is recycled to the process under pressure control. The DAO stripper overhead solvent vapor and steam flow through the stripper condenser, where the solvent and steam are condensed. The condensed solvent and water are separated in the low-pressure (LP) solvent drum. The water is removed on level control from the LP solvent drum and sent to the sour water system. The condensed solvent is pumped by the LP solvent pump to the solvent surge drum before being recycled to the process. The DAO product exits the stripper bottom and is pumped on level control with the DAO pump. Heat from the DAO is then recovered in the DAO/DAO solvent exchanger by preheating rich solvent upstream of the DAO separator preheater.

Asphaltene Stripping Section The asphaltene/solvent solution from the asphaltene separator is heated by the feed in the asphaltene/feed exchanger and the asphaltene flash heater by either steam or a closed-loop hot oil system. This heat input is required to maintain a minimum inlet temperature for asphaltene handling in the downstream asphaltene flash drum. The hot asphaltene/solvent solution is fed to the asphaltene flash drum on interface-level control from the asphaltene separator. At the flash drum, the pressure is reduced so that much of the solvent flashes overhead. A temperature decrease is expected from the flash. The asphaltene is then fed to the asphaltene stripper on liquid-level control from the asphaltene flash drum. Before entering the asphaltene stripper, the asphaltenes flow through the asphaltene stripper heater. The heater provides sufficient heat to the system to maintain the recommended operating temperature in the asphaltene stripper. Heat is provided by either steam or a closed-loop hot oil system. The asphaltene is contacted with superheated steam in the stripper to strip the remaining solvent to low levels in the product stream. Steam reduces the partial pressure of the solvent in the stripper, thus allowing more solvent to vaporize from the asphaltene liquid. Stripping steam rates are on flow control and are usually set at 0.5 lb/h of steam per BPD of asphaltene product for good stripping and to meet flash point specifications. The steam temperature should be at or above the recommended operating temperature of the stripper. Colder steam can cool the asphaltene product and impair stripping performance. Wet steam can cause foaming and operability problems. The asphaltene flash drum overhead solvent vapor flows through the solvent condenser and is condensed. The condensed solvent is stored in the solvent surge drum. The solvent is recycled to the process. The asphaltene stripper overhead solvent vapor and steam flow through the stripper condenser, where the solvent and steam are condensed. The condensed solvent and water are separated in the LP solvent drum. The water is removed on level control and sent to the sour water system. The condensed solvent is pumped by the LP solvent pump to the solvent surge drum before being recycled to the process. The asphaltene product exits the stripper bottom and is pumped on level control by the asphaltene pump. Positive displacement pumps are usually required to handle the highly viscous material. The operating temperature maintains the asphaltenes at a viscosity suitable for pumping. Colder temperatures may cause pumping and handling problems. The asphaltene product can be cooled against the asphaltene solvent before it is sent to downstream fuel oil blending facilities or to other potential processes or markets.

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THE ROSE PROCESS


THE ROSE PROCESS

10.25

The solvent recovered from the strippers is recycled to the process from the LP solvent drum. Since hydrogen sulfide (H2S) may be present in the drum vapor, noncondensable gases are purged from the drum vapor space and directed to sour fuel gas. The solvent condenser is designed to accept additional intermittent loads from the highpressure solvent systems overpressure control valve. This valve opens when the DAO separator pressure increases and excess solvent must be purged from the system to maintain the proper pressure. This situation occurs primarily during start-up when charge is admitted to the liquid-filled system and additional solvent must be released to the solvent condenser to compensate for the charge volume. The 30,000 BPD ROSE unit shown in Figs. 10.2.7 and 10.2.8 was designed to use either a mixed butane or n-pentane solvent to take advantage of seasonal and market demands.

PRODUCT YIELD AND QUALITIES


Many operating factors affect the DAO quality, but the two major parameters are DAO yield and extraction solvent. The highest maximum DAO yield is obtained by using n-pentane, the heaviest solvent tested. As lighter solvents are used, solvency is reduced and the maximum DAO yield decreases. Typical maximum DAO yield for each solvent is shown in Table 10.2.1. For any given solvent, the DAO yield has significant impact on the DAO quality, as illustrated in Fig. 10.2.9. If a plant operates at maximum extraction using n-pentane, the DAO will have certain qualities. The other parameter that has significant impact on the DAO quality is the extraction solvent. The lighter the solvent, the less DAO is extracted,

A. Stripper A. Separator Flare Drum Feed Surge DAO Stripper Solvent Surge

FIGURE 10.2.7

30,000 BPD ROSE unit, south side.

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THE ROSE PROCESS 10.26


SEPARATION PROCESSES

Hot Oil Surge Drum

DAO Separator

ROSE Exchangers

FIGURE 10.2.8

30,000 BPD ROSE unit, north side.

TABLE 10.2.1 Maximum DAO Yields Solvent n-Pentane n-Butane i-Butane Propane Max. DAO yield, wt % 84 74 66 50

but the DAO is always cleaner than when produced by heavier solvents. For example, DAO produced by n-butane will always have a higher viscosity, specific gravity, Conradson carbon, etc., than a DAO produced at the same yield by i-butane. A common use of DAO is as additional fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) feed. Several factors could limit FCCUs feed rate, among them feedstock quality and feed system hydraulics. If an FCCU is feedstock-quality-limited, the optimal solvent extraction unit operation will use a light solvent to achieve the desired quality at the highest possible yield. For example, n-butane would produce a more acceptable DAO than n-pentane. Obviously, using n-butane instead of n-pentane is important to a refiner because the amount of FCCU feedstock can be increased without the detrimental effects of higher carbon and metals. If an FCCU is operating at its hydraulic limit, the solvent extraction unit can only produce a fixed amount of DAO. Even though the FCCU feedstock quality may be satisfactory, if it is possible to shift to a lighter solvent, the refiner will benefit by producing a cleaner DAO. The cleanest DAO is produced by the lightest solvent that can achieve the desired DAO yield.

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THE ROSE PROCESS


THE ROSE PROCESS

10.27

% COMPONENT IN DAO 100

80 SULFUR 60

40 NITROGEN CCR 20 METALS 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 DAO YIELD, VOL %


FIGURE 10.2.9 Typical contaminant distribution in DAO.

Factors such as market supply and demand and technology of downstream processes can change during the operating life of a solvent extraction unit, hence the need for a very flexible extraction unit. ROSE units are usually designed for operation over a range of solvent compositions. A light-solvent unit uses propane or i-butane while a heavy-solvent unit uses n-butane or pentane. This flexibility is made possible by the similarities in the product stripping section of n-pentane/n-butane units and ibutane/propane units. The ultimate in operational flexibility is a unit that can run on all four solvents or mixtures of solvents, such as mixed butanes. This option is available at a slightly higher cost because of the flexibility inherent in the ROSE processes supercritical solvent recovery. Since markets and technology do not always remain the same, todays bottom-of-thebarrel processing facilities must be flexible. This flexibility is inherent in a ROSE unit because of its ability to use different solvents. This flexibility, coupled with energy efficiency, makes the ROSE process the heavy oil processing technology of the future.

ROSE ECONOMICS SUMMARY


The estimated utility requirements for a grassroots ROSE unit are shown in Table 10.2.2. The figures provided in the table are the typical range of expected utility consumption. The actual values obtained in the final design will depend on process battery-limit conditions, site conditions, and optimized process conditions such as separator temperatures, stripper temperatures, and solvent/oil ratio. The estimated installed cost for a 30,000 BPSD unit is $1250 per BPSD, U.S. Gulf Coast, second quarter of 2002.

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THE ROSE PROCESS 10.28 TABLE 10.2.2 Utilities


SEPARATION PROCESSES

Process requirements per barrel of feed* Propane LP stripping steam, lb/bbl Electricity, kWh/bbl Process heat, million Btu/bbl absorbed Solvent loss, wt % of feed Initial solvent fill, bbl/bbl No other major chemicals or catalyst use is required. 12 1.52.1 0.0970.147 0.050.10 0.15 Butane 12 1.42.0 0.0700.104 0.050.10 0.15 Pentane 12 1.31.9 0.0570.086 0.050.10 0.15

*Figures provided indicate typical range of expected utility consumption. Actual values will depend on process battery-limit conditions, site conditions, and optimized process conditions such as separator temperatures, stripper temperatures, and solvent/oil ratio. Process heat can be supplied by steam or hot oil.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Abdel-Halim, T., and P. Shah: Refinery Residuals as a Source of Chemical Feedstock and Value Added Products, APPEAL Resource and Training Consortium, Bangkok, Thailand, March 2002. Abdel-Halim, T., R. Uppala, B. Bansal, R. Floyd, and D. Eastwood: ROSE and Bottom-of-theBarrel: A Synergistic Approach, Second Bottom of the Barrel Technology Conference, Istanbul, Turkey, October 2002. Nelson, S. R., and R. G. Roodman: ROSE: The Energy Efficient Bottom of the Barrel Alternative, 1985 Spring AICHE Meeting, Houston, Tex., March 1985. Northup, A. H., and H. D. Sloan: Advances in Solvent Deasphalting Technology, 1996 NPRA Annual Meeting, San Antonio, Tex., March 1996. Patel, V. K., E. M. Roundtree, and H. D. Sloan: Economic Benefits of ROSE/Fluid Coking Integration, 1997 NPRA Annual Meeting, San Antonio, Tex., March 1997. Sloan, H. D., H. J. Simons, J. Griffths, and D. J. Bosworth: Solvent Deasphalting and Gasification to Reduce Fuel Oil, 1996 European Oil Refining Conference, Antwerp, Belgium, June 1996.

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