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THEORIES OF MOTIVATION

DOUGLAS McGREGOR'S X AND Y THEORY

Theory X
('authoritarian management' style)

The average person dislikes work and will avoid it he/she can. Therefore, most people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work towards organizational objectives.

The average person prefers to be directed; to avoid responsibility; is relatively unambitious, and wants security above all else.

Theory Y
('participative management' style)

Effort in work is as natural as work and play. People will apply self-control and self-direction in the pursuit of organizational objectives, without external control or the threat of punishment.

The capacity to use a high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving organizational problems is widely, not narrowly, distributed in the population.

ABRAHAM MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs states that we must satisfy each need in turn, starting with the first, which deals with the most obvious needs for survival itself.

FREDERICK HERZBERG'S THEORY OF HUMAN MOTIVATION

Motivating Factors It act as forces of job satisfaction. They create positive and a longer lasting effect on employees performance. Adequate provision of such factors called are 'Satisfiers'.

Motivating Factors are :1. Achievement 2. Recognition for Accomplishment 3. Increased Responsibility 4. Opportunity for Growth and Development 5. Creative and Challenging Work.

Hygiene or Maintenance Factors:1. Company Policy 2. Supervision 3. Salary 4. Interpersonal Relations 5. Working Conditions

People feels dissatisfied when those factors were not satisfactory, they are also called dissatisfiers.

JOHN STACEY ADAMS' EQUITY THEORY

The Adams' Equity Theory claims that employees will be motivated if they believe they are fairly treated in the workplace. By the same token, perceptions of inequitable treatment will lead to demotivation.

An employees motivation is affected by whether the employee believes that their employment benefits/rewards are at least equal to the amount of the effort that they put into their work.

Input ( work efforts )Examples:1. The number of hours worked by the employee. 2. An employees work responsibilities. 3. An employees work duties. 4. The work commitment demonstrated by the employee. 5. An employees loyalty.

Output ( work rewards )Examples:1. Salary 2. Bonus 3. Recognition of the employees contribution 4. Work promotions 5. Pension 6. Annual leave

Adams stated that if an employee believes that their work outputs are not equal or greater than their inputs then the employee will become de-motivated.

EDWIN LOCKE'S GOAL SETTING THEORY

People are motivated by clear goals and appropriate feedback. Meaning, difficult and clearly stated goals led to better performance than easy and vague goals.

To motivate, goals must take into consideration the degree to which each of the following exists:

1. Clarity A goal must be clear and specific, with a definite time set for completion.

2. Challenge People are often motivated by achievement, and they'll judge a goal based on the significance of the anticipated accomplishment.

3. Commitment The harder the goal, the more commitment is required. If the goal is easy, people dont need a lot of motivation.

4. Feedback It provides an opportunities or targets for individuals so that they can determine for themselves how theyre doing.

5. Task Complexity Give the person sufficient time to meet the goal or improve performance. Provide enough time for the person to practice or learn what is expected and required for success.

Use clear, challenging goals, and commit yourself to achieving them.

THE END

srv 7-02-11