Dear Students,
Its the question you dreamed about when you were ten years old.
Its the question your parents nagged you about during high school.
Its the question that stresses most of us out more and more the older we
get. What do you want to be when you grow up?
There are people who are studying political science but hate politics,
nursing majors who hate biology, and accounting majors who hate math.
Obviously, a lot of people are confused about what exactly it is that they
want to spend their life doing. Think about it. If you work for 10 hours each
day, youre going to end up spending over 50% of your awake life at work.
Personally, I think its important that we spend that 50% wisely. But how
can you make sure that you do? Here are some cool tips for how to decide
what you really want to be when you grow up.
Relax and Keep an Open Mind: Contrary to popular belief, you dont
have to choose a career and stick with it for the rest of your life. You
never have to sign a contract that says, I agree to force myself to do this
for the rest of my life. Its your life. Youre free to do whatever you
want and the possibilities are endless. So relax, dream big, and keep an
open mind.
Notice Your Passions: Every one of us is born with an innate desire to do
something purposeful with our lives. We long to do something that were
passionate about; something that will make a meaningful impact on the
world.
Figure Out How to Use Your Passions for a Larger Purpose: You notice
that this is one of your passions, so you decide to become a personal
trainer. Making a positive impact on the world will not only ensure that
you are successful financially, it will also make you feel wonderful. Its a
proven principle: The more you give to the world, the more the world
will give you in return.
Figure Out How You Can Benefit Once youve figured out what your
passions are and how you can use those passions to add value to the
world &to yourself ,
Its time to take the last step: figure out how you can make great success
doing it. My most important piece of advice about this last step is to
remember just that: its the last part of the decision process. I feel sorry
for people who choose an occupation based on the average income for
that field. No amount of money can compensate for a life wasted at a job
that makes you miserable. However, thats not to say that the money isnt
important. Money is important, and Im a firm believer in the concept
that no matter what it is that you love doing, theres at least one way to
make extraordinary money doing it. So be creative!
Simply discover your passions, figure out how to use your passions to make
an impact on the world & to yourself.
Yours truly
Pramod Maheshwari,
B.Tech., IIT Delhi
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exclusive jurisdiction of the Kota
Courts only.
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Maheshwari, 112, Shakti Nagar,
Dadabari, Kota & Printed by Naval
Maheshwari, Published & Printed at 112,
Shakti Nagar, Dadabari, Kota.
Editor : Pramod Maheshwari
WORRY IS A MISUSE OF IMAGINATION.
Volume  7 Issue  6
December, 2011 (Monthly Magazine)
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XtraEdge for IITJEE 2 DECEMBER 2011
Volume7 Issue6
December, 2011 (Monthly Magazine)
NEXT MONTHS ATTRACTIONS
Much more IITJEE News.
Know IITJEE With 15 Best Questions of IITJEE
Challenging Problems in Physics,, Chemistry & Maths
Key Concepts & Problem Solving strategy for IITJEE.
Xtra Edge Test Series for JEE 2011 & 2012
CBSE Mock Test Paper
S
Success Tips for the Months
"The way to succeed is to double your error
rate."
"Success is the ability to go from failure to
failure without losing your enthusiasm."
"Success is the maximum utilization of the
ability that you have."
We are all motivated by a keen desire for
praise, and the better a man is, the more he
is inspired to glory.
Along with success comes a reputation for
wisdom.
They can, because they think they can.
Nothing can stop the man with the right
mental attitude from achieving his goal;
nothing on earth can help the man with the
wrong mental attitude.
Keep steadily before you the fact that all
true success depends at last upon yourself.
CONTENTS
INDEX PAGE
NEWS ARTICLE 3
IITB'S Plan : Job support to Entrepreneurial Spirit
IIT Students' Research Work to Be Available Online
IITian ON THE PATH OF SUCCESS 6
Mr. Amitabha Ghosh
KNOW IITJEE 7
Previous IITJEE Question
XTRAEDGE TEST SERIES 58
Class XII IITJEE 2012 Paper
Class XI IITJEE 2013 Paper
Mock Test CBSE Pattern Paper 1 [Class # XII]
Regulars ..........
DYNAMIC PHYSICS 15
8Challenging Problems [Set# 8]
Students Forum
Physics Fundamentals
Ray Optics
Fluid Mechanics & Properties of Matter
CATALYSE CHEMISTRY 34
Key Concept
Carboxylic Acid
Chemical Kinetics
Understanding : Inorganic Chemistry
DICEY MATHS 45
Mathematical Challenges
Students Forum
Key Concept
Monotonicity,
Maxima & Minima
Function
Study Time........
Test Time ..........
XtraEdge for IITJEE 3 DECEMBER 2011
IITB'S Plan : Job support to
Entrepreneurial Spirit
IITBombay has hit upon an idea
that could boost the spirit of
entrepreneurship among its students.
Its placement cell is weighing the
option of helping students whose
startups have not fired to be placed
in jobs after two years of
experimenting with their ideas.
As part of the scheme, students keen
on their own startups will be assigned
mentors after graduating. These
expertseither people who have
successfully floated their own
companies or those with enough
exposure to new businesseswill
evaluate their ideas to see if there's
any potential. Once the ideas are
approved, students can float their own
companies. After two years, if a startup
fails to take off, the studententrepreneur
can participate in the regular placement
process and get a job.
Ravi Sinha, professor in charge of
placements, said the idea, which is at a
nascent stage, can give students the
assurance to float their ideas without
hesitation. "Very few startup ideas on
the campus turn out to be successful
ventures. Often, many good ideas are
not commerciallyviable. So, students
are apprehensive about floating their
ideas," added Sinha.
The office of Society for Innovation
and Entrepreneurship ( SINE), which
promotes entrepreneurship on the
campus by promoting business
incubation, and the Entrepreneurship
cell (Ecell) is working with the
placement cell to check the feasibility
of the project. "We have been working
on the initiative for a couple of
months. If it works out, student
entrepreneurs will be reasonably
assured of getting a job through the
institute's placement office," said
Sinha.
IIT Students' Research Work to
Be Available Online
Students of Indian Institutes of
Technology (IITs) will soon share
their research details for all institutes
via a common website to be launched
in November.
The two day long 'InterIIT Gymkhana
Summit 2011' being held at IIT
Gandhinagar saw students of various
consortium discuss issues common to
all. The students included
representatives from 10 IITs including
Madras, Mandi, Rajasthan, Mandi,
Hyderabad, with IIT Kanpur and IIT
Bombay participating in online
sessions.
Among the things discussed, students
particularly discussed methods to share
research works of B.Tech, M.Tech and
Phd students. Students are seen to
repeat researches, being unaware of
past researchers. Sharing of past
researches will help avoid such
repetitions.
Sport's Alumni Student Meet
The 2nd official annual Alumni
Sports Day was full of tremendous
competition between the energy of
the present generation and that of the
alumni. The event was full of
activities comprising of talks, alumni
students matches and InterSports
Arm Wrestling and Tug of war
competition which was followed by
dinner and group discussions in SAC
Lawns.
Good, better, best. Never let it rest.
Until your good is better and your
better is best. this quote perfectly fit
the enthralling display of experience,
wit and never say die attitude of the
alumni at this years Alumni Sports
Day.
Brainchild of the basketball fraternity of
IIT Bombay, this was the 2nd official
annual Alumni Sports Day which
witnessed tremendous competition
between the energy of the present
generation and that of the alumni. The
event was full of activities comprising
of talks, alumni students matches and
InterSports Arm Wrestling and Tug of
war competition which was followed
by dinner and group discussions in
SAC Lawns.
The post match fundae sessions (be it
related to the life post IITs or the
prospects and benefits of sports in
everyday life) were undoubtedly the
highlight of the complete event. The
commitment and dedication shown
by the Old Machine Guns from IITB
left the students sports fraternity
speechless.
Alumni showed the perfect blend of
attitude, experience and sporting
spirit with some exceptional
performances in all the sports.
Results of this years meet like last
year were pretty much dominated by
the alumni, winning in almost all the
sports.
IITians' Nano Satellite Launched
IITKanpur has made the 3kg
satellite 'Jugnu'. It will generate
real time data on droughts, floods,
vegetation and forestation.
Jugnu, the Nano satellite designed by
IIT Kanpur students has been
launched via PSLV C18 rocket from
Shrihari Kota, Andhra Pradesh 11:00
hrs today, reports TNN. This is the
country's first Nano satellite and
weighs just 3 Kgs incorporated with
PSLV C18.
The mission of developing Jugnu
was done under the guidance of Prof.
N.S vyas. this is extremely a
complex process and this was a hard
exercise. The Nano satellite has been
designed ethnically.
"We have done our best. Jugnu has
undergone laborious tests like thermo
XtraEdge for IITJEE 4 DECEMBER 2011
vacuum tests, vibration tests and
electronic magnetic interference test.
Students have worked very hard in
developing Jugnu. They have worked
roundtheclock. We are hopeful of its
successful launch," said Vyas.
The payload of the satellite has
uniquely designed camera for infra red
remote sensing, a GPS receiver and an
inertial measurement unit.
Shatanu Agarwal, the team head of
Jugnu said "About 25 minutes after
the launch, Jugnu would will click the
first image of its launch vehicle and its
antennas would be deployed. It will
then stabilize and start transmitting
images to the ground station."
After 115 minutes of the take off
Jugnu was visible at the ground
station.
"Jugnu's beacon (blinking signal at all
times all over the earth) will get
switched on after 30 minutes of
separation from the launch vehicle.
Five seconds after its separation,
Jugnu will click its image," said
Shantanu.
It took two years to develop this Nano
satellite and as people working on it
used non space grade, commercial off
the shelf (COTS) to make the research
on Jugnu affordable. Jugnu has
minimum number of redundant
systems when compared to other
conventional satellites.
SC refuses to adjudicate on IIT
JEE selections
NEW DELHI: The Supreme Court has
refused to interfere with the ranking
and selection procedure adopted for
the IITJEE saying there was no
arbitrariness or ulterior motives in
fixing the methodology, says a PTI
report.
A bench of Justices R.V. Raveendran
and A.K. Patnaik said courts would
interfere with the procedure only if
there was proven malafide, caprice or
arbitrariness, which it said was
lacking in the present system adopted
by the Joint Admission Board, which
conducts the exams.
The fact that the procedure was
complicated would not make it
arbitrary or unreasonable or
discriminatory, Justice Raveendran
said.
The apex court passed the judgment
while dismissing an appeal filed by
aspirant Sanchit Bansal, son of an IIT
Kharagpur professor, who appeared in
IITJEE 2006 as a general category
candidate.
Sanchit had secured 75 marks in
mathematics, 104 in physics and 52 in
chemistry, aggregating to 231.
The board had fixed the cutoff marks
for admission at 37 for math, 48 for
physics and 55 for chemistry and the
aggregate cutoff at 154.
As Sanchit did not secure the minimum
cutoff in chemistry, he failed to qualify
even though his aggregate was higher
than required.
He then challenged the procedure on
the ground that candidates with
aggregates lower than his were
selected.
Rejecting his plea, the court said: For
a layman, the above procedure may
appear to be highly cumbersome and
complicated.
But the object of the aforesaid
procedure for arriving at the cutoff
marks is to select candidates well
equipped in all the three subjects, with
reference to their merit, weighed
against the average merit of all the
candidates who appeared in the
examination.
IIT Council free from HRD
ministry clutches
NEW DELH: The apex decision
making body of the Indian Institutes of
Technology (IITs) has broken free of
the Human Resource Development
(HRD) Ministry in a move that could
be the first step towards allowing the
IITs to govern themselves.
Empowered by independent staff and
with a identity of its own, the IIT
Council will now no longer need the
HRD ministry to take its administrative
decisions under the move, government
sources told HT.
The final decision on the plan  aimed
at creating an IIT Council Secretariat 
may be made at a meeting between
senior HRD ministry officials and
the IIT directors on May 5, the
sources said.
The Council alone is empowered to
appoint IIT directors and take any
policy decisions binding across the
top engineering schools  including
their fees, reforms, administrative
structure and any amendments to the
aw governing the Institutes.
The IIT Council the highest
decision making body of the IITs at
present depends on the HRD
ministry to even invite members for
meetings or to prepare the Council's
agenda. All this will change, a
source said.
The IITs have decided to approach D
Udaya Kumar, assistant professor at
IIT Guwahati and the designer of the
new rupee symbol, to design a logo
for the IIT Council.
The move is a component of HRD
minister Kapil Sibal's larger plan to
increase the functional autonomy of
the IITs. The IIT Council 
consisting of all IIT directors and
chairman of boards, other eminent
academic administrators and
scientists  at present does not even
have an office of its own. It will now
have an office  a location has been
identified in South Delhi's
Chittaranjan Park.
But this may only be the first step
towards greater autonomy for the
IITs, sources indicated. Once the
independent IIT Council is capable
of handling matters, there is a
possibility that we will empower it
with far greater powers and withdraw
from many administrative aspects of
the IIT governance system, a source
said.
(Courtesy : Hindustan Times)
No permanent foreign faculty
for IITs
NEW DELHI: In a major setback to
the Indian Institutes of Technology
(IITs) plan, the Ministry for External
Affairs (MEA) has rejected a
proposal to liberalise visa norms to
allow foreign teachers to take up
permanent posts at the IITs.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 5 DECEMBER 2011
The MEA has refused to change the
rules under which each foreign faculty
member at the IITs needs to reobtain
a work visa every five years, top
government and IIT sources have
confirmed to HT.
Human resource development minister
Kapil Sibal had on September 11,
2010 announced the plan to allow the
IITs to fill up to 10% of their
permanent teaching posts with foreign
faculty.
The proposal first reported by HT on
September 2, 2010 was approved by
the IIT Council the highest decision
making body of the IITs and is aimed
at reducing a massive faculty crunch
plaguing the IITs.
But the MEA's refusal to allow
foreign faculty to join with visas of
longer duration than five years means
that the IITs will not be able to offer
permanent posts to foreign faculty.
We will need to continue to offer
contractual appointments something
we wanted to, and quite frankly, need
to change, an IIT Director said.
Each IIT is facing a faculty crunch
between 15 and 40% with a total of
over 1,000 faculty posts vacant across
the premier engineering schools. The
Institutes have over the past year
however received a number of
applications from foreign faculty,
including Persons of Indian Origin
(PIOs) keen to teach at the IITs. The
IITs are arguing that permanent posts
would help them lure the best of
foreign teachers.
All foreign teachers are at present
required to teach as visiting or adhoc
faculty.
(Courtesy : Hindustan Times)
Sibal rejects steep fee hike for
IIT students
NEW DELHI: There will be no steep
fee hike for the students of the Indian
Institutes of Technology, according to
a decision taken by the IIT Council on
January 21.
Chairing the IIT Council meet here,
Human Resource Development
Minister Kapil Sibal rejected the Anil
Kakodkar committee proposal for five
fold increase in fee for undergraduate
programme of the IITs.
The Kakodkar committee, set up by the
government in October 2009 to study
the roadmap for the autonomy and
future of the IITs, had recommended
that the fee be raised from Rs 50,000 to
Rs 2 to Rs 2.5 lakh per annum.
As the committee report came for
discussion at the 42nd meeting of the
IIT Council Sibal rejected the fee hike
proposal saying such a hike would
prove a deterrent to a large number of
IIT aspirants, a ministry official
said. The Council asked the committee
to rework the fee structure taking into
account the aspirations of all sections.
During the meeting, Sibal announced
setting up 50 research parks at a cost of
Rs 200 crore during the 12th Five Year
Plan period.
Under the programme, industry will
undertake research on various subjects
with the support of experts from the
IITs.
The research parks have been proposed
to be set up on publicprivate
partnership (PPP) model. One such
research park has already come up in
Chennai.
The meeting took note of the fact that
creditbased practices were being
followed by the IITs to promote
students from one semester to the next,
and agreed that academic bodies of the
IITs should consider acquisition of
credits as a criteria for students and
granting of degrees to bring uniformity.
The issue came up following submission
of Dhande committee report on uniform
and homogeneous criteria for promoting
students in the IITs.
Kanpur IIT director Dhande, who
headed two committees, presented
reports on a uniform criteria for
promoting students from one semester
to the next in the IITs and on the
requirement of infrastructure for
research. Both reports have been
accepted. Each IIT at present has its
own criteria for promotion.
The Council decided that a panel for
visitors nominee for a particular
department would be created which all
IITs could use for faculty selection.
This will ensure timely selection of
professors, the Council noted.
It also decided that the appointment
of directors should be through
advertisements so that a wider base
was created.
It was decided that in principle
approval may be granted for setting
up an institute in Mauritius with the
help of the IITs, an official said.
At the meeting, a presentation was
made on adopting cyber security as
part of the curriculum for the IITs.
So it was decided that a committee
be set up to develop a roadmap for
the future and give a report in next
three months.
The committee would involve all
educational institutions as well as
government departments, the HRD
Ministry official said.
The meeting also could not discuss
reform in the Joint Entrance
Examination and curriculum as T
Ramaswamy, secretary, Department
of Science & Technology, was not
present. Ramaswamy had prepared a
report on the two issues.
"The Indian Statistics Institute has
arrived at a formula for equalising
marks in all boards. If one board
gives 90 percent as highest marks,
and the other gives 75 percent, the
marks will be equalized on the basis
of a formula," Sibal said.
Producing more research scho
lars was one of the key issues taken
up during the meeting, with the
council deciding to enhance the
capacity of IITs to produce 10,000
Ph.D. graduates annually from
around 1,000 presently and increase
faculty strength from around 4,000
presently to 16,000 by 2020. IANS
Science Fact:
The brain uses over a quarter
of the oxygen used by the
human body.
Your heart beats around
100000 times a day,
36500000 times a year and
over a billion times if you
live beyond 30.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 6 DECEMBER 2011
Dr Amitabha Ghosh was the only Asian on NASA's
Mars Pathfinder mission. At present, he is a member of the
Mars Odyssey Mission and the Mars Exploration Rover
Mission.
During the Mars Pathfinder Mission, he conducted
chemical analysis of rocks and soil on the landing site. The
simple and unassuming 34yearold planetary geologist
has won several accolades, which include the NASA Mars
Pathfinder Achievement Award in 1997 and the NASA
Mars Exploration Rover Achievement Award in 2004.
The journey from India to NASA.
It has been an intriguing experience. I was keen on
geologic research data interpretation and solar system
formation. During my geological research days in India, I
had slept in railway stations while traveling to various
places.
After my post graduation in applied geology from IIT
Kharagpur, I wrote a letter to a professor at NASA
expressing a desire to work at the space agency.
I made certain suggestions; in fact, it was a critical letter.
In India, you can never imagine criticising your professor.
My suggestions were approved, while I got an opportunity
to work at NASA.
I think one requires luck and to put in sincere effort to
achieve one's goals. Being in the right place at the right
time is also important.
In Mumbai for the Pravasi Bharatiya Divas, he spoke
about his work at NASA and his vision for India.
The Vision for India :
I feel there India has a great future. We have worldclass
companies. Today, companies like Infosys can be
compared with world leaders like Oracle. Like the
Information Technology revolution, we can have a science
or space revolution. We have the potential to bring about
revolutions in other sectors as well.
How India can we develop science and technology
sector :
It should be treated as a business. There should be more
private participation. We must have an external review to
evaluate the system and make changes as science and
technology can take the country forward.
We must check brain drain. About 80,000 students migrate
to the US for further studies, and settle there. They find the
facilities much better abroad. We need to reverse brain
drain by enhancing and upgrading institutes in India.
The state of space research in India :
I don't want to make controversial statements. All I can say
is India is not at the frontier of space research. We have
made commendable progress but there is a long way to go.
We can do much better. I would be glad to be of help in
any way. Investment in research is investment in
imagination. It is a matter of national pride and internal
recognition. We need to allocate more funds to enhance
research and development work.
We need good educational institutes like IITs and IIMs,
but IITians don't rule the world. You must remember that
Microsoft cofounder (Bill Gates does not have a college
degree.
Youngsters must look around for role models and see what
it is that they are doing right. Individuals must make use of
their inherent strengths to succeed.
How can India become a leading global player :
Globalisation will reap huge and longterm benefits and India
must make the best use of the opportunities. At the PBD
seminar, I found people presenting grandiose plans. Instead,
we should look at the realities and immediate solutions.
The private sector has to be actively involved in the
development of the country and the government has to
respond to the needs of the people. Fifteen years ago, we
didn't have an Infosys, today we have many global
companies.
Success Story
Success Story
This article contains storie/interviews of persons who succeed after graduation from different IITs
Dr. Amitabha Ghosh
Post graduation in applied geology from IIT Kharagpur,
Working at NASA
XtraEdge for IITJEE 7 DECEMBER 2011
PHYSICS
1. A nonviscous liquid of constant density 1000 kg/m
3
flows in a streamline motion along a tube of variable
cross section. The tube is kept inclined in the vertical
plane as shown in figure. The area of cross section of
the tube two points P and Q at heights of 2 metres
and 5 metres are respectively 4 10
3
m
2
and 8 10
3
m
2
. The velocity of the liquid at point P is 1 m/s. Find
the work doen per unit volume by the pressure and
the gravity forces at the fluid flows from point P to Q.
[IIT1997]
Q
5 m
2 m
P
Sol. Given that
= 1000 Kg/m
3
, h
1
= 2 m, h
2
= 5 m
A
1
= 4 10
3
m
2
, A
2
= 8 10
3
m
2
. v
1
= 1 m/s
Equation of continuity
A
1
= 4 10
3
m
2
, A
2
= 8 10
3
m
2
, v
1
= 1 m/s
Equation of continuity
A
1
v
1
= A
1
v
2
, v
2
=
2
1 1
A
v A
= 0.5 m/s
According to Bernouilli's theorem,
(p
1
p
2
) = g (h
2
h
1
)
2
1
(v
2
2
v
1
2
)
where (p
1
p
2
) = work done/vol. [by the pressure]
g (h
2
h
1
) = work done/vol. [by gravity forces.]
Now, work done/vol by gravity forces
= g (h
2
h
1
) = 10
3
9.8 3 = 29.4 10
3
J/m
3
and
2
1
(v
2
2
v
1
2
) =
2
1
10
3
(
1
4
1
=
8
3
10
3
J/m
3
= 0.375 10
3
J/m
3
Work done/vol. by pressure
= 29.4 10
3
0.375 10
3
J/m
3
= 29.025 10
3
m
3
.
2. A cubical box of side 1 meter contains Helium gas
(atomic weight 4) at a pressure of 100 N/m
2
.
During an observation time of 1 second, an atom
travelling with the rootmeansquare speed parallel
to one of the edges of the cube, was found to make
500 hits with a particular wall, without any
collision with other atoms. Take R =
3
25
J/molK
and k = 1.38 10
23
J/K [IIT2002]
(a) Evaluate the temperature of the gas.
(b) Evaluate the average kinetic energy per atom.
(c) Evaluate the total mass of helium gas in the
box.
Sol. The distance travelled by an atom of helium in
500
1
sec (times between two successive collision)
is 2m. Therefore root mean square speed
1m
C
rms
=
time
ce tan dis
=
500 / 1
2
= 1000 m/s
(a) But C
rms
=
M
RT 3
1000 =
3
10 4
T 3 / 25 3
T = 160 K
(b) Average kinetic energy of an atom of a
monoatomic gas =
2
3
kT
E
av
=
2
3
kT = 3.312 10
12
Joules
(c) From gas equation PV =
M
m
RT
m = 0.3012 gm
KNOW IITJEE
By Previous Exam Questions
XtraEdge for IITJEE 8 DECEMBER 2011
3. A thin equiconvex lens of glass of refractive index
= 3/2 and of focal length 0.3 m in air is sealed into
an opening at one end of a tank filled with water
( = 4/3). On the opposite side of the lens, a mirror is
placed inside the tank on the tank wall perpendicular
to the lens axis, as shown in figure. The separation
between the lens and the mirror is 0.8 m. A small
object is placed outside the tank in front of the lens at
a distance of 0.9 m from the lens along its axis. Find
the position (relative to the lens) of the image of the
object formed by the system. [IIT1997]
0.9 m 0.8 m
Sol.
v'
v
u
v
I' I'' M I
C
O
The first refraction of the ray coming form the object
is suffered on the left side of convex lens. For this we
can apply the equation
u
a
+
' V
g
=
R
a g
...(i)
The image formed by this can be treated as a
virtual object and the refracting surface now is the
right of the convex lens.
' v
g
+
v
w
=
R
g w
...(ii)
Adding (i) and (ii)
u
a
+
' v
g
' v
g
+
v
w
=
R
a g
+
R
g w
u
a
+
v
w
=
R
2
g a w
+
But according to lens formula
f
1
= ( ) 1
a
g


.

\

2 1
R
1
R
1
f
1
= ( ) 1
a
g


.

\

2 1
R
1
R
1
3 . 0
1
= (1.5 1) 
.

\

R
2
R = 0.3 m
Substituting the value of R in equation (iii) we get
) 9 . 0 (
1
+
v
3 / 4
=
3 . 0
2
3
2 1
3
4
+
9 . 0
1
+
v 3
4
=
3 . 0
3
9 3 4 +
=
9 . 0
2
v = 0.2 m
As shown in the figure this image will form as I"
behind the mirror. But the ray will get reflected
from the mirror in between and the final image
formed will be I.
Since CI" = 0.2 m and CM = 0.8 m
MI" = 0.2 m
MI = 0.4 m [Q MI = MI"]
CI = 0.4 m
4. A 5 m long cylindrical steel wire with radius 2 10
3
m is suspended vertically from a rigid support and
carries a bob of mass 100 kg at the other end. If
the bob gets snapped, calculate the change in
temperature of the wire ignoring radiation losses.
(For the steel wire : Young's modulus = 2.1 10
11
Pa ; Density = 7860 kg/m
3
; Specific heat = 420
J/kgK). [IIT2001]
Sol. When the mass of 100 Kg is attached, the string is
under tension and hence in the deformed state.
Therefore it has potential energy (U) which is
given by the formula.
U =
2
1
stress strain volume
=
2
1
Y
) Stress (
2
r
2
l
=
2
1
Y
) r / Mg (
2 2
r
2
l =
2
1
Y r
g M
2
2 2
l
...(i)
This energy is released in the form of heat, thereby
raising the temperature of the wire
Q = mcT
...(ii)
From (i) and (iii) Since U = Q Therefore
mcT =
2
1
Y r
g M
2
2 2
l
T =
2
1
Ycm r
g M
2
2 2
l
Here
m = mass of string = density volume of string
= r
2
l
XtraEdge for IITJEE 9 DECEMBER 2011
T =
2
1
Ycp ) r (
g M
2 2
2 2
=
2
1
7860 420 10 1 . 2 ) 10 2 14 . 3 (
) 10 100 (
11 2 3
2
= 0.00457 C
5. An unknown resistance X is to be determined
using resistance R
1
, R
2
or R
3
. Their corresponding
null points are A, B and C. Find which of the
above will give the most accurate reading and
why? [IIT2005]
A B C
G
R X R = R
1
or R
2
or R
3
Sol. All Null point, the wheat stone bridge will be
balanced
1
r
X
=
2
r
R
X = R
2
1
r
r
where R is a constant r
1
and r
2
are variable. The
maximum fraction error is
A B C
G
R X
r
1
r
2
R=R
1
R=R
2
R=R
3
N M
X
X
=
1
1
r
r
+
2
2
r
r
Here r
1
= r
2
= y (say) then
For
X
X
to be minimum r
1
r
2
should be max
[Q r
1
+ r
2
= c (Constt.)]
Let E = r
1
r
2
E = r
1
(r
1
c)
1
dr
dE
= (r
1
c) + r
1
= 0
r
1
=
2
c
r
2
=
2
c
r
1
= r
2
R
2
gives the most accurate value
CHEMISTRY
6. From the following data, form the reaction between
A and B. [IIT1994]
Initial rate (mol L
1
s
1
) [A]
mol L
1
[B]
mol L
1
300 K 320 K
2.5 10
4
3.0 10
5
5.0 10
4
2.0 10
3
5.0 10
4
6.0 10
5
4.0 10
3
1.0 10
3
6.0 10
5
1.6 10
2
Calculate
(a) the order of reaction with respect to A and with
respect to B,
(b) the rate constant at 300 K,
(c) the energy of activation,
(d) the pre exponential factor.
Sol. Rate of reaction = k[A]
l
[B]
m
where l and m are the order of reaction with respect
to A and B respectively. From the given data, we
obtain following expressions :
5.0 10
4
= k[2.5 10
4
]
l
[3.0 10
5
]
m
..(i)
4.0 10
3
= k[5.0 10
4
]
l
[6.0 10
5
]
m
...(ii)
1.6 10
2
= k[1.0 10
3
]
l
[6.0 10
5
]
m
..(iii)
From eq. (ii) and eq. (iii), we get
2
3
10 6 . 1
10 0 . 4
=
l


.

\

3
4
10 0 . 1
10 0 . 5
or 0.25 = (0.5)
l
or (0.5)
2
= (0.5)
l
or l = 2
From eq. (i) and eq. (ii), we get
3
4
10 0 . 4
10 0 . 5
=
m
5
5
2
4
4
10 0 . 6
10 0 . 3
10 0 . 5
10 5 . 2


.

\



.

\

or
8
1
=
4
1
m
2
1

.

\

or
2
1
=
m
2
1

.

\

or m = 1
XtraEdge for IITJEE 10 DECEMBER 2011
(b) At T
1
= 300 K,
k
1
=
1 2
] B [ ] A [
reaction of Rate
=
] 10 0 . 3 [ ] 10 5 . 2 [
10 0 . 5
5 2 4
4
= 2.67 10
8
L
2
mol
2
s
1
(c) At T
2
= 320 K,
k
2
=
1 2
] B [ ] A [
reaction of Rate
=
] 10 0 . 3 [ ] 10 5 . 2 [
10 0 . 2
5 2 4
3
= 1.067 10
9
L
2
mol
2
s
1
We know, 2.303 log
1
2
k
k
=


.

\

2 1
1 2 a
T T
T T
R
E
or 2.303 log
8
9
10 67 . 2
10 067 . 1
= 
.

\

300 320
300 320
314 . 8
E
a
or 2.303 0.6017 = 
.

\

300 320
20
314 . 8
E
a
or E
a
=
20
300 320 314 . 8 6017 . 0 303 . 2
= 55.3 kJ mol
1
(d) According to Arrhenius equation,
k =
RT / E
a
Ae
or 2.303 log k = 2.303 log A
RT
E
a
At 300 K,
2.303 log (2.67 10
8
) = 2.303 log A
300 314 . 8
10 3 . 55
3
or 2.303 8.4265 = 2.303 log A 22.17
or logA =
303 . 2
17 . 22 4062 . 19 +
=
303 . 2
5762 . 41
= 18.0531
A = Antilog 18.0531 = 1.13 10
18
s
1
7. Estimate the difference in energy between 1
st
and
2
nd
Bohr orbit for a H atom. At what minimum
atomic no., a transition from n=2 to n = 1 energy
level would result in the emission of Xrays with
= 3.010
8
m. Which hydrogen atom like species
does this atomic no. corresponds to ? [IIT1993]
Sol. (a) For H atom,
Z = 1
n
i
= 2
n
f
= 1
E
n
=
2
19
n
10 76 . 21
J
Hence, difference in energy between first and
second Bohr orbit for a Hatom is given by,
E =
i
n
E
f
n
E = E
2
E
1
=
2
19
2
10 76 . 21
+
2
19
1
10 76 . 21
= 21.76 10
19
(
2 2
1
1
2
1
= 16.32 10
19
J
(b) For = 3.0 10
8
m
E =
hc
=
8
8 34
10 0 . 3
10 3 10 626 . 6
= 6.626 10
18
J ....(i)
We know that, for Hlike atoms,
E
n
for Hlike atom = E
n
for Hatom Z
2
E for Hlike atom = Z
2
E for Hatom
= Z
2
21.76 10
19
(
2 2
1
1
2
1
= 16.32 10
19
Z
2
...(ii)
From eq. (i) and (ii),
16.32 10
19
Z
2
= 6.626 10
18
or Z = 2
Thus, hydrogen atom like species for Z = 2 is He
+
.
8. An organic compound A, C
8
H
4
O
3
, in dry benzene
in the presence of anhydrous AlCl
3
gives compound
B. The compound B on treatment with PCl
5
followed by reaction with H
2
/Pd(BaSO
4
) gives
compound C, which on reaction with hydrazine
gives a cyclised compound D(C
14
H
10
N
2
). Identify
A, B, C and D. Explain the formation of D from C.
[IIT2000]
Sol. The given reactions are as follows.
O
O +
O
AlCl3
O
O
OH
PCl5
H2/Pd (BaSO4)
C
6
H
5
H
C
C
O
O
H2NNH2
C
6
H
5
N
N
The formation of D from C may be explained as
follows.
C
6
H
5
C
6
H
5
O
O
NH
2
NH
2
O
NH
2
NH
2
O
+
+
C
6
H
5
O
N H
N H
OH
C
6
H
5
N
N
XtraEdge for IITJEE 11 DECEMBER 2011
9. (a) Write the chemical reaction associated with the
"brown ring test".
(b) Draw the structures of [Co(NH
3
)
6
]
3+
,
[Ni(CN)
4
]
2
and [Ni(CO)
4
]. Write the
hybridization of atomic orbital of the transition
metal in each case.
(c) An aqueous blue coloured solution of a
transition metal sulphate reacts with H
2
S in
acidic medium to give a black precipitate A,
which is insoluble in warm aqueous solution of
KOH. The blue solution on treatment with KI
in weakly acidic medium, turns yellow and
produces a white precipitate B. Identify the
transition metal ion. Write the chemical
reaction involved in the formation of A and B.
[IIT2000]
Sol. (a) NaNO
3
+ H
2
SO
4
NaHSO
4
+ HNO
3
2HNO
3
+ 6FeSO
4
+ 3H
2
SO
4
3Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
+ 2NO + 4H
2
O
[Fe(H
2
O)
6
]SO
4
.H
2
O + NO
Ferrous Sulphate
[Fe(H
2
O)
5
NO] SO
4
+ 2H
2
O
(Brown ring)
(b) In [Co(NH
3
)
6
]
3+
cobalt is present as Co
3+
and its
coordination number is six.
Co
27
= 1s
1
, 2s
2
2p
6
, 3s
2
3p
6
3d
7
, 4s
2
Co
3+
ion = 1s
2
, 2s
2
2p
6
, 3s
2
3p
6
3d
6
3d 4s 4p
3d 4s 4p
d
2
sp
3
hybridization
Hence
Co
3+
ion in
Complex ion
3+
Co
NH
3
NH
3
NH
3
H
3
N
H
3
N
NH
3
or
H
3
N
H
3
N
NH
3
NH
3
NH
3
NH
3
Co
3+
In [Ni(CN)
4
2
nickel is present as Ni
2+
ion and its
coordination numbers is four
Ni
28
=1s
2
, 2s
2
2p
6
, 3s
2
3p
6
3d
8
, 4s
2
Ni
2+
ion = 1s
2
, 2s
2
2p
6
, 3s
2
3p
6
3d
8
3d 4s 4p
3d 4s 4p
dsp
2
hybridization
Ni
2+
ion =
Ni
2+
ion in
Complex ion
Hence structure of [Ni(CN)
4
]
2
is
Ni
2+
N C
N C
C N
C N
In [Ni(CO)
4
, nickel is present as Ni atom i.e. its
oxidation number is zero and coordination number
is four.
3d 4s 4p
sp
3
hybridization
Ni in
Complex
Its structure is as follows :
Ni
CO
CO
CO
OC
(c) The transition metal is Cu
2+
. The compound is
CuSO
4
.5H
2
O
CuSO
4
+ H
2
S
medium Acidic
ppt Black
CuS + H
2
SO
4
2CuSO
4
+ 4KI Cu
2
I
2
+ I
2
+ 2K
2
SO
4
(B) white
I
2
+ I
I
3
(yellow solution)
10. An organic compound A, C
6
H
10
O, on reaction with
CH
3
MgBr followed by acid treatment gives
compound B. The compound B on ozonolysis gives
compound C, which in presence of a base gives
1acetyl cyclopentene D. The compound B on
reaction with HBr gives compound E. Write the
structures of A, B, C and E. Show how D is formed
from C. [IIT2000]
Sol. The given reactions are as follows.
O
CH3MgBr
OMgBr
CH
3
H
+
H2O
CH
3
HBr
CH
3
Br
(A)
(B) (E)
CH
3
O
O
COCH
3
O
Base
COCH
3
(D)
(C)
The conversion of C into D may involve the
following mechanism.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 12 DECEMBER 2011
COCH
3
(C)
CH
2 O
BH
+
B
+
COCH
3
HC
O
COCH
3
HC
O
B
BH
+
COCH
3
OH
BH
+
+B
COCH
3
OH
OH
COCH
3
(D)
MATHEMATICS
11. Let the three digit numbers A28, 3B9, and 62C,
where A, B and C are integers between 0 and 9, be
divisible by a fixed integer K. Show that the
determinant
2 2
9 8
6 3
B
C
A
is divisible by K. [IIT1990]
Sol. We know,
A28 = A 100 + 2 10 + 8
3B9 = 3 100 + B 10 + 9
and 62C = 6 100 + 2 10 + C
Since; A28, 3B9 and 62C are divisible by K,
therefore there exist positive integers m
1
, m
2
and
m
3
such that,
100 A + 10 2 + 8 = m
1
K
100 3 + 10 B + 9 = m
2
K
and, 100 6 + 10 2 + C = m
3
K ...(i)
=
2 2
9 8
6 3
B
C
A
Applying R
2
100R
1
+ 10R
3
+ R
2
= 9 10
3
3 100 10 2
2
100 + + + B
B
A
A
C 2 10
2
6
6 100 + +
=
2 2
62 9 3 28
6 3
B
C B A
A
, Using (i)
=
2 2
6 3
3 2 1
B
K m K m K m
A
= K
2 2
6 3
3 2 1
B
m m m
A
= mK, Hence determinant is divisible by K.
12. Solve for x the following equation [IIT1987]
log
(2x +3)
(6x
2
+ 23x + 21)
= 4 log
(3x + 7)
(4x
2
+ 12x + 9)
Sol. log
(2x + 3)
(6x
2
+ 23x + 21)
= 4 log
(3x + 7)
(4x
2
+ 12x + 9)
log
(2x + 3)
(2x + 3).(3x + 7)
= 4 log
(3x + 7)
(2x + 3)
2
1 + log
(2x + 3)
(3x + 7)
= 4 2 log
(3x + 7)
(2x + 3)
Put log
(2x + 3)
(3x + 7) = y
y +
y
2
3 = 0
y
2
3y + 2 = 0 (y 1) (y 2) = 0
y = 1 or y = 2
log
(2x +3)
(3x + 7) = 1
or log
(2x + 3)
(3x + 7) = 2
3x + 7 = 2x + 3 or (3x + 7) = (2x + 3)
2
x = 4 or 3x + 7 = 4x
2
+ 12x + 9
4x
2
+ 9x + 2 = 0
4x
2
+ 8x + x + 2 = 0
(4x + 1)(x + 2) = 0
x = 2, 1/4
x = 2, 4, 1/4 ...(i)
But, log exists only when, 6x
2
+ 23x + 21 > 0,
4x
2
+ 12x + 9 > 0,
2x + 3 > 0 and 3x + 7 > 0
x > 3/2 ...(ii)
x = 1/4 is the only solution.
13. Find the equation of the normal to the curve
y = (1 + x)
y
+ sin
1
(sin
2
x) at x = 0. [IIT1993]
Sol. y = (1 + x)
y
+ sin
1
(sin
2
x) (given)
Let y = u + v, where u = (1 + x)
y
, v = sin
1
(sin
2
x).
Differentiationg
dx
dy
=
dx
du
+
dx
dv
...(i)
Now, u = (1 + x)
y
take logarithm of both sides
log
e
u = log
e
(1 + x)
y
log
e
u = y log
e
(1 + x)
dx
du
u
1
=
x
y
+ 1
+
dx
dy
. {log
e
(1 + x)}
dx
du
= u
(
+ +
+
) 1 ( log
1
x
dx
dy
x
y
e
dx
du
= (1 + x)
y
(
+ +
+
) 1 ( log
1
x
dx
dy
x
y
e
...(ii)
Again, v = sin
1
sin
2
x
sin v = sin
2
x
XtraEdge for IITJEE 13 DECEMBER 2011
cos v
dx
dv
= 2 sin x cos x
dx
dv
=
v cos
1
[2sin x cos x]
=
v
x x
2
sin 1
cos sin 2
=
x
x x
4
sin 1
cos sin 2
...(iii)
Put these values in equation (i)
dx
dy
= (1 + x)
y
(
+ +
+
) 1 ( log
1
x
dx
dy
x
y
e
+
x
x x
4
sin 1
cos sin 2
dx
dy
=
) 1 ( ) 1 ( 1
sin 1 / cos sin 2 ) 1 (
4 1
x n x
x x x x y
y
y
+ +
+ +
l
At x = 0,
y = (1 + 0)
y
+ sin
1
sin (0) = 1
dx
dy
=
) 0 1 ( ) 0 1 ( 1
) 0 sin 1 ( / 0 cos . 0 sin 2 ) 0 1 ( 1
1
4 1 1
+ +
+ +
n l
dx
dy
= 1
Again the slope of the normal is
m =
dx dy /
1
= 1
Thus, the required equation of the normal is
y 1 = (1) (x 0)
i.e., y + x 1 = 0.
14. Evaluate

.

\

+
+
3 /
3 /
3
3
  cos 2
4
x
x
dx. [IIT2004]
Sol.
Let, I=

.

\

+
3 /
3 /
3
  cos 2 x
dx
+

.

\

+
3 /
3 /
3
3
  cos 2
4
x
dx x
(Using
(
(
(
(
=
=
=
a
a
a
x f x f dx x f
x f x f
dx x f
0
) ( ) ( , ) ( 2
) ( ) ( , 0
) (
I =

.

\

+
3 /
0
3
  cos 2
2
x
dx
+ 0

.

\

+
3 /
3 /
3
odd is
3
  cos 2
as
x
dx x
I = 2
+
3 /
0
) 3 / cos( 2 x
dx
= 2
3 / 2
3 /
cos 2 t
dt
, where x +
3
= t
= 2
+
3 / 2
3 /
2
2
2
tan 3 1
2
sec
t
dt
t
= 2
+
3
3 / 1
2
3 1
2
u
du
=
3
4
. { }
3
3
1
1
3 tan 3 u
=
3
4
(tan
1
3 tan
1
1) =
3
4
tan
1

.

\

2
1

.

\

+
+
3 /
3 /
3
3
  cos 2
4
x
x
dx = 
.

\

2
1
tan
3
4
1
.
15. The position vectors of the vertices A, B and C of a
tetrahedron ABCD are i + j + k, i and 3i, respectively.
The altitude from vertex D to the opposite face ABC
meets the median line through A of the triangle ABC
at a point E. If the length of the side AD is 4 and the
volume of the tetrahedron is
2
2 2
, find the position
vector of the point E for all its possible positions.
[IIT1996]
Sol. F is midpoint of BC i.e., F =
2
i i 3 +
= 2i and
AE DE (given)
A(i+j+k)
D
B(i)
F(2i) C(3i)
E
1
Let E divides AF in : 1. Then position vector of
E is given by
1
) ( 1
+
+ + + k j i i 2
= 
.

\

+
+
1
1 2
i +
1
1
+
j +
1
1
+
k
Now, volume of the tetrahedron
=
3
1
(area of the base) (height)
3
2 2
=
3
1
(area of the ABC) (DE)
XtraEdge for IITJEE 14 DECEMBER 2011
But area of the ABC =  
2
1
BA BC
=
2
1
2i (j + k) = i j + i k
= k j = 2
Therefore,
3
2 2
= ) 2 (
3
1
(DE)
DE = 2
Since ADE is a right angle triangle,
AD
2
= AE
2
+ DE
2
(4)
2
= AE
2
+ (2)
2
AE
2
= 12
But
AE =
1
1 2
+
+
i +
1
1
+
j +
1
1
+
k (i + j + k)
=
1 +
i
1 +
j
1 +
k
 AE 
2
=
2
) 1 (
1
+
[
2
+
2
+
2
] =
2
2
) 1 (
3
+
Therefore, 12 =
2
2
) 1 (
3
+
4( + 1)
2
=
2
4
2
+ 4 + 8 =
2
3
2
+ 8 + 4 = 0
3
2
+ 6 + 2 + 4 = 0
3( + 2) + 2 ( + 2) = 0
(3 + 2) ( + 2) = 0
= 2/3, = 2
Therefore, when = 2/3, position vector of E is
given by

.

\

+
+
1
1 2
i +
1
1
+
j +
1
1
+
k
=
1 3 / 2
1 ) 3 / 2 .( 2
+
+
i +
1 3 / 2
1
+
j +
1 3 / 2
1
+
k
=
3
3 2
1 3 / 4
+
+
i +
3
3 2
1
+
j +
3
3 2
1
+
k
=
3 / 1
3
3 4 +
i +
3 / 1
1
j +
3 / 1
1
k
= i + 3j + 3k
and when = 2,
Position vector of E is given by,
1 2
1 ) 2 ( 2
+
+
i +
1 2
1
+
j +
1 2
1
+
k =
1
1 4 +
i j k
= 3i j k
Therefore, i + 3j + 3k and +3i j k are the
answer.
WHAT ARE EARTHQUAKES?
Earthquakes like hurricanes are not only super
destructive forces but continue to remain a mystery
in terms of how to predict and anticipate them. To
understand the level of destruction associated with
earthquakes you really need to look at some
examples of the past.
If we go back to the 27th July 1976 in Tangshan,
China, a huge earthquake racked up an official
death toll of 255,000 people. In addition to this an
estimated 690,000 were also injured, whole
families, industries and areas were wiped out in the
blink of a second. The scale of destruction is hard to
imagine but earthquakes of all scales continue to
happen all the time.
So what exactly are they ? Well the earths outer
layer is made up of a thin crust divided into a
number of plates. The edges of these plates are
referred to as boundaries and its at these
boundaries that the plates collide, slide and rub
against each other. Over time when the pressure at
the plate edges gets too much, something has to
give which results in the sudden and often violent
tremblings we know as earthquakes.
The strength of an earthquake is measured using a
machine called a seismograph. It records the
trembling of the ground and scientists are able to
measure the exact power of the quake via a scale
known as the richter scale. The numbers range from
110 with 1 being a minor earthquake (happen
multiple times per day and in most case we dont
even feel them) and 710 being the stronger quakes
(happen around once every 1020 years). Theres a
lot to learn about earthquakes so hopefully well
release some more cool facts in the coming months.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 15 DECEMBER 2011
Passage # 1 (Que. 1 to 3)
1. In the circuit shown F 3 C , F 6 C
2 1
= = and battery
E = 20V. The switch S
1
is first closed. It is then
opened and afterwards S
2
is closed them the final
charge on C
2
is
S
2
S
1
E = 20 V
C
1
C
2
(A) C 120 (B) C 80
(C) C 40 (D) C 20
2. A current in a coil of selfinductance 2H is
increasing as ) t sin( 2 i
2
= . The amount of energy
spent during the period when current changes from
0 to 2A is
(A) 1J (B) 2J (C) 3J (D) 4J
3. A particle of charge q and mass m is projected with
a velocity v forwards a circular region having
uniform magnetic field B perpendicular and into the
plane of paper from point P as shown. R is the
radius and O is the centre of the circular region. If
the line OP makes an angle with the direction of
v then the value of v so that particle passes through
O is
R
O
P
v
q
m
(A)
sin m
qBR
(B)
sin m 2
qBR
(C)
sin m
qBR 2
(D)
sin m 2
qBR 3
4. When barium is irradiated by a light of 4000 = all
the photoelectrons emitted are bent in a circle of radius
50cm by a magnetic field of 5.26 10
6
T. Then
(A) the kinetic energy of fastest photoelectrons is 0.6eV
(B) work function of the metal is 2.5eV
(C) the maximum velocity of photoelectrons is
0.46 10
6
m/s
(D) the stopping potential for photoelectric effect is 0.6V
5. Suppose the potential energy between on electron
and a proton at a distance r is given by
3
2
r 3
ke
.
Application of Bohrs theory to hydrogen atom in
this case shows that
(A) Energy in n
th
orbit is proportional to n
6
(B) Energy is proportional to m
3
(m = mass of electron)
(C) Energy in n
th
orbit is proportional to n
2
(D) Energy is proportional to m
3
(m = mass of electron)
Passage # (Q. No. 6 to Q. No. 8)
An ideal gas is taken round a cyclic process ABCA
as shown. If the internal energy of the gas at point A
is assumed zero while at B it is 50J. The heat
absorbed by the gas in the process BC is 90J.
O
D
1 2
3
E
B
C
A
10
20
30
P(N/m
2
)
V(m)
3
6. Heat energy absorbed by the gas in process AB is
(A) 50J (B) 70J (C)30J (D) None
7. Heat energy rejected by gas in process CA is
(A) 180J (B) 140J (C) 220J (D) None
8. The net work done by gas in the complete cycle
ABCA is
(A) 20J (B) zero (C) 40J (D) 20J
This section is designed to give IIT JEE aspirants a thorough grinding & exposure to variety
of possible twists and turns of problems in physics that would be very helpful in facing IIT
JEE. Each and every problem is well thought of in order to strengthen the concepts and we
hope that this section would prove a rich resource for practicing challenging problems and
enhancing the preparation level of IIT JEE aspirants.
By : Dev Sharma
Director Academics, Jodhpur Branch
Physics Challenging Problems
Sol ut i ons wi l l be publ i shed i n next i ssue
Set # 8
XtraEdge for IITJEE 16 DECEMBER 2011
1.
I
R 4
R 3
I
AB
=
and
I
R 4
R
I
DC
=
Option [C] is correct
2.
= I . L
area under v t curve
2
x 10
2
1
] 0 i [ 2 =
Option [A,C] is correct
3. By conservation of energy




.

\

+
+ = 
.

\

+


.

\

4
R
R
GMm
mV
2
1
R
GMm
2
gR
m
2
1
2
2
by conservation of angular momentum

.

\

+ =
4
R
R mV sin R .
2
gR
. m
Option [A] is correct
4.
(
+ + +
= .....
d 4
1
d 3
1
d 2
1
d
1
d 4
q 2
U
0
2
Option [C] is correct
Passage Based Question:
5. Option [A] is correct
6. Option [D] is correct
7. Option [A] is correct
Let A and w be the amplitude and angular frequency of
the wave incident on the three slit grating. Let
be
the phase difference between the diffracted waves
from S
1
and S
2
and
=
sin d 2
) 2 t sin( A A
) t sin( A A
t sin A A
0 3
0 2
0 1
+ =
+ =
=
) 2 cos cos 1 ( t [sin A A A A A
0 3 2 1
+ + = + + =
)] sin (sin t cos
2
+ +
) r t sin( B A
0
+ =
where
) 2 cos cos 1 ( A r cos B
0 0
+ + =
)) 2 sin (sin A ( r sin B
0 0
+ =
) cos 4 cos 4 1 ( A B
2 2
0
2
0
+ + =
) cos 4 cos 4 1 ( I I
2
0
+ + =
0 max
I 9 ) I ( =
also
) cos 4 cos 4 1 (
9
1
2
1
) I (
I
2
max
+ + = =
56 . 0 cos =
8.
S D ; Q C ; R B ; P A


.

\

= =
0
0 net
r
GM
4
5
v
4
5
v
total energy
0 0 0
r 8
GMm 3
r
GM
.
4
5
m
2
1
r
GMm
= +
=
when particle is at maximum or minimum distance r,
then energy conservation
0
2
r 8
GMm 3
r
GMm
mv
2
1
=
.(1)
Angular momentum conservation mvr
0 0
r . v
4
5
. m =
.(2)
Solution
Physics Challenging Problems
Set # 7
8
Quest i ons were Publ i shed i n November Issue
Science Jokes
A chemistry professor couldn't resist interjecting a
little philosophy into a class lecture. He interrupted
his discussion on balancing chemical equations,
saying, "Remember, if you're not part of the
solution, you're part of the precipitate!"
1. 1 couldn't resist interjecting a little philosophy
into a class lecture. He interrupted his
discussion on balancing chemical equations,
saying, "Remember, if you're not part of the
solution, you're part of the precipitate!".
2. Q. What is volume of a person who lost all his
memory ? A. 1/3 r
2
h
Because he keeps on saying, main CONE
hu!"
XtraEdge for IITJEE 17 DECEMBER 2011
XtraEdge for IITJEE 18 DECEMBER 2011
1. Oxygen is used as working substance in an engine
working on the cycle shown in Figure
P
V
1
4
3 2
Processes 12, 23, 34 and 41 are isothermal,
isobaric, adiabatic and isochoric, respectively. If
ratio of maximum to minimum volume of oxygen
during the cycle is 5 and that of maximum to
minimum absolute temperature is 2, assuming
oxygen to be an ideal gas, calculate efficiency of the
engine.
Given, (0.4)
0.4
= 0.693 and log
e
5 1.6094
Sol. Volume of gas is minimum at state 2 during the
cycle. Let it be V
0
. Then maximum volume of gas
during the cycle will be equal to 5V
0
which is at
states 4 and 1. Therefore, V
4
= V
1
= 5V
0
.
Temperature during the cycle is maximum at the end
of isobaric process 2 3 i.e. state 3 and minimum
at the end of isochoric cooling process 4 1 i.e.
state 1. Let minimum absolute temperature be T
0
.
Then T
1
= T
0
and T
3
= 2T
0
.
Since gas is Oxygen which is diatomic, therefore,
C
v
=
2
5
R, C
p
=
2
7
R and =
5
7
Since, process 1 2 is isothermal, therefore,
temperature during the process remains constant.
Hence temperature T
2
is also equal to T
0
.
Considering n mole of the gas,
Work done by the gas during isothermal process
1 2,
W
12
= nRT
1
.log
1
2
V
V
= nRT
0
log
e
5
But for isothermal process Q = W, therefore,
Q
12
= nRT
0
log
e
5
Now considering isobaric process 2 3
2
3
V
V
=
2
3
T
T
= 2 or V
3
= 2V
0
Heat supplied to gas during the process,
Q
23
= nC
P
(T
3
T
2
) =
2
7
nRT
0
Work done by gas during the process,
W
23
= nR(T
3
T
2
) = nRT
0
Now considering adiabatic process 3 4,
V
3
= 2V
0 ,
T
3
= 2T
0
V
4
= 5V
0 ,
T
4
= ?
Using T.V
1
= constant
(2T
0
) (2V
0
)
1
= T
4
(5V
0
)
1
or T
4
= 2 (0.4)0.4 T
0
Work done by the gas during the process,
W
24
=
1
V P V P
4 4 3 3
=
1
) T T ( nR
4 3
= 5 nRT
0
(1 (0.4)
0.4
) T
0
During isochoric process 4 1, no work is done by
the gas and heat is rejected from the gas.
Hence, W
41
= 0 and Q
41
is negative
Net work done by the gas during the cycle,
W = W
12
+ W
23
+ W
34
+ W
41
=
nRT
0
{6 log
e
5 5 (0.4)
0.4
}
Heat supplied to the gas during heating process,
Q
S
= Q
23
=
2
7
( 6 log
e
5 5 0.4
0.4
) = 0.2642
or =
s
Q
W
=
7
2
( 6 log
e
5 5 0.4
0.4
) = 0.2642
or = 26.42 % Ans.
2. Calculate speed of sound in a mixture containing n
1
mole of He, n
2
mole of H
2
and n
3
mole of CO
2
at
temperature T
(i) when n
1
= 1, n
2
= 2, n
3
= 3 and T = 434 K,
(ii) when n
1
= 3, n
2
= 2, n
3
= 1 and T = 415 K
Gas constant, R = 8.3 J (mole)
1
K
1
Sol. Sound waves in gases are longitudinal waves and
speed of longitudinal waves in a gas is given by
v =
M
RT
.
Hence, to calculate speed of sound waves in the
mixture, its mean molar mass M and adiabatic
exponent must be known.
Experts Solution for Question asked by IITJEE Aspirants
Students Forum
PHYSI CS
XtraEdge for IITJEE 19 DECEMBER 2011
Molar mass of He is M
1
= 4 gm/mole and its molar
specific heat at constant volume is
1
v
C =
2
3
R.
These for H
2
are M
2
= 2 gm/mole and
2
v
C =
2
5
R
respectively and for CO
2
, M
3
= 44 gm/mole and
3
v
C = 3R respectively.
Mean molar mass of the mixture,
M =
3 2 1
3 3 2 2 1 1
n n n
n M n m m M
+ +
+ +
...(i)
and Mean molar specific heat at constant volume,
C
v
=
3 2 1
v 3 v 2 v 1
n n n
C n C n C n
3 2 1
+ +
+ +
...(ii)
(i) substituting n
1
= 1, n
2
= 2, n
3
= 3 in equation (i)
and (ii)
M =
6
140
gm/mole or
6
140
10
3
kg/mole
C
v
=
12
31
R
But C
p
= C
v
+ R, therefore, C
p
=
12
43
R
Adiabatic exponent, =
v
P
C
C
=
31
43
Speed of longitudinal waves =
M
RT
= 214140 ms
1
or 462.75 ms
1
Ans.
(ii) Substituting n
1
= 3, n
2
= 2, n
3
= 1 in equation (i)
and (ii)
M = 10 gm/mole or 10 10
3
kg/mole
C
v
=
12
25
R and C
p
= C
v
+ R =
12
37
R
=
v
p
C
C
=
25
37
Speed of longitudinal waves
M
RT
= 74 83 ms
1
or 714 ms
1
Ans.
3. A sonic source of natural frequency n
0
= 256 Hz and
a receiver are moving along the same line with speed
u = 10 ms
1
towards a reflecting surface. Their line of
motion is normal to the surface and the surface is also
approaching towards them with the same speed as
shown in figure. If speed of sound in air is v = 330
ms
1
, calculate frequency and wavelength of reflected
waves received by the receiver.
S R
u u
u
Sol. First, incident waves are received by the wall and
then reflected back. These reflected waves are
received by the source.
First, consider incident waves received by the wall.
Since, source and wall (observer) both are
approaching towards each other, therefore,
frequency received by the wall is given by,
n
1
= n
0


.

\
 +
s
0
v v
v v
= n
0 
.

\
 +
u v
u v
= 272 Hz
Now waves are reflected by the wall. For reflected
waves wall works as a sonic source of frequency
n
1
= 272 Hz, which is approaching towards the
receiver R with velocity u. Receiver is also
approaching the wall (source) with the same speed.
Therefore, frequency n
2
of reflected waves received
by the receiver is given by
n
2
= n
1


.

\
 +
s
0
v v
v v
= n
1 
.

\
 +
u v
u v
= 289 Hz Ans.
Since, receiver is approaching the wall with velocity
u to receive reflected waves, therefore, velocity of
wave propagation relative to the receiver is
v' = (v + u) = 340 ms
1
.
Let wavelength of reflected waves by '.
Using, v' = n
2
' or ' =
17
20
m Ans.
4. Both ends of a solid cylindrical glass rod of diameter
d = 10 cm are made hemispherical. When a luminous
object is placed on axis of the rod at a distance
a = 20 cm from one end, its real image is obtained at a
distance b = 40 cm from the other end. If the refractive
index of glass = 1.5. Calculate length l of the rod.
Sol. Since image is real, therefore, it is formed by
convergence of transmitted rays. If object is placed
on left of left end of the rod, image will be on right
of the right end of rod.
Since diameter of the rod is d and ends are made
hemispherical, radius of curvature of each end is
equal to d/2.
First considering refraction at left end,
u = a,
1
= 1,
2
= = 1.5, R = +
2
d
, v = v
1
(let)
O
v
1
I
1
I
l
()
Using formula,
v
2
u
1
=
R
1 2
v
1
= + 30 cm
It means that image I
1
formed after refraction at left
end is on right of left end at a distance of 30 cm.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 20 DECEMBER 2011
This image works as an object for refraction at the
other end.
Then, for refraction at right end,
1
= 1.5,
2
= 1, v = + b = + 40 cm,
R =
2
d
= 5 cm, u = ?
Substituting in
v
2
u
1
=
R
1 2
u = 20 cm
Negative sign indicates that object for right end is on
its left or image I
1
is on left of right end of the rod
and at a distance of 20 cm.
Length of the rod = v
1
+ 20 cm = 50 cm Ans.
5. A copper rod is bent into a semicircle of radius a and
at ends straight parts are bent along diameter of the
semicircle and are passed through fixed, smooth and
conducting rings O and O' as shown in figure. A
capacitor having capacitance C is connected to the
rings. The system is located in a uniform magnetic field
of induction B such that axis of rotation OO' is
perpendicular to the field direction. At initial moment
of time (t = 0), plane of semicircle was normal to the
field direction and the semicircle is set in rotation with
constant angular velocity . Neglecting resistance and
inductance of the circuit, calculate current I flowing
through the circuit at time t and instantaneous power
required to rotate the semicircle.
B
C
O'
a
O
Sol. When the copper rod is rotated, flux linked with the
circuit varies with time. Therefore, an emf is
induced in the circuit.
At time t, plane of semicircle makes angle t with
the plane of rectangular part of the circuit. Hence,
component of the magnetic induction normal to
plane of semi circle is equal to B.cos t.
Flux linked with semicircular part is
1
=
2
1
a
2
.B cos t
Let area of rectangular part of the circuit be A.
Then flux linked with this part is
2
= BA
Total flux linked with the circuit is =
1
+
2
or =
2
1
a
2
B.cos(t) + B.A
Induced emf in the circuit,
e =
dt
d
=
2
1
a
2
B sin (t)
since, resistance of the circuit is negligible,
therefore, Potential difference across capacitor is
equal to induced emf in the circuit.
Charge on the capacitor at time t is q = C.e.
=
2
1
a
2
CB sin (t)
But current I =
dt
dq
=
2
1
2
a
2
CB cos (t) Ans.
Due to flow of current, semicircle experience a
moment. Therefore, power is required to keep the
semi circle rotating with constant angular velocity.
In fact, power required to rotate the semicircle is
equal to electrical power generated in the circuit.
Power required, P = e.I =
8
1
3
a
4
CB
2
sin (2t)
Ans.
Dimensional Formulae of Some
Physical Quantities
Physical Quantity
Dimensional
Formulae
Work (W) [ML
2
T
2
]
Stress [ML
1
T
2
]
Torque () [ML
2
T
2
]
Moment of Inertia (I) [ML
2
]
Coefficient of viscosity () [ML
1
T
1
]
Gravitational constant (G) [M
1
L
3
T
2
]
Specific heat (S) [L
2
T
2
1
]
Coeficient of thermal conductivity (K) [MLT
3
1
]
Universal gas constant (R) [ML
2
T
2
1
]
Potential (V) [ML
2
T
3
A
1
]
Intensity of electric field (E) [MLT
3
A
1
]
Permittivity of free space (
0
) [M
1
L
3
T
4
A
2
]
Specific resistance () [ML
3
T
3
A
2
]
Magnetic Induction (B) [MT
2
A
1
]
Planck's constant (h) [ML
2
T
1
]
Boltzmann's constant (k) [ML
2
T
2
1
]
Entropy (S) [ML
2
T
2
1
]
Decay constant () [T
1
]
Bohr magnetic (
B
) [L
2
A]
Thermmionic current density (J) [AL
2
]
XtraEdge for IITJEE 21 DECEMBER 2011
Reflection :
Key Concepts :
(a) Due to reflection, none of frequency, wavelength
and speed of light change.
(b) Law of reflection :
Incident ray, reflected ray and normal on incident
point are coplanar.
The angle of incidence is equal to angle of
reflection
Plane surface
Incident
Ray
Reflected
Ray
n
Convex surface
Tangent
at point P
n
P
Convex
surface
Tangent
at point P
n
A
Some important points : In case of plane mirror
For real object, image is virtual.
For virtual object, image is real.
The converging point of incident beam behaves as a
object.
If incident beam on optical instrument (mirror, lens
etc) is converging in nature, object is virtual.
If incident beam on optical instrument is diverging in
nature, the object is real.
The converging point of reflected or refracted beam
from an optical instrument behaves as image.
If reflected beam or refracted beam from an optical
instrument is converging in nature, image is real.
P
Virtual
Object
P
Real
Object
P
Real
Object
Virual
Object
P
n
n
If reflected beam or refracted beam from an optical
instrument is diverging in nature, image is virtual.
P
Real
Object
Virual
Object
P'
n
n
For solving the problem, the reference frame is
chosen in which optical instrument (mirror, lens, etc.)
is in rest.
The formation of image and size of image is
independent of size of mirror.
Visual region and intensity of image depend on size
of mirror.
n
P P'
If the plane mirror is rotated through an angle , the
reflected ray and image is rotated through an angle 2
in the same sense.
If mirror is cut into a number of pieces, then the focal
length does not change.
The minimum height of mirror required to see the full
image of a man of height h is h/2.
v
Object
Rest
Image
v
v
Object
Rest
Image
vcos
vsin
vcos
vsin
v
Object Image
v
m
2v
m
v
Ray Optics
PHYSICS FUNDAMENTAL FOR IITJEE
KEY CONCEPTS & PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGY
XtraEdge for IITJEE 22 DECEMBER 2011
Object
In rest
Image
v
m
2v
m
Object
Image
v
m
2v
m
+v v
(c) Number of images formed by combination of
two plane mirrors : The images formed by
combination of two plane mirror are lying on a
circle whose centre is at the meeting points of
mirrors. Also, object is lying on that circle.
Here, n =
360
where = angle between mirrors.
If
360
is even number, the number of images is
n 1.
If
360
is odd number and object is placed on
bisector of angle between mirror, then number of
images is n 1.
If
360
is odd and object is not situated on
bisector of angle between mirrors, then the
number of images is equal to n.
(d) Law of reflection in vector form :
Let
1
e = unit vector along incident ray.
2
e = unit vector along reflected ray
n = unit vector along normal on point of
Incidence
Then
2
e = n ) n . e ( 2 e
1 1
n
n
1
e
2
e
(e) Spherical mirrors :
It easy to solve the problems in geometrical optics
by the help of coordinate sign convention.
y
y'
x'
x
y
y'
x'
x
y
y'
x'
x
y
y'
x'
x
y
y'
x'
x
The mirror formula is
f
1
u
1
v
1
= +
Also, R = 2f
These formulae are only applicable for paraxial
rays.
All distances are measured from optical centre. It
means optical centre is taken as origin.
The sign conventions are only applicable in given
values.
The transverse magnification is
=
size object
size image
=
u
v
1. If object and image both are real, is negative.
2. If object and image both are virtual, is negative.
3. If object is real but image is virtual, is positive.
4. If object is virtual but image is real, is positive.
5. Image of star; moon or distant object is formed at
focus of mirror.
If y = the distance of sun or moon from earth.
D = diameter of moon or sun's disc
f = focal length of the mirror
d = diameter of the image
= the angle subtended by sun or moon's disc
Then tan = =
y
D
=
f
d
Here, is in radian.
F
D
d
Sun
Problem solving strategy :
Image formation by mirrors
Step 1: Identify the relevant concepts : There are
two different and complementary ways to solve
problems involving image formation by mirrors. One
approach uses equations, while the other involves
drawing a principleray diagram. A successful
problem solution uses both approaches.
Step 2: Set up the problem : Determine the target
variables. The three key quantities are the focal
length, object distance, and image distance; typically
XtraEdge for IITJEE 23 DECEMBER 2011
you'll be given two of these and will have to
determine the third.
Step 3: Execute the solution as follows :
The principalray diagram is to geometric optics
what the freebody diagram is to mechanics. In
any problem involving image formation by a
mirror, always draw a principalray diagram first
if you have enough information. (The same
advice should be followed when dealing with
lenses in the following sections.)
It is usually best to orient your diagrams
consistently with the incoming rays traveling
from left to right. Don't draw a lot of other rays at
random ; stick with the principal rays, the ones
you know something about. Use a ruler and
measure distance carefully ! A freehand sketch
will not give good results.
If your principal rays don't converge at a real
image point, you may have to extend them
straight backward to locate a virtual image point,
as figure (b). We recommend drawing the
extensions with broken lines. Another useful aid
is to colorcode the different principal rays, as is
done in figure(a) & (b).
1
4
2
Q'
P'
C 3
2
4
v
3
(a)
F
I Q
P
Q'
v
(b)
C
Q
P
4
P'
F
1
1
4
2
2
3
Check your results using Eq.
f
1
' s
1
s
1
= + and the
magnification equation m =
y
' y
=
s
' s
. The
results you find using this equation must be
consistent with your principalray diagram; if not,
doublecheck both your calculation and your
diagram.
Pay careful attention to signs on object and image
distances, radii or curvature, and object and image
heights. A negative sign on any of these
quantities always has significance. Use the
equations and the sign rules carefully and
consistently, and they will tell you the truth !
Note that the same sign rules (given in section)
work for all four cases in this chapter : reflection
and refraction from plane and spherical surfaces.
Step 4: Evaluate your answer : You've already
checked your results by using both diagrams and
equations. But it always helps to take a look back
and ask yourself. "Do these results make sense ?".
Refraction :
Laws of Refraction :
The incident ray, the refracted ray and normal on
incidence point are coplanar.
1
sin
1
=
2
sin
2
= ... = constant.
1
Snell's law in vector form :
2
2
e
1
e
n
Let,
1
e = unit vector along incident ray
2
e = unit vector along refracted.
n = unit vector along normal on incidence point.
Then
1
(
1
e n ) =
2
(
2
e n )
Some important points :
(a) The value of absolute refractive index is always
greater or equal to one.
(b) The value of refractive index depends upon
material of medium, colour of light and
temperature of medium.
(c) When temperature increases, refractive index
decreases.
(d) Optical path is defined as product of geometrical
path and refractive index.
i.e., optical path = x
XtraEdge for IITJEE 24 DECEMBER 2011
(e) For a given time, optical path remains constant.
i.e.,
1
x
1
=
2
x
2
= ... constant
1
dt
dx
1
=
2
dt
dx
2
1
c
1
=
2
c
2
(where c
1
and c
2
are speed
of light in respective mediums)
1
2
=
2
1
c
c
i.e.,
c
1
(f) The frequency of light does not depend upon
medium.
c
1
= f
1
, c
2
= f
2
2
1
=
1
2
c
c
=
1
2
1
When observer is rarer medium and object is in
denser medium :
Then =
depth apparent
depth real
When object is in rarer and observer is in denser
medium :
=
position real
position apparent
The shift of object due to slab is x = t


.

\

1
1
(a) This formula is only applicable when observer is
in rarer medium.
(b) The object shiftiness does not depend upon the
position of object.
(c) Object shiftiness takes place in the direction of
incidence ray.
The equivalent refractive index of a combination of a
number of slabs for normal incidence is =
i
i
i
t
t
Here, t
i
= t
1
+ t
2
+ ...
i
i
t
=
1
1
t
+
2
2
t
+ ...
The apparent depth due to a number of media is
i
i
t
The lateral shifting due to a slab is d = t sec r sin(i r).
Critical angle : When a ray passes from denser
medium (
2
) to rarer medium (
1
), then for 90 angle
of refraction, the corresponding angle of incidence is
critical angle.
Mathematically, sin c =
2
1
(i) When angle of incidence is lesser than critical
angle, refraction takes place. The corresponding
deviation is
= sin
1


.

\

i sin
1
2
i for i < c
(ii) When angle of incidence is greater than critical
angle, total internal reflection takes place. The
corresponding deviation is
= 2i when i < c
The i graph is :
(i) Critical angle depends upon colour of light,
material of medium, and temperature of medium.
(ii) Critical angle does not depend upon angle of
incidence
/2
c
i
Refractive surface formula,
v
2
u
1
=
r
1 2
Here, v = image distance,
u = object distance,
r = radius of curvature of spherical surface.
(a) For plane surface , r =
(b) Transverse magnification,
XtraEdge for IITJEE 25 DECEMBER 2011
m =
size object
size age Im
=
u
v
2
1
(c) Refractive surface formula is only applicable for
paraxial ray.
Lens :
Lens formula :
v
1
u
1
=
f
1
(a) Lens formula is only applicable for thin lens.
(b) r = 2f formula is not applicable for lens.
(c) m =
size object
size image
=
u
v
(d) Magnification formula is only applicable when
object is perpendicular to optical axis.
(e) lens formula and the magnification formula is
only applicable when medium on both sides of
lenses are same.
(f)
f(+ve)
(i)
f(ve)
(ii)
f(ve) f(+ve)
(iii) (iv)
f(ve)
(v)
f(+ve)
(vi)
(g) Thin lens formula is applicable for converging as
well diverging lens. Thin lens maker's formula :
f
1
=


.

\

1
1 2


.

\

2 1
r
1
r
1
1
1
2
(a) Thin lens formula is only applicable for paraxial
ray.
(b) This formula is only applicable when medium on
both sides of lens are same.
(c) Intensity is proportional to square of
aperture.
(d) When lens is placed in a medium whose refractive
index is greater than that of lens. i.e.,
1
>
2
.
Then converging lens behaves as diverging lens
and vice versa.
(e) When medium on both sides of lens are not same.
Then both focal lengths are not same to each
other.
(f) If a lens is cut along the diameter, focal length
does not change.
(g) If lens is cut by a vertical, it converts into two
lenses of different focal lengths.
i.e.,
f
1
=
1
f
1
+
2
f
1
(h) If a lens is made of a number of layers of different
refractive index number of images of an object by
the lens is equal to number of different media.
(i) The minimum distance between real object and
real image in is 4f.
(j) The equivalent focal length of coaxial
combination of two lenses is given by
F
1
=
1
f
1
+
2
f
1
2 1
f f
d
(k) If a number of lenses are in contact, then
F
1
=
1
f
1
+
2
f
1
+ ......
(l) (i) Power of thin lens, P =
F
1
(ii) Power of mirror is P =
F
1
(m) If a lens silvered at one surface, then the system
behaves as an equivalent mirror, whose power
P = 2P
L
+ P
m
Here, P
L
= Power of lens
=


.

\

1
1 2


.

\

2 1
r
1
r
1
XtraEdge for IITJEE 26 DECEMBER 2011
P
m
= Power of silvered surface =
m
F
1
Here, F
m
= r
2
/2, where r
2
= radius of silvered surface.
P = 1/F
Here, F = focal length of equivalent mirror.
1. Rays of light strike a horizontal plane mirror at an
angle of 45. At what angle should a second plane
mirror be placed in order that the reflected ray finally
be reflected horizontally from the second mirror.
Sol. The situation is shown in figure
C
G
D
N
Q
B
P
A
S
45
45
The ray AB strikes the first plane mirror PQ at an
angle of 45. Now, we suppose that the second
mirror SG is arranged such that the ray BC after
reflection from this mirror is horizontal.
From the figure we see that emergent ray CD is
parallel to PQ and BC is a line intersecting these
parallel lines.
So, DCE = CBQ = 180
DCN + NCB + CBQ = 180
+ + 45 = 180 = 67.5
As NCS = 90, therefore the second mirror should
be inclined to the horizontal at an angle 22.5.
2. An object is placed exactly midway between a
concave mirror of radius of curvature 40 cm and a
convex mirror of radius of curvature 30 cm. The
mirrors face each other and are 50 cm apart.
Determine the nature and position of the image
formed by the successive reflections, first at the
concave mirror and then at the convex mirror.
Sol. The image formation is shown in figure.
P
1
25cm
F
r = 40 cm
r = 30 cm
P
2
C
I
2
I
1
50cm
(i) For concave mirror,
u
1
= 25 cm, f
1
= 20 cm and v
1
= ?
Now
1
f
1
=
1 1
v
1
u
1
+
or
20
1
=
1
v
1
25
1
+
v
1
= 100 cm.
As v
1
is positive, hence the image is real. In the
absence of convex mirror, the rays after reflection
from concave mirror would have formed a real image
I
1
at distance 100 cm from the mirror. Due to the
presence of convex mirror, the rays are reflected and
appear to come from I
2
.
(ii) For convex mirror,
In this case, I
1
acts as virtual object and I
2
is the
virtual image.
The distance of the virtual object from the convex
mirror is 100 50 = 50 cm. Hence u
2
= 50 cm.
As focal length of convex mirror is negative and
hence f
2
= 30/2 = 15 cm. Here we shall calculate
the value of v
2
. Using the mirror formula, we have
15
1
=
2
v
1
50
1
+
or v
2
= 21.42 cm
As v
2
is negative, image is virtual. So image is
formed behind the convex mirror at a distance of
21.43 cm.
3. There is a small air bubble in side a glass sphere (n =
1.5) of radius 10 cm. The bubble is 4 cm below the
surface and is viewed normally from the outside
(Fig.). Find the apparent depth of the air bubble.
n
2
= 1
A
C
P
n
1
= 1.5
O
I
Sol. The observer sees the image formed due to refraction
at the spherical surface when the light from the
bubble goes from the glass to air.
Here u = 4.0 m, R = 10 cm, n
1
= 1.5 and n
2
= 1
We have [(n
2
/v) (n
1
/u) = (n
2
n
1
)/R
or (1/v) (1.5/ 4.0 cm) = (1 1.5)/ ( 10 cm)
or (1/v) = (0.5/10 cm) (1.5/4.0 cm)
or v = 3.0 cm
Thus, the bubble will appear 3.0 cm below the
surface.
Solved Examples
XtraEdge for IITJEE 27 DECEMBER 2011
4. A convex lens focuses a distance object on a screen
placed 10 cm away from it. A glass plate (n = 1.5) of
thickness 1.5 is inserted between the lens and the
screen. Where should the object be placed so that its
image is again focused on the screen ?
Sol. The situation when the glass plate is inserted between
the lens and the screen, is shown in fig. The lens
forms the image of object O at point I
1
but the glass
plate intercepts the rays and forms the final image at I
on the screen. The shift in the position of image after
insertion of glass plate
I
I
1
O
S
c
r
e
e
n
10 cm
I
1
I = t 
.

\

n
1
1 = (1.5 cm) 
.

\

5 . 1
1
1 = 0.5 cm.
Thus, the lens forms the image at a distance of 9.5 cm
from itself. Using
v
1
u
1
=
f
1
, we get
u
1
=
v
1
f
1
=
5 . 9
1
10
1
or u = 190 cm.
i.e. the object should be placed at a distance of
190 cm. from the lens.
5. A candle is placed at a distance of 3 ft from the wall.
Where must a convex lens of focal length 8 inches be
placed so that a real image is formed on the wall ?
Sol. According to formula for refraction though a lens
f = 8"
36 v v
d = 3 ft = 36"
v
1
u
1
=
f
1
or
v
1
) v 36 (
1
=
8
1
or
v
1
+
v 36
1
=
8
1
or
) v 36 ( v
v v 36
+
=
8
1
or, v
2
36 v + 8 36 = 0
or v = 12" or 24" = 1 ft or 2 ft.
u = 24" or 12" = 2 ft or 1 ft
Hence, lens should be placed at either 1 ft or 2 ft
away from the wall.
DEEPEST LAKE IN THE WORLD ?
Lake Baikal (Baikal) in Siberia, Russia is the deepest
lake in the world measuring 1620m deep at its
deepest point. This makes it not only deep but also
the oldest lake in the world estimated to be around 25
million years old. At over 636 kilometers long and 80
kilometers wide this fresh water lake holds over 20
percent of all the fresh water in the world and is
second in size only to the Caspian Sea (the caspian is
called a sea but is technically a lake).
To put things into perspective the lake is so big that if
all the rivers in the world flowed into its basin it
would take almost 1 year to fill. We all know Siberia
isnt the warmest of places so you can imagine what
a phenomenal site it is when in the winter months the
lake freezes over holding ice up to 115 meters thick.
Now thats a lot of ice!
WHICH IS THE HIGHEST
WATERFALL IN THE WORLD ?
The highest waterfall in the world is the Angel Falls
in Venezuela. At a towering height of 979m did you
know that each drop of water takes 14 seconds to fall
from the top to the bottom. The water flows from the
top of a Tepui which is a flat topped mountain with
vertical sides.
The waterfall which despite being known to the local
indians for thousands of years was originally called
the Churun Meru but for some reason they were
renamed by an American bush pilot called Jimmy
Angel, who noticed them in 1935 whilst flying over
the area looking for gold.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 28 DECEMBER 2011
Fluid Mechanics :
Fluid statics :
Pressure at a point inside a Liquid : p = p
0
+ gh
where p
0
is the atmospheric pressure, is the density
of the liquid and h is the depth of the point below the
free surface.
p
0
h
p
Pressure is a Scalar : The unit of pressure may be
atmosphere or cm of mercury. These are derived
units. The absolute unit of pressure is Nm
2
. Normal
atmospheric pressure, i.e, 76 cm of mercury, is
approximately equal to 10
5
Nm
2
.
Thrust : Thrust = pressure area. Thrust has the unit
of force.
Laws of liquid pressure
(a) A liquid at rest exerts pressure equally in all
directions.
(b) Pressure at two points on the same horizontal line
in a liquid at rest is the same.
(c) Pressure exerted at a point in a confined liquid at
rest is transmitted equally in all directions and
acts normally on the wall of the containing vessel.
This is called Pascal's law. A hydraulic press
works on this principle of transmission of
pressure.
The principle of floating bodies (law of flotation) is
that W = W, that is, weight of body = weight of
displaced liquid or buoyant force. The weight of the
displaced liquid is also called buoyancy or upthrust.
Hydrometers work on the principle of floating
bodies. This principle may also be applied to gases
(e.g., a balloon).
Liquids and gases are together called fluids. The
important difference between them is that liquids
cannot be compressed, while gases can be
compressed. Hence, the density of a liquid is the
same everywhere and does not depend on its
pressure. In the case of a gas, however, the density is
proportional to the pressure.
Fluid dynamics :
Bernoulli's Theorem :
2
1
v
2
+ gh +
p
= a constant
for a streamline flow of a fluid (liquid or gas).
Here, v is the velocity of the fluid, h is its height
above some horizontal level, p is the pressure and
is the density.
p
1
v
1
h
1
v
2
p
2
h
2
v
2
> v
1
p
2
< p
1
According to this principle, the greater the velocity,
the lower is the pressure in a fluid flow.
It would be useful to remember that in liquid flow,
the volume of liquid flowing past any point per
second is the same for every point. Therefore, when
the crosssection of the tube decreases, the velocity
increases.
Note : Density = relative density
or specific gravity 1000 kg m
3
.
Surface tension and surface energy :
Surface Tension : The property due to which a
liquid surface tends to contract and occupy the
minimum area is called the surface tension of the
liquid. It is caused by forces of attraction between the
molecules of the liquid. A molecule on the free
surface of a liquid experiences a net resultant force
which tends to draw it into the liquid. Surface tension
is actually a manifestation of the forces experienced
by the surface molecules.
If an imaginary line is drawn on a liquid surface then
the force acting per unit length of this line is defined
as the surface tension. Its unit is, therefore, newton /
metre. This force acts along the liquid surface. For
curved surfaces, the force is tangent to the liquid
surface at every point.
Surface Energy : A liquid surface possesses
potential energy due to surface tension. This energy
per unit area of the surface is called the surface
energy of the liquid. Its units is joule per square
metre. The surface energy of a liquid has the same
numerical values as the surface tension. The surface
Fluid Mechanics & Properties of Matter
PHYSICS FUNDAMENTAL FOR IITJEE
KEY CONCEPTS & PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGY
XtraEdge for IITJEE 29 DECEMBER 2011
tension of a liquid depends on temperature. It
decreases with rise in temperature.
Excess of Pressure : Inside a soap bubble or a gas
bubble inside a liquid, there must be pressure in
excess of the outside pressure to balance the tendency
of the liquid surface to contract due to surface
tension.
p(excess of pressure) = T


.

\

+
2 1
r
1
r
1
in general
where T is surface tension of the liquid, and r
1
and r
2
are the principal radii of curvature of the bubble in
two mutually perpendicular directions.
For a spherical soap bubble, r
1
= r
2
= r and there are
two free surfaces of the liquid.
p =
r
T 4
For a gas bubble inside a liquid, r
1
= r
2
= r and there
is only one surface.
p =
r
T 2
For a cylindrical surface r
1
= r and r
2
= and there
are two surfaces.
p =
r
T 2
Angle of Contact : The angle made by the surface of
a liquid with the solid surface inside of a liquid at the
point of contact is called the angle of contact. It is at
this angle that the surface tension acts on the wall of
the container.
The angle of contact depends on the natures of the
liquid and solid in contact. If the liquid wets the solid
(e.g., water and glass), the angle of contact is zero. In
most cases, is acute (figure i). In the special case of
mercury on glass, is obtuse (figure ii).
fig. (i)
fig. (ii)
Rise of Liquid in a Capillary Tube : In a thin
(capacity) tube, the free surface of the liquid becomes
curved. The forces of surface tension at the edges of
the liquid surface then acquire a vertical component.
T
T
h
r
meniscus
The upward force by which a liquid surface is pulled
up in a capillary tube is 2rTcos , and the downward
force due to the gravitational pull on the mass of
liquid in the tube is (r2h + v)g, where v is the
volume above the liquid meniscus. If = 0, the
meniscus is hemispherical in shape. Then v =
difference between the volume of the cylinder of
radius r and height r and the volume of the
hemisphere of radius r
= r
3
3
2
r
3
=
3
1
r
3
When 0, we cannot calculate v which is generally
very small and so it may be neglected. For
equilibrium
(r
2
h + v) g = 2rT cos
When a glass capillary tube is dipper in mercury, the
meniscus is convex, since the angle of contact is
obtuse. The surface tension forces now acquire a
downward component, and the level of mercury
inside the tube the falls below the level outside it. the
relation 2T cos = hgr may be used to obtain the
fall in the mercury level.
Problem Solving Strategy
Bernoulli's Equations :
Bernoulli's equation is derived from the workenergy
theorem, so it is not surprising that much of the
problemsolving strategy suggested in W.E.P. also
applicable here.
Step 1: Identify the relevant concepts : First ensure
that the fluid flow is steady and that fluid is
incompressible and has no internal friction. This case
is an idealization, but it hold up surprisingly well for
fluids flowing through sufficiently large pipes and for
flows within bulk fluids (e.g., air flowing around an
airplane or water flowing around a fish).
Step 2: Set up the problem using the following steps
Always begin by identifying clearly the points 1
and 2 referred to in Bernoulli's equation.
Define your coordinate system, particular the
level at which y = 0.
Make lists of the unknown and known quantities
in Eq. p
1
+ gy
1
+
2
1
v
1
2
= p
2
+ gy
2
+
2
1
v
2
2
(Bernoulli's equation)
The variables are p
1
, p
2
, v
1
, v
2
, y
1
and y
2
, and the
constants are and g. Decide which unknowns
are your target variables.
Step 3: Execute the solutions as follows : Write
Bernoulli's equation and solve for the unknowns. In
some problems you will need to use the continuity
equation, Eq. A
1
v
1
= A
2
v
2
(continuity equation,
incompressible fluid), to get a relation between the
two speeds in terms of crosssectional areas of pipes
XtraEdge for IITJEE 30 DECEMBER 2011
or containers. Or perhaps you will know both speeds
and need to determine one of the areas. You may also
need to use Eq.
dt
dV
= Av (volume flow rate) to find
the volume flow rate.
Step 4: Evaluate your answer : As always, verify that
the results make physical sense. Doublecheck that
you have used consistent units. In SI units, pressure is
in pascals, density in kilograms per cubic meter, and
speed in meters per second. Also note that the
pressures must be either all absolute pressure or all
gauge pressures.
Properties of matter :
Key Concepts :
Stress :
The restoring force setup inside the body per unit
area is known as stress.
Restoring forces : If the magnitude of applied
deforming force at equilibrium = F
Then, Stress =
A
F
In SI system, unit of stress is N/m
2
.
Difference between pressure and stress :
(a) Pressure is scalar but stress is tensor quantity.
(b) Pressure always acts normal to the surface, but
stress may be normal or tangential.
(c) Pressure is compressive in nature but stress may
be compressive or tensile.
Strain :
Strain =
dimension original
dimension in change
(a) Longitudinal strain =
L
L
L
F F
Longitudinal strain is in the direction of
deforming force but lateral strain is in
perpendicular direction of deforming force.
Poisson ratio :
=
strain al longitudin
strain lateral
=
L/L
d/D
Here d = change in diameter.
(b) Volumetric strain =
V
V
F
F F
F
V
(c) Shear strain =
Shear strain
Stressstrain graph :
From graph, it is obvious that in elastic limit, stress is
proportional to strain. This is known as Hooke's law.
Stress Strain
Stress = E .strain
E =
strain
stress
where E is proportionality dimensional constant
known as coefficient of elasticity.
O
A
B
C
Plastic
region
Breaking
strength
Elastic
limit
Strain
S
t
r
e
s
s
Types of coefficient of elasticity :
(a) Young's modulus = Y =
strain al longitudin
stress ogitudinal l
Y =
L
L
A
F
=
L A
FL
L
L
F
(b) Bulk modulus = B =
strain volumetric
stress volumetric
Compressibility = 1/B
XtraEdge for IITJEE 31 DECEMBER 2011
(c) Modulus of rigidity = =
A
F
=
strain shear
stress shear
(d) For isothermal process, B = P.
F
F
(e) For adiabatic process, B = P
(f)
modulus bulk Isothermal
modulus bulk Adiabatic
=
(g) E
solid
> E
liquid
> E
gas
(h) Young's modulus Y and modulus of rigidity
exist only for solids.
(i) Bulk modulus B exist for solid, liquid and gas.
(j) When temperature increases, coefficient of
elasticity (Y, B, ) decreases.
(k)
B
1
+
3
=
Y
9
(l) Y = 2(1 + )
(m) Poisson's ratio is unitless and dimensionless.
Theoretically, 1 < <
2
1
Practically, 0 < <
2
1
(n) Thermal stress = Y
(o) Elastic energy stored,
U =
2
1
load extension =
2
1
Fx =
2
1
kx
2
= stress strain volume
For twisting motion,
U =
2
1
torque angular twist
=
2
1
=
2
1
c
2
Elastic energy density,
u =
2
1
stress strain J/m
3
=
2
1
Y strain
2
J/m
3
Thermal stress = Y and Thermal strain =
Work done in stretching a wire :
(a) W =
2
1
FL
(b) Work done per unit volume =
2
1
stress strain
(c) Breaking weight = breaking stress area
Surface tension :
T =
L
F
Here L = length of imaginary line drawn at the
surface of liquid. and F = force acting on one side of
line (shown in figure)
(a) Surface tension does not depend upon surface
area.
(b) When temperature increases, surface tension
decreases.
(c) At critical temperature surface tension is zero.
F
F
L
Rise or fall of a liquid in a capillary tube :
h =
g r
cos T 2
Here = angle of contact.
r = radius of capillary tube
= density of liquid
For a given liquid and solid at a given place,
hr = constant
Surface energy :
Surface energy density is defined as work done
against surface tension per unit area. It is numerically
equal to surface tension.
W = work = surface tension area
(a) For a drop of radius R, W = 4R
2
T
(b) For a soap bubble, W = 8R
2
T
Excess pressure :
(a) For drop, P =
R
T 2
(b) For soap bubble, P =
R
T 4
Viscosity :
(a) Newton's law of viscous force :
F = A
dy
dv
where
dy
dv
= velocity gradient
A = area of liquid layer
= coefficient of viscosity
The unit of coefficient of viscosity in CGS is poise.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 32 DECEMBER 2011
(b) SI unit of coefficient of viscosity
= poiseuille = 10 poise.
(c) In the case of liquid, viscosity increases with
density.
(d) In the case of gas, viscosity decreases with
density.
(e) In the case of liquid, when temperature increases,
viscosity decreases.
(f) In the case of gas, when temperature increases,
viscosity increases.
Poiseuille's equation :
V =
L 8
r P
4
where V = the volume of liquid flowing per second
through a capillary tube of length L and radius r
= coefficient of viscosity
and P = pressure difference between ends of the tube
Stoke's law :
The viscous force acting on a spherical body moving
with constant velocity v in a viscous liquid is
F = 6rv
where r = radius of spherical body
Determination of :
=
v 9
g ) ( r 2
2
where r = radius of spherical body moving with
constant velocity v in a viscous liquid of coefficient
of viscosity and density
and = density of spherical body
Critical velocity (v
0
) :
v
0
=
r
k
where k = Reynold's number for narrow tube, k 1000.
(a) For stream line motion, flow velocity v < v
0
.
(b) For turbulant motion, flow velocity v > v
0
.
1. A vertical Utube of uniform crosssection contains
mercury in both arms. A glycerine (relative density
1.3) column of length 10 cm is introduced into one of
the arms. Oil of density 800 kg m
3
is poured into the
other arm until the upper surface of the oil and
glycerine are at the same horizontal level. Find the
length of the oil column. Density of mercury is
13.6 10
3
kg m
3
.
Sol. Draw a horizontal line through the mercuryglycerine
surface. This is a horizontal line in the same liquid at
rest namely, mercury. Therefore, pressure at the
points A and B must be the same.
h
1
0
c
m
(
1
h
)
A
B
Pressure at B
= p
0
+ 0.1 (1.3 1000) g
Pressure at A
= p
0
+ h 800 g + (0.1 h) 13.6 1000g
p
0
+ 0.1 1300 g
= p
0
+ 800gh + 1360g 13600 g h
130 = 800h + 1360 13600h
h =
12800
1230
= 0.096 m = 9.6 cm
2. A liquid flows out of a broad vessel through a narrow
vertical pipe. How are the pressure and the velocity
of the liquid in the pipe distributed when the height
of the liquid level in the vessel is H from the lower
end of the length of the pipe is h ?
Sol. Let us consider three points 1, 2, 3 in the flow of
water. The positions of the points are as shown in the
figure.
Applying Bernoulli's theorem to points 1, 2 and 3
h
H
x
1
0
p
+
2
1
v
2
1
+ gH =
2
p
+
2
2
v
2
1
+ g (h x)
=
0
p
+
2
3
v
2
1
+ 0
By continuity equation
v
1
A
1
= A
2
v
2
= A
2
v
3
Since A
1
>> A
2
,v
1
is negligible and v
2
= v
3
= n (say).
0
p
+ gH =
2
p
+
2
1
v
2
+ g (h x)
=
0
p
+
2
1
v
2
v = gH 2 (i)
Solved Examples
XtraEdge for IITJEE 33 DECEMBER 2011
and
0
p
+ gH =
2
p
+ gH + g (h x)
p
0
+ p
2
+ g (h x)
p
2
= p
0
g (h x) (ii)
Thus pressure varies with distance from the upper
end of the pipe according to equation (ii) and velocity
is a constant and is given by (i).
3. Calculate the difference in water levels in two
communicating tubes of diameter d = 1 mm and
d = 1.5 mm. Surface tension of water = 0.07 Nm
1
and angle of contact between glass and water = 0.
Sol. Pressure at A = p
0
2
r
cos T 2
(Q pressure inside a curved surface is greater than
that outside)
Pressure at B = p
0
1
r
cos T 2
pressure difference = 2T cos


.

\

2 1
r
1
r
1
B
A
Let this pressure difference correspond to h units of
the liquid.
Then 2T cos


.

\

2 1
r
1
r
1
= gh
h =


.

\

2 1
r
1
r
1
g
cos T 2
h = 
.

\

3 3
10 5 . 1
1
10 1
1
8 . 9 1000
07 . 0 2
= 4.76 mm
4. A mass of 5 kg is suspended from a copper wire of 5
mm diameter and 2 m in length. What is the
extension produced in the wire ? What should be the
minimum diameter of the wire so that its elastic limit
is not exceed ? Elastic limit for copper = 1.5 10
9
dynes/cm
2
. Y for copper = 1.1 10
12
dynes/cm
2
.
Sol. Given that Y = 1.1 10
12
dynes/cm
2
,
L = 2m = 200 cm, d = 5 mm = 0.5 cm
or r = d/2 = 0.25 cm, F = 5.0 1000 980 dynes.
Y =
l
2
r
FL
or l =
Y r
FL
2
=
2 2
10 1 . 1 ) 25 . 0 ( 142 . 3
200 980 1000 0 . 5
= 4.99 10
3
cm
Also, elastic limit for copper = 1.5 10
9
dynes/cm
2
If d' is the minimum diameter, then maximum stress
on the wire =
4 / ' d
F
2
=
2
' d
F 4
Hence,
2
' d
F 4
= 1.5 10
9
or d'
2
=
9
10 5 . 1
F 4
=
9
10 5 . 1 142 . 3
980 1000 0 . 5 4
= 41.58 10
4
d' = 0.0645 cm.
5. A uniform horizontal rigid bar of 100 kg in supported
horizontally by three equal vertical wires A, B and C
each of initial length one meter and crosssection
1 mm
2
. B is a copper wire passing through the centre
of the bar; A and C are steel wires and are arranged
symmetrically one on each side of B Y
Cu
= 1.5 10
12
dynes / cm
2
, Y
s
= 2 10
12
dynes/cm
2
. Calculate the
tension in each wire and extension.
Sol. The situation is shown in figure. Because the rod is
horizontally supported, hence extensions in all the
wires must be equal i.e., strains in all the wires are
equal as initial lengths are also equal.
As Y =
Strain
Stress
A
S
B
Cu
C
S
100 Kg
Hence, Y
Cu
=
Strain
A / F
Cu
(1)
and Y
s
=
Strain
A / F
s
(2)
S
Cu
Y
Y
=
S
Cu
F
F
=
2
5 . 1
=
4
3
or 4F
Cu
= 3F
S
...(3)
According to figure, we can write
2F
S
+ F
Cu
= 100 g or 2 (4/3) F
Cu
+ F
Cu
= 100 g
or [(8/3) + 1] F
Cu
= 100 g
F
Cu
= (3/11) 100g
= (3/11) 100 Kgwt = 27.28 Kgwt
and F
S
= (4/3) F
Cu
= (4/3) (3/11) 100g
= (400/11)g = 36.36 Kgwt
Extension in each wire,
l =
Cu
Cu
AY
L F
=
12 2
10 5 . 1 10
100 980 27280
= 0.178 cm
XtraEdge for IITJEE 34 DECEMBER 2011
Acidity of carboxylic acids.
Fatty acids are weak acids as compared to inorganic
acids. The acidic character of fatty acids decreases
with increase in molecular weight. Formic acid is the
strongest of all fatty acids.
The acidic character of carboxylic acids is due to
resonance in the acidic group which imparts electron
deficiency (positive charge) on the oxygen atom of
the hydroxyl group (structure II).
R C O H
O
I
Nonequivalent structures
R C O H
O
II
+
(Resonance less important)
R C O + H
+
O
The positive charge (electron deficiency) on oxygen
atom causes a displacement of electron pair of the
OH bond towards the oxygen atom with the result
the hydrogen atom of the OH group is eliminated
as proton and a carboxylate ion is formed.
Once the carboxylate ion is formed, it is stabilised by
means of resonance.
R C
O
Resonating forms of carboxylate ion (Equivalent structures)
(Resonance more important)
O
R C
O
O
R C
O
Resonance hybrid of carboxylate ion
O
Due to equivalent resonating structures, resonance in
carboxylate anion is more important than in the
parent carboxylic acid. Hence carboxylate anion is
more stabilised than the acid itself and hence the
equilibrium of the ionisation of carboxylic acids to
the right hand side.
RCOOH RCOO
+ H
+
The existence of resonance in carboxylate ion is
supported by bond lengths. For example, in formic
acid, there is one C=O double bond (1.23 ) and one
CO single bond (1.36), while in sodium formate
both of the carbonoxygen bond lengths are identical
(1.27) which is nearly intermediate between C O
and CO bond length values. This proves resonance
in carboxylate anion.
H C
O
OH
H C
O
O
Na
+
Formic acid
Sodium formate
It is important to note that although carboxylic acids
and alcohols both contain OH group, the latter are
not acidic in nature. It is due to the absence of
resonance (factor responsible for acidic character of
COOH) in both the alcohols as well as in their
corresponding ions (alkoxide ions).
ROH RO
+ H
+
Alcohol Alkoxide ion
(No resonance) (No resonance)
Relative acidic character of carboxylic acids with
common species not having COOH group.
RCOOH >ArOH >HOH>ROH >
HC CH >NH
3
>RH
Effect of Substituents on acidity.
The carboxylic acids are acidic in nature because of
stabilisation (i.e., dispersal of negative charge) of
carboxylate ion. So any factor which can enhance the
dispersal of negative charge of the carboxylate ion
will increase the acidity of the carboxylic acid and
vice versa. Thus electronwithdrawing substitutents
(like halogens, NO
2
, C
6
H
5
, etc.) would disperse
the negative charge and hence stabilise the
carboxylate ion and thus increase acidity of the
parent acid. On the other hand, electronreleasing
substituents would increase the negative charge,
destabilise the carboxylate ion and thus decrease
acidity of the parent acid.
X C
O
O
The substituent X withdraws electrons, disperses negative
charge, stabilises the ion and hence increases acidity
Y C
O
O
The substituent Y releases electrons, intensifies negative
charge, destabilises the ion and hence decreases acidity
Organic
Chemistry
Fundamentals
CARBOXYLIC ACID
KEY CONCEPT
XtraEdge for IITJEE 35 DECEMBER 2011
Now, since alkyl groups are electronreleasing, their
presence in the molecule will decrease the acidity. In
general, greater the length of the alkyl chain, lower
shall be the acidity of the acid. Thus, formic acid
(HCOOH), having no alkyl group, is about 10 times
stronger than acetic acid (CH
3
COOH) which in turn
is stronger than propanoic acid (CH
3
CH
2
COOH) and
so on. Similarly, following order is observed in
chloro acids.
Cl C
Cl
Cl
CO
2
H > Cl C
Cl
H
CO
2
H
pKa 0.70 1.48
Cl C
H
H
CO
2
H > H C
H
H
CO
2
H
pKa 2.86 4.76
>
Decreasing order of aliphatic acids
(i) O
2
NCH
2
COOH > FCH
2
COOH > ClCH
2
COOH
> BrCH
2
COOH
(ii) HCOOH > CH
3
COOH > (CH
3
)
2
CHCOOH
> (CH
3
)
3
CCOOH
(iii) CH
3
CH
2
CCl
2
COOH > CH
3
CHCl.CHCl.COOH
> ClCH
2
CHClCH
2
COOH
(iv) F
3
CCOOH > Cl
3
CCOOH > Br
3
CCOOH
Benzoic acid is somewhat stronger than simple
aliphatic acids. Here the carboxylate group is
attached to a more electronegative carbon (sp
2
hybridised) than in aliphatic acids (sp
3
hybridised).
HCOOH > C
6
H
5
COOH > CH
3
COOH.
Nucleophilic substitution at acyl carbon :
It is important to note that nucleophilic substitution
(e.g., hydrolysis, reaction with NH
3
, C
2
H
5
OH, etc.) in
acid derivatives (acid chlorides, anhydrides, esters
and amides) takes place at acyl carbon atom
(difference from nucleophilic substitution in alkyl
halides where substitution takes place at alkyl carbon
atom). Nucleophilic substitution in acyl halides is
faster than in alkyl halides. This is due to the
presence of > CO group in acid chlorides which
facilitate the release of halogen as halide ion.
R C
O
+
Cl
Acid chloride
R
+
Cl
Alkyl chloride
Comparison of nucleophilic substitution (e.g.,
hydrolysis) in acid derivatives. Let us first study the
mechanism of such reaction.
R C Z + Nu
(i) Addition step
R C
O
Nu
Z
O
(ii) Elimination step
R C
O
Nu + Z
(where Z= Cl, OCOR, OR, NH
2
and
Nu
=
A nucleophile)
Nucleophilic substitution in acid derivatives
R C R' R C
O
Nu
R'
O
Nu
R C
OH
Nu
R'
H
+
(where R' = H or alkyl group)
Nucleophilic addition on aldehydes and ketones
The (i) step is similar to that of nucleophilic addition
in aldehydes and ketones and favoured by the
presence of electron withdrawing group (which
would stabilise the intermediate by developing
negative charge) and hindered by electronreleasing
group. The (ii) step (elimination of the leaving group
Z)
depends upon the ability of Z to accommodate
electron pair, i.e., on the basicity of the leaving
group. Weaker bases are good leaving groups,
hence weaker a base, the more easily it is removed.
Among the four leaving groups (Cl
OCOR,
OR,
and
NH
2
) of the four acid derivatives, Cl
being the
weakest base is eliminated most readily. The relative
order of the basic nature of the four groups is
NH
2
>
OR >
O.COR > Cl
Hence acid chlorides are most reactive and acid
amides are the least reactive towards nucleophilic
acyl substitution. Thus, the relative reactivity of acid
derivatives (acyl compounds) towards nucleophilic
substitution reactions is
ROCl > RCO.O.COR > RCOOR > RCONH
2
Acid Acid Esters Acid
chlorides anhydrides amides
OH
, carboxylic acids
(RCOOH) undergo nucleophilic substitution
(esterfication) less readily than acid chlorides.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 36 DECEMBER 2011
Physical
Chemistry
Fundamentals
The temperature dependence of reaction rates :
The rate constants of most reactions increase as the
temperature is raised. Many reactions in solution fall
somewhere in the range spanned by the hydrolysis of
methyl ethanoate (where the rate constant at 35C is
1.82 times that at 25C) and the hydrolysis of sucrose
(where the factor is 4.13).
(a) The Arrhenius parameters :
It is found experimentally for many reactions that a
plot of ln k against 1/T gives a straight line. This
behaviour is normally expressed mathematically by
introducing two parameters, one representing the
intercept and the other the slope of the straight line,
and writing the Arrhenius equaion.
ln k = ln A
RT
E
a
......(i)
The parameter A, which corresponds to the intercept
of the line at 1/T = 0(at infinite temperature, shown in
figure), is called the preexponential factor or the
'frequency factor'. The parameter E
a
, which is
obtained from the slope of the line (E
a
/R), is called
the activation energy. Collectively the two quantities
are called the Arrhenius parameters.
Slope = E
a
/R
ln A
l
n
k
1/T
A plot of ln k against 1/T is a straight line when
the reaction follows the behaviour described by
the Arrhenius equation. The slope gives E
a
/R
and the intercept at 1/T = 0 gives ln A.
The fact that E
a
is given by the slope of the plot of
ln k against 1/T means that, the higher the activation
energy, the stronger the temperature dependence of
the rate constant (that is, the steeper the slope). A
high activation energy signifies that the rate constant
depends strongly on temperature. If a reaction has
zero activation energy, its rate is independent of
temperature. In some cases the activation energy is
negative, which indicates that the rate decreases as
the temperature is raised. We shall see that such
behaviour is a signal that the reaction has a complex
mechanism.
The temperature dependence of some reactions is
nonArrhenius, in the sense that a straight line is not
obtained when ln k is plotted against 1/T. However,
it is still possible to define an activation energy at any
temperature as
E
a
= RT
2

.

\

dT
k n dl
.......(ii)
This definition reduces to the earlier one (as the slope
of a straight line) for a temperatureindependent
activation energy. However, the definition in eqn.(ii)
is more general than eqn.(i), because it allows E
a
to
be obtained from the slope (at the temperature of
interest) of a plot of ln k against 1/T even if the
Arrhenius plot is not a straight line. NonArrhenius
behaviour is sometimes a sign that quantum
mechanical tunnelling is playing a significant role in
the reaction.
(b) The interpretation of the parameters :
We shall regard the Arrhenius parameters as purely
empirical quantities that enable us to discuss the
variation of rate constants with temperature;
however, it is useful to have an interpretation in mind
and write eqn.(i) as
k =
RT / E
a
Ae
.......(iii)
To interpret E
a
we consider how the molecular
potential energy changes in the course of a chemical
reaction that begins with a collision between
molecules of A and molecules of B(shown in figure).
E
a
Reactants
Products
Progress of reaction
P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l
e
n
e
r
g
y
A potential energy profile for an exothermic
reaction. The height of the barrier between
the reactants and products is the activation
energy of the reaction
CHEMICAL KINETICS
KEY CONCEPT
XtraEdge for IITJEE 37 DECEMBER 2011
XtraEdge for IITJEE 38 DECEMBER 2011
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XtraEdge for IITJEE 39 DECEMBER 2011
XtraEdge for IITJEE 40 DECEMBER 2011
XtraEdge for IITJEE 41 DECEMBER 2011
As the reaction event proceeds, A and B come into
contact, distort, and begin to exchange or discard
atoms. The reaction coordinate is the collection of
motions, such as changes in interatomic distances and
bond angles, that are directly involved in the
formation of products from reactants. (The reaction
coordinate is essentially a geometrical concept and
quite distinct from the extent of reaction.) The
potential energy rises to a maximum and the cluster
of atoms that corresponds to the region close to the
maximum is called the activated complex. After the
maximum, the potential energy falls as the atoms
rearrange in the cluster and reaches a value
characteristic of the products. The climax of the
reaction is at the peak of the potential energy, which
corresponds to the activation energy E
a
. Here two
reactant molecules have come to such a degree of
closeness and distortion that a small further
distortion will send them in the direction of products.
This crucial configuration is called the transition
state of the reaction. Although some molecules
entering the transition state might revert to reactants,
if they pass through this configuration then it is
inevitable that products will emerge from the
encounter.
We also conclude from the preceding discussion that,
for a reaction involving the collision of two
molecules, the activation energy is the minimum
kinetic energy that reactants must have in order
to form products. For example, in a gasphase
reaction there are numerous collisions each second,
but only a tiny proportion are sufficiently energetic to
lead to reaction. The fraction of collisions with a
kinetic energy in excess of an energy E
a
is given by
the Boltzmann distribution as
RT / E
a
e
. Hence, we
can interpret the exponential factor in eqn(iii) as the
fraction of collision that have enough kinetic energy
to lead to reaction.
The preexponential factor is a measure of the rate at
which collisions occur irrespective of their energy.
Hence, the product of A and the exponential factor,
RT / E
a
e
2Bi(NO
3
)
3
+ 2NO
(B) (D) + 3S + 4H
2
O
(iv) Bi(N O
3
)
3
+ 3NH
4
OH
(D) Bi(OH)
3
+ 3NH
4
NO
3
(E) White ppt.
Bi(OH)
3
+ 3HCl
BiCl
3
+ 3H
2
O
Dil. (A)
BiCl
3
+ H
2
O BiOCl + 2HCl
(A) (F)
Bismuth oxychloride
(White turbidity)
(v) BiCl
3
+ 2NaOH +Na
2
[SnO
2
]
(A)
Bi + NaSnO
3
+ H
2
O + 3NaCl
(G) Black ppt.
2Bi + 6HCl
2BiCl
3
+ 3H
2
(G) (A)
Hence,
(A) is BiCl
3
,
(B) is Bi
2
S
3
,
(C) is H
2
S,
(D) is Bi(NO
3
)
2
,
(E) is Bi(OH)
3
, (F) is BiOCl and (G) is Bi
2. A colourless solid (A) on heating gives a white solid
(B) and a colourless gas (C). (B) gives off reddish
brown fumes on treating with H
2
SO
4
. On treating
with NH
4
Cl, (B) gives a colourless gas (D) and a
residue (E). The compound (A) on heating with
(NH
4
)
2
SO
4
gives a colourless gas (F) and white
residue (G). Both (E) and (G) impart bright yellow
colour to Bunsen flame. The gas (C) forms white
powder with strongly heated Mg metal which on
hydrolysis produces Mg(OH)
2
. The gas (D) on
heating with Ca gives a compound which on
hydrolysis produces NH
3
. Identify compounds (A) to
(G) giving chemical equations involved.
Sol. The given information is as follows :
(i) A
Heat
B + C
Colourless Solid Colourless
Solid gas
(ii) B + H
2
SO
4
D + E
Colourless gas
(iv) A + (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
F + G
olourless gas White
Residue
(v) E and G imparts yellow colour to the flame.
(vi) C + Mg
Heat
White powder
O H
2
Mg(OH)
2
(vii) D + Ca
Heat
Compound
O H
2
NH
3
Information of (v) indicates that (E) and (G) and also
(A) are the salts of sodium because Na
+
ions give
yellow coloured flame. Observations of (ii) indicate
that the anion associated with Na
+
in (A) may be
NO
3
2NaNO
2
+ O
2
(A) (B) (C)
(ii) 2NaNO
2
+ H
2
SO
4
Na
2
SO
4
+ 2HNO
2
(B) Dil.
3HNO
2
HNO
3
+ H
2
O + 2NO
2NO + O
2
2NO
2
Reddish brown
Fumes
(iii) NaNO
2
+ NH
4
Cl NaCl + N
2
+ 2H
2
O
(B) (E) (D)
(iv) 2NaNO
3
+ (NH
4
)
2
SO
4
Na
2
SO
4
+ 2NH
3
(A) (G) (F)
2HNO
3
(v) O
2
+ 2Mg
2MgO
O H
2
Mg(OH)
2
(C)
(vi) N
2
+ 3Ca
Ca
3
N
2
(D)
Ca
3
N
2
+ 6H
2
O 3Ca(OH)
2
+ 2NH
3
Hence,
(A) is NaNO
3
,
(B) is NaNO
2
,
(C) is O
2
,
(D) is N
2
,
(E) is NaCl,
(F) is NH
3
and (G) is Na
2
SO
4
.
3. A black coloured compound (A) on reaction with dil.
H
2
SO
4
gives a gas (B) which on passing in a solution
of an acid (C) gives a white turbidity (D). Gas (B)
when passed through an acidified solution of a
compound (E), gives ppt.(F) which is soluble in
dilute nitric acid. After boiling this solution an excess
of NH
4
OH is added, a blue coloured compound (G) is
produced. To this solution, on addition of CH
3
COOH
and aqueous K
4
[Fe(CN)
6
], a chocolate ppt. (H) is
produced. On addition of an aqueous solution of
BaCl
2
to aqueous solution of (E), a white ppt.
insoluble in HNO
3
is obtained. Identify compounds
(A) to (H).
Sol. From the data on compounds (G) and (H), it may be
inferred that the compound (E) contains cupric ions
(Cu
2+
), i.e., (E) is a salt of copper. Since the addition
of BaCl
2
to (E) gives a white ppt. insoluble in HNO
3
,
it may be said that the anion in the salt is sulphate ion
(SO
4
2
). Hence, (E) is CuSO
4
.
The gas (B) which is obtained by adding dil. H
2
SO
4
to a black coloured compound (A), may be H
2
S since
it can cause precipitation of Cu
2+
ions in acidic
medium. The black coloured compound (A) may be
ferrous sulphide (iron pyrite).
Hence, the given observation may be explained from
the following equations.
Fe S + H
2
SO
4
FeSO
4
+ H
2
S
(A) Dil. (B)
H
2
S + 2HNO
3
2NO
2
+ 2H
2
O + S (D)
(C) White turbidity
CuSO
4
+ H
2
S CuS + H
2
SO
4
(E) (B) (F)
Black ppt.
3CuS + 8HNO
3
Dil. 3Cu(NO
3
)
2
+ 2NO + 3S + 4H
2
O
Cu
++
+ 4NH
3
[Cu(NH
3
)
4
]
2+
(G) Blue colour
[Cu(NH
3
)
4
]
2+
+ 4CH
3
COOH
Cu
2+
+ 4CH
3
COONH
4
Cu
2+
+ [Fe(CN)
6
]
4
Cu
2
[Fe(CN)
6
]
(H)
Chocolate colour
CuSO
4
(aq) + BaCl
2
(aq) BaSO
4
+ CuCl
2
(E) White ppt.
Insuluble in HNO
3
Hence,
(A) is FeS, (B) is H
2
S, (C) is HNO
3
, (D) is S,
(E) is CuSO
4
, (F) is CuS, (G) is [Cu(NH
3
)
4
]SO
4
and
(H) is Cu
2
[Fe(CN)
6
]
4. (i) An inorganic compound (A) is formed on passing
a gas (B) through a concentrated liquor containing
Na
2
S and Na
2
SO
3
.
(ii) On adding (A) into a dilute solution of AgNO
3
, a
white ppt. appears which quickly changes into
black coloured compound (C).
(iii) On adding two or three drops of FeCl
3
into
excess of solution of (A), a violet coloured
compound (D) is formed. This colour disappears
quickly.
(iv) On adding a solution of (A) into the solution of
CuCl
2
, a white ppt. is first formed which dissolves
on adding excess of (A) forming a compound (E).
Identify (A) to (E) and give chemical equations for
the reactions at steps (i) to (iv)
Sol. (i) The compound (A) appears to be Na
2
S
2
O
3
from its
method of preparation given in the problem.
Na
2
S + Na
2
SO
3
+ I
2
2NaI + Na
2
S
2
O
3
(B) (A)
or Na
2
SO
3
+ 3Na
2
S + 3SO
2
3Na
2
S
2
O
3
(B) (A)
(ii) White ppt. of Ag
2
S
2
O
3
is formed which is
hydrolysed to black Ag
2
S
Na
2
S
2
O
3
+ 2AgNO
3
2NaNO
3
+ Ag
2
S
2
O
3
White ppt
Ag
2
S
2
O
3
+ H
2
O Ag
2
S + H
2
SO
4
(C)
(iii) A violet ferric salt is formed.
3Na
2
S
2
O
3
+ 2FeCl
3
Fe
2
(S
2
O
3
)
3
+ 6NaCl
(D)(violet)
(iv) 2CuCl
2
+ 2Na
2
S
2
O
3
2CuCl + Na
2
S
4
O
6
+ 2NaCl
White ppt.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 44 DECEMBER 2011
2CuCl + Na
2
S
2
O
3
Cu
2
S
2
O
3
+ 2NaCl
3Cu
2
S
2
O
3
+ 2Na
2
S
2
O
3
Na
4
[Cu
6
(S
2
O
3
)
5
]
(E)
or 6CuCl + 5Na
2
S
2
O
3
Na
4
[Cu
6
(S
2
O
3
)
5
] + 6NaCl
(E)
Hence,
(A) is Na
2
S
2
O
3
,
(B) is I
2
or SO
2
,
(C) is Ag
2
S,
(D) is Fe
2
(S
2
O
3
)
3
and
(E) is Na
4
[Cu
6
(S
2
O
3
)
5
].
5. A white amorphous powder (A) on heating yields a
colourless, noncombustible gas (B) and solid (C).
The latter compound assumes a yellow colour on
heating and changes to white on cooling. 'C' dissolves
in dilute acid and the resulting solution gives a white
precipitate on adding K
4
Fe(CN)
6
solution.
'A' dissolves in dilute HCl with the evolution of gas,
which is identical in all respects with 'B'. The gas 'B'
turns lime water milky, but the milkiness disappears
with the continuous passage of gas. The solution of
'A', as obtained above, gives a white precipitate (D)
on the addition of excess of NH
4
OH and and passing
H
2
S. Another portion of the solution gives initially a
white precipitate (E) on the addition of sodium
hydroxide solution, which dissolves on futher
addition of the base. Identify the compounds A, B, D
and E. [IIT1979]
Sol. (i) ZnCO
3
ZnO + CO
2
(A) (B)
(ii) ZnO + 2HCl H
2
O + ZnCl
2
(C) (soluble)
(iii) 2ZnCl
2
+ K
4
[Fe(CN)
6
]
4KCl + Zn
2
[Fe(CN)
6
]
(white ppt)
(iv) ZnCO
3
+ HCl CO
2
+ ZnCl
2
(A) (soluble)
(v) CO
2
+ Ca(OH)
2
CaCO
3
+ H
2
O
(B) (Milky)
(vi) CaCO
3
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O Ca(HCO
3
)
2
(soluble)
(vii) ZnCl
2
+ H
2
S
OH NH
4
2HCl + ZnS
(white)
(viii) ZnCl
2
+ 2NaOH 2NaCl + Zn(OH)
2
(white)
(ix) Zn(OH)
2
+ 2NaOH Na
2
ZnO
2
+ H
2
sod. ziniate
(soluble)
SCIENCE TIPS
What is the expression for growing current, in LR
circuit ? I = I
0


.

\

t
L
R
e 1
What is the range of infrared spectrum ?
This covers wavelengths
from 10
3
m down to 7.8 10
7
m
What is the nature of graph between electric field
and potential energy (U) ?
The nature of the graph
will be parabola having
symmetry about Uaxis
Why no beats can be heard if the frequencies of
the two interfering waves differ by more than ten ?
this is due to persistence
of hearing
Why heating systems based on steam are more
efficient than those based on circulation of hot
water ? This is because steam
has more heat than water
a the same temperature
Can the specific heat of a gas be infinity ? Yes
What is the liquid ascent formula for a capillary ?
h =
pg
cos T 2
3
r
where h is the height through
which a liquid of density and
surface tension T rises in a
capillary tube of radius r
What is the expression for total time of flight (T)
for oblique projection ? T =
g
sin u 2
The space charge limited current i
P
in the diode
value is given by i
P
= k V
p
3/2
What is an ideal gas ? An ideal gas is one in
which intermolecular
forces are absent
Can a rough sea be calmed by pouring oil on its
surface ? Yes
What is the expression for fringe width () in
Young's double slit experiment? =D/d where
D is the distance between the
source and screen and d is
distance between two slits
XtraEdge for IITJEE 45 DECEMBER 2011
1. Show that the six planes through the middle point of
each edge of a tetrahedron perpendicular to the
opposite edge meet in a point.
2. Prove that if the graph of the function y = f (x),
defined throughout the number scale, is symmetrical
about two lines x = a and x = b, (a < b), then this
function is a periodic one.
3. Show that an equilateral triangle is a triangle of
maximum area for a given perimeter and a triangle of
minimum perimeter for a given area.
4. Let az
2
+ bz + c be a polynomial with complex
coefficients such that a and b are non zero. Prove
that the zeros of this polynomial lie in the region
 z 
a
b
+
b
c
5. An isosceles triangle with its base parallel to the
major axis of the ellipse
2
2
a
x
+
2
2
b
y
= 1 is
circumscribed with all the three sides touching the
ellipse. Find the least possible area of the triangle.
6. If one of the straight lines given by the equation
ax
2
+ 2hxy + by
2
= 0 coincides with one of those
given by ax
2
+ 2hxy + by
2
= 0 and the other lines
represented by them be perpendicular, show that
a b
b ha
=
a b
ab h
7. Prove that


.

\

0
n


.

\

n
m
+


.

\

1
n


.

\
 +
n
m 1
+


.

\

2
n


.

\
 +
n
m 2
+ .........
.... to (n + 1) terms
=


.

\

0
n


.

\

0
m
+


.

\

1
n


.

\

1
m
2 +


.

\

2
n


.

\

2
m
2
2
+ ........
..... to (n + 1) terms
8. If n 2 and I
n
=
1
1
2
) 1 (
n
x cos mx dx, then show that
m
2
I
n
= 2n(2n 1) I
n1
4n(n 1) I
n2
.
9. Find the sum to infinite terms of the series
4
3
+
36
5
+
144
7
+
400
9
+
900
11
+ ........
10. ABC is a triangle inscribed in a circle. Two of its
sides are parallel to two given straight lines. Show
that the locus of foot of the perpendicular from the
centre of the circle on to the third side is also a circle,
concentric to the given circle.
`t{xtvt V{txzx
This section is designed to give IIT JEE aspirants a thorough grinding & exposure to variety
of possible twists and turns of problems in mathematics that would be very helpful in facing
IIT JEE. Each and every problem is well thought of in order to strengthen the concepts and
we hope that this section would prove a rich resource for practicing challenging problems and
enhancing the preparation level of IIT JEE aspirants.
By : Shailendra Maheshwari
Joint Director Academics, Career Point, Kota Sol ut i ons wi l l be publ i shed i n next i ssue
8
Set
MEMORABLE POINTS
The vector relation between linear velocity and
angular velocity is
v =
r
In the case of uniform circular motion the angle between
and
r is always 90(hence 
v  = r
The relation between Faraday constant F, Avogadro
number N and the electronic charge e is F = Ne
Depolariser used in Lechlanche cell is
Manganese dioxide
The absorption or evolution of heat at a junction of
two dissimilar metals when a current is passed is
known as Peltier effect
The part of the human ear where sound is transduced
is the Cochlea
Similar trait resulting from similar selection pressure
acting on similar gene pool is termed
Parallel evolution
Group of related species with the potential, directly
or indirectly, of forming fertile hybrids with one
another is called Coenospecies
XtraEdge for IITJEE 46 DECEMBER 2011
1. Let the line be y = 2x + c
Point A 
.

\
 +
3
2 9
,
6
9 c c
Point B 
.

\

3
6
,
3
3 2 c c
Point C 
.

\
 + +
3
12 5
,
3
6 c c
mid point of B & C is
2
1
.
(
+
+
3
6
3
3 2 c c
,
(
+
+
+
+
3
12 5
3
6
2
1 c c
=
(
+
3
9 2
,
6
9 c c
which is point A, so AB and AC are equal.
2.
A
b
C
D B
a
b a + =
AB
1
.
AB
AB
+
AC
1
.
AC
AC
=
2
AB
1
AB + AC
AC
1
2
= ) DB AD (
AB
1
2
+ + ) DC AD (
AC
1
2
+
= 
.

\

+
2 2
AC
1
AB
1
AD +
DC . BD
DB
+
CB . CD
DC
= 
.

\

+
2 2
AC
1
AB
1
AD +


.

\

+
CD
DC
BD
DB
BC
1
= AD. 
.

\

+
CB . CD
1
DC . BD
1
=
CD
AD
. 
.

\

+
CD
1
BD
1
=
CD . BD
BD DC
.
BC
AD +
=
CD . BD
AD
=
2
AD
AD
=
AD
AD
.
AD
1
so it is vector along B A with magnitude
AD
1
.
 b a +  =
AD
1
3. The line PQ always passes through (, ) so it is
y = m(x )
Let the circle be x
2
+ y
2
2hx 2ky = 0
Joint equation of OP and OQ.
x
2
+ y
2
2 (hx + ky)
m
mx y ) (
= 0
P
(h,k)
Q
O


.

\

m
k 2
1 y
2
2


.

\

m
mk h
xy +


.

\

+
m
hn 2
1 x
2
= 0
It must represent y
2
x
2
= 0
so
m
mk h
= 0 m = h/k ...(1)
and 1
m
k 2
= 1
m
hm 2
m 2k = + m 2hm
+ m + k hm = 0
+ k + h/k( h) = 0 (using (1) in it)
k
2
y + h h
2
= 0 so required locus is
x
2
y
2
x + y = 0
4. As f (x) tan x for x 
.

\

2
,
2
so f (0) = 0
so f (x) f (0) tan x
divides both sides by x
x
f x f ) 0 ( ) (
x
x tan
0
lim
x x
f x f ) 0 ( ) (
0
lim
x x
x tan
f (0) 1
n
a
n
a a a
1
.....
3
1
2
1
3 2 1
+ + + + 1
=
n
i
i
i
a
1
1
5. Let the number is xyz, here x < y and z < y.
Let y = n, then x can be filled in (n 1) ways.
(i.e. from 1 to (n 1)) and z can be filled in n ways
(i.e. from 0 to (n 1))
MATHEMATICAL CHALLENGES
SOLUTION FOR NOVEMBER ISSUE (SET # 7)
XtraEdge for IITJEE 47 DECEMBER 2011
here 2 n 9
so total no. of 3 digit numbers with largest middle
digit
=
=
9
2
) 1 (
n
n n =
=
9
2
2
n
n
=
9
2 n
n
=
6
19 . 10 . 9
2
10 . 9
= 285 45 = 240
required probability =
10 10 9
240
=
30
8
=
15
4
6. The region bounded by the curve y = log
2
(2 x) and the
inequality (x x)
2
+ (y y)
2
4 is required area is
(1,0)
(3/2,1)
(0,1)
(1,0)
(1,log
2
3
)
=
1
1
2
) 2 ( log dx x +
0
1
) 2 2 ( dy
y
+
4
1
= 3 log 2
2
2
3 log
2 2
+
n l
+ 2
2 2
1
n l
+
4
= log
2
27
2
e e
+ 2 +
4
sq units
7.
A
E F
B
D
M
C
BMC = 2BAC = 2BMD
so tan A =
MD
BD
=
MD 2
BC
=
1
r 4
BC
=
1
4r
a
so
2
1
2
r
a
= tan
2
A
so
2
1
2
r
a
+
2
2
2
r
b
+
2
3
2
r
c
= 16 (tan
2
A + tan
2
B + tan
2
C) ...(1)
Now as tan A + tan B + tan C
3 (tan A . tan B . tan C)
1/3
and for a triangle tan A + tan B + tan C
= tan A . tan B . tan C
so (tan A . tan B . tan C)
2/3
3
tan A . tan B . tan C 3 3
tan
2
A + tan
2
B + tan
2
C
3(tan A. tan B tan C)
2/3
3.3
so from (1),
2
1
2
r
a
+
2
2
2
r
b
+
2
3
2
r
c
144.
8. Z
1
, Z
2
, Z
3
are centroids of equilateral triangles ACX,
ABY and BCZ respectively.
Z
1
Z
A
= (Z
C
Z
A
)
A C
A 1
Z Z
Z Z
e
i/6
x
y
A
Z
A
Z
B
Z
3
Z
C
z
C
B
Z
2
Z
1
Z
1
Z
A
= (Z
C
Z
A
)


.

\

+
2 2
3
3
1 i
...(1)
similarly,
Z
2
Z
A
= (Z
B
Z
A
)


.

\

2 2
3
3
1 i
...(2)
So, Z
1
Z
2
=
2
1
(Z
C
Z
B
) +
3 2
i
(Z
C
+ Z
B
2Z
A
)
...(3)
similarly Z
2
Z
3
=
2
1
(Z
A
Z
C
)
+
3 2
i
(Z
A
+ Z
C
2Z
B
) ..(4)
To prove xyz as equilateral triangle, we prove that
(Z
3
Z
2
)e
i/3
= Z
1
Z
2
So, (Z
3
Z
2
)e
i/3
= (
2
1
(Z
C
Z
A
)
3 2
i
(Z
A
+ Z
C
2Z
B
))


.

\

+ i
2
3
2
1
=
2
1
(Z
C
Z
B
) +
3 2
i
(Z
C
+ Z
B
2Z
A
)
= Z
1
Z
2
XtraEdge for IITJEE 48 DECEMBER 2011
9. T
r
= 2
+
a
r u r
u r
0
2
cos 2 1
cos 1
du. ...(1)
=
+
+ +
a
r u r
r r u r
0
2
2 2
cos 2 1
1 cos 2 1
du
=


.

\

+
+
a
r u r
r
0
2
2
cos 2 1
1
1 du
= a + (1 r
2
)
+ +
a
u r u r
u
0
2 2 2
2
) 2 / tan 1 ( 2 ) 2 / tan 1 )( 1 (
2 / sec
= a + (1 r
2
)
+ +
a
r u r
u
0
2 2 2
2
) 1 ( 2 / tan ) 1 (
2 / sec
= a +
2
2
) 1 (
1
r
r
+
+
a
r
r
u
du u
0
2
2
2
2
) 1 (
) 1 (
2 / tan
2 / sec
Let tan u/2 = t
so, T
r
= a +
2
2
) 1 (
1
r
r
+
+
2 / tan
0
2
2
1
1
2
a
r
r
t
dt
= a +
2
2
) 1 (
) 1 ( 2
r
r
+
r
r
+
1
1
2 / tan
0
1
1
1
tan
a
r
r
t
(
(


.

\

Now
+
1
lim
r
T
r
= a
) 1 )( 1 (
) 1 )( 1 ( 2
+
+
r r
r r
2
= a
and
+
1
lim
r
T
r
= a +
) 1 r )( r 1 (
) 1 r )( r 1 ( 2
+
+
2
= a +
and (from (1)) T
1
=
a
du
0
= a
Hence
+
1
lim
r
T
r
, T
1
,
1
lim
r
T
r
form an A.P. with
common difference .
10. Let , , be the three real roots of the equation
without loss of generality, it can be assumed that
. so
x
2
+ ax
2
+ bx + c = (x ) (x
2
+ (a + ) x + (
2
+ a + b))
where (
2
+ a + b) = c, as is the root of given
equation, so x
2
+ (a + ) x + (
2
+ a + b) = 0 must
have two roots i.e. and . So its discriminant is non
negative, thus
( + a)
2
4(
2
+ a + b) 0 3
2
+ 2a a
2
+ 4b 0
so
3
3 2
2
b a a +
so greatest root is also less than or equal to
3
3 2
2
b a a +
.
FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION
OF AIR
Did you know that the air we breathe isnt just
oxygen, infact its made up of a number of different
gases such as nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide,
argon, neon and many others. Each of these
gases carry useful properties so separating them
from the air around us is extremely beneficial.
The process is called fractional distillation and
consists of two steps, the first relies on cooling the
air to a very low temperature (i.e. converting it into
a liquid), the second involves heating it up thus
allowing each gas within the mixture to evaporate at
its own boiling point. The key to success here is that
every element within air has its own unique boiling
temperature. As long as we know these boiling
temperatures we know when to collect each gas.
So what are the real world benefits of separating
and extracting these gases? Well liquid oxygen is
used to power rockets, oxygen gas is used in
breathing apparatus, nitrogen is used to make
fertilizers, the nitric acid component of nitrogen is
used in explosives.
The other gases all have their own uses too, for
example argon is used to fill up the empty space in
most light bulbs (thanks to its unreactive nature).
Carbon dioxide is used in fire extinguishers and is
great for putting out fires in burning liquids and
electrical fires. There really are too many uses to list
but suffice it to say that fractional distillation is an
extremely useful process for humans the world
over.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 49 DECEMBER 2011
1. A man parks his car among n cars standing in a row,
his car not being parked at an end. On his return he
finds that exactly m of the n cars are still there. What
is the probability that both the cars parked on two
sides of his car, have left?
Sol. Clearly, his car is at one of the crosses ().
 . . . 
The number of the ways in which the remaining
m1 cars can take their places (excluding the car of
the man) =
n1
C
m1
{Q there are n 1 places for the
m 1 cars}. The number of ways in which the
remaining m 1 cars can take places keeping the two
places on two sides of his car vacant =
n3
C
m1
the required probability
=
) (
) (
S n
E n
=
1
1
1
3
m
n
m
n
C
C
=
! ) 2 ( )! 1 (
! ) 3 (
m n m
n
! ) 1 (
! ) ( ! ) 1 (
n
m n m
=
) 2 )( 1 (
) 1 )( (
n n
m n m n
.
2. Show that the shortest distance between any two
opposite edges of the tetrahedron formed by the
planes y + z = 0, z + x = 0, x + y = 0 and x + y + z = a
is
6
2a
.
Sol. Clearly, the planes y + z = 0, z + x = 0 and x + y = 0
pas through the origin O(0, 0, 0,).
O
C
B
A
The line of intersection OA of the planes OAC and
OAB,
i.e., y + z = 0 and z + x = 0,
is given by x = y = z, i.e.,
1
0 x
=
1
0 y
=
1
0 z
. ...(i)
The line of intersection OC of the planes OAC and
OBC, i.e., y + z = 0 & x + y = 0, is given by x = y = z,
i.e.,
1
0 x
=
1
0 y
=
1
0 z
. ...(ii)
The line of intersection OB of the planes OBC and
OAB, i.e., x + y = 0 and z + x = 0, is given by
x = y = z,
i.e.,
1
0 x
=
1
0 y
=
1
0 z
. ...(iii)
The line BC is the intersection of the planes
A
1,1,1 P
O (0,0,0)
C
(0,0,a)
Q
1,1,0
B
x + y = 0 and x + y + z = a
y = x, z = a
1
x
=
1
y
=
0
a z
. ...(iv)
Similarly, CA has the equations
y + z = 0, x + y + z = a
0
a x
=
1
y
=
1
z
...(v)
AB has the equation z + x = 0, x + y + z = a
1
x
=
0
a y
=
1
z
Let PQ be the shortest distance between OA and BC,
and its line has the direction cosines l, m, n.
Then using perpendicularity, l .1 + m. 1 + n . (1) = 0
and l . 1 + m (1) + n . 0 = 0
l + m n = 0 and l m = 0
1
l
=
1
m
=
2
n
=
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 1 1 + +
+ + n m l
=
6
1
.
Experts Solution for Question asked by IITJEE Aspirants
Students' Forum
MATHS
XtraEdge for IITJEE 50 DECEMBER 2011
l =
6
1
, m =
6
1
, n =
6
2
.
the shortest distance PQ
= projection of OC on the line PQ
= (x
2
x
1
) l + (y
2
y
1
)m + (z
2
z
1
)n
=
6
2
) 0 (
6
1
) 0 0 (
6
1
) 0 0 ( a + + =
6
2a
Similarly, other shortest distances between opposite
edges are
6
2
) 0 0 (
6
2
) 0 (
6
1
) 0 0 ( + + a ' i.e., '
6
2a
and
6
1
) 0 0 (
6
1
) 0 0 (
6
2
) 0 ( + + a ' i.e.,
6
2a
.
Hence, the problem.
3. Find the changed equation of the locus x
2
+ 6xy + y
2
= 1
when the lines x + y = 0 and x y + 1 = 0 are taken as
the new x and y axes respectively.
Sol. Here the lines x + y = 0 and x y + 1 = 0 are
perpendicular to each other.
So, take x' =
2 2
) 1 ( 1
1
+
+ y x
...(i)
and y' =
2 2
1 1
+
y x
...(ii)
From (i), x y + 1 = ' 2x ...(iii)
From (ii), x + y = ' 2y ...(iv)
(iii) + (iv) 2x + 1 = ) ' ' ( 2 y x +
x =
2
' ' y x +
2
1
(iv) (iii) 2y 1 = 2 (y' x')
y =
2
' 'x y
+
2
1
Putting these in the equation of the locus, we get
2
2
1
2
' '


.

\
 +y x
+
2
2
1
2
' '
6


.

\
 +y x


.

\

+
2
1
2
' 'x y
+
2
2
1
2
' '


.

\

+
x y
= 1
or
2
) ' ' (
2
y x +
+
4
1
2
' ' y x +
+ 6
2
' '
2 2
x y y x
x y
+
2
) ' ' (
2
x y
+
4
1
+
2
' 'x y
= 1
or
2
1
{(x' + y')
2
+ (y' x')
2
} +
2
1
+
2
1
(y' x' x' y')
+ 3(y'
2
x'
2
)
2
3
+
2
3
. 2x' = 1
or x'
2
+ y'
2
' 2x + 3y'
2
3x'
2
+ ' 2 3 x = 2
or 4y'
2
2x'
2
+ ' 2 2 x = 2
or x'
2
2y'
2
' 2x + 1 = 0
the changed equation of the locus is
(obtained by dropping dashes)
x
2
2y
2
x 2 + 1 = 0.
4. A wheel with diameter AB touches the horizontal
ground at A. The rod BC is fixed at B, ABC being
vertical. A man from a point P on the ground at a
distance d from A, finds that the angle of elevation of
C is . The wheel turns about the fixed centre O of
the wheel such that C turns away from the man and
its angle of elevation is when it is about to
disappear. Find PC when C is about to disappear.
Sol. When C is about to disappear, let it be at C' and then
PC' touches the wheel at Q.
P
/2
Q
B
C'
C
B'
A'
d
From the question, we have to find PC'.
Clearly, PQ = PA = d and OC' = OC = AC r,
r being the radius of the wheel.
In the CAP, tan =
d
AC
; AC = d tan
OC + r = d tan ; OC' = d tan r
C'Q =
2 2
OQ OC' =
2 2
) tan ( r r d
PC' = PQ + C'Q = d +
2 2
) tan ( r r d ...(i)
Also, from the OAP,
tan
2
=
d
r
; r = d tan
2
.
PC' = d +
2
tan . tan 2 tan
2 2
d d d
XtraEdge for IITJEE 51 DECEMBER 2011
{from (i)}
=
+
2
tan . tan 2 tan 1
2
d
=
+
2
tan . cot 2 1 . tan 1 d .
5. If n N and c
k
=
n
C
k
find the value of
2
1
1
3
.


.

\

=
k
k
n
k
c
c
k .
Sol.
1 k
k
c
c
=
1 k
n
k
n
C
C
=
! ) ( !
!
k n k
n
.
!
! ) 1 ( ! ) 1 (
n
k n k +
=
k
k n 1 +
2
1
1
3
.
=


.

\

n
k
k
k
c
c
k =
2
1
3
1
. 
.

\
 +
=
k
k n
k
n
k
=
=
+
n
k
k n k
1
2
) 1 (
=
=
+ + +
n
k
k k n n k
1
2 2
} ) 1 ( 2 ) 1 {(
= (n + 1)
2
=
+
n
k
n k
1
) 1 ( 2
=
n
k
k
1
2
+
=
n
k
k
1
3
= (n + 1)
2
.
2
) 1 ( + n n
2(n + 1) .
6
) 1 2 )( 1 ( + + n n n
+
4
) 1 (
2 2
+ n n
=
)
`
+ + +
+
2
) 1 2 (
3
2
) 1 ( .
2
) 1 (
2
n
n n
n n
=
6
3 ) 1 2 ( 4 ) 1 ( 6
.
2
) 1 (
2
n n n n n + + + +
=
2
) 1 (
12
1
+ n n . (n + 2)
6. Evaluate (a)
+
4 / 3 4 2
) 1 ( x x
dx
(b) dx
x x
x
+
3
Sol. (a) I =

.

\

+
4 / 3
4
3 2
1
1
.
x
x x
dx
=

.

\

+
5 4 / 3
4
.
1
1
1
x
dx
x
.
Putting 1 +
4
1
x
= z,
5
4
x
dx = dz, i.e.,
5
x
dx
=
4
1
dz
I = dz
z
4
1
.
1
4 / 3
= dz z
4 / 3
4
1
=
4
1
.
4
1
4
1
z
+ c
=
4
1
z + c =
4
1
4
1
1 
.

\

+
x
+ c
=
x
x
4
1
4
) 1 ( +
+ c.
(b) Here we have second and third roots of x.
The LCM of 2 and 3 = 6
So, Put x = z
6
; then dx = 6z
5
dz
I =
+
2 3
3
z z
z
. 6z
5
dz
= 6 dz
z
z
+1
6
= 6 dz
z
z
+
+
1
1 ) 1 (
6
= dz
z
z z
+
+
1
) 1 )( 1 (
6
3 3
+ 6
+1 z
dz
= 6
+ dz z z z ) 1 )( 1 (
3 2
+6log(1 + z)
= 6
+ + dz z z z z z ) 1 (
2 3 4 5
+ 6log (1 + z)
= 6
(
(
+ + z
z z z z z
2 3
4 5
6
2 3 4 5 6
+ 6 log (1+z)+ c
= x
6 / 5
5
6
x +
3 / 2
2
3
x 2x
1/2
+ 3x
1/3
6x
1/6
+ 6 log (1 + x
1/6
) + c
XtraEdge for IITJEE 52 DECEMBER 2011
Monotonic Functions :
A function f (x) defined in a domain D is said to be
(i) Monotonic increasing :
>
<
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1
x f x f x x
x f x f x x
x
1
, x
2
D
y
O
x
y
O
x
i.e.,
< >
> <
) ( / ) (
) ( / ) (
2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1
x f x f x x
x f x f x x
x
1
, x
2
D
(ii) Monotonic decreasing :
>
<
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1
x f x f x x
x f x f x x
x
1
, x
2
D
y
O
x
y
O
x
i.e.,
> >
< <
) ( / ) (
) ( / ) (
2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1
x f x f x x
x f x f x x
x
1
, x
2
D
A function is said to be monotonic function in a
domain if it is either monotonic increasing or
monotonic decreasing in that domain.
Note : If x
1
< x
2
f (x
1
) < f (x
2
) x
1
, x
2
D, then
f (x) is called strictly increasing in domain D and
similarly decreasing in D.
Method of testing monotonicity :
(i) At a point : A function f (x) is said to be
monotonic increasing (decreasing) at a point x = a of
its domain if it is monotonic increasing (decreasing)
in the interval (a h, a + h) where h is a small
positive number. Hence we may observer that if f (x)
is monotonic increasing at x = a then at this point
tangent to its graph will make an acute angle with
xaxis where as if the function is monotonic
decreasing there then tangent will make an obtuse
angle with xaxis. Consequently f (a) will be positive
or negative according as f (x) is monotonic increasing
or decreasing at x = a.
So at x = a, function f (x) is
monotonic increasing f (a) > 0
monotonic decreasing f (a) < 0
(ii) In an interval : In [a, b], f (x) is
monotonic increasing f '(x) 0
monotonic decreasing f '(x) 0 x (a, b)
constant f '(x) = 0
Note :
(i) In above results f (x) should not be zero for all
values of x, otherwise f (x) will be a constant
function.
(ii) If in [a, b], f (x) < 0 at least for one value of x
and f (x) > 0 for at least one value of x, then f (x)
will not be monotonic in [a, b].
Examples of monotonic function :
If a functions is monotonic increasing (decreasing ) at
every point of its domain, then it is said to be
monotonic increasing (decreasing) function.
In the following table we have example of some
monotonic/not monotonic functions
Monotonic
increasing
Monotonic
decreasing
Not
monotonic
x
3
1/x, x > 0 x
2
xx 1 2x x
e
x
e
x
e
x
+ e
x
log x log
2
x sin x
sin h x cosec h x, x > 0 cos h x
[x] cot h x, x > 0 sec h x
Properties of monotonic functions :
If f (x) is strictly increasing in some interval, then in
that interval, f
1
exists and that is also strictly
increasing function.
If f (x) is continuous in [a, b] and differentiable in
(a, b), then
f (c) 0 c (a, b) f (x) is monotonic increasing
in [a, b]
f (c) 0 c (a, b) f (x) is monotonic
decreasing in [a, b]
MONOTONICITY,
MAXIMA & MINIMA
Mathematics Fundamentals
M
A
T
H
S
XtraEdge for IITJEE 53 DECEMBER 2011
If both f (x) and g (x) are increasing (or decreasing) in
[a, b] and gof is defined in [a, b], then gof is
increasing.
If f (x) and g (x) are two monotonic functions in [a, b]
such that one is increasing and other is decreasing
then gof, it is defined, is decreasing function.
Maximum and Minimum Points :
The value of a function f (x) is said to be maximum at
x = a if there exists a small positive number such
that f (a) > f (x)
(a) (b) (c)
y
x
O
Also then the point x = a is called a maximum point
for the function f (x).
Similarly the value of f (x) is said to be minimum at x = b
if there exists a small positive number such that
f (b) < f (x) x (b , b + )
Also then the point x = b is called a minimum point
for f (x)
Hence we find that :
(i) x = a is a maximum point of f (x)
>
> +
0 ) ( ) (
0 ) ( ) (
h a f a f
h a f a f
(ii) x = b is a minimum point of f(x)
>
> +
0 ) ( ) (
0 ) ( ) (
h b f b f
h b f b f
(iii) x = c is neither a maximum point nor a minimum
point
+
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
h c f c f
and
h c f c f
have opposite signs.
Where h is a very small positive number.
Note :
The maximum and minimum points are also
known as extreme points.
A function may have more than one maximum
and minimum points.
A maximum value of a function f (x) in an
interval [a, b] is not necessarily its greatest value
in that interval. Similarly a minimum value may
not be the least value of the function. A minimum
value may be greater than some maximum value
for a function.
The greatest and least values of a function f (x) in
an interval [a, b] may be determined as follows :
Greatest value = max. {f (a), f (b), f (c)}
Least value = min. {f (a), f (b), f (c)}
where x = c is a point such that f(c) = 0.
If a continuous function has only one maximum
(minimum) point, then at this point function has
its greatest (least) value.
Monotonic functions do not have extreme points.
Conditions for maxima and minima of a function
Necessary condition : A point I = a is an extreme
point of a function f (x) if f (a) = 0, provided f (a)
exists. Thus if f (a) exists, then
x = a is an extreme point f (a) = 0 or
f (a) 0 x = a is not an extreme point
But its converse is not true i.e.
f (a) = 0 / x = a is an extreme point.
For example if f (x) = x
3
, then f (0) = 0 but x = 0 is
not an extreme point.
Sufficient condition : For a given function f (x), a
point x = a is
a maximum point if f (a) = 0 and f(a) < 0
a minimum point if f(I) = 0 and f (a) > 0
not an extreme point if f (a) = 0 = f (a) and
f (a) 0.
Note : If f (a) = 0, f (a) = 0, f (a) = 0 then the
sign of f
(4)
(a) will determine the maximum or
minimum point as above.
Working Method :
Find f (x) and f (x).
Solve f (x) = 0. Let its roots be a, b, c, ...
Determine the sign of f (x) at x = a, b, c, .... and
decide the nature of the point as mentioned above.
Properties of maxima and minima :
If f (x) is continuous function, then
Between two equal values of f (x), there lie atleast
one maxima or minima.
Maxima and minima occur alternately. For example
if x = 1, 2, 5 are extreme points of a continuous
function and if x = 1 is a maximum point then x = 2
will be a minimum point and x = 5 will be a
maximum point.
When x passes a maximum point, the sign of dy/dx
changes from + ve to ve, where as when x passes
through a minimum point, the sign of f (x) changes
from ve to + ve.
If there is no change in the sign of dy/dx on two sides
of a point, then such a point is not an extreme point.
If f (x) is maximum (minimum) at a point x = a, then
1/f (x), [f (x) 0] will be minimum (maximum) at that
point.
If f (x) is maximum (minimum) at a point x = a, then for
any R, + f (x), log f (x) and for any k > 0, k f (x),
[f (x)]
k
are also maximum (minimum) at that point.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 54 DECEMBER 2011
Definition of a Function :
Let A and B be two sets and f be a rule under which
every element of A is associated to a unique element
of B. Then such a rule f is called a function from A to
B and symbolically it is expressed as
f : A B
or A
f
B
Function as a Set of Ordered Pairs
Every function f : A B can be considered as a set
of ordered pairs in which first element is an element
of A and second is the image of the first element.
Thus
f = {a, f (a) /a A, f (a) B}.
Domain, Codomain and Range of a Function :
If f : A B is a function, then A is called domain of
f and B is called codomain of f. Also the set of all
images of elements of A is called the range of f and it
is expressed by f (A). Thus
f (A) = {f (a) a A}
obviously f (A) B.
Note : Generally we denote domain of a function f by
D
f
and its range by R
f.
Equal Functions :
Two functions f and g are said to be equal functions
if
domain of f = domain of g
codomain of f = codomain of g
f (x) = g(x) x.
Algebra of Functions :
If f and g are two functions then their sum,
difference, product, quotient and composite are
denoted by
f + g, f g, fg, f /g, fog
and they are defined as follows :
(f + g) (x) = f (x) + g(x)
(f g) (x) = f (x) g(x)
(f g) (x) = f (x) f (g)
(f /g) (x) = f (x)/g(x) (g(x) 0)
(fog) (x) = f [g(x)]
Formulae for domain of functions :
D
f g
= D
f
D
g
D
fg
= D
f
D
g
D
f/g
= D
f
D
g
{x g(x) 0}
D
gof
= {x D
f
 f(x) D
g
}
f
D = D
f
{x f (x) 0}
Classification of Functions
1. Algebraic and Transcendental Functions :
Algebraic functions : If the rule of the function
consists of sum, difference, product, power or
roots of a variable, then it is called an algebraic
function.
Transcendental Functions : Those functions
which are not algebraic are named as
transcendental or non algebraic functions.
2. Even and Odd Functions :
Even functions : If by replacing x by x in f (x)
there in no change in the rule then f (x) is called
an even function. Thus
f (x) is even f ( x) = f (x)
Odd function : If by replacing x by x in f (x)
there is only change of sign of f (x) then f (x) is
called an odd function. Thus
f (x) is odd f ( x) = f (x)
FUNCTION
Mathematics Fundamentals
M
A
T
H
S
XtraEdge for IITJEE 55 DECEMBER 2011
3. Explicit and Implicit Functions :
Explicit function : A function is said to be
explicit if its rule is directly expressed (or can be
expressed( in terms of the independent variable.
Such a function is generally written as
y = f (x), x = g(y) etc.
Implicit function : A function is said to be
implicit if its rule cannot be expressed directly in
terms of the independent variable. Symbolically
we write such a function as
f (x, y) = 0, (x, y) = 0 etc.
4. Continuous and Discontinuous Functions :
Continuous functions : A functions is said to be
continuous if its graph is continuous i.e. there is
no gap or break or jump in the graph.
Discontinuous Functions : A function is said to
be discontinuous if it has a gap or break in its
graph atleast at one point. Thus a function which
is not continuous is named as discontinuous.
5. Increasing and Decreasing Functions :
Increasing Functions : A function f (x) is said to
be increasing function if for any x
1
, x
2
of its
domain
x
1
< x
2
f (x
1
) f (x
2
)
or x
1
> x
2
f (x
1
) f (x
2
)
Decreasing Functions : A function f (x) is said to
be decreasing function if for any x
1
, x
2
of its
domain
x
1
< x
2
f (x
1
) f(x
2
)
or x
1
> x
2
f (x
1
) f (x
2
)
Periodic Functions :
A functions f (x) is called a periodic function if there
exists a positive real number T such that
f (x + T) = f (x) x
Also then the least value of T is called the period of
the function f (x).
Period of f (x) = T
Period of f (nx + a) = T/n
Periods of some functions :
Function Period
sin x, cos x, sec x, cosec x, 2
tan x, cot x
sin
n
x, cos
n
x, sec
n
x, cosec
n
x 2 if n is odd
if n is even
tan
n
x, cot
n
x n N
sin x, cos x, sec x, cosec x
tan x, cot x,
sin x + cos x, sin
4
x + cos
4
x
sec x + cosec x
2
tan x + cot x
2
x [x] 1
Period of f (x) = T period of f (ax + b)= T/a
Period of f
1
(x) = T
1
, period of f
2
(x) = T
2
period of a f
1
(x) + bf
2
(x) LCM {T
1
, T
2
}
Kinds of Functions :
Oneone/ Many one Functions :
A function f : A B is said to be oneone if
different elements of A have their different
images in B.
Thus
f is oneone
= =
b a b f a f
or
b f a f b a
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
A function which is not oneone is called many
one. Thus if f is many one then atleast two
different elements have same f image.
Onto/Into Functions : A function f : A B is
said to be onto if range of f = codomain of f
Thus f is onto f (A) = B
Hence f : A B is onto if every element of B
(codomain) has its f preimage in A (domain).
A function which is not onto is named as into
function. Thus f : A B is into if f (A) B. i.e.,
XtraEdge for IITJEE 56 DECEMBER 2011
if there exists atleast one element in codomain of f
which has no preimage in domain.
Note :
Total number of functions : If A and B are finite
sets containing m and n elements respectively,
then
total number of functions which can be defined
from A to B = n
m
.
total number of oneone functions from A to B
=
>
n m if
n m if P
m
n
0
total number of onto functions from A to B
(if m n) = total number of different n groups of
m elements.
Composite of Functions :
Let f : A B and g : B C be two functions, then
the composite of the functions f and g denoted by gof,
is a function from A to C given by gof : A C,
(gof) (x) = g[f (x)].
Properties of Composite Function :
The following properties of composite functions can
easily be established.
Composite of functions is not commutative i.e.,
fog gof
Composite of functions is associative i.e.
(fog)oh = fo(goh)
Composite of two bijections is also a bijection.
Inverse Function :
If f : A B is oneone onto, then the inverse of f i.e.,
f
1
is a function from B to A under which every b B
is associated to that a A for which f (a) = b.
Thus f
1
: B A,
f
1
(b) = a f (a) = b.
Domain and Range of some standard functions :
Function Domain Range
Polynomial
function
R R
Identity
function x
R R
Constant
function c
R {c}
Reciprocal
function 1/x
R
0
R
0
x
2
, x R R
+
{0}
x
3
, x x R R
Signum
function
R {1, 0, 1}
x + x R R
+
{0}
x x R R
{0}
[x] R Z
x [x] R [0, 1)
x
[0, ) [0, )
a
x
R R
+
log x R
+
R
sin x R [1, 1]
cos x R [1, 7]
tan x R { /2, 3/2, ...} R
cot x R {0, . 2, ..... R
sec x R ( /2, 3/2, ..... R (1, 1)
cosec x R {0, , 2, ......} R (1, 1)
sinh x R R
cosh x R [1, )
tanh x R (1, 1)
coth x R
0
R [1, 1]
sech x R (0, 1]
cosech x R
0
R
0
sin
1
x [1, 1] [/2, /2]
cos
1
x [1, 1] [0, ]
tan
1
x R (/2, /2}
cot
1
x R (0, )
sec
1
x R (1, 1) [0, ] {/2}
cosec
1
x R (1, 1) ( /2, /2] {0}
XtraEdge for IITJEE 57 DECEMBER 2011
XtraEdge for IITJEE 58 DECEMBER 2011
a
PHYSICS
This section contains 2 paragraphs; each has 3 multiple
choice questions. (Questions 1 to 6) Each question has 4
choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONE OR
MORE THAN ONE may be correct. Mark your
response in OMR sheet against the question number of
that question. + 4 marks will be given for each correct
answer and 1 mark for each wrong answer.
Passage # 1 (Ques. 1 to 3)
There is a river which is flowing at the rate
r
v . If a
boatman starts to row his boat at the speed
br
v with
respect to river then the velocity of boatman with
respect to ground can be given by,
+ =
r br b
v v v .
Now a boat can travel at a speed of 3m/s in still
water. A boatman has to across the river to reach the
other side. Now give the answer of following
question
1. The boatman wants to cross the river in such a way
that he should cover the shortest possible distance.
(A) If the speed of water is 2m/sec then direction in which
he should row his boat is cos
1

.

\

3
2
w.r.t. bank
(B) If the speed of water is 2m/sec then direction in which
he should row his boat is sin
1

.

\

3
2
w.r.t bank
(C) If the speed of water is 4 m/sec then direction is which
he should row his boat is cos
1

.

\

4
3
w.r.t. bank
(D) If the speed of water is 4 m/sec then direction in
which he should row his boat is sin
1

.

\

4
3
w.r.t bank
2. The velocity of boatman is still water is 3m/sec and
river is flowing at 2 m/sec. To cross the river in
minimum time.
(A) The boatman should move at an angle
= sin
1

.

\

3
2
w.r.t bank
(B) The boatman should move at an angle
= cos
1

.

\

3
2
w.r.t bank
(C) the batman should move at an angle 90 w.r.t bank
(D) None of these
3. Two boats A & B move away from a buoy anchored
at the middle of river along the mutually
perpendicular 1 straight lines : the boat A along the
river & boat B across the river. Having moved off an
equal distance from the buoy the boats returned.
Then the ratio of times of boats t
A
/t
B
. If the velocity
of each boat w.r.t flow of water x times greater than
the stream velocity t
A
/t
B
is 
(A)
1 x
x
2
(B)
1 x
x
2
+
(C)
1 x
1
2
(D)
1 x
1
2
+
IITJEE 2012
XtraEdge Test Series # 8
Based on New Pattern
Time : 3 Hours
Syllabus :
Physics : Full Syllabus, Chemistry : Full Syllabus, Mathematics : Full syllabus
Instructions :
Section  I
Question 1 to 6 are passage based questions. +4 marks will be awarded for correct answer and 1 mark for wrong
answer.
Question 7 to 9 are Reason and Assertion type question with one is correct answer. +4 marks and 1 mark for
wrong answer.
Question 10 to 15 are Numerical Response Question (single digit Ans. type) +4 marks will be awarded for
correct answer and 1 mark for wrong answer.
Question 16 to 18 are Numerical Response Question (four digit Ans. type) +6 marks will be awarded for
correct answer and 1 mark for wrong answer.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 59 DECEMBER 2011
Passage # 2 (Ques. 4 to 6)
If two masses A & B are drawn in their attached
cables with a =
2
sec / m
3
t 2 . 0

.

\

where t is in second.
E
h B A
C
D
4. The speed of block E when it reaches a height of
h = 4 m starting from rest is
(A) 4 m/sec (B) 2 m/sec
(C) 1 m/sec (D) None of these
5. The approx speed of pulley D is
(A) 2.5 m/sec (B) 3.5 m/sec
(C) 4.5 m/sec (D) 5.5 m/sec
6. If v
A
= Kv
D
then K, is
(A) 2 (B) 3 (C) 4 (D) 5
This section contains 3 questions numbered 7 to 9,
(Reason and Assertion type question). Each question
contains Assertion and Reason. Each question has 4
choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE
is correct. Mark your response in OMR sheet against
the question number of that question. + 4 marks will be
given for each correct answer and 1 mark for each
wrong answer.
The following questions given below consist of an
"Assertion" (A) and "Reason" (R) Type questions. Use
the following Key to choose the appropriate answer.
(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A).
(C) If (A) is true but (R) is false.
(D) If (A) is false but (R) is true.
7. Assertion (A) : A lighter and a heavier bodies
moving with same momentum and experiencing
same retarding force have equal stopping times.
Reason (R) : For a given force and momentum,
stopping time is independent of mass.
8. Assertion (A) : The shortest wavelength of xrays
emitted from xray tube is independent of voltage
applied to tube.
Reason (R) : wavelength of characteristic spectrum
depends upon the atomic number of target.
9. Assertion (A) : Work done by the static friction is
always zero.
Reason (R) : when the body is stationary, there is no
displacement. Hence w =
S F = zero
This section contains 6 questions (Q.10 to 15).
+4 marks will be given for each correct answer and 1
mark for each wrong answer. The answer to each of the
questions is a SINGLEDIGIT INTEGER, ranging
from 0 to 9. The appropriate bubbles below the
respective question numbers in the OMR have to be
darkened. For example, if the correct answers to
question numbers X, Y, Z and W (say) are 6, 0, 9 and 2,
respectively, then the correct darkening of bubbles will
look like the following :
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
X Y Z W
10. A particle starts oscillating simple harmonically from
its equilibrium position then the KE of the particle is
n times the P.E. of particle at the time T/12, find the
value of n (T : time period)
11. A bird flies for 4 sec with a velocity of
t 2 m/sec in a straight line where t is in second the
distance covered by the bird is .. (in m)
12. An object of mass 0.2 kg executes SHM along the x
axis with a frequency 25/ Hz. At the position
x = 0.04 m, the object has K.E., 0.5 J and P.E.,
0.4 J. The amplitude of oscillation in cm will be ...
(PE is zero at mean position)
13. Difference between n
th
& (n + 1)
th
Bohr's radius of
H atom is equal to its (n 1)
th
Bohr's radius. The
value of n is ..
14. In the arrangement shown in the figure m
1
= 1kg m
2
= 2 kg. Pulley are mass less & strings are light for
what value of M, the mass m
1
moves with constant
velocity (in kg)
M
m
1
m
2
XtraEdge for IITJEE 60 DECEMBER 2011
15. A block of mass 1 kg is attached to one end of a
spring of force constant k = 20 N/m. The other end of
the spring is attached to a fixed rigid support. This
spring block system is made to oscillate on a rough
horizontal surface with = 0.04. The initial
displacement of block from the (Eq.) mean position
is a = 30 cm. How many times the block will pass
from the mean position before coming to rest ?
(g = 10 m/sec
2
)
This section contains Numerical response type questions
(Q. 16 to 18). +6 marks will be given for each correct
answer and 1 mark for each wrong answer. Answers to
this Section are to be given in the form of nearest integer
in four digits. Please follow as per example : (i.e. for
answer : 1492.2 write 1492; 491.8 write 0492; 92.5 write
0092; 2.1 write 0002)
16. If U
235
92
reactor takes 30 days to consume 4 kg of fuel
and each fission gives 185 MeV of unstable energy
then find the output power [ 10
7
W]
17. A bullet in fired at a plank of wood with a speed of
200 m/sec. After passing through the plank, its speed
is reduced to 150 m/sec. Another bullet of same mass
& size but moving with a speed of
100 m/sec is fired at the same plank. What would be
the speed of bullet after passing through the plank ?
Assume that the resistance offered by plank is same
for both the bullets.
18. If the end of the cord A is pulled down with 2m/sec
then the velocity of block will be :
( 10
1
m/sec)
B
A
2 m/sec
CHEMISTRY
This section contains 2 paragraphs; each has 3 multiple
choice questions. (Questions 1 to 6) Each question has 4
choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONE OR
MORE THAN ONE may be correct. Mark your
response in OMR sheet against the question number of
that question. + 4 marks will be given for each correct
answer and 1 mark for each wrong answer.
Passage # 1 (Ques. 1 to 3)
Redox reactions are those in which oxidation and
reduction take place simultaneously. Oxidising agent
can gain electron whereas reducing agent can lose
electron easily. The oxidation state of any element
can never be in fraction. If oxidation number of any
element comes out be in fraction, it is average
oxidation number of that element which is present in
different oxidation states.
1. The oxidation state of Fe in Fe
3
O
4
is 
(A) 2 and 3 (B) 8/3
(C) 2 (D) 3
2.
N
N
NH
1
2
3
, In this compound HN
3
(hydrazoic acid),
oxidation state of N
1
, N
2
and N
3
are 
(A) 0, 0, 3 (B) 0, 0, 1
(C) 1, 1, 3 (D) 3, 3, 3
3. Equivalent weight of chlorine molecule in the
equation
3Cl
2
+ 6NaOH 5NaCl + NaClO
3
+ 3H
2
O
(A) 42.6 (B) 35.5
(C) 59.1 (D) 71
Passage # 2 (Ques. 4 to 6)
Secondary and tertiary alcohols always give E
1
reaction in dehydration. Primary alcohols whose 
carbon is 3 or 4 also give E
1
reaction. However, the
primary alcohols whose carbon is 1 or 2 give E
2
reaction. Dehydrating agents like conc. H
2
SO
4
, Al
2
O
3
anhydrous ZnCl
2
are used.
The reactivity of alcohols for elimination reaction lies
in following sequence :
Tertiary alcohol > secondary alcohol > primary
alcohol
Electron attracting groups present in alcohols
increase the reactivity for dehydration. Greater is the
I effect of the group present in alcohol, more will be
its reactivity. Both E
1
and E
2
mechanism give the
product according to Saytzeff's rule, i.e., major
product is the most substituted alkene.
CH
3
CH CH CH
3
OH
CH
3
conc. H
2
SO
4
Above 413K
CH
3
C = CH CH
3
+ CH
3
CH CH = CH
2
CH
CH
3
CH
3
Major product Minor product
4. Arrange the reactivity of given four alcohols in
decreasing order for dehydration.
OH
NO
2
(a)
OH NO
2
(b)
XtraEdge for IITJEE 61 DECEMBER 2011
OH
NO
2
(c)
OH
NO
2
(d)
(A) a > b > c > d (B) d > c > b > a
(C) c > b > d > a (D) b > c > a > d
5. In the reaction,
CH
3
C CH
2
OH
CH
3
CH
3
conc. H
2
SO
4
the product obtained will be :
(A)
CH
2
= C CH
2
CH
3
CH
3
(B)
CH
3
C = CH
CH
3
CH
3
(C)
CH
3
CH CH
= CH
2
CH
3
(D) all of these
6. Which of the following dehydration product is/are
correct ?
(A)
CH
2
OH
conc.H2SO4
(B)
CH
3
C CH CH
3
CH
3
CH
3
conc. H
2
SO
4
CH
3
CH
3
C CH = CH
2
CH
3
CH
3
(C) CH
3
CH
2
CH
2
CH
2
OH
conc. H
2
SO
4
CH
3
CH = CH CH
3
(D)
CH
3
conc.H2SO4
CH
3
OH
CH
3
CH
3
This section contains 3 questions numbered 7 to 9,
(Reason and Assertion type question). Each question
contains Assertion and Reason. Each question has 4
choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE
is correct. Mark your response in OMR sheet against
the question number of that question. + 4 marks will be
given for each correct answer and 1 mark for each
wrong answer.
The following questions given below consist of an
"Assertion" (A) and "Reason" (R) Type questions. Use
the following Key to choose the appropriate answer.
(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A).
(C) If (A) is true but (R) is false.
(D) If (A) is false but (R) is true.
7. Assertion (A) : The value of van der Waals constant
'a' is larger for ammonia than for nitrogen.
Reason (R) : Hydrogen bonding is present in
ammonia.
8. Assertion (A) : 3hydroxy  butan2one on
treatment with [Ag(NH
3
)
2
]
cause precipitation of
silver.
Reason (R) : [Ag(NH
3
)
2
]
oxidises 3hydroxy
butan2one to butan23dione
9. Assertion (A) : HBr adds to 1,4pentadiene at a
faster rate than to 1,3pentadiene
Reason (R) : 1,4pentadiene is less stable than
1,3pentadiene.
This section contains 6 questions (Q.10 to 15).
+4 marks will be given for each correct answer and 1
mark for each wrong answer. The answer to each of the
questions is a SINGLEDIGIT INTEGER, ranging
from 0 to 9. The appropriate bubbles below the
respective question numbers in the OMR have to be
darkened. For example, if the correct answers to
question numbers X, Y, Z and W (say) are 6, 0, 9 and 2,
respectively, then the correct darkening of bubbles will
look like the following :
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
X Y Z W
10. Equal volumes of 0.02 M AgNO
3
& 0.02 M HCN
were mixed. If the [Ag
+
] at equilibrium was 10
n
.
Find n. Given K
a
(HCN) = 4 10
10
, K
sp
(AgCN)
= 4 10
16
.
11. Haemoglobin contains 0.25% iron by weight.
The molecular weight of haemoglobin is 89600.
Calculate the number of iron atoms per molecule of
haemoglobin.
12. Two liquids A and B form an ideal solution at
temperature T. When the total vapour pressure above
the solution is 600 torr, the amount of A in the
vapour phase is 0.35 and in the liquid phase is 0.70.
What is the vapour pressure of pure A ? Express your
answer after divide actual answer by 100.
13. The value of x in the complex H
x
[Co(CO)
4
] is
XtraEdge for IITJEE 62 DECEMBER 2011
14. Calculate the emf of the cell
CdCd
2+
(0.10M)1 H
+
(0.20M) Pt, H
2
(0.5 atm)
[Given: ECd
2+
/Cd = 0.403 V,
F
RT 303 . 2
= 0.0591]
Round off your answer after multiplying actual
answer by 10.
15. Calculate enthalpy change (in calories) adiabatic
compression of one mole of an ideal monoatomic gas
against constant external pressure of 2 atm starting
from initial pressure of 1 atm and initial temperature
of 300 K. (R = 2 cal/mol degree) Give your answer
after divide actual answer by 100.
This section contains Numerical response type questions
(Q. 16 to 18). +6 marks will be given for each correct
answer and 1 mark for each wrong answer. Answers to
this Section are to be given in the form of nearest integer
in four digits. Please follow as per example : (i.e. for
answer : 1492.2 write 1492; 491.8 write 0492; 92.5 write
0092; 2.1 write 0002)
16. A current of 4 A flows in a coil when connected to a
12V dc source. If the same coil is connected to a
12V, 50 rad/s ac source a current of 2.4 A flows in
the circuit. Also find the power developed in the
circuit if a 2500 F capacitor is connected in series
with the coil.
17. A capacitor of capacity 2 F is charged to a potential
difference of 12V. It is then connected across an
inductor of inductance 0.6 mH. What is the current in
the circuit at a time when the potential difference
across the capacitor is 6.0 V ?
18. A ball of mass 100 g is projected vertically upwards
from the ground with a velocity of 49 m/s. At the
same lime another identical ball is dropped from a
height of 98 metre to fall freely along the same path
as that followed by the first ball. After some time the
two balls collide and stick together and finally fall to
ground. Find the time of flight of the masses.
(g = 9.8 m/s
2
)
MATHEMATICS
This section contains 2 paragraphs; each has 3 multiple
choice questions. (Questions 1 to 6) Each question has 4
choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONE OR
MORE THAN ONE may be correct. Mark your
response in OMR sheet against the question number of
that question. + 4 marks will be given for each correct
answer and 1 mark for each wrong answer.
Passage # 1 (Ques. 1 to 3)
An objective test contains two sections : A and B
each consisting of 10 questions. In section A, only
one choice out of 4 choices is correct and student is
awarded 1 mark for every correct answer. In section
B, one or more than one choice is (are) correct out of
4 choices and the student is awarded 3 marks if he
(she) ticks only the correct choice and all the correct
choices. There is no negative marking.
1. In how many ways can a student answer to any
question of section B
(A) 11 (B)
5
C
2
+
5
C
4
(C) 2
4
1 (D) 15
2. If a student attempts 3 particular questionsone from
section A and two from section B, the probability
that he will get marks in only two questions is
(assuming all ways to answer a question to be
equally likely)
(A)
900
31
(B)
900
23
(C)
484
23
(D) None
3. The probability that a student gets 10 marks if he
attempts only 4 questions is
(A)
5
1
3
15
1

.

\

(B)
3
4
3
11
1

.

\

(C)
3
60
1
16 
.

\

(D)
3
15
1
4
1

.

\

Passage # 2 (Ques. 4 to 6)
dx x f x f dx x f
a a
a
)) ( ) ( ( ) (
0
+ =
(i) If f(x) is odd, then
=
a
a
dx x f 0 ) (
(ii) If f(x) is even, then dx x f dx x f
a a
a
=
0
) ( 2 ) (
This is one of the important property for the
integrable function f(x)
4.
+
1
1
2 1 3
) )(sin cos  ( x x x x dx is equal to :
(A) 1 (B) 1 (C) 0 (D) 2
5. If
\

+ + + + +
4 / 1
4 / 1
2 2
1 40 41 16 16 x x x x +


.

+ + + + 1 40 41 16 16
2 2
x x x x cosx dx = k sin
4
1
,
then the value of k is :
(A) 10 (B) 0 (C) 20 (D) 30
6. ) (
+ +
4 /
4 /
2 sin 1 2 sin 1 dx x x is equal to
(A) 2 (B) 2 2 (C) 2 4 (D)
2
4
XtraEdge for IITJEE 63 DECEMBER 2011
This section contains 3 questions numbered 7 to 9, (Reason
and Assertion type question). Each question contains
Assertion and Reason. Each question has 4 choices (A), (B),
(C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE is correct. Mark your
response in OMR sheet against the question number of that
question. + 4 marks will be given for each correct answer
and 1 mark for each wrong answer.
The following questions given below consist of an
"Assertion" (A) and "Reason" (R) Type questions. Use
the following Key to choose the appropriate answer.
(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A).
(C) If (A) is true but (R) is false.
(D) If (A) is false but (R) is true.
7. Assertion (A) : Let f (x) be an even function which
is periodic, then g (x) =
x
a
t f ) ( dt is also periodic.
Reason (R) : If (x) is a differentiable and periodic
function, then (x) is also periodic.
8. Assertion (A) : The locus represented by xy + yz = 0
is a pair of perpendicular planes.
Reason (R) : If a
1
x + b
1
y + c
1
z + d
1
= 0 and
a
2
x + b
2
y + c
2
z + d
2
= 0 are perpendicular then
a
1
a
2
+ b
1
b
2
+ c
1
c
2
= 0
9. Assertion (A) : Locus of center of a variable circle
touching two circles (x 1)
2
+ (y 2)
2
= 25 and
(x 2)
2
+ (y 1)
2
=16 is an ellipse.
Reason (R) : If a circle S
2
= 0 lies completely inside
the circle S
1
= 0 then locus of center of a variable circle
S = 0 which touches both the circles is an ellipse.
This section contains 6 questions (Q.10 to 15).
+4 marks will be given for each correct answer and 1
mark for each wrong answer. The answer to each of the
questions is a SINGLEDIGIT INTEGER, ranging
from 0 to 9. The appropriate bubbles below the
respective question numbers in the OMR have to be
darkened. For example, if the correct answers to
question numbers X, Y, Z and W (say) are 6, 0, 9 and 2,
respectively, then the correct darkening of bubbles will
look like the following :
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
X Y Z W
10. The position vectors of two points A and C are
k j i
7
9 + and k j i
3
4 + and CD = k j i
2
2 + is P. If vector
PQ is perpendicular to AB and CD and PQ = 15
units, then possible position vectors of Q are
k x j x i x
3 2 1
+ + and k y j y i y
3 2 1
+ + . Find the value
of
=
+
3
1
) (
i
i i
y x .
11. Let image of the line
3
1 x
=
5
3 y
=
2
4 z
in the
plane 2x y + z + 3 = 0 be L. A plane
7x + By + Cz + D = 0 is such that it contains the line L
and perpendicular to the plane 2x y + z + 3 = 0 then
find the value of (B + C + D)/10.
12. A circle touches the hypotenuse of a right angled
triangle at its middle point and passes through the
middle point of shorter side. If 3 unit and 4 unit be
the length of the sides and 'r' be the radius of the
circle, then find the value of '3r'.
13. The remainder when 27
40
is divided by 12
14. Let f (x) = x
3
x
2
3x 1 and h(x) = f (x)/g(x)
where h is a function such that
(a) it is continuous every where except when x = 1
(b)
x
lim h(x) = and (c)
1
lim
x
h(x) = 1/2
FInd
0
lim
x
(4h(x) + f (x) + 2g(x)).
15. In a triangle ABC, if sin A cos B = 1/4 and
3 tan A = tan B, then cot
2
A =
This section contains Numerical response type questions
(Q. 16 to 18). +6 marks will be given for each correct
answer and 1 mark for each wrong answer. Answers to
this Section are to be given in the form of nearest integer
in four digits. Please follow as per example : (i.e. for
answer : 1492.2 write 1492; 491.8 write 0492; 92.5 write
0092; 2.1 write 0002)
16. The vertices B and C of a triangle ABC lie on the
lines 3y = 4x and y = 0 respectively and the side BC
passes through the point (2/3, 2/3). If ABOC is a
rhombus, O being the origin. If coordinates of vertex
A is (, ), then find the value of 5( + ).
17. Number of different words that can be formed using
all the letters of the word "DEEPMALA", I two
vowels are together and the other two are also
together but separated from the first two.
18. If a complex number z satisfies the conditions
i z
i z
4
4
+
= 1 and z =
+
+ +
+
+
0 4 3 3 2
4 3 2 1
3 2 1 4
i i
i i i
i i i
x ,
then x =
XtraEdge for IITJEE 64 DECEMBER 2011
XtraEdge for IITJEE 65 DECEMBER 2011
PHYSICS
This section contains 2 paragraphs; each has 3 multiple
choice questions. (Questions 1 to 6) Each question has 4
choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONE OR
MORE THAN ONE may be correct. Mark your
response in OMR sheet against the question number of
that question. + 4 marks will be given for each correct
answer and 1 mark for each wrong answer.
Passage # 1 (Ques. 1 to 3)
In espresso coffee machines steam is passed into milk
at room temperature for a brief time interval. Some
of the steam condenses and the temperature or milk
rises. Since the time for which the steam is passed is
brief, one can ignore the heat lost to the environment
and assume that the usual assumption of calorimetry :
Heat lost = Heat gain is valid.
1. Steam at 100C is passed into milk to heat it. The
amount of heat required to heat 150 g of milk from
room temperature (20C) to 80C is (specific heat of
capacity of milk = 4.0 kJ kg
1
K
1
specific latent heat
of steam = 2.2 MJ kg
1
, specific heat capacity of
water = 4.2 10
3
J kgK
1
)
(A) 3.6 10
4
J (B) 3.6 10
3
J
(C) 3.6 10
2
J (D) None of these
2. How many grams of steam condensed into water in
above question 
(A) 1.57 g (B) 15.7 g
(C) 157 g (D) None of these
3. If some of heat is allowed to escape to surrounding
(temperature of surrounding is 20C) then this
amount of steam (mentioned in question 22) is
increase the temperature to 
(A) greater than 80C (B) less than 80C
(C) equal to 80C (D) can't say anything
Passage # 2 (Ques. 4 to 6)
A body of mass 1 kg moving along xaxis has
velocity 4 m/s at x = 0. The acceleration and
potential energy of body varies as shown in
diagrams.
2
4 8
a(m/s
2
)
x(m)
120
4 8
U(J)
x(m)
120
4. Work done by conservative forces when body moves
from x = 0m to x = 8m is
(A) 0 J (B) 120 J (C) 240 J (D) 240 J
5. Work done by external forces when body moves
from x = 0m to x = 8m is
(A) 120 J (B) 120 J
(C) 112 J (D) None of these
6. The change in kinetic energy when body moves from
x = 0m to x = 8m is
(A) 256 J (B) 240 J
(C) 128 J (D) 120 J
IITJEE 2013
XtraEdge Test Series # 8
Based on New Pattern
Time : 3 Hours
Syllabus :
Physics : Full Syllabus, Chemistry : Full Syllabus, Mathematics : Full syllabus
Instructions :
Section  I
Question 1 to 6 are passage based questions. +4 marks will be awarded for correct answer and
1 mark for wrong answer.
Question 7 to 9 are Reason and Assertion type question with one is correct answer. +4 marks and 1 mark for
wrong answer.
Question 10 to 15 are Numerical Response Question (single digit Ans. type) +4 marks will be awarded for
correct answer and 1 mark for wrong answer.
Question 16 to 18 are Numerical Response Question (four digit Ans. type) +6 marks will be awarded for
correct answer and 1 mark for wrong answer.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 66 DECEMBER 2011
This section contains 3 questions numbered 7 to 9,
(Reason and Assertion type question). Each question
contains Assertion and Reason. Each question has 4
choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE
is correct. Mark your response in OMR sheet against
the question number of that question. + 4 marks will be
given for each correct answer and 1 mark for each
wrong answer.
The following questions given below consist of an
"Assertion" (A) and "Reason" (R) Type questions. Use
the following Key to choose the appropriate answer.
(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A).
(C) If (A) is true but (R) is false.
(D) If (A) is false but (R) is true.
7. Assertion (A) : In the flowtube as the crosssection
area decreases the flow velocity increases.
Reason (R) : In ideal fluid flow the total energy per
unit mass remains constant.
8. Assertion (A) : When a spring is elongated work
done by spring is negative but when it compressed
work done by spring is positive.
Reason (R) : Work done by spring is path
independent.
9. Assertion (A) : If in some case work done by a force
is path independent then it must be conservative.
Reason (R) : Work done by conservative forces in a
round trip must be zero.
This section contains 6 questions (Q.10 to 15).
+4 marks will be given for each correct answer and 1
mark for each wrong answer. The answer to each of the
questions is a SINGLEDIGIT INTEGER, ranging
from 0 to 9. The appropriate bubbles below the
respective question numbers in the OMR have to be
darkened. For example, if the correct answers to
question numbers X, Y, Z and W (say) are 6, 0, 9 and 2,
respectively, then the correct darkening of bubbles will
look like the following :
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
X Y Z W
10. If y = 4x
2
4x + 7. Find the minimum value of 'y'.
11. A block of mass 1 kg starts slipping on a circular
track of radius 2m and it is observed that when =
60 its speed is 4 m/s as shown in figure. Assuming
size of block to be
negligible and coefficient of
friction between block and
track is 0.5 frictional force
(in N) on block when
= 60 is (g = 10 m/s
2
)
12. A projectile is fired with speed 'u' at angle 60 with
horizontal. Velocity of projectile when it makes an
angle 120 with initial direction of velocity is u' then
ratio b/w u : u' is .
13. A block of mass 'm' is hanged vertically by a wire.
Potential energy stored in wire u
1
. Potential energy
stored in wire is u
2
. When mass hanged is doubled.
Ratio u
2
: u
1
is.
14. An electrically heating coil is placed in calorimeter
containing 360 gm of H
2
O at 10C. The coil
consumes energy at the rate of 90 W. The water
equivalent of calorimeter and the coil is 40 g. The
temperature of water after 10 minutes will be n/8.5
then find the value of 'n' 
15. Variation of pressure at certain point is space is given
by :
P = P
0
is 2t cos 212 t sin (220t /2)
The Beat Frequency is 
This section contains Numerical response type questions
(Q. 16 to 18). +6 marks will be given for each correct
answer and 1 mark for each wrong answer. Answers to
this Section are to be given in the form of nearest integer
in four digits. Please follow as per example : (i.e. for
answer : 1492.2 write 1492; 491.8 write 0492; 92.5 write
0092; 2.1 write 0002)
16. A conical container of radius
R = 1m and height H = 5m is
filled completely with liquid.
There is a hole at the bottom of
container of area 10
3
m
2
(see
figure). Time taken to empty the
conical container (in sec) is
.. Take g = 10 m/s
2
17. A pendulum of length l is
given a horizontal velocity
l kg at the lowest point of
vertical circular path as
shown. In the subsequent
motion the string gets slag at
a certain point and the
pendulum bob strikes the
point of suspensin then the
value of k is
R
H
l
v = l kg
O
O r =2m
v
XtraEdge for IITJEE 67 DECEMBER 2011
18. A small body is released from point A of the smooth
parabolic path y = x
2
. Where y is vertical axis and x
is horizontal axis at ground as shown. The body
leaves the surface from point B. If g = 10 m/s
2
then
the total horizontal distance travelled by body before
it hits ground is
O
y
A
2m +1m x
B
CHEMISTRY
This section contains 2 paragraphs; each has 3 multiple
choice questions. (Questions 1 to 6) Each question has 4
choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONE OR
MORE THAN ONE may be correct. Mark your
response in OMR sheet against the question number of
that question. + 4 marks will be given for each correct
answer and 1 mark for each wrong answer.
Passage # 1 (Ques. 1 to 3)
The Haber Process shown below :
N
2
(g) + 3H
2
(g)
2 NH
3
(g)
In 1912 Fritz Haber developed the Haber process for
making ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen. His
development was crucial for the German war effort
of world War , providing the Germans with ample
fixed nitrogen for the manufacture of explosives.
The Haber process takes place at 500 C and 200
atm. It is an exothermic reaction .The graph below
shows the change in concentrations of reactants and
products as the reaction progresses.
A
B
C
Time
C
o
n
c
e
n
t
r
a
t
i
o
n
1. Even at the high temperatures, the conversion of
nitrogen and hydrogen to ammonia was slow. In
order to make the process industrially efficient Fritz
Haber used a metal oxide catalyst. Which of the
following did not accomplished by use of the metal
oxide catalyst ?
(A) The rate of production of ammonia increased
(B) The energy of activation was raised
(C) The equilibrium shifted to the right
(D) activation energy equals to zero
2. Instead of developing a catalyst, why didnt Haber
increase the rate of the reaction by raising the
temperature ?
(A) The Haber process is exothermic, so raising the
temperature would have lowered the rate of the
reaction
(B) The Haber process is exothermic, so raising the
temperature would have reduced the yield of the
reaction
(C) Higher temperatures would have caused an
increased in pressure lowering the yield of the
reaction
(D) Higher temperatures might have decomposed the
hydrogen
3. Which of the following graphs could also accurately
reflect the establishment of equilibrium between
nitrogen, hydrogen, and ammonia ?
(A)
H
2
NH
3
N
2
Time
C
o
n
c
(B)
N
2
NH
3
H
2
Time
C
o
n
c
(C)
H
2
NH
3
N
2
Time
C
o
n
c
(D)
N
2
NH
3
H
2
Time
C
o
n
c
Passage # 2 (Ques. 4 to 6)
Entropy is measure of degree of randomness. Entropy
is directly proportional to temperature. Every system
tries to acquire maximum state of randomness or
disorder. Entropy is measure of unavailable energy.
Unavailable energy = Entropy Temperature
The ratio of entropy of vapourisation and boiling
point of substance remains almost constant.
4. Which of the following process have S = ve ?
(A) Adsorption
(B) Dissolution of NH
4
Cl in water
(C) H
2
2H
(D) 2NaHCO
3
(s) Na
2
CO
3
+ CO
2
+ H
2
O
XtraEdge for IITJEE 68 DECEMBER 2011
5. Observe the graph and identify the incorrect
statement(s)
T
1
T
2
Temperature
E
n
t
r
o
p
y
S
fusion
S
vap
(A) T
1
is melting point, T
2
is boiling point
(B) T
1
is boiling point, T
2
is melting point
(C) S
fusion
is more than S
vap
(D) T
2
is lower than T
1
6. The law of Thermodynamics invented by Nernst,
which helps to determine absolute entropy is
(A) Zero
th
law (B) 1
st
law
(C) 2
nd
law (D) 3
rd
law
This section contains 3 questions numbered 7 to 9, (Reason
and Assertion type question). Each question contains
Assertion and Reason. Each question has 4 choices (A), (B),
(C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE is correct. Mark your
response in OMR sheet against the question number of that
question. + 4 marks will be given for each correct answer
and 1 mark for each wrong answer.
The following questions given below consist of an
"Assertion" (A) and "Reason" (R) Type questions. Use
the following Key to choose the appropriate answer.
(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A).
(C) If (A) is true but (R) is false.
(D) If (A) is false but (R) is true.
7. Assertion (A) : At zero degree Kelvin the volume
occupied by a gas is negligible.
Reason (R) : All molecular motion ceases at 0 K.
8. Assertion (A) : Compressibility factor for hydrogen
varies with pressure with positive slope at all
pressures.
Reason (R) : Even at low pressures, repulsive forces
dominate hydrogen gas.
9. Assertion (A) : Enthalpy of graphite is lower than
that of diamond.
Reason (R) : Entropy of graphite is greater than that
of diamond.
This section contains 6 questions (Q.10 to 15).
+4 marks will be given for each correct answer and 1
mark for each wrong answer. The answer to each of the
questions is a SINGLEDIGIT INTEGER, ranging
from 0 to 9. The appropriate bubbles below the
respective question numbers in the OMR have to be
darkened. For example, if the correct answers to
question numbers X, Y, Z and W (say) are 6, 0, 9 and 2,
respectively, then the correct darkening of bubbles will
look like the following :
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
X Y Z W
10. For the Ca atom calculate total No. of e
which have
m = 1
11. The molecular formula of a nonstoichiometric tin
oxide containing Sn (II) and Sn (IV) ions is Sn
4.44
O
8
.
Therefore, the molar ratio of Sn (II) to Sn (IV) is
approximately
12. How much volume (in mL) 0.001 M HCl should we
add to 10 cm
3
of 0.001 M NaOH to change its pH by
one unit ?
13. What is the sum of total electron pairs (b.p. + l.p.)
present in XeF
6
molecule ?
14. The number of geometrical isomers of
CH
3
CH=CHCH=CHCH=CHCl is.
15. No. of bond in the compound H
2
CSF
4
is.
This section contains Numerical response type questions
(Q. 16 to 18). +6 marks will be given for each correct
answer and 1 mark for each wrong answer. Answers to
this Section are to be given in the form of nearest integer
in four digits. Please follow as per example : (i.e. for
answer : 1492.2 write 1492; 491.8 write 0492; 92.5 write
0092; 2.1 write 0002)
16. The ion A
n+
is oxidised to AO
3
by MnO
4
, changing
to Mn
2+
in acidic solution. Given that 2.68 10
3
mol
of A
n+
requires 1.61 10
3
mol of MnO
4
. What is
the value of n ?
17. Standard heat of formation of HgO(s) at 298 K and at
constant pressure is 90.8 kJ mol
1
. Excess of
HgO(s) absorbs 41.84 kJ of heat. Calculate the mass
of Hg (in g) that can be obtained at constant volume
and at 298 K. (Hg = 200.6g mol
1
)
XtraEdge for IITJEE 69 DECEMBER 2011
18. A near ultraviolet photon of 300 nm is absorbed by a
gas and then reemitted as two photons. One photon
is red with wavelength 760 nm. What would be the
wavelength (in nm) of the second photon ?
MATHEMATICS
This section contains 2 paragraphs; each has 3 multiple
choice questions. (Questions 1 to 6) Each question has 4
choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONE OR
MORE THAN ONE may be correct. Mark your
response in OMR sheet against the question number of
that question. + 4 marks will be given for each correct
answer and 1 mark for each wrong answer.
Passage # 1 (Ques. 1 to 3)
A circle C
1
of radius 2 units rolls on the outerside of
the circle C
2
: x
2
+ y
2
+ 4x = 0, touching it externally.
1. If the line joining the centres of C
1
and C
2
makes an
angle of 60 with the xaxis, equation of a common
tangent to them is 
(A) x + 3 y 2 = 0
(B) 3 x y + 4 + 2 3 = 0
(C) 3 x y 4 + 2 3 = 0
(D) 3 x y 4 2 3 = 0
2. Area of the quadrilateral formed by a pair of tangents
from a point on C
3
to the circle C
2
with a pair of radii
at the points of contact of the tangents is 
(A) 3 2 sq. units (B) 3 4 sq. units
(C) 3 sq. units (D) 3 3 sq. units
3. If the line joining the centres of C
1
and C
2
is
perpendicular to the xaxis; equation of the chord of
contact of the tangents drawn from the centre of C
2
to
the circle C
1
is 
(A) y 2 = 0 (B) y + 2 = 0
(C) y 3 = 0 (D) y + 3 = 0
Passage # 2 (Ques. 4 to 6)
AL, BM and CN are diameter of the circumcircle of a
triangle ABC.
1
,
2
,
3
, and are the areas of the
triangles BLC, CMA, ANB and ABC respectively,
4.
1
is equal to
(A) 2R
2
sin A cos B cos C
(B) 2R
2
sin A sin B cos C
(C) 2R
2
cos A cos B sin C
(D) 2R
2
sin A sin B sin C
5.
1
+
2
+
3
is equal to
(A) 2 (B) 3
(C) (D) none of these
6. If BL
2
+ CM
2
+ AN
2
= x and CL
2
+ AM
2
+ BN
2
= y
then
(A) x + y = 0
(B) x y = 0
(C) x + y = 24R
2
2(a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
)
(D) none of these
This section contains 3 questions numbered 7 to 9,
(Reason and Assertion type question). Each question
contains Assertion and Reason. Each question has 4
choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY ONE
is correct. Mark your response in OMR sheet against
the question number of that question. + 4 marks will be
given for each correct answer and 1 mark for each
wrong answer.
The following questions given below consist of an
"Assertion" (A) and "Reason" (R) Type questions. Use
the following Key to choose the appropriate answer.
(A) If both (A) and (R) are true, and (R) is the
correct explanation of (A).
(B) If both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the
correct explanation of (A).
(C) If (A) is true but (R) is false.
(D) If (A) is false but (R) is true.
7. Assertion (A) : If a, b > 0 and a
3
+ b
3
= a b, then
a
2
+ b
2
< 1
Reason (R) : If a, b > 0, then ab <
2
1
(a + b)
8. Assertion (A) : The line bx ay = 0 will not meet the
hyperbola
2
2
a
x
2
2
b
y
= 1 (a > b > 0)
Reason (R) : The line y = mx + c does not meet the
hyperbola
2
2
2
2
b
y
a
x
= 1 if c
2
= a
2
m
2
b
2
.
9. Assertion (A) : The solution set of the inequality


.

\

+
+
4
log log
2
6 7 . 0
x
x x
< 0 is ( 4, 3) (8, ).
Reason (R) : For x > 0, log
a
x is an increasing function
if a > 1 and a decreasing function if 0 < a < 1.
This section contains 6 questions (Q.10 to 15).
+4 marks will be given for each correct answer and 1
mark for each wrong answer. The answer to each of the
questions is a SINGLEDIGIT INTEGER, ranging
from 0 to 9. The appropriate bubbles below the
respective question numbers in the OMR have to be
darkened. For example, if the correct answers to
question numbers X, Y, Z and W (say) are 6, 0, 9 and 2,
respectively, then the correct darkening of bubbles will
look like the following :
XtraEdge for IITJEE 70 DECEMBER 2011
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
X Y Z W
10. If two of the lines represented by
x
4
+ x
3
y + cx
2
y
2
xy
3
+ y
4
= 0
bisect the angle between the other two, then the value
of c is
11. For n > 3, a, b R, let
S(n, a, b)=
!
) 1 )...( 1 (
) 1 (
0
r
r n n n
n
r
r
+
=
(a r) (b r)
Find S 
.

\

7
1
,
2
1
, 5
12. Find the degree of the remainder when x
2007
1 is
divided by (x
2
+ 1) (x
2
+ x + 1).
13. Let l be the length of the interval satisfying the
inequality
log
6
(x + 2) (x + 4) + log
1/6
(x + 2) <
2
1
6
log (7).
Find the value of l.
14. The number of pairs (x, y) satisfying the equation
sin x + sin y = sin (x + y) and x + y = 1 is.
15. If a = ( 0, 1, 1) and c = (1, 1, 1) are given vectors,
the b
2
where b satisfies a b + c = 0 and a . b = 3 is.
This section contains Numerical response type questions
(Q. 16 to 18). +6 marks will be given for each correct
answer and 1 mark for each wrong answer. Answers to
this Section are to be given in the form of nearest integer
in four digits. Please follow as per example : (i.e. for
answer : 1492.2 write 1492; 491.8 write 0492; 92.5 write
0092; 2.1 write 0002)
16. The number of natural numbers which are smaller
than 2.10
8
and which can be written by means of the
digits 1 and 2 is ............. .
17. If z =
2
1
( 3 i), find the smallest value of positive
integer n for which (z
89
+ i
97
)
94
= z
n
.
18. If + = and tan = 22, a is the arithmetic and b is
the geometric mean respectively between tan and
tan , then the value of
3 2
3
) 1 ( b
a
is equal to 
Elements Named for Places
This is an alphabetical list of element toponyms or
elements named for places or regions. Ytterby in
Sweden has given its name to four elements: Erbium,
Terbium, Ytterbium and Yttrium.
Americium : America, the Americas
Berkelium : University of California at Berkeley
Californium : State of California and University
of California at Berkeley
Copper : probably named for Cyprus
Darmstadtium : Darmstadt, Germany
Dubnium : Dubna, Russia
Erbium : Ytterby, a town in Sweden
Europium : Europe
Francium : France
Gallium : Gallia, Latin for France. Also named
for Lecoq de Boisbaudran, the element's
discoverer (Lecoq in Latin is gallus)
Germanium : Germany
Hafnium : Hafnia, Latin for Copenhagen
Hassium : Hesse, Germany
Holmium : Holmia, Latin for Stockholm
Lutetium : Lutecia, ancient name for Paris
Magnesium : Magnesia prefecture in Thessaly,
Greece
Polonium : Poland
Rhenium : Rhenus, Latin for Rhine, a German
province
Ruthenium : Ruthenia, Latin for Russia
Scandium : Scandia, Latin for Scandinavia
Strontium : Strontian, a town in Scotland
Terbium : Ytterby, Sweden
Thulium : Thule, a mythical island in the far
north (Scandinavia?)
Ytterbium : Ytterby, Sweden
Yttrium : Ytterby, Sweden
XtraEdge for IITJEE 71 DECEMBER 2011
PHYSICS
1. What is the phase difference between two points on a
wave front
2. Why stars seems to be twinkling ?
3. Name the characteristics of electromagnetic wave that
(i) increases
(ii) remains constant
in the electromagnetic spectrum as one moves from
infrared to ultraviolet region.
4. What is total energy of an electron revolving in first
orbit of Hydrogen atom .
5. What are digital and analog signals ?
6. Name any two basic properties of electric charge.
7. Out of the two bulbs marked 25 W and 100 W which
one has higher resistance ?
8. What is displacement current ?.
9. A thin glass prism has a minimum deviation
m
in air.
State with reason, how the angle of minimum
deviation will change if the prism is immersed in a
liquid of refractive index greater than 1
10. Explain how the interference fringe width in young's
double slits experiment will change if
(i) separation between the two slits is decreased
(ii) wavelength of light increased.
11. In an atom, two electrons moves around the nucleus
in a circular orbit of radius R and 4R. Calculate the
ratio of speeds of two electrons.
12. Which type of semiconductor is better out of
ptype and ntype ?
13. Relate input frequency and output frequency of a half
wave rectifier and a full wave rectifier
14. Define the term modulation index for an AM wave.
What would be the modulation index for an AM
wave for which the maximum amplitude is a while
the minimum amplitude is 'b' ?
15. Distinguish between point to point and broadcast
communication modes. Give one example of each
16. Why does the conductivity of a semi conductor
change with the rise in temperature ?
General Instructions : Physics & Chemistry
Time given for each subject paper is 3 hrs and Max. marks 70 for each.
All questions are compulsory.
Marks for each question are indicated against it.
Question numbers 1 to 8 are very shortanswer questions and carrying 1 mark each.
Question numbers 9 to 18 are shortanswer questions, and carry 2 marks each.
Question numbers 19 to 27 are also shortanswer questions, and carry 3 marks each.
Question numbers 28 to 30 are longanswer questions and carry 5 marks each.
Use of calculators is not permitted.
General Instructions : Mathematics
Time given to solve this subject paper is 3 hrs and Max. marks 100.
All questions are compulsory.
The question paper consists of 29 questions divided into three sections A, B and C.
Section A comprises of 10 questions of one mark each.
Section B comprises of 12 questions of four marks each.
Section C comprises of 7 questions of six marks each.
All question in Section A are to be answered in one word, one sentence or as per the exact requirement of the question.
There is no overall choice. However, internal choice has been provided in 4 questions of four marks each and
2 question of six marks each. You have to attempt only one of the alternatives in all such questions.
Use of calculators is not permitted.
MOCK TEST PAPER1
CBSE BOARD PATTERN
CLASS # XII
SUBJECT : PHYSICS , CHEMISTRY & MATHEMATICS
Sol ut i ons wi l l be publ i shed i n next i ssue
XtraEdge for IITJEE 72 DECEMBER 2011
17. An electric dipole is held in uniform electric field.
(i) Show that no translatory force acts on it.
(ii) Derive an expression for the torque acting on it.
18. Define angle of dip at a given place. What is the
value of angle of dip on the equator ?
19. When a Uranium nucleus (U
238
) originally at rest
decays by emitting alpha particle having speed u.
Find the recoil speed of residual nucleus.
20. If focal lengths of objective and eyepiece lens of a
compound microscope is 2cm and 3cm respectively
and distance between both the lenses is 15cm then
calculate distance of object from objective lens if
final image forms at infinity.
21. If a gas is at temp T, then derive an expression for
debroglie wavelength of its molecule of mass m.
22. For a common emitter transistor amplifier current
gain is 72. Calculate the base current for which
emitter current is 8.9mA.
23. Give one use of each of the following
(i) microwaves
(ii) infrared waves
(iii) ultraviolet radiation
(iv) gamma rays.
24. State the principle of potentiometer with the help of
circuit diagram, describe a method to find the
internal resistance of a primary cell.
25. A proton is shot into the magnetic field T j
8 . 0 B =
r
with a velocity ) j
10 3 i
10 2 (
6 6
+ ms
1
. Calculate
the radius and pitch of the helix path followed by
proton.
26. Derive an expression for the torque on a rectangular
coil of area A, carrying a current I placed in a
magnetic field B. The angle between the direction of
B and vector perpendicular to plane of coil is .
27. Using Kirchhoff's laws in the given network, calculate
the values of I
1
, I
2
and I
3
.
I
1
I
3
I
2
A B C
3
2
5
12V
F E D
6V
28. With the help of ray diagram, explain the
phenomenon of total interval reflection. Obtain the
relation between critical angle and refractive index of
the medium.
OR
Why objective lens of an astronomical telescope is of
large size ? what defects can be remoned by using
reflecting telescope in place of refracting telescope ?
IF length of an astronomical telescope is 100 cm and
its magnifying power is 19 then calculate focal
lengths of objective and eyepiece lens.
29. Explain with the help of a labelled diagram, the
principle, construction and working of a transformer.
OR
An a.c. generator consists of a coil of 50 turns and
area 2.5 m
2
rotating at an angular speed of 60 rad s
1
in a uniform magnetic field B = 0.30 T between two
fixed pole pieces. The resistance of the circuit
including that of the coil is 500 . (i) Find the
maximum current drawn from the generator. (ii) What
will be the orientation of the coil w.r.t. the magnetic
field to have (a) maximum (b) zero magnetic flux. (iii)
Would the generator work if the coil were stationary
and instead the poles were rotated with same speed as
above.
30. Calculate the electric field intensity for following points
due to a uniformly charged nonconducting sphere.
Represent the results by graph
(A) at any point outside the sphere
(B) at any point on the surface of sphere
(C) at any point inside the sphere.
OR
What is a Capacitor ? Explain its principles. Derive
the relations for equivalent capacity of series and
parallel combinations of capacitors.
CHEMISTRY
1. Write the IUPAC names of the following :
Br
COOC
2
H
5
OH
2. How would you convert methylamine into
ethylamine ?
3. What are essential amino acids ? Give two example.
4. What is meant by the term peptization ?
5. Identify the reaction order if the unit of rate constant
is sec
1
.
6. In an alloy of gold and cadmium if gold crystallizes
in cubic structure occupying the corners only and
cadmium fits into edge centre voids, what is the
formula of the alloy ?
XtraEdge for IITJEE 73 DECEMBER 2011
7. Which oxide of nitrogen has oxidation number of N
same as that in nitric acid.
8. What is froth floatation for which ores it is used ?
9. Explain as to why haloarenes are much less reactive
than haloalkanes towards nucleophilic substitution
reactions.
10. Assign a reason for each of the following statements :
(i) Alkylamines are stronger bases than arylamines
(ii) Acetonitrile is preferred as solvent for carrying
out several organic reactions.
11. Write one chemical equation each to exemplify the
following reactions :
(i) Carbylamine reaction
(ii) Hofmann bromamide reaction
12. Identify A and B in the following :
CN
CH
2
Br
(i)
A
LiAlH4
B
NH3
(ii)
A
Ni/H2
B R
2
CO
13. Write any two feature which distinguish
physisorption from Chemisorption.
14. The decomposition of a compound is found to follow
a first order rate law. If it takes 15 minutes for 20% of
the original material to react,
calculate
(i) Specific rate constant.
(ii) the time at which 10% of the original material
remains unreacted.
15. Prove that the time required for the completion of
3/4th of the reaction of first order is twice the
time required for the completion of half of the
reaction.
16. When a certain conductivity cell was filled with 0.1 M
KCl, it has a resistance of 85 at 25C. When the
same cell was filled with an aqueous solution of 0.052
M unknown electrolyte the resistance was 96 .
Calculate the molar conductivity of the unknown
electrolyte at this concentration. (Specific
conductivity of 0.1 M KCl = 129 10
2
ohm
1
cm
1
).
17. Give methods of preparation of XeO
3
and XeOF
4
.
18. Explain giving reason :
(i) Copper (I) is diamagnetic whereas copper (II) is
paramagnetic
(ii) K
2
PtCl
6
is a well known compound whereas the
corresponding Ni compound does not exist.
19. Name the reagents which are used in the following
conversions :
(i) A primary alcohol to an aldehyde
(ii) Butan2one to butan2ol
(iii) Phenol to 2,4,6tribromopheno
20. Give the structures of following polymers.
(A) Perlon (B) Orlon (C) Neoprene
21. What are tranquilizers ? Explain with example
tranquilizers are neurologically active drugs which are
used to reduce strain or anxiety.
22. Name any three fat soluble vitamins & their
deficiency disease.
23. (a) State the products of electrolysis obtained on the
cathode and the anode in the following
cases : [2 + 1]
(i) A dilute solution of H
2
SO
4
with platinum
electrodes.
(ii) An aqueous solution of AgNO
3
with silver
electrodes
(b) Write the cell formulation and calculate the
standard cell potential of the galvanic cell in
which the following reaction takes place :
Fe
2+
(aq) + Ag
+
(aq) Fe
3+
(aq) + Ag (s)
Calculate
r
G for the above reaction.
[Given :
o
Ag / Ag
E
+
= + 0.80 V ;
o
Fe / Fe
2 3
E
+ +
= + 0.77 V ; 1 F = 96500 C mol
1
]
24. (a) Explain each of the following with a suitable
example :
(i) Paramagnetism (ii) Frenkel defect in crystals
(b) An element occurs in bcc structure with cell edge
300 pm. The density of the element is
5.2 g cm
3
. How many atoms of the element does 200
g of the element contain ?
25. (a) Describe the preparation of KMnO
4
from
pyrolusite ore.
(b) Among ionic species, Sc
+3
, Ce
+4
and Eu
+2
, which
one is good oxidizing agent ?
(Atomic numbers : Sc = 21, Ce = 58, Eu = 63 )
26. (a) Assign a reason for each of the following
statements :
(i) Dimethyl amine is stronger base than
trimethyl amine in aq. solution.
(ii) Explain why ? Benzamide is more basic in
comparision to acetamide.
(b) How would you convert aryl amine into
cynobenzene.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 74 DECEMBER 2011
27. (a) Why chelated complexes are more stable than
unchelated complexes ?
(b) Write IUPAC names of :
(i) K
3
[Al(C
2
O
4
)
3
]
(ii) [Mn (H
2
O)
6
] S
28. You are provided with four reagents :
LiAlH
4
, I
2
/NaOH, NaHSO
3
and Schiff's reagent
(a) Write which two reagents can be used to
distinguish between the compounds in each of the
following pairs :
[3+2=5]
(i) CH
3
CHO and CH
3
COCH
3
(ii) CH
3
CHO and C
6
H
5
CHO
(iii) C
6
H
5
COCH
3
and C
6
H
5
COC
6
H
5
(b) Account for the following :
(i) The order of reactivity of halogen acids with ether
is HI > HBr > HCl.
(ii) The pK
a
value of chloroacetic acid is lower than
the pK
a
value of acetic acid.
Or
(a) An organic compound contains 69.77% carbon,
11.63% hydrogen and the rest is oxygen. The
molecular mass of the compound is 86. It does
not reduce Tollens' reagent but forms an addition
compound with sodium hydrogen sulphite and
gives a positive iodoform test. On vigorous
oxidation it gives ethanoic and propanoic acids.
Deduce the possible structure of the organic
compound.
(b) State reasons for the following :
(i) Monochloroethanoic acid has a higher pK
a
value than dichloroethanoic acid.
(ii) Ethanoic acid is a weaker acid than benzoic
acid.
29. (a) Density of 0.8 M aqueous solution of H
2
SO
4
is
1.06 g mL
1
. Calculate the concentration of
solution in (i) mol fraction (ii) molality (molar
mass of H
2
SO
4
= 98 g mol
1
).
(b) Heptane and octane form ideal solution. At 373
K, the vapour pressures of the two liquid
components are 105.2 kPa and 46.8 kPa,
respectively. What will be the vapour pressure,
in bar, of a mixture of 25.0 g of heptane and 35.0
g of octane ?
30. (a) Explain the following giving reasons :
(i) H
3
PO
3
is diprotic.
(ii) Nitrogen does not form pentahalides
(iii) SF
6
is well known but SH
6
is not known
(b) Complete the equations :
(i) XeF
6
+ PF
5
(ii) AlN + H
2
O
MATHEMATICS
Section A
1. Find order and degree of diff. equation
2

.

\

dx
dy
+
dx
dy
1
= 2
2. Evaluate :
dx x
1
tan .
3. Find unit vector in the direction of vector
a = 2i
+ 3 j
+ k
.
4. If
a =i
+ j
3 k
and
b = j
+ 2 k
. Find 2
a 
5. Find the angle between the two planes
3x 6y 2z = 7 and 2x + 2y 2z = 5
6. Construct a matrix of order 3 3, whose element a
ij
is given by rule a
ij
= (i + j)
2
.
7. Find a matrix X such that A + 2B + X = 0, where
A =
(
5 3
1 2
; B =
(
2 0
1 1
.
8. Find value of
80 cos 80 sin
10 cos 10 sin
.
9. Let f = {(1, 3), (2, 1), (2, 1), (3, 2)} and
g = {(1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 1)} then find gof (1).
10. Find derivative of sin
1
(2x
2
1 x ) w.r.to x.
Section B
11. A and B are mutually exclusive events of an
experiment. If P (Not A) = 0.65, P (A B) = 0.65
and P (B) = p. Find the value of p.
12. Evaluate
+
x
x x
e
x
2
cos
cos sin 1
dx.
13. Evaluate
+ +
d
) sin 3 )( sin 2 (
cos
OR
XtraEdge for IITJEE 75 DECEMBER 2011
Evaluate :
+
+
dx
x x
x
3 2 2
1 3
2
.
14. Find the diff. equation of the family of curves
y = a sin (bx + c), a and c being parameter.
OR
Solve the differential equation : 0 2
3
= x y
dx
dy
x .
15. If
a =i
+ 2 k
b =2 i
+ j
3 k
c =i
+2 j
,
verify that
a (
c ) = (
a .
c )
b (
a .
b )
c .
16. Find the vector equation of the plane passing through
the intersection of the planes
r .(2 i
7 j
+ 4 k
) =3
and
r .(3i
5 j
+ 4 k
=
+
17. Using properties of determinats, prove that
c 1 1 1
1 b 1 1
1 1 a 1
+
+
+
= abc 
.

\

+ + +
c
1
b
1
a
1
1
OR
If A =
(
(
(
7 3 2
1 3 1
11 5 4
find A
1
18. If f (x) = cos x, g(x) = x
2
, then show that
fog (x) gof (x)
19. Show that curve xy = a
2
and x
2
+ y
2
= 2a
2
touch each
other.
20. Find the derivative of xe
x
from first principle.
21. If cos y = x cos (a + y), then prove that
dx
dy
=
a
y a
sin
) ( cos
2
+
.
22. Determine f (0) so that function f (x) is defined by
f (x) =


.

\

+ 
.

\

3
1 log
4
sin
) 1 4 (
2
3
x x
x
becomes continuous at x = 0.
Section C
23. The bag A contains 5 red and 3 green balls and bag B
contains 3 red and 5 green balls. One ball is drawn
from bag A and two from bag B. Find the Probability
that of the three balls drawn two are red and one is
green.
24. Find area between x
2
+ y
2
= 4 and line y x 3 = in
first quadrant
OR
Find the area of the region
[(x, y) : y
2
4x, 4x
2
+ 4y
2
9]
25. Find the image of the point (1, 6, 3) in the line
1
x
=
2
1 y
=
3
2 z
.
26. A dealer wishes to purchase a number of fans and
radios. He has only Rs 5,760 to invest and has a
space for at most 20 items. A fan costs him Rs. 360
and a radio Rs. 240. His expectation is that he can
sell a fan at a profit of Rs. 22 and a radio at a profit of
Rs. 18. Assuming that he can sell all the items he
buys, how should he invest his money for maximum
profit ? Translate the problem as LPP and solve it
graphically.
27. Evaluate the following integrals as limit of sums
+
2
0
2
) 3 ( dx x .
28. Given that A =
(
(
(
2 1 0
4 3 2
0 1 1
and
B =
(
(
(
5 1 2
4 2 4
4 2 2
find A.B. Use this to solve the
following system of equations
x y = 3
2x + 3y + 4z = 17
y + 2z = 7
OR
Using matrix method solve the following system of
linear equations
2x 3y + 5z = 11
3x + 2y 4z = 5
x + y 2z = 3
29. If the sum of the lengths of the hypotenuse and a side
of right angled triangle is given, show that the area of
triangle is maximum when the angle between them is
/3.
XtraEdge for IITJEE 76 DECEMBER 2011
XtraEdge Test Series
ANSWER KEY
PHYSICS
Ques
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Ans
A,C C A D A A A D D
Ques
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Ans
3 4 6 4 8 7 0012 0049 0005
CHEMISTRY
Ques
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Ans
A B A C A,B A,B,C A A D
Ques
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Ans
4 4 3 1 4 6 0108 0001 0041
MATHEMATICS
Ques
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Ans
B,C,D A C,D C C B,D D C D
Ques
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Ans
6 3 5 9 6 3 0012 1440 0000
PHYSICS
Ques
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Ans
A A B C B D B D D
Ques
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Ans
6 7 1 4 5 4 0200 0004 0008
CHEMISTRY
Ques
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Ans
B,C,D B A A B,C,D D C A B
Ques
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Ans
4 1 1 6 1 4 0002 0094 0496
MATHEMATICS
Ques
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Ans
A,B,C B C,D A C B,C B C A
Ques
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Ans
6 0 3 5 6 6 0766 0010 1331
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