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EDITED BY THE

REV. PERCY

DEARMER,

M.A.

of

tf)e

OTfjurcf)

Edited by the

REV. PERCY
i6mo.
1.

DEARMER,

M.A.

Profusely Illustrated.

Cloth, 1/6 net.

THE

ORNAMENTS OF THE
By
the Rev.

MINISTERS.
DEARMER, M.A.
2.

PERCY
H.
B.

CHURCH

BELLS. By WALTERS, M.A., F.S.A.

3.

THE

ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. By A. G. HILL, M.A.,


F.S.A.

4.

CHURCH MUSIC.
MAURICE
F.

By

the

Rev.

BELL, M.A.

5.

GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE ENGLAND. By the Rev. E.


MITAGE DAY, D.D., F.S.A.

IN HER-

6.

RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE IN ENGLAND. By the Rev. E.


HERMITAGE DAY, D.D., F.S.A.

7.

SYMBOLISM OF THE SAINTS.


By
the

Rev.

P.

H.

DITCHFIEED,

M.A., F.S.A

OTHERS TO FOLLOW

Frontispiece.

Masaccio]
S.

[Mansell, Photo.

LAURENCE.

(See page 66.)

DG
tfje

SYMBOLISM OF THE
SAINTS
BY THE
REV. P.

H.

DITCHFIELD,

M.A., F.S.A.

WITH FOl^Tr ILLUSTRATIONS

^
It

'&
A. R.

/
W.

*/

MOWBRAY &
:

CO. LTD.
Street

LONDON

28 Margaret Street, Oxford Circus,

OXFORD

9 High

First printed,

1910

N/

Ds-i

EDITOR'S

NOTE
ARTS OF
intended

THE THE

little

volumes

in

the
are

CHURCH

series

to provide information in an interesting as well as an accurate form about the

various arts which have clustered round


the public worship of God in the Church of Christ. Though few have the oppor-

tunity of knowing there are many who


the

much about them,


would
like to possess arts whose

main outlines about those

productions are so familiar to the ChrisThe authors will write tian, and so dear. for the average intelligent man who has not had the time to study all these matters for himself ; and they will therefore avoid technicalities, while endeavouring at the same time to present the facts with a fidelity which will not, it is hoped, be
unacceptable to the specialist.
Vll

PREFACE
A STUDY
JL\
for the

of symbolism is essential understanding of almost all


ecclesiastical
art,

branches
tecture

of

painting,

sculpture in stone or

wood, and the archiof various ages. It is shown on

the walls of churches, fonts, screens, misericords, carvings, pictures by great mediaeval artists, and enters largely into the sacred
art

of

all

countries.

deemed advisable
"

Iconography"

It has, therefore, been to include the subject of in this series of the Arts of

the Church.
to record the

The

writer has endeavoured

symbols of those saints whose figures appear most frequently in churches and in works of Sacred Art, and to give such brief accounts of their lives and
legends as may account for the selection of their symbols. The very limited space at his disposal has, of course, prevented but any full treatment of the subject the reader will probably find this book, especially the indexes, sufficient to enable him to recognize the identity of the figures
;

IX

'Preface

which he may meet with when studying the beauties of churches or the paintings of Old Masters. The writer is indebted to the works of many authors who have

These are far in the same field. numerous to be here mentioned. Alban Butler's and the Rev. S. Baringtoiled

too

Gould's Lives of the Saints have been used, and Dr. Owen's Sanctorale Catholicum, Mrs. Jameson's Sacred and Legendary *Art, Husenbeth's admirable work on Symbolism, Hind's Garner of Saints, Hulme's Symbolism in Christian *Art, and Mrs. Arthur Bell's! valuable work on The Lives and Legends of Evangelists, *Apo sties, and other Early Sainfsm are some of the books which have been mosl useful to him in his search for symbols ancl their signification. To the General Editoil of the series, Mr. Percy Dearmer, and t(l
the publishers, he desires to express hiJ cordial thanks for the assistance the)J great

have rendered in the selection of illustra-I tions, and for much valued co-operation ill the preparation of this book for the press

CONTENTS

I.

INTRODUCTION

II.

THE HOLY FAMILY


THE APOSTLES
-

12
21

III.

IV.

THE FOUR EVANGELISTS


SOME SAINTS OF THE FIRST CENTURY

45
57

V.

VI. ANIMALS AS SYMBOLS


VII.
'III.

SOME ENGLISH SAINTS SOME POPES

.... ....
-

68
79
91

...
-

IX.

THE FOUNDERS OF RELIGIOUS ORDERS


-

97
115
121

X. DOCTORS

XL HERMITS
XII.
1.111.

WOMEN

SAINTS AND MARTYRS

126
161

THE SEVEN CHAMPIONS OF CHRISTENDOM-

CIV. SAINTS

WHO HAVE

INSPIRED

ART

170

LIST

OF ILLUSTRATIONS
PAGE

S.

LAURENCE
-

Frontispiece
-

THE VIRGIN AND HOLY CHILD


GEORGE THE MAGI
S.

xvi

9
13
S.

S.

BENEDICT,

JOHN BAPTIST

17
-

S.
S.
S.

PAUL PETER

23 27

JAMES THE LESS


PHILIP
-

31

S.

S.

BARTHOLOMEW MARTYRDOM OF S. ANDREW


S.

........
-

35

39

43
47
51

S.
S. S. S. S.

MATTHEW MARK
JOHN THE EVANGELIST MARY AND S. MARTHA STEPHEN

55
-

...
EUSTACE
-

59 63

MARY MAGDALENE
S.

64

VISION OF
S.

-71
-

IGNATIUS

72

xiii

xiv
S. S.

List of Illustrations
PAG)
8(
-

CUTHBERT
BENEDICT

S.

BERNARD AND
DOMINIC

S.

JOHN OF THE CROSS

IQJ

><

S.
S.
S.

FRANCIS OF ASSISI

10=

10;

S.
S.

GREGORY THE GREAT AUGUSTINE THOMAS AQUINAS

ir
114
-

iic
j

S.
S.

ANTHONY
GILES
-

123

124
127
131

S.
S. S.

AGNES APOLLONIA

AUGUSTINE AND
AGNES,
S.

S.
S. S.
S.

MONICA SCHOLASTICA, AND


S.

132

S.

CATHERINE

135

CATHERINE OF SIENA

136
139
149

HELENA
BRIDGET

MARTYRDOM OF S. URSULA S. ANTHONY AND S. GEORGE


S. S.

....
-

155 163
171
I

SEBASTIAN

MARTIN

175

Gozzoli]

[Man sell,

Photo

THE VIRGIN AND CHILD SURROUNDED


(See page 15.)

BV

Erts uf

tije

.YMBOLISM OF THE SAINTS

CHAPTER
Jntroduetion

the earliest times it has been customary to aclorn our churches 1th representations of the holy men and omen who have been deemed worthy to
ik

among

the

Saints.

The

glorious
fel-

>mpany of the Apostles, the goodly

iwship of the Prophets, the noble army Martyrs, live still in sculptured art, in
irious

painting, in
faithful

glowing

glass,

and

mind the

of their brave deeds, jir awful sufferings, and of the crown it Art, the handmaid they have won.
B

Symbolism of the Saints

of Religion, teaches by the eye the holy lessons and sacred truths which the ear often fails to retain and convey to the
heart and spirit. In the early days of Christian Art
it

was

usual to
saint.

assign

certain

peculiarity of

form and personality to some particular


Correct portraiture, exact likeness, a photographic semblance, were, of course,

unknown

in Apostolic times.

convento eacl

was gradually given or Martyr or Confessor. Apostle


tional likeness
S.
is

Thi

John usually represented as a youth, S. Philip appears as an old man, S. Pet< with a short, rounded beard, S. Andrei
with a long
difficult

for

But it flowing one. the early artists clearly

t<

distinguish

a large

number of persons

hence it was found useful to assign t( each an appropriate symbol, some obj< connected with the life or death of th<
saint, some sign by which his figure might be recognized. The symbol is not alwayj the same. Artists in ancient, as in moden

Introduction

times, sometimes strove after originality. But the saint can generally be known by
his

symbol, and

it

may

be convenient to

modern painters, to those who visit picture or love to examine the details of galleries,
old glass or mural painting, to record again these signs which custom and early art

bestowed upon the Apostles and Martyrs of the Church. Sometimes the figures in mural painting or window have entirely disappeared, but traces of the symbols remain, and enable us to determine what has been lost. Thus in the little church of Hitcham, in Buckinghamhave
,

broken

shire, there is relics


;

some ancient stained glass, of curious and interesting

but here and there the careful designs can see the figure of an ox, a lion, eye and an eagle, and can conclude that formerly there were some representations of
:he
>f

four Evangelists.

The knowledge

symbolism is, therefore, of immense lue to the antiquary and the student of
Archaeology.

'hristian

Symbolism of the Saints

history of the principles and of symbolism in Christian Art is practice almost as vast as the stories of the lives of It is in the language of picthe saints.
tures.
It

The whole

takes

some well-known

object

and a lamb, a dove, a lion, or a serpent teaches spiritual truths. important

How

a part

it

played in the days

of ignorance

can well be understood.

Even heathen

folk recognized its value, and Clement of Alexandria advised the Christians of his

age to substitute for their pagan devises,

engraved on
Christian

stones and rings, certain emblems such as the dove, a

symbol of the HOLY SPIRIT, the Cross, the palm-branch of victory, the anchor of hope, and similar devices. Symbols were
devised to represent the Blessed Trinity, the hand and arm and eye of GOD the FATHER ; the Agnus Dei, the Good Shepherd, the sacred monogram, IHS and XP, the first letters of JESUS and Christus, for the Incarnate SON ; while the Holy Dove or a roll or a book distinguish the

Introduction

history of the nimbus, form and shape, the symbolism varying of the colours used in ecclesiastical art, the story of the Cross and crucifix, of allegorical figures, of the symbolic use of animals and flowers, are all of the highest importance, and bear witness to the development of the ideas of Christian Art and to the spirituality, imagination, and inits

HOLY GHOST. The

genuity of those who devised this complex system of pictorial instruction and devout musings. It is beyond the purpose of this book to treat of the whole subject of symbolism, and our main concern is only with that branch of it which concerns the emblems of the Christian Saints. The Old Testament patriarchs, prophets, kings, and saints are not forgotten in the chronicles of art. Abraham bears the knife with which he was prepared to offer his son Isaac to JEHOVAH. Noah bears a miniature ark, or the dove and olive-branch that signified the abating of the waters of the

6
flood.

Symbolism of the Saints

Aaron wears his priestly vestments, and holds in his hand a censer or a rod.
In allusion to his being cast into the lions' den, Daniel has for his symbol the forest king, and sometimes a ram with four
horns. The Tables of the Law are borne by Moses Jonah bears a large fish or a ship, and Elijah a chariot, or a sword in Amos his hand and a child near him.
;

Elisha appears as a shepherd with sheep. his shoulder has a two-headed eagle on Ezekiel a gate with towers in his hand. Isaiah bears the implement of his martyrdom, a saw. Jeremiah bears a rush, and Joel is shown with a lion tearing him. Malachl has for his symbol an angel, and Zechariah the Temple in building. But our chief interest is centred in the New Testament Saints, and in those of
;

later

days who have been deemed worthy of being accounted such. The instruments of their martyrdom frequently sug-

The Holy gested appropriate symbols. the companions of our LORD, the Family,

Introduction

Apostles, the holy women who followed the Saviour during His earthly life, the

devoted
in

men whose names are enshrined Holy Writ, and who by their labours

spread the Gospel light and laid the foundations of the Christian Church in many lands all these are recorded in Christian Art by vivid paintings, and represented by

symbols and emblems. And as the cloud of witnesses increased " in size, and the " noble army enrolled new members under CHRIST'S banner, new symbols were devised to mark each champion of the Cross, who by his life of sanctity, by his devotion even unto death, earned the glorious crown of martyrdom. Those thus honoured are only a few of that great company who have borne witness to the sincerity of their faith by the holiness of their lives.
"

Many

name by man

forgotten

Dwells around

Thy

throne most high."


is

The

life-story of

many

so interwoven

Symbolism of the Saints

with legend and fabulous details that it is difficult to guess the exact truth concernThe identity of names has ing them. caused no little confusion. Thus legends have confused the story of S. George the Martyr, Patron Saint of England, with George of Cappadocia, the Arian Bishop

of Alexandria, and have attributed some of the events in the life of the heretical bishop to the brave soldier-martyr. To S. James the Greater has been assigned the resuscitation of a man who had been hanged, but this was originally told of a twelfth -century hermit, S. Dominic de la Calzada, who mended the road used by pilgrims to the shrine of S. James of Hence the Compostella.
confusion.

Sometimes it is not easy to discover on what grounds canonization has been conferred.
It

may be

that in

some

cases

judgements may not have been altogether ratified by the Supreme Judge who " trieth the reins and the heart."
earthly

Plate

2.

Mantegna]
S.

IBrogi, Photo.

GEORGE.

(See pagesJS and 164.)

io

Symbolism of the Saints

But these considerations are beyond our


present purpose.

Nor

are

we

specially

concerned to separate reality from legend. The latter was not woven by the saint. He lived his life and did his duty, and perhaps died bravely with simple love and devotion to his Master. He is not responsible for the mass of strange stories and
improbable traditions that the superstitious reverence and weird imaginations of future generations of Christians have invented and attached to his name and if he had been alive he would have been eager
;

enough

to

declare

their falseness.

But

the legend often has its uses ; it discloses the current beliefs, habits, and opinions of those who created it. It represents the ideas and aspirations of mediaeval Christianity.

As an

allegory
virtue,

it is

often helpful

in

encouraging

discipline,

and

bravery, and has doubtless urged many a lowly follower of CHRIST to imitate the example which the mythical history of the saint set forth.

Introduction

1 1

cannot record all their holy names but fully the events in their lives it is our intention to mention those whom early artists most loved to depict, and to give so much of their history as may account for the selection of their symbol.
or
tell
;

We

Symbolism of the Saints

CHAPTER
Jioly

II

thought first centres Holy Family at BethleThe great forehem and Nazareth. runner of our LORD, the holy Baptist, constantly figures in the art of all

CHRISTIAN vy about the

Christendom,

and

see him clad in his closely followed. coarse garment of camel's hair and bearing

We

Gospel

History

is

arms a lamb and a scroll with the words Ecce Agnus Dei, and a long staff
in his

with

a
life

small

crosspiece

near

the

end.

and work are recorded in the Gospels, and need not be here repeated. In art his most frequent and almost

His

universal symbol

is

lamb, in

allusion

to his testimony concerning our

LORD

as

Plate

3.

Flemish School]

jMansell, Photo.

THE MAGI.
(See page 19.)

Symbolism of the Saints

the
is

Lamb

of GOD.

Frequently the

Lamb

book as in the roodplaced screen of Ranworth, Worstead, Burlingham S. Andrew. A cross frequently is
on
a

added,

or

banner with

cross.

The

figure of the holy Baptist is usually attired in the raiment of camel's hair and

leathern girdle

a lamb and locusts, his head on a dish, are some of his emblems. Paintings of the saint are in number
;

legion.

Bell truly says, Scarcely a or sculptor of religious subjects, painter of whatever nationality, has failed to pro-

Mrs.

"

duce

one

or

more renderings of
the

the

theme, Holy Family, but perhaps Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci, Correggio, Andrea del Sarto, Bernardino Luini, and Pinturicchio, have been most
fascinating

successful in interpreting the ideal character of the boy set apart from all others by
his

constant association with the Divine Child." All the other scenes of the saint's
are abundantly illustrated by

life

numer-

The Holy Family ous


the
artists

15

his preaching, the Saviour, his martyrdom


r

Baptism of and every

to the gallery of old masters bears witness reverence they paid to the holy Baptist.

Around the memory of the Blessed Virgin many legends have been woven, and
her assumption and coronation are depicted

by mediaeval artists quite as frequently as the scenes of Gospel story. see her with her parents Joachim of Galilee and

We

Anna
her

or

A husband and the Holy Child. branch of palm given to her by the angel Michael from the ascended CHRIST to be borne before her bier, roses and lilies of
the valley, her girdle that she let down from heaven in order to convince the

Anne of Bethlehem,

with Joseph

unbelieving Thomas of her Assumption, some of her emblems. The Annunciation is one of the most frequent subjects represented in art, and the old masters loved to bestow upon the visit of the angel Gabriel to the mother of our LORD
are
their

highest

reverence

and

their

con-

Symbolism of the Saints


skill.

summate
attribute

White

lilies

are

Virgin, signifying purity; these flowers are sometimes called In most pictures annunciation lilies. these flowers are introduced, as in Andrea della Robbia's bas-relief, and in many
others.

of

the

the her

The

rose also

is

a symbol, as in

Benozzo Gozzoli in the National Gallery, in which roses and white lilies both appear. Rosa Caeli, and Santa Maria dilla Rosa are some of the
the painting of
titles

of the Virgin.
:

The snowdrop

is

also

sometimes used. The Golden Legend " There be some remarks people that

aske a questyon why there stondeth a wyne potte with lilies between our Lady and Gabriel the Angell at her salutacyon.

This
S.

is

the cause, for our

Lady conceyued

by feyth."
lilies,

Joseph has for his emblems a rod and and also a carpenter's plane, saw,

The first is in allusion to the legend of the way in which the Virgin found her husband. The story states that
and hatchet.

Plate

4.

Symbolism of the Saints

she had been in early life dedicated to GOD and lived with other virgins in the Temple. The High Priest ordered all of them who were of the proper age to be
married, but
Priest

Mary

refused.

The High

but was advised a voice from the Ark of the Covenant by that all the unmarried men of the House of David should bring their rods to the altar, and the destined bridegroom's rod would bud, and on it the Spirit of GOD would descend. Although Joseph at first withdrew his rod, deeming himself too old to marry, he was chosen by GOD, and his rod budded, and the Holy Dove descended on it. Hence the symbol. need not tell the curious story of the lives of the parents of the Virgin prior to

was

in perplexity,

We

her birth, their meeting at the golden gate of the Temple after their separation. This meeting is depicted in the Salisbury

Missal of 1534. S. Anne appears in works of art, teaching her child to many
read, offering fruit
to

the Infant JESUS,

The Holy Family


her chief

19

emblems being

a triple

crown
are

and

a book.

Associated with the

Holy Family

the Magi, whose visit to the Infant Saviour has been the favourite subject of inspired
artists,

and is recorded in altar-pieces, mural decorations, medals, and sculpture.

The Wise

Men

are

always

three

in

fulfilment of the prophecy, "


:

number, and are represented

as kings in

The Kings

of Tarshish and of the Isles shall bring the Kings of Sheba and Seba presents
shall offer gifts.

Yea,
:

all

down before Him." Tradition


and
a

Him

kings shall

fall

all

nations shall serve

assigns to

them names

The aged conventional aspect. has a long grey beard ; Melchior, Caspar a man in the prime of life, has a short beard, and Balthazar is a young beardless
man.

Sometimes the

last is

depicted as a

negro, symbolical of the race of

Ham.

The

gifts gold, frankincense, and myrrh according to the sequence of Hereford " Cathedral, mystically show that He to

2O

Symbolism of the Saints

they offered gold was King, to incense priest, by the myrrh is shown His burial. Let us offer to CHRIST

Whom Whom
in

deed what the kings offered in figure. Let us examine our minds, and there is Let us mortify our gold on the altar. so myrrh is offered to the offences, and of virtues belongs the mysterious grace best incense of Saboea."
;

The Apostles

21

CHAPTER

III

tfpostles

evolution of the symbols of the Apostles possess many features of see them represupreme interest. sented first as twelve lambs, with our LORD as a sheep in their midst, with Then they a nimbus about His head. as venerable men, very similar in appear

THE

We

appearance.

Legendary history tells of the origin of the Apostles' Creed, how they all met together and, inspired by the HOLY GHOST, each one uttered an article of the Creed. Early artists seized upon this idea, and represented each Apostle holding
in his

hand

a scroll,

on which was inscribed

the article he had uttered.

The

following

22
is

Symbolism of the Saints


the
list

of the Apostles with their in:

scribed scrolls
S. S.

Peter

"

believe in

GOD

John "And LORD."

in JESUS

the FATHER Almighty." CHRIST His only SON our

S.

S.

S.

S.
S.

S.

" Who was conceived James the Greater by the HOLY GHOST, born of the Virgin Mary." Andrew " Suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried." Philip" He descended into hell." Thomas " Rose again the third day." Bartholomew " Ascended into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of GOD the FATHER Almighty." Matthew " From thence He shall come to
again

S. S. S. S.

judge the quick and the dead." " I believe in the HOLY GHOST." James the Less Simon " I believe in the holy Catholic Church." " In the forgiveness of sins." Jude or Thaddeus " In the resurrection of the Matthias body, and
the
life

everlasting."

This

is

the usual order of the scrolls that

are attributed to each Apostle, but there are sundry variations which need not now

be particularized. In some varies.


mosaics Judas
is

Sometimes the number pictures, frescoes, and


not numbered with the

Plate

5.

Rubens]
S.

[Anderson, Photo.

PAUL.

(See pages 24 and 26.)

24

Symbolism of the Saints

Twelve, while in others we see S. Paul, S. Matthias, and S. Barnabas. The instruments of their martyrdom furnish additional

symbols.

S.

Andrew

carries

the

name, and X-shaped on which he was crucified. S. Bartholomew bears a knife, with which he was flayed alive. S. James the Less has a fuller's
cross that bears his
a

pole S. Jude, a knotted club hatchet ; S. Simon, a


;

Matthew, saw large


;

S.

S.

Thomas,

lance
a

S.

Philip, a
S.

long
;

staff or pillar,
S.

from which he was hanged


battle-axe
;

Matthias,
;

Paul,

sword

Judas

carries the

money-bag
;

that

caused his covetousness and fall S. John has a cup, from which issues a snake, to

which symbol we
S.

shall

allude later on.

Peter bears the keys, in allusion to the words of our LORD, and also has a cock at his side, a memorial of the denial of CHRIST. By this means did
the early artists distinguish the Apostles of our LORD, and we can trace the develop-

ment of

their artistic portraiture

from the

The Apostles
art

25

of the catacombs, the early mosaics at

Ravenna and Rome, to the wonderful conceptions of Andrea del Sarto, Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci, Paolo Veronese, and
other great artists of later times. will try to discover some further

We

details

of their symbols.

Foremost among

the Apostles was Simon, surnamed Peter, whose life stands out conspicuously in the

Gospels and the Acts, and who ever obeyed " Feed his LORD'S command, sheep." Church history tells of his labours at Antioch, of his foundation of the Church at Rome, and of his martyrdom under Nero, being crucified with his head downwards. Many stories are told of his life and miracles, and no Apostle appears more

My

All frequently in artistic representations. the great painters of old have portrayed the Prince of the Apostles. His principal

emblem

is a key in his hand, in allusion to the saying of the Saviour, " I will give

unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven." Sometimes two keys are given,

26

Symbolism of the Saints

combined with
a

a church, or a cross, or book. Guide's painting in the Pitti Palace shows the saint weeping, with a The rood-screen cock crowing near him.

him in chains in Raphael painted him as meeting prison. our Saviour on the Appian Way, a work which is now in the Vatican, where also is
at Blofield

represents

Giotto's painting of S. Peter crucified with

head downwards. Peter and S. Paul are often represented together. The symbol of S. Paul is a sword, the instrument of his death, and also a fit attribute of one who wielded so well the sword of the Spirit. Sometimes two swords are given as his A book is also used, and symbol. a serpent, in allusion to his miraculous escape from the bite of a snake at Melita. Again, the phoenix and palmtree are not unusual emblems, showing forth the teaching of the saint as regards the Resurrection. The catalogue of the and painters of scenes from the paintings
his
S.

Plate

6.

Rubens]
S.

[Anderson, Photo.

PETER.

(See pages 24-26.)

28
life

Symbolism of the Saints

of the great Apostle, and of S. Peter, is so often represented with him, and from the would take many pages earliest times to the present day great artists have striven to tell again and again the story of the devoted lives of these saints, to whose labours the Church of

who

CHRIST owes so much.

The
elder,

life
is

of

S.

told

in

James the Greater, or the Gospels, and

the
his

Acts of the Apostles., He was by order of the cruel Herod. one of the favoured three who were allowed to witness some of the secret and most sacred scenes in our LORD'S life.

martyrdom

in the

Spain claims him as its Apostle and its On account of his mission patron saint. to Spain he is often represented in art with the symbols of a pilgrim, with staff

and
the

shell

and

wallet, as

on many English

rood-screens.

body conveyed to Spain, where in the struggle with the Moors, he aided the Christians

Christian legend states that of the saint was miraculously

The Apostles

29

by appearing in battle and gaining for them the victory. Carreno de Miranda painted him riding on a white charger conquering the Saracens, and there are numerous other pictures of the saint in Molanus and others give military garb. him a sword as an emblem, that being The the instrument of his martyrdom. whole story of his life is told by Andrea Mantegna in some frescoes at Padua. No words are needed to describe the
intimate
relations

between

the

Saviour
loved,"

and " the

disciple as revealed in the

whom

JESUS

Gospel narrative.

Of

the three festivals, which follow the feast of the Saviour's birth, well does our great

English Church poet, John Keble, sing

"On

the King of Martyrs wait Three chosen bands, in royal state And all earth owns, of good and great,
;

Is

gathered in that choir."

S.
S.

John

Stephen, a martyr in will and deed a martyr in will, but not in deed

30
the

Symbolism of the Saints

Holy

not in
three

Innocents, martyrs in deed but the representatives of the S. John's kinds of martyrdom.
will, are

witnessing for CHRIST was life-long, until he died in peace at Ephesus at the advanced age of nearly 100 years. Tradition states that at Ephesus he wrote his Gospel and Epistles, and that he was sent to Rome by order of the Emperor Domitian, and outside the Latin Gate was scourged and thrown into a caldron of
at length

boiling

oil.

GOD
to

and he suffered no
then banished
Revelation.

preserved His servant, ill effects ; he was

Patmos
his

in

Sea, and there wrote

Book of

the -ZEgean the

Many

legends cluster round

the saint, the beloved disciple, which need not be recorded here. His usual emblem is the which is seldom absent. On eagle,

some English rood-screens he has a cup with a serpent issuing from it. This alludes to the attempted murder of the saint at Rome when he was ordered by Domitian to drink a cup containing

Plate

7.

Lorenzo Lotto]
S.

[Anderson, Photo.

JAMES.

(See page 28.)

32

Symbolism of the Saints

some attempt on the part of his enemies to poison him with sacraThe serpent that issued mental wine. from the cup is said to have died at his A palm, a scroll, and an eagle are feet. his symbols in the statue of the saint at Exeter Cathedral. Perugino painted him with an eagle hovering above his head, and Raphael depicted him mounted on an Lucas V. Leyden painted the saint eagle. writing the Apocalypse in the Isle of Patmos, to which scene is added in a MS. Book of Hours the devil upsetting his ink-bottle. In the National Gallery there is a painting of the saint depicted as an old man attired in Mass vestments lifted to heaven by the Saviour out of his grave at the foot of the altar at Ephesus. There are countless pictures of the
poison, or to

Apostle. SS. Philip and James, without any particular reason, are commemorated on the

same day,
in
art.

May

ist,

and appear together


tell

The Gospels

their

story.

The Apostles

33

state that S. Philip the sacred truth in Phrygia and preached Galatia, and that he was crucified at

Church

traditions

Hierapolis

Mars.

He

by the priests of the god had incurred their wrath by

in the Name of the LORD a which they worshipped to leave serpent

commanding

The evil beast could not withstand the power of the uplifted cross, and withdrew itself from the temple. The enraged priests seized the Apostle, and crucified him with his head downwards. The legend of the serpent is depicted in the Church of S. Maria Novella, at Florence, by Lippi, together with other
their idol temple.

scenes from the saint's life, and also in the Die Attribute. When CHRIST fed the

famished

" Whence

multitude,
shall

He

bread, or two or three loaves, are symbols of the On several English rood-screens saint. he is so represented. The instrument

may

eat

"
?

we buy Hence a basket with

Philip, bread that these

said

to

of his martyrdom

is

also

his

symbol, a D

34

Symbolism of the Saints


cross as in

T-shaped

the glass

window

of Fairford Church, the coins of Brabant, and the paintings of Pietro Perugino and Mathias Grttnewald. His crucifixion with his head downwards is shown on the bronze gates of S. Paul's, at Rome, and in the Church of S. Maria, in Trastevere. Albert Durer gives as his symbols a cross and a book, and in Le Tableaux de la Croix F. Magot, 1651) he has a cross in (Paris
:

hand and money in his right. James the Less has often led artists to depict them together.
his
left

His

association with S.

been

Modern authorities state that there much confusion between James


or
the

has
the

Less, younger, and James the LORD'S brother. According to the older interpretations S. James the Less, who is commemorated with S. Philip, was the of Jerusalem, and the writer of the Bishop Epistle, and with that we may here content ourselves.
in

The Book of the Acts of the Apostles describes the Great Council
Jerusalem over which he presided.

He

Plate

8.

Rubens]
S.

Anderson, Photo.

PHILIP.

(Seepages 32-34.)

36

Symbolism of the Saints

was beloved by the Jews, but was martyred of Nero. He was flung from the wall of the city, stoned and beaten by
in the reign

the populace, until at length a fuller with


a club

ended

his tortures.

club

is

the usual
fonts.
is

Thus a fuller's emblem of the saint, and


rood-screens and
S.

appears on

many English

some James

For the same reason

We will refer to S. Matthew and his emblems in the chapter on the Evangelists. SS. Simon and Jude, after the dispersion, are said to have worked together in
afterwards at Babylon, Palestine, and S. Simon where they were martyred. was sawn in two, and S. Jude crucified.
S.

always esteemed as the patron Scenes from his life are saint of fullers. in the frescoes of the Chapel of depicted SS. James and Christopher in the Church of the Eremitani, at Padua.

Simon's emblems are a saw, a

fuller's

bat, a fish in his

hand or on the leaves of

a book, two fishes, or an oar. S. Jude has for his symbols a boat, a child with

The Apostles
a boat, a

37

fuller's

boathook, a carpenter's square, bat, a ship with sails, a club,

halbert,

ford

and inverted cross. In the Fairwindows he is shown carrying loaves


first-called
is

and
S.

a fish.

The

Apostle of our LORD,

mentioned in the see him as a fisherman on Gospels. the Sea of Galilee, and called to be a fisher

Andrew,

often

We

of men.

He

preached in Scythia, Cappa-

is the patron docia, and Bithynia. saint of Russia, and is said to have founded

He

a church at Constantinople died at Patras. The cross

suffered
letter
it

was shaped
in

in

and to have on which he the form of the

X, although

some representations

V-shaped, as on the bronze gate at Church, Rome. He hailed the cross with the words, " All hail, cross, which art consecrated by the Body of JESUS CHRIST, and wert adorned with His
is

S. Paul's

members

as with pearls. hence and restore me to

Take me

my

Master."

His usual emblem

is

the cross saltire,

38

Symbolism of the Saints

which he leans upon, or holds in his hand. Thus he appears on several English roodscreens. Sometimes a fish-hook is used
as

painting of martyrdom (Madrid Gallery) is considered his masterpiece, and scenes from S. Andrew's life appear in the Sistine Chapel, and in the church of the
his

symbol.

Murillo's

the saint's

saint at

Rome.
Bartholomew
little
is is

Of
in

S.

recorded

supposed to be identical with Nathanael, and after the dispersion of the Apostles he preached the

the Gospels.

He

word in India, Phrygia, and Armenia, where he suffered martyrdom, being flayed alive and crucified. On several English rood-screens he is shown with a flayingknife in his hand, which also is his emblem in the Delamere brass at St. Albans. A knife and a book are often given as the symbols of the saint, and there is a painting at N6tre Dame, Paris, showing the saint He is healing a princess of Armenia. sometimes represented bearing his skin

Plate 9.

Rubens]
S.

[Anderson, Photo.

BARTHOLOMEW.

(See pages 24 and 38.

40
on
his

Symbolism of the Saints

arm, and he appears in several of saints, as in the marriage of groups S. Catherine by Fra Bartolommeo.

Of the "doubting" Apostle, S.Thomas, Church history tells that he preached the Faith in India and the Eastern lands. Many legends cluster around his memory, of his wondrous preaching and when the
;

Portuguese missionaries first visited India they found many Christians who were

deemed

to

whom
coast

S.

Thomas converted.

be the descendants of those It is believed

was martyred at Meliapur, on the of Coromandel, being slain with Some traditions point to Edessa spears. as the place of his martyrdom. His usual emblem is a spear or lance, as shown on
that he

English rood-screens. Raphael him with a carpenter's square as his symbol, and he is the patron saint of This is in allusion architects and builders. to the legend that he was sent by CHRIST to Gondoforus, King of the Indies, to build a palace, which that king required.
several

depicted

The Apostles

41

It was no earthly palace that S. Thomas would build, but " a house not framed by

hands eternal in the heavens." The money which the king gave him for building he gave to the poor, and for his pains was A dying brother revealed cast into prison. to the king the nature of the palace which the saint was destined to build, and the king was converted to Christianity and
assisted

the

saint to build

the

spiritual

house, the Church of CHRIST, in the realm of the Indies.

The

scene in the upper chamber,

when

the Saviour convinced the doubting Apostle of His Resurrection, has often been depicted by the great masters,

Angelo Gaddi,

Signorelli, Luini, Rubens, and others. Raphael painted the saint receiving a girdle from the Blessed Virgin at her Assumption,

Luca

and Fra Bartolomeo, Molanus, Sodoma, and others have also depicted the legend, which tells that S. Thomas, being absent when the Virgin died, showed the same unbelief which he had manifested with

42
regard

Symbolism of the Saints


to

the

Saviour.

So the Virgin

appeared to him in glory, and presented This girdle is one of to him her girdle.
the

emblems of

the saint.

was elected
Apostles.

Scripture tells how S. Matthias in the place of the traitor to the number of the twelve complete

Holy

Dorotheus

writes

that

he

preached the Gospel in Ethiopia, about the haven called Hyssus and the river
Phasis, unto barbarous natives and ravenous of flesh, and that he died at Sebastopolis, where he was buried nigh the temple of Sol. Others state that he preached first

Macedonia, and afterwards in Judaea, where the Jews stoned him and afterwards beheaded him with an axe, after the Roman manner. Hence a battle-axe, sometimes a sword or hatchet, appear as symbols of Other supposed instruments the saint. of his death sometimes are shown, such as
in

a cross, a spear, or a club

the artists not


the

fully acquainted with traditional story of his martyrdom.

having

been

The

Plate 10.

44

Symbolism of the Saints


in

used by woodmilitary weapon, seems to more correct symbol. Hence have chosen S. Matthias as carpenters
axe, either

the form

men, or be the

the

their patron.

The Four Evangelists

45

CHAPTER

IV

Jour Evangelists

THE symbols many and


representations

of the Evangelists are


In the
earliest

varied.
find

we

no

attempted

portraiture of SS. Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, save of the first and last as they

appear

among
them

the Apostles.

The Evan-

gelists are only depicted by scrolls that bear their names. Then a pleasing fancy

exhibited

as

four

from the
that

Lamb and

streams issuing watering the thirsty

hearts of the nations.

They

are the rivers

watered

Paradise

Pison,

Hiddekel,
the

and

Euphrates

and

Gihon, turned

the barren earth into a

new Paradise by message of the Gospel which they But the usual emblems of proclaimed.

46
the

Symbolism of the Saints

Evangelists
:

are

the

four

symbolic

creatures

the angel, lion, ox, and eagle, derived from the record of the vision of

the prophet Ezekiel. Bishop Wordsworth wrote thus of these mystical symbols " The Christian Church, looking at the of the four Gospels, and the attriorigin butes which GOD has in rich measure been pleased to bestow upon them by His HOLY SPIRIT, found a prophetic picture
:

of them

in

the

four

living

cherubim,
seen

named from heavenly knowledge,

by the prophet Ezekiel at the river of Chebar. Like them the Gospels are four in number like them they are the chariot of GOD Who sitteth between the cherubim like them they bear Him on a winged throne into all lands like them they move wherever the Spirit guides them like them they are marvellously joined
; ;
;

with coincidences differences, wing interwoven with wing, and wheel interwoven with wheel ;
together,

intertwined

and

Plate

n,

Rubens
S.

Anderson, Photo

MATTHEW.

(See pages 24 and 50-52.)

48
like

Symbolism of the Saints

them they

them they from heaven to earth, and from sweep earth to heaven, and fly with lightning speed and with the noise of many waters."
with

are full of eyes, heavenly light ; like

and sparkle

unnecessary to inquire as to the of these mysterious figures, but the origin prophet seems to imply that they were similar to the weird forms of Assyrian sculpture which he had seen when he was a captive by the river Chebar. see them again in the Apocalyptic Vision of S. John the Divine at Patmos, recorded in the Book of the Revelation. A lion,
It
is

We

a calf, a creature whose face and a flying eagle are the which are therein recorded.

was human,
descriptions From these

visions the symbols of the Evangelists are doubtless derived.

The application of each to one of the writers of the Gospels is beset with difficulty, and various reasons are assigned for the interpretation of the meaning of

the symbol.

The

angel with a man's face

The Four Evangelists

49

denotes S. Matthew because he chiefly dwells in his Gospel on the human nature of our LORD. The lion of S. Mark
the fact that that Evangelist proclaims very distinctly the royal dignity of CHRIST, the lion being the king of
testifies

to

symbol of the ResurMark dwells most rection, on the rising again of our LORD, fully
beasts.
It is also

and

as

S.

for

this

reason

the

emblem may have


Legendary natural

been assigned to him.


history states
that

young lions are born but when their sire breathes on them dead, on the third day after their birth, they come to life. Hence the association of the king of the forest with the Resurrection. The ox or calf was used in Jewish
sacrifices,

and

this

to S.

Luke

as he

symbol was assigned dwells particularly on


Priesthood. and can

the sacrificial aspect of our LORD'S Atone-

ment, and

on

His Divine
at the

The

eagle

soars
a

heavenwards
fitting

gaze unflinchingly
day, and
is

emblem

glowing orb of of the

50

Symbolism of the Saints

Evangelist

and

Apostle

S.

John,

who

bears us as on eagles' wings to behold the majesty and divine nature of CHRIST,

he know the Incarnate Word revealed to men, and to comprehend the higher and sacramental teaching of Him is the Word and Wisdom of GOD.
to

Whom

Who
these

Other meanings have been assigned

to

mysterious figures, such as the Incarnation, the Death, Resurrection, and Ascension of CHRIST, or the nature and offices of the Saviour, the Man, the King,
Priest,

and GOD. But these are later developments and interpretations of the
mysterious figures.
S.

As the writer of the first Gospel Matthew is constantly represented in

angel holding an ink-horn or On many a constant emblem. English rood-screens he appears holding a money-bag or a square money-box, in allusion to his office of tax-gatherer. After the dispersion of the Apostles he preached the Gospel in Egypt and
art.

An

inkstand

is

Plate

12.

Donatello]
S.

[Alinari, Photo.

MARK.

(See^pages'49 and 52.)

52
opia,

Symbolism of the Saints

and

is

said

halbert, or being which also are his emblems. battle-axe, A tall cross of wood is given on his

martyred,

slain

by some by

to have
a

been

symbol

in

the Fairford windows, and a

T,

probably
is

meant
one of

for
his

carpenter's

emblems. He square, is sometimes shown leaning on a short " From whence He shall come sword. to judge the quick and the dead," is the portion of the Apostles' Creed said to have been contributed by S. Matthew, and this is sometimes depicted on a scroll, or engraved on a banner. The calling of
also
S.

Matthew

is

a very favourite

subject,

and was painted by Pordenone (Dresden Gallery), Ludivico Caracci, and many other masters, and the feast at his house
has
the

been equally celebrated,

notably in

immense painting by Paolo Veronese


the

in the

Academy at Venice. Holy Scripture tells of John Mark,

son of Mary, and sister's son of Barnabas. In his mother's house the infant Church

The Four Evangelists


at

53

see him Jerusalem was nurtured. of S. Peter, who the constant companion inspired his Gospel, and sent him to Alexandria, where he founded the bishopric, and suffered martyrdom at the hands of the priests of Serapis, who dragged him by a rope to Bucolia until he died, the As rocks being stained with his blood. four Evangelists he stands one of the

We

conspicuous

in

artistic

The

lion

is

his usual

emblem,

representations. for reasons

which we

have
this

already
scroll,

emblems of
Pax
are
tibi^

given. Evangelist are

Other
a

ink-horn, and a
said

pen, with the words,

Marce, Evangelista Meus, which to have been spoken by our


the martyr
in

LORD

to

his

prison.

It

would be

record here a impossible tithe of the representations of the saint.


to to Venice in 8 1 5 and placed in the Cathedral of S. A.D., Mark, which was then rising and there
;

His body was conveyed

we

see

numerous

artistic

presentments of

the saint in mosaic, sculpture and painting,

54

Symbolism of the Saints

and the early coinage of Venice preserves his memory. The story of his martyrdom is told on the old bronze gates of a church at Rome, and in many other works of art, and many legends of his life are commemorated. Genius has offered an unfading garland
Evangelist S. Luke, beloved and faithful companion of < S. Paul, the beloved physician," and skilful artist, the patron saint of artists and doctors. Some used to tell how the
the
saint received the
at

the feet of the

Gospel from the Virgin,


Several works
in existence.

whose

portrait he painted.

attributed to

him are

Many

painters have represented him taking the This portrait and portrait of the Virgin.

the ox are his chief emblems, in addition


to painting materials, a

book and
as

beloved Tradition states that he was physician." one of the two disciples who met our

Molanus shows him

" the

a pen.

LORD on

the way to Emmaus and Titian, Rembrandt, and other masters have painted
;

Plate 13.

56

Symbolism of the Saints

him meeting our LORD, or recognizing


the Saviour at supper.

The emblems of

S.

John the Evan-

gelist have already been enumerated in the account of S. John, the " beloved disciple," the Apostle of our LORD.

Some

Saints of the First Century

57

CHAPTER V
Some
Saints of the Jirst (Sentury

Art loves to dwell on the \^ memories of those who were near and dear to the Saviour, and we will now think of those saints who lived in the time of our LORD or immediately succeeded Him. Foremost among the friends of JESUS were the family at Bethany, Martha, Mary, and Lazarus. Art has always recognized that S. Mary of Bethany was identical with S. Mary Magdalene, the penitent who washed the feet of the Saviour with her tears and wiped them with the hairs of her head.
Painters, in accordance with the ancient belief of the Church, have loved to depict

/CHRISTIAN

her with long, flowing, golden hair, kneeling at the feet of JESUS, and in the final

58
scenes

Symbolism of the Saints

of our LORD'S
;

life

she

is

ever

and all the greatest painters present Corregio, Fra Bartolommeo, Andrea del Sarto, Perugino, and countless others have represented her in attendance upon
the Saviour.

Another group of pictures represents Mary, Martha, Lazarus, with S. Maximian, in a boat without oars, and their arrival at Marseilles, where Lazarus became bishop, and S. Maximian Bishop of Aix. There S. Martha vanquished a dragon with holy water and the power of the Cross, and led it captive with her girdle, until it was slain by the people. She gained many converts to the Faith by her preaching, and she is said to have raised a drowned man to life. The episode
the expulsion of

of the dragon appears in many pictures, and Annibale Caracci gave as her emblem a holy water -vessel and asperges with a

Her attention to her dragon at her feet. household duties is signified by a ladle and keys at her girdle. While Martha was

Plate 14.

Fra Angelico]
S.

[Brogi, Photo.

MARY AND

S.

MARTHA.

(See pages 57 and 58.)

60

Symbolism of the Saints

preaching at Aix Mary retired to a cave and spent her days in meditation and communion with her LORD. There is a story of her preaching to King Rene of Marseilles, and of the birth of his son, of his journey to Palestine, the death and resurrection of his wife, and the saving of his boy. At the Musee de Cluny S. Mary

shown preaching to the king. Very numerous are her emblems. A box of ointment in her hand is the most frequent, as shown in many English rood-screens.
is

Instead of the casket sometimes she holds

On a vase, as in the painting of Caracci. the Denton church chest she appears holding a boat and an open book, in allusion
to her journey across the sea. Her last of meditative life are depicted by years

many

artists.

Guido

holding

crucifix

with

Reni shows her an open book

before her with a skull

upon it. Murillo's famous painting shows her with a skull.


In the baptistery at Florence she appears standing covered with her flowing hair.

Some Saints of
It is

the First Century

impossible to refer to a tithe of the paintings which record her symbols and commemorate her life.

Lazarus
it is

is

clad in episcopal robes,

though

doubtful that he ever became Bishop

of Marseilles. His symbol is a bier, in token of his being raised from the grave sometimes he appears by our LORD
;

wrapped
boat

in grave-clothes, for his emblem in

and

also has a

He is said to have been marvoyage. tyred at Marseilles. You can always see in pictures of the Passion a woman holding a veil or handkerchief. This symbol denotes S. Veronica, who, according to the beautiful legend, beholding the Saviour on His road to Calvary, struck with compassion for His sufferings, wiped His bleeding brow with the veil or napkin that was on her head, and received it back with the miraculous impress of the Some have said that she Saviour's face. was the woman whom He healed of the issue of blood. Many legends have clus-

memory

of his

62

Symbolism of the Saints

tered around her name, but these we cannot record now. The veil is still at the Vatican. Another figure that is always seen in the

Descent from the Cross is that of Joseph of Arimathaea. He was exiled with the of Bethany, and we should like to family believe the early legend that he wandered through Gaul to Britain and founded our first Christian church at Glastonbury. His staff rooted itself and blossomed pilgrim's into the Holy Thorn, and he brought with

him the spear that pierced the Saviour's side and the cup used at the Last Supper.
This cup and his staff are his symbols, the former becoming known as the Sangreal, which forms a striking feature of the Arthurian legends. " the son of S. Barnabas, consolation," the beloved companion of S. Paul in his missionary journeys, was martyred at

The fact that the people of Cyprus. Lystra deemed him to be an incarnate Jupiter seems to prove that he was of a noble and commanding appearance.

Plate 15.

[Anderson, Photo.
S.

STEPHEN.

(See page 29.)

Plate

6.

Signorelli]

[Hanfstaengl, Photo.

S.

MARY MAGDALENE.

(See page 57.)

Some Saints of

the First Century

65

He was either stoned or burnt to death. When his body was discovered, the Gospel
according to S. Matthew, copied by his own hand, was found lying on his breast.

This Gospel often appears as his symbol, by Bonifazio, and also the instruments of his death stone, or flames and a stake. A statue at Exeter Cathedral shows him with an open book and a staff as his symbols. Associated with the above saints is S. Timothy, who was slain by the priests of Diana at Ephesus. They stoned him and beat him with clubs. These instruments have been chosen as his symbols. Stones also are the attributes of the protoas in the painting

martyr

S.

picted as a
a

Stephen, who is usually deyoung deacon in his dalmatic,

and holding stones

in his robe, or in He usually or in his hand. napkin, His body was bears a martyr's palm.

ultimately
in the

removed to Rome and buried Church of San Lorenzo, in the same


S.

tomb with

Laurence.

Hence

in art the

66

Symbolism of the Saints

two martyrs are often coupled together, though they lived two centuries apart.

The memory of the heroic S. who was also a deacon, is

Laurence, venerated

throughout Christendom. When the treasures of the Church were demanded of him, he told the prefect that he would produce them in three days, and on the third day presented a company of poor These are the treasures people, and said, of the Church of CHRIST." The prefect ordered him to be roasted to death on an He iron frame resembling a gridiron.
C

bore his sufferings with amazing fortitude, and even taunted his persecutors with the " One side is roasted turn me words, and eat," and then thanked GOD that he had been allowed to suffer for Him. There are countless representations of His most familiar emblem is the him. gridiron, as in the painting of Gaudentio
;

he

Ferrari and on English rood-screens, and is attired as a deacon. In the National

Gallery there

is

painting of S. Laurence,

Some Saints of

the First Century

67

who

bears a palm and crucifix. Sometimes he has a bag in his hand and is distributing money to the poor, as in the painting of Fra Angelico, who also painted

scenes
at

Vatican.

which are in the S. Laurence Norwich we see him extended on the


his
life

from

In the Church of

gridiron.

the Paul, often appears in art. Legend tells that he was banished to the marble quarries of Cherson in the Crimea, and there drowned in the sea with
I,

S. Clement companion of

Pope and Martyr,

S.

an anchor tied to his neck, by order of the Emperor Trajan. He appears on many English rood-screens and ancient frescoes. His usual symbol is an anchor in his hand or at his feet, and he wears a mitre or tiara and bears a triple crown. Callot him floating, with an anchor represents
tied to his neck.

68

Symbolism of the Saints

CHAPTER

VI

Jlnimah as Symbols
forms are frequently used as \- symbols of saints. have already It also alluded to the lion of S. Mark. as the symbol of S. Jerome, with appears

A NIMAL

We

it is constantly associated. He was the most learned of the Latin Fathers, the translator of the Bible into the Latin

whom

tongue, the pupil of S. Gregory Nazianzen, His and secretary of Pope Damarus. connection with the lion is founded on the well-known story of his extracting a thorn from a lion's foot, as depicted by Antonio da Fiore, Cosimo Roselli, and

The grateful beast is by his artists. side in the paintings of Pietro Perugino, Domenichino, Filippino Lippi, and others.
other

Animals as Symbols

69

his

In our English rood-screens the lion is at feet, and his other emblems are an In ink-horn, scroll, cross, and staff.

and others painted him with

allusion to his self-mortification, Raphael a stone in his

hand, or beating his breast with a stone, or kneeling on thorns, or wearing a garment woven with thorns. Legend states

eloquence and by saw a vision, and was reproved by the words which he This story forms beheld, Ciceronianus es. the subject of a picture by Domenichino. Other saints are associated with the lion. S. Prisca, whose name remains among the black-letter saints of the English Church
that, being elated by his his skill in writing, he

Calendar,

who

died for the Faith at the

early age of thirteen years in 268 A.D., during the Diocletian persecution, has this animal for her symbol. This is in allusion to the story of her martyrdom. After beaten with rods she was thrown to being the wild beasts but a lion crouched like a lamb at her feet, and drove away all who
;

70

Symbolism of the Saints


her.

would harm
beheaded.
eagle,

She was

ultimately

emblems are an her remains from other defending


other

Her

beasts of prey,
S.

and a sword, the instruthe

ment of her martyrdom.


Theckla,

devoted

Paul, has, among many the head of a lion at her feet


S.

S.

disciple of other symbols,


;

and

also

Adrian, captain of the guards of the Emperor Galerius, and his brave wife
S.

Natalia, who were martyred A.D. 300, have the same emblem.
S.

Gerasimus, a fifth-century hermit, has He a bucket of water. His over animals. acquired great power ass fetched water from a distance for him
a lion carrying

He healed a lion whose eye every day. had been injured by a splinter of wood,
and made him lead the ass to pasture and to fetch water. One day the ass was stolen, and the lion, being suspected of having devoured it, was condemned
to carry water in its stead.

Hence

the

symbol.

Plate 17.

Rubens]
S.

[Brogi, Photo.

IGNATIUS.

(See page 73.)

Animals as Symbols

73

S. Ignatius, slain by lions in the amphitheatre at Rome, by order of the Emperor

Trajan, in 107 A.D., has that animal for his emblem. As they tore his body the name JESUS was discovered engraven on his heart. Legend tells that he was the little child

JESUS took in His arms when He " Of such is the kingdom of heaven ; said, and the celestial strains of angelic harps sounded in his ears and taught him the music of heaven. Besides the lion, the sacred monogram and the harp are his The king of beasts dug the symbols.

whom

"

grave of
story the

S. Mary of Egypt, whose strange we have no space to tell, and caused

martyrdom
stag

of

SS.

Silvanus
in

and

Agapetus.

The
Art.

often

appears

Christian

Following the teaching of the verse in the Psalms, " Like as the hart desireth
the water-brooks," it holy aspirations, or an
is

taken to signify

emblem of solitude

and purity of life. It is the symbol of SS. Hubert and Eustache or Eustace.

74

Symbolism of the Saints

They both saw a stag with a cross between its^ antlers. Hubert is distinguished from
Eustace by being dressed as a huntsman with his horn, or by wearing episcopal robes, while the latter is attired as a Roman soldier. He was Bishop of Maestricht in the eighth century.

Eustache was

the master of the horse of the

Emperor
as

Trajan, and was originally known Placidus. The stag he saw spake

to

why do you pursue CHRIST, Whom you ignorantly worship your alms have ascended to Me, and for this reason I am come to you." need not follow his adventurous life or witness his martyrdom, with that of his wife and two sons, who were roasted to death inside a brazen bull. S. Aidan, Bishop of Lindisfarne, has for
him,
Placidus,

"

O
;

me

am

We

his

emblem

a stag crouching at his feet,

torch, symbol of the of truth which he shed on the light He gave northern regions of England. to a priest journeying by sea a phial of
also a lighted

and

Animals as Symbols
oil,

75

lives

which calmed a storm and saved the of those in the ship, and by his

prayer extinguished the flames that Penda

had lighted at Bamborough. These incidents are represented in pictures of the


saint.

The cow
SS. Perpetua
this

is

shown

as the attribute of

Felicitas, who were tossed animal in the amphitheatre when by they were martyred. The former has also the attribute of a ladder, which she saw in a vision, guarded by a dragon and set with unicorn sharp knives and cruel hooks. is the emblem of S. Justina of Antioch, though it has also by an error been conferred on her namesake of Padua, who perished in the persecution of Nero.

and

The
of
S.

as attributes

horse, bear, ass, dog, and pig appear of saints. pig is the emblem

well

whose story is known. He was tempted by demons in the form of lions, bears, leopards, bulls, scorpions, and wolves, and lived in a
Anthony, the hermit,
deserted fort across the Nile, the abode

76
of

Symbolism of the Saints


reptiles,

which fled at his approach. accounts state that he was originally a swineherd, hence his emblem ; but he was the son of rich and noble parents, and when he relinquished his wealth he pos-

Some

sibly fed pigs.

This symbol

is

shown

in

Pisano's picture in the National Gallery,

and

in

Westminster Abbey he appears

as

a bearded figure in frock and scapular, with a pig at his side. Sometimes he has
to have form, him. tempted Let us glance at the symbol of another S. Anthony S. Anthony of Padua born at Lisbon in 1195, who entered the Order of S. Francis, travelling far, preaching the
is

a goat with him, a disguised in that

symbol of

evil, as Satan,

said

Word

in

many

he loved animals, and


to the fishes,

Like S. Francis, Rimini preached some of which are said to


lands.
at

have emitted sounds, others opened their mouths, and all inclined their heads. Many artists have loved to depict the Velassaint, and to record this incident.

Animals as Symbols

77

quez painted him holding a net over a bowl of water, and a boy standing by with fish on a Murillo shows him with plate.
a

book in his left hand, a crucifix in his right, and the holy Infant JESUS standing near and in another picture represents him kneeling, with a bowl and a cross. Raphael gives him a lily as his emblem,
;

and

in

the chapel

of the Eremitani at

Padua he is shown with a lily and a book. At Padua there is a bas-relief showing an
ass kneeling to the saint,

who

is

holding
Italian in

the

Blessed

Sacrament.

Several

the represent In Franciscan habit without any symbol. the Vatican he is depicted with a flame of
painters
fire

him

dressed

in

his

hand

Pesillino

shows him

finding a miser's heart in a money-chest ; and Garofalo, in his painting of S. Cecilia

playing on an organ, shows the Virgin and


listening to her. is the symbol of S. Polythe dove that rose from the ashes of carp, the saintly Bishop of Smyrna after his
S.

Anthony

white dove

78

Symbolism of the Saints

martyrdom, and soared heavenwards, the odour of .frankincense having come from the saint's body, and his blood having
quenched the flames.

Some English Saints

79

CHAPTER
Some

VII

Snglisft Saints

without some noble representaof the English nation is the catalogue of saints complete, and many bright examples of living faith and patient witnessing for CHRIST have shone forth Foremost amongst these in our island. stands S. Alban, the protomartyr of Britain,

NOT

tives

whose memory

is

preserved by the stately

Abbey Church, now the Cathedral of St. His life-story is too well known Albans. be here chronicled, how he rescued and to
sheltered
to
S.

Amphibalus and was con-

verted by him to the Faith.


sacrifice

On
deities

refusing

he was pagan ordered to be scourged and then beheaded. On his way to execution the crowd throngto

the

8o

Symbolism of the Saints

ing the bridge S. Alban dried up the river Ver, and in order to assuage his thirst a fountain sprang up near him. Bede states that the executioner was suddenly converted to Christianity and craved to die with him. Some legends state that the eyes of the executioner dropped out of their sockets when he was ordered to slay the saint, whose fate he shared. This is shown in an illuminated manuscript of Matthew of Paris, at the British Museum,
in a painting at St. Albans Abbey, and on In the brass the seal of Binham Priory.

of Abbot Delamere at the Abbey there is representation of the saint with a tall This cross, a clerical cap, and a sword. of his martyrdom, is last, the instrument his usual emblem, sometimes with a palm and crucifix, as at the Church of S. Mary, In the BeauSchnurgrasse, Cologne.
a

champ Chapel at Warwick there is a glass window containing a figure of the saint in
armour, wearing a robe and coronet with He is also a sceptre and Calvary cross.

Some English Saints


depicted

spreading

his

shining upon him.

His

cloak, the sun best memorial is

the beautiful Abbey Church, originally founded by King OfFa, in A.D. 793, near the scene of his martyrdom. S. Aldhelm, Bishop and Confessor, second Abbot of Malmesbury and first Bishop of Sherborne, was the light of the Church of England atthe end of the seventh Learned in Greek and Hebrew, century. he bestowed lustre on the Church by his attainments. He was the foremost churchbuilder of his age. The little church at Bradford-on-Avon still stands as his

memorial.
gentle

Music

also

owned him

as a

There is a bronze promoter. figure of the saint on the Digby monument in the church at Sherborne. He
is

represented in episcopal dress playing


a harp.
S.

on

Frideswide,

the

patron

saint

of

Oxford Cathedral, formerly the Priory of


S.

Frideswide, lived in the eighth century.


father

Her

Didan

built a

convent for her,

82

Symbolism of the Saints

but Algar, Prince of Mercia, wished to marry her, and swore that he would carry her off. She fled for refuge. When she returned to Oxford she was gallantly defended by the men of the town against Algar, who was struck blind, but his sight was restored at the prayer of the saint.
Incidents in her life are represented in the beautiful stained glass window in the Latin Chapel of the Cathedral, designed

by Sir Edward Burne-Jones. Her attributes are a crown and sceptre of curious pattern with heavy foliage, and sometimes she has an ox by her side. Some carved bosses and corbels in Lichfield Cathedral record the life of S.

He is bishop of that see. in episcopal robes with his represented


Chad,
first

pastoral
S.

staff.

Richard of Chichester in early life worked on his brother's farm as a labourer.


Callot depicts him ploughing. lived the stormy reign of Henry III, during when the revenues of his see were pur-

He

Some English Saints

83

loined by the king's ministers. chalice is his emblem, sometimes placed at his or before the kneeling saint. feet,
history tells no sweeter than that of the life of the saintly story Anselm. It has been often told from the time of the Saxon Eadmer to that of
Ecclesiastical

Dean Church. He is represented in art with the Blessed Virgin and the Infant JESUS appearing to him, sometimes holding the model of a ship, and Callot depicts him exorcising an evil spirit from
monk. S. Dunstan was the most powerful and conspicuous character in the Church and
a

State of

England
as

in

Whether
left

monk

of

the tenth century. Glastonbury or

primate he fearlessly did his duty and an imperishable memory. Many There legends cluster around his name. is a figure of him in the Bodleian Library
at

Oxford, representing the saint seizing the devil with pincers. Once his harp

hanging on a wall poured forth

celestial

84

Symbolism of the Saints


in

melody. A harp is his symbol, and one picture a dove is whispering at


ear.
S.

his

Wilfrid

is

represented
is

baptizing

pagans.
S.

Edward

the Confessor

shown on

several

English holding a and a ring, and sometimes a purse sceptre hangs from his right arm. S. John of Beverley has his shrine at
his side.

rood-screens

The Venerable Bede

holds a pitcher with

lights from heaven shining upon him. S. Hugh of Lincoln has many symbols. Van Assen in his painting in the Munich Gallery shows him with a swan at his feet. Callot represents his dream of the seven stars, which also appears in the sculpture of S. Mary's spire, Oxford. A mitre,

three flowers in his hand, a lantern, an angel protecting him from lightning, are
his other
S.

emblems.
the East Saxons, captured by the Danes, bound

Edmund, King of

who was

Some English Saints


to a tree

85

and shot with arrows, has for his symbol an arrow, which he bears in his hand or offers to heaven. It is sometimes

On conjoined with a sceptre or a globe. the Colney font he is shown bound to a tree and shot with arrows. Callot reprea wolf guarding his body, and Burgmaier painted a bear seated before

sents

him. of Canterbury, the martyred depicted in countless mural On paintings and other works of art. our English rood-screens he usually appears with a crozier which has a battleaxe head, and he bears an archiepiscopal cross, or a sword in his hand or in his head, or he wears a mitre. Burgmaier
S.

Thomas
is

prelate,

represents him wearing his pallium and washing the feet of a leper.
S. Wulstan, of Worcester, was the last of the English bishops who retained his see under the rule of William the Conqueror. Legend tells of the endeavour of the Norman prelates to deprive him of

Plate 19.

Some English Saints

87

his bishopric, and how the marble tomb of the Confessor refused to yield back the episcopal staff to any other hand than his. One of the bishops holding the head of the monument of King John in his

cathedral
stan
S.

is

believed to represent S.
S.

Wuldied

and the other

Oswald.

Cuthbert, of Lindisfarne,

who

A.D. 687,

saw angels bearing the soul of

S. Aidan to heaven. With him is connected the legend of the Dun Cow, and the remains of his shrine, his coffin, robes, maniple, and pastoral cross may still be seen at Durham. S. Alphege, Archbishop of Canterbury, was martyred by the Danes in 1012. S. Boniface, the Apostle of the Germans, martyred by the Frisians in 755, an Englishman, has many emblems. On the coins of the Abbey of Fulda he appears In the with a book pierced by a sword. church at Munich he is shown felling Thor's oak, and in an old engraving an axe is laid at the root of the oak, and an

88
angel
is

Symbolism of the Saints

hand giving

A bringing to the saint a fish. to him a cross, a scourge, the saint beaten to death with a club, a sword

upon a book, and the saint striking the ground with his archiepiscopal cross, causing water to spring up, are some of
the symbols of the brave S. Boniface.
S.

Columba's

life

needs no description.

His famous monastery of lona was the


centre of light in the northern land, and from it shone forth a radiance which conS. verted northern England to CHRIST. Columba was kind and loving to all, and, like S. Francis, he was devoted to birds and beasts. He subdued the fierceness of the wild beasts, and the no less wild tribes of Scotland hence he is represented in the Icones Sanctorum as taming a wild beast, and kneeling among wolves. see the saint in a bear's den with a fountain near him, the well of life, from which he drank freely himself, and watered the thirsty hearts of the nations. Sunbeams shining over his head tell of
;

We

Some English Saints


the light shed upon

89
reflected

him which he

on

who came beneath the influence of The life of S. Columba, this holy man. written by S. Adamnan, Abbot of lona in A.D. 679, and translated by Wentworth
all

Huyshe, has just been published.


one of the
positions
earliest

It is

complete literary
in

comIsles.

written
saint's

the

British

The emblem of
over the
following

" Cruithnechan the priest, foster-father of the blessed boy, found his house irradiated by bright light for he saw a globe of fire stationary over the face of the little sleeping boy. And it he understood that the seeing grace of the HOLY SPIRIT was poured out from heaven upon his foster-child." S. Osmund, Bishop of Salisbury (A.D. 1099), is represented with the book of the
incident
:

sunbeams shining head is explained by the


the

Sarum Use

hand. of English saints is by catalogue no means exhausted, but space will not permit of a further enumeration. Many
in his

The

90

Symbolism of the Saints

artists

of them also lack symbols, as the English were not so prolific as the Italian

and other foreign old masters, who sought for subjects in the Hagiography of their

own

country.

Some Popes

91

CHAPTER

VIII

Some Popes

MANY
faith and'

of the occupants of the Papal throne in times of severe persecu-

tion have laid

down

their lives for their

have attained to saintship. Many have been canonized for their virtues and pious lives, and foremost amongst them

His life is stands S. Gregory the Great. the history of the Church in the sixth

The art of music owes to him century. the school of plainsong, the Gregorian chant which bears his name. He abridged
His the Gelasian Office of the Mass. advice to Augustine, the Apostle of sage
the English,
is

well

known

not to insist

upon

a rigid uniformity, but counselling


all

the use of

pious and good customs

92

Symbolism of the Saints

new times and new countries. His censure of Serenus, Bishop of Marseilles, for pulling down some hangings
suitable for

adorned

grounds
is

with sacred subjects on the that the people worshipped them


:

appropriately recorded here " Antiquity hath not without reason admitted the paintings of the lives of the In that you saints in sacred buildings.

forbade them to be adored, we entirely applaud you but in that you broke them,
;

we blame you
ignorant people
ture doth to
S.

for a picture supplies to

who gaze

at

it

what Scrip-

them

that read."

Gregory often appears in art. He be seen in the Church of S. John the may Evangelist at Parma, in company with
S.

Mark, and

the

Dove, signifying the

HOLY

SPIRIT, whispering into his ear. large iron ring round his body is another
the saint.

emblem of who wrote

John the Deacon,


:

" His picture was long extant, reprehim as of moderate stature, with senting

his life, states

Some Popes
dark hair
in

93

curls on the dark yellow forehead, large tonsure, beard, ruddy complexion (it latterly got

two thin waving

jaundiced), and thick parted lips, with a chestnut-coloured chasuble and dalmatic on, and the pallium twisted round his

shoulders."

His

belt

of white byssus,

by needles), his relic-case, thin silver, which he wore round his neck, and the belt only a thumb's
(unpierced

made of

breadth wide, were customarily kissed on the vigil of his anniversary in the ninth
century.

Another Pope,
not be omitted.
attacked

S.

Leo

the Great,

must

He

lived

when

Attila,

King of the Huns, the Scourge of GOD, Rome, and his majestic appear-

ance, together with the miraculous apparition of SS. Peter and Paul, saved the city

from the barbarians. Raphael and the sculptor Algardi have told the story, and the saint appears with the two Apostles in Sometimes he the painting by Callot. appears on horseback, Attila and his sol-

94

Symbolism of the Saints

diers kneeling before him, or praying at the tomb of S. Peter. died in A.D. 46 1

He

other Popes have been martyred and canonized. S. Anicetus, the friend

Many

and contemporary of
death
in

S. Polycarp, suffered 153, being broken on a wheel, which became his symbol. S. Cletus, the successor of Linus, was martyred in

A.D.

A.D. 91,

and Marcellinus

in

298.

S. Pius,

Pope and Martyr, met


rule of

his death

under the

Antonius Pius in A.D. 157. The Hermas who wrote The Shepherd is said to have been his brother. The Sarum
Martyrology styles him S. Pituouse, and " states that he ordeyned eester day to be

His kepte always upon the Sondays." is an oval with the sacred monosymbol
gram.
Stephen, Pope, was martyred During that time of severe he sought refuge in the Catapersecutions combs, where he was killed, by order of the Emperor, while he was celebrating the Holy Eucharist. His body rested for many centuries in the Catacombs of S. Calixtus,
S.

in A.D. 257.

Some Popes
but was

95

A
he

subsequently removed to Pisa.


in his breast
is

sword
is

his

emblem, and

also represented stabbed in his back

at the altar.
S. Sylvester was Pope of Rome when Constantine the Great was converted to Tradition states that the Christianity.

Emperor, who suffered from leprosy, saw a vision the Apostles SS. Peter and Paul, who advised him to be baptized by Sylvester, and said if he obeyed his disease would depart. The Pope had been compelled to seek safety in a secret retreat on Mount Soracte. He was discovered, and consented to baptize the Emperor, whose But tradileprosy at once disappeared. tion errs. Constantine was not baptized until the end of his life, and Eusebius
in

performed the ceremony.


the

tiara, double cross, emblems. Sometimes he appears bearing a cross and an oliveAn ox lying by his side is one branch. of his symbols. Callot represents him

Church

well.

Sylvester ruled

and

a scroll are his

96

Symbolism of the Saints

baptizing Constantine, and in picture a female is shown bearing a label, " Silvester sc me tua sa/va Amongst the martyred Popes

another
to

him

pee." of the

third century we may mention S. Zephyrinus, whose symbol is a monstrance, and S. Calixtus, after whom the catacomb is

named.
is

He

was drowned, and


S.

his

symbol
another
a a

millstone.

Fabianus,
for
his

martyred Pope, has dove and a sword,

emblems

Cornelius

(probably a play upon his S. Sixtus II, slain in the catacombs, bears for his emblem a sword.

horn name), and

The Founders of the Religious Orders

97

CHAPTER

IX

1lye founders of t6e Religious Orders

A
JL\.

MONG

those

who

have

been
are

deemed worthy of canonization

the founders of the great Religious Orders. Foremost among them stands the holy

Benedict (A.D. 480-543), the founder of Benedictine Order of monks. On Mount Cassino, where stood a temple of Apollo, he constructed his monastery. Some monks who liked not his strict rule tried in vain to poison him. When he made the sign of the cross over the
the

poisoned cup, it broke into fragments. One of his emblems is a sieve. In his young days his nurse, who followed him to his lonely retreat in the desert, broke a sieve, which the saint mended by his

98
prayers.

Symbolism of the Saints

raven was his companion, and shared his meals. Florentius, a monk envious of the reputation of S. Benedict, tried to kill him with a poisoned loaf. He ordered the bird to convey it to a place where it would do no harm. Countless stories are told of his sanctity and the In art he is wonders that he worked. usually represented in the habit of his order, which was originally white, but afterwards changed to black, and his symbols are a raven and a broken sieve. Few have left so great an impress on his age as the famous founder of the Cistercian Order, S. Bernard, Abbot of
Clairvaux.

near

His home was at Fontaines, He owed much to the Dijon.

influence of a pious mother, and was a gentle, thoughtful, studious, and silent resolved to devote himself to boy.

He

the monastic

life,

and induced

his brothers

to join him. They, with their father and their companions, were admitted to the

monastery of Citeaux, which became too

Plate 20.

Perugino]
S.

[Brogi, Photo.

BENEDICT.

(See page 97.)

ioo

Symbolism of the Saints

strait for the

the Cistercian Order.

numbers who wished to join Other foundations

were made, and in the Valley of Wormwood, a nest of robbers, Bernard was permitted to raise his famous House of or " There
Clairvaux, Bright Valley." the community endured at first
great

Porridge made of beech-leaves was their diet a food that had no savour but what was given to it by hunger or by the love of GOD. Bernard spent his days
poverty.
in
toil,

in

severe

study, and

the most

rigorous glory of more than mortal purity seemed to surround him, and miracles attended his
mortifications.
to accept them. He the cause of Pope Innocent at espoused the time of the great schism. Of the

The

progress.

Dignities were offered to him,

but he declined

events of his wondrous life, his contest with Abelard, his preaching the second crusade, his vigorous writings and condemnation of abuses it is unnecessary to write here, The life of the saint is known

Plate 21.

Perugino]
S.

[Brogi, Photo.

BERNARD AND

S.

JOHN OF THE CROSS.

(See pages 98 and 100-3.)

IO2

Symbolism of the Saints


that life that

ended at his where he ascended monastery "from the 'Bright Valley' to the mountain
to the world
at Clairvaux,

of eternal brightness." Many emblems have artists given to the saint. On account of the severity of his mortifications, the Arbor Pastoralis shows him bearing the instruments of our Saviour's Passion. The Blessed Virgin with the Infant Saviour are represented
as appearing to him,

and

in

two pictures

she O gives him milk from her breast. Garofalo painted him with three mitres on his book or at his feet those mitres which he rejected. In the Dresden Gallery there is a picture of him with a beehive as his symbol, in allusion to his

honeyed words, and sometimes an angel


holds his crozier while he writes his burnwhite dog, which someing words. times has a red back, is also his emblem, and in the Isabella Breviary at the British Museum he is shown holding the devil in

a chain.

Such are some emblems which

The Founders of the Religious Orders


artists

103

have loved to assign to the brave, lionhearted, holy S. Bernard. S. Bruno, Confessor (R.K.), A.D. noi, the founder of the Carthusian Order, was born at Cologne, and was regarded as the light of the Churches, the doctor of doctors, the glory of Germany and France, the ornament of the age, the model of good men, and the mirror of the world. Rheims was the scene of his earlier labours. In 1084 he went with six companions to Grenoble, and soon established his monastery at Chartreuse, a dismal solitude beset with high rocks, covered with snow and

The rule was very strict. After some years he was called to Rome by Urban II, in order to advise the Pope on A court and palace weighty matters. not the saint, and after some time pleased
fogs.

he was permitted where he founded

to a

retire

to

Calabria,

second monastery, that of De la Torre. He wrote many his commentaries on the Psalms works and Epistles of S. Paul show him to have
;

IO4

Symbolism of the Saints

been one of the most learned


age.

men

of his

crucifix

is

his

usual

emblem,

which sometimes has leaves and flowers or it rests on a palm-branch. at the ends A star on his breast and a globe beneath
;

his
S.

feet are

other symbols

of the

holy

Bruno.
S.

Francis of Assisi, the holy founder of

the Franciscan Order, needs no biography. His life is known and read of all men.
Artists have lavished their highest skill on Giotto's painting representations of him.
in the

Louvre of the sermon


the
saint's

to the birds
for

represents Birds suffered

love

animals.

him to touch them, and even would not depart from him. they

When

he preached, swallows ceased their twittering, and at his word were still. Two years before his death, when he was fasting at Laverna, an angel, bearing the image of the Crucified, appeared to him, and impressed the marks of the nails and spear on his hands and feet and side. This act of
receiving the sacred stigmata
is

chronicled

Plate 22.

106
in

Symbolism of the Saints

many works of art. He is often depicted wearing the crown of thorns and carrying a cross. A lily is sometimes his emblem, and also a lamb, as in Giotto's painting. Scenes from his life are depicted in the church at Assisi. Ghirlandajo painted roses springing from his blood, and another

heaven

picture shows him in a fiery chariot.

ascending

to

the

life of S. Dominic, the founder of Order of Preaching Friars, styled also Dominicans, or, from the colour of their

The

was

an Augustinian canon. He accompanied the Bishop of Osma and some Cistercian Abbots on a mission to the Albigenses. He preached to the heretics with fiery enthusiasm and, though he was ever more ready to suffer martyrdom than to inflict he took some part in that terrible it, One day crusade against the Albigenses. he saw a vision the Blessed Virgin was interceding with the Saviour, Who was
;
:

habits, Black Friars, has been often told. a Spaniard of noble birth, and became

He

Plate 23.

Fra Angelico]
S.

[Brogi, Photo.

DOMINIC.

(See page 106.)

io8

Symbolism of the Saints

about to destroy the world for its iniquities, and she was presenting to Him S. Dominic and S. Francis, with a promise that they would convert the world. S. Dominic

founded

his

The

zeal

Order at Toulouse in A.D. 1 2 1 6. and fervour of his preaching, his

enthusiasm for the conversion of souls, of poverty, left their mark upon the world and survived in his followers. There is a fine picture of the saint in the National Gallery, by Mario Zoppo, showing him preaching with a book and rosary
his love

in his left hand.

His usual emblem

is

pictures of Fra Angelico, Alexis Baldovinetti, D. Fabi (Vienna GalSometimes he lery), and of other artists. has a star over his head, or on his forehead or his breast. A book, a cross, and
as in the lily,

rosary are also his symbols. dog firing a globe also appears in several representations of the saint. Angelico de Fiesole
depicts

him curing

wounded youth,
Stephen

the

nephew of Cardinal
Nuova.

of Fossa

fresco

at

Rome

shows him

The Founders of the Religious Orders


receiving

109

the keys from S. Peter, and Niccolo Pisano depicts him receiving the commission to preach from SS. Peter and As a representation of the sterner Paul. side of his nature, Angelico represents him holding a sword, while books are burnFew saints have been ing at his side. more frequently represented in art than
S.

Dominic.

the Order of Bonhommes, S. Francis of Paula, died in 1508. Only two houses of this Order existed in England, Ashridge and Ed" caritas" ever dington. He had the word on his lips, and hated detraction. Hence
that word, appearing in rays of light, is his emblem. In the Louvre there is a painting of him standing on his cloak on the
sea,

The founder of

and he also appears with his staff, a and rosary. S. Ignatius, the founder and first general of the Order of Jesuits, has left his mark
crucifix,

upon

history.
Jesu,

He
and

wrote

Constitutiones

Societatis

this

work, with

his

no
hand

Symbolism of the Saints


resting

upon it, and the sacred above in light, appear as his monogram symbols in the painting by Rubens at

Warwick
on

Castle.

The

sacred

monogram
hand,

his breast, or within rays in his is his constant emblem.


S.

who died in the Nuns of

Francis de Sales, Bishop of Geneva, 1622, founded the Order of the Visitation of the Blessed

He admired architecture, paintVirgin. ing, music, and nature, and deemed them mystic ladders for mounting heavenwards. He
is

often represented in art holding his

heart in his hand.

The Spanish saint, S. Peter Nolasco, who died in 1256, founded the Order
of the Redemption of Christian captives
the Moors. Another founder of an Order was S. Norbert, Bishop and Confessor, A.D. 1 134. He was a wild and gay youth at the court

among

of the Emperor

Henry V, of noble

family

rich possessions, and was continuing in his evil courses when GOD called him,

and

The Founders of
as

the Religious

Orders

1 1 1

did Saul of Tarsus, by a lightningHe craved and changed his life. flash, ordination from the Bishop of Cologne, had much trouble with the lax canons of the cathedral, whose ways he tried to reform, and then established the Order of

He

the Praemonstratensians, or White Canons, in the wild region of Premontre, and


later

on
is

was
a

appointed

Archbishop

of

Magdeburg
there
Fil.

in Prussia.

In the Vatican

up

painting of S. Norbert by Bigioli, representing him holding a chalice with the Sacred Host in

his right hand. a monstrance with

depicted carrying the Blessed Sacrament, sometimes with an angel holding a monstrance before him. According

He

is

one legend, recorded by Callot, his episcopal vestments were brought to him
to

by the Blessed Virgin.


his

In the Ikonograpbie

a chalice with a spider in it, to the legend that one day, when alluding he was celebrating mass, a poisonous
is

emblem

spider

fell

into the hallowed chalice, but

Symbolism of the Saints

unhesitatingly he drank the contents, and

The miraculously his life was spared. devil, chained or at his feet, appears in some figures, and an attempted assassination of the saint in a confessional is S. Norbert has recorded by Gueffier. lacked no limner to record his saintly
life.

Plate 24.

Da Lendinara]
S.

[Alinari, Photo.

GREGORY THE GREAT.

(See pages 92 and 115.)

Plate 25.

[Brogi, Photo.

S.

AUGUSTINE.

(See pages 116 and 133.)

Doctors

1 1

CHAPTER X
^Doctors

four great Doctors of the Church are S. Gregory, S. Jerome, S. Amhave already brose, and S. Augustine. recorded the symbols and chief events in

THE

We

the lives of the two


S.

Jerome.

We

first, S.

Gregory and
allude to the

will

now

other

learned

and devoted followers of

CHRIST.
S. Ambrose was Archbishop of Milan, and the honour due unto this noble and

saintly

man

is

shown

in all the

Churches.

was who daringly withstood the great Emperor Theodosius, whose hands were red with the blood of the slaughtered S. Ambrose impeople of Thessalonica. posed a fitting penance, and eight months passed before the emperor was received
it

He

1 1

Symbolism of the Saints


into the

again

was a comforter of S. Monica during her sorrow on account of the errors of her son, and at last was able to baptize the

He

company of

the faithful.

The grandest of Augustine. our Christian hymns, Te Deum laudamus^ is by some attributed to him. His emblem is a a tower and a scourge and a cross beehive are also his principal symbols. S. Augustine, the saintly Bishop of Hippo, was the light of the Church in A the early part of the fifth century. perfect model of true penitence, a true champion of the Faith, a confounder of
repentant
;

heresies,
S.

prolific

and

spiritual

writer,

Augustine has left a name revered Of his early throughout Christendom. sins and heretical tendencies, so graphically
described in his Confessions^ of his struggles with the heretical Donatists, Manichees,
Arians, and Pelagians it is unnecessary His praises have been here to write. the learned of every age. Luther sung by
affirmed that since the Apostles' time the

Doctors

117

a better doctor. He has been styled the " bright star of philosophy," the singular, excellent father, and the chief among the greatest ornaments and lights of the Church. In Augustinian monasteries pictures of the saint are freOld paintings too show him clad quent.

Church never had

An

black habit with a leathern girdle. inflamed heart is a constant symbol of the saint, and this frequently appears with an arrow, as in the painting by Meister von Liesborn in the National Gallery. In the same collection there is a painting by Garafalo of S. Augustine with a child and a spoon on the sea-shore, and Murillo's painting at the Louvre and a primer of 1516 represent the same event. light from heaven shining upon him with the word " Veritas" and an eagle, are some other symbols of the saint. Other doctors of the Church are S. Thomas of Aquin, or Thomas Aquinas, the " Angelic Doctor," the " Eagle of Divines," "Angel of the Schools," the
in

1 1

Symbolism of the Saints

Universal
silver

Doctor,

whose

emblem

is

net knit with precious stones of various hues, implying the purity of his
life

S.

He

and the harmony of his doctrines. Peter Martyr was murdered in 1252. was a Dominican of Verona, and was
triplici

styled Virgo, doctor et martyr^ corona


laureates,

and was canonized by Innocent In 1340 his body was translated to IV. the Church of S. Eustorgius at Milan, where it rests in a fine tomb. Titian and Guido and other artists have displayed their genius on the subject of Peter Titian's famous picture Martyr's death. was burnt in the Church of SS. John and Paul at Venice in 1867. Guide's picture
is
is

in the Gallery at Bologna. The martyr shown in the painting at the Church of

S. Dominic, Orvieto, as falling by the sword with three crowns over his head. Crivelli represents him with a knife in his

In the Pitti Gallery, Fra Angelico a cut across his head and a palm in his hand. sixteenth-century

hand.

shows him with

Plate 26.

20

Symbolism of the Saints

painting represents

him with

a knife in his

hand and

sword in his heart. Guercino's in the Milan Gallery shows him painting kneeling, with a sabre at his feet, and the same artist has a painting in the National
a

Gallery of the saint being martyred in wood, with angels appearing. " An old " Credo on the print shows him writing with his blood at his martyrdom. ground S. Athanasius, Bishop of Alexandria, the story of whose life is the history of the Church in the fourth century, who gallantly contended for the Faith against
a

Arianism, is represented in art as a Greek archbishop with the pallium, standing between two columns, and is sometimes depicted with heretics beneath his feet.

Hermits

121

CHAPTER
Jiermits

XI

AMONGST
JT\
record
S.

chorites

(A.D.

holy hermits we must Paul, the first of the AnWhen the Decian 342).

raged, Paul, a rich young Christian, fled into the country, Egyptian and afterwards sought a safer restingplace in

Persecution

mountain solitudes

in a cave.

palm-tree grew beside the entrance, and

gave him food and clothing. Wild beasts Ravens brought him prowled around. Hither came S. Anthony to visit bread. the aged hermit, and anon buried him in the cloak which Athanasius had given him. A vision revealed to him the happy end of the holy man, who was borne upwards by His symbols hosts of angels to Paradise.

122

Symbolism of the Saints

are his dress of palm-leaves which fed him.

and the ravens

S. Giles, another hermit (A.D. 700), has been held in great veneration in France and England, and many churches are dedicated to him, usually those situated on the outskirts of a town, in allusion to the soliHe was a native of tary life of the saint.

Athens, and, wandering to France, fixed his hermitage in the open deserts of Nisnes. He lived on wild roots and herbs and the milk of a hind in the forest. One day a prince was. hunting, and the hind fled to the saint for protection. The King of France greatly esteemed the holy hermit, and gave him land for a monastery, which

grew up

at that place into a

flourishing abbey. screens he is usually shown with a hind lying at his feet, or resting her foot on his

very large and In the English rood-

an arrow.

knee, the other foot being wounded with ' O The font at Warwick Church shows a wounded hind leaping up to him. Albert Durer's representation of

Plate 27

Signorelli]

[Alinari, Photo.

S.

ANTHONY.

(See pages 75 and 121.)

Plate 28.

Flemish School]
S. GILES.

[Mansell, Photo.

(See page 122.)

Hermits
S.

125

Giles,

now

at

the

British

Museum,

shows him standing with a book in his right hand, his left hand wounded with
an arrow, in the act of protecting a hind leaping up to him. Molanus dehim imposing his hands over King picts Charles Martel.

126

Symbolism of the Saints

XII

Women

Saints and

Martyrs

A GROUP
stand
S.

of noble women who laid down their lives for CHRIST'S sake among the crowd of saints and

martyrs.

Agnes,

Roman

Foremost amongst them is Virgin and Martyr, the

patron saint of virgin purity. Rejecting the offers of marriage, and declaring herself a Christian, she was condemned to
stand naked in a public place. Only one base man presumed to gaze at her, and he was struck by lightning. She was finally The lamb is her symbol, beheaded. The pallia usually carried in her arms. sent by the Pope to the archbishops of

various provinces were usually made from the wool of two lambs blessed by the Pope on the feast of the saint. Another emblem

Plate 29.

Del Sarto^
S.

[Brogi, Photo.

AGNES.

(See page 126.)

128
is

Symbolism of the Saints

a dove bearing a ring to this virgin bride of heaven. The memory of few saints has been revered more highly than that of S. Agatha, a girl of noble birth and of great beauty, who resisted the evil intentions of Quintianus, Praetor of Sicily, and was con-

demned

She was scourged, had off, and was then thrown into prison. S. Peter and an angel healed her wounds in the night. She was then condemned to be burnt, but an earthquake shook the town, showing the displeasure of heaven. She died in prison, some say after being rolled naked on burning coals and broken glass, which had no power to hurt her. She was buried at Catania, and her veil was placed on her tomb, and was believed to have power against fires and earthquakes. Mediaeval artists have loved to depict her in her trials and sufferings. Her usual emblem is a pair of pincers, and other symbols are a veil, a plate, on which rest those lacerated parts of her tender
to torture.

her breasts cut

Women

Saints

and Martyrs

129

body, and a chafing-dish, in allusion to her fiery ordeal. There are mosaic portraits of the saint at Ravenna and in the Church of S. Cecilia, Trastevere, of the ninth century. In the National Gallery there is a painting of her martyrdom by
del Piombo, and Vandyck, Domenichino, and others have depicted scenes from her life. She is the guardian saint of nursing mothers, and the helper of all who suffer from the breast. S. Dorothy, Virgin and Martyr, was beheaded at Caesarea in Cappadocia in the

Sebastiano

condemned by Apricius

When early years of the fourth century. as a witch, she " I will suffer said, anything for CHRIST,
and Spouse, in Whose garden of delight I shall gather roses and apples, and be glad with Him for ever." Theophilus, the scribe, asked her scornfully to send him some of the roses. Just before her execution a strange unearthly child she begged brought to her some roses the child to take them to Theophilus, who

my LORD

130

Symbolism of the Saints

was converted by this means, and soon followed her from earth by the thorny Her figure appears road of martyrdom. in the Chapel of Henry VII at WestThe rose which she sent by the minster. heavenly messenger is her usual emblem, and also apples. Every year, on her feast day (February 6th), roses and apples
are blessed at

Rome

in

memory

of the

legend. S. Apollonia, Virgin and Martyr of Alexandria, has for her symbol a pair of pincers holding a tooth, in allusion to the cruel tortures which she endured by having all her teeth drawn before she was burned
civil

She had been betrayed to the by her father, and, when called upon to sacrifice to an idol, much
to death.

authorities

enraged them by casting out the demon from the image. Enselius states that " they beat her cheeks, and knocked out
the teeth in her head. Over against the city they prepared a pile, and threatened to burn her quick unless she would, toall

Plate 30.

Luini]
S.

[Brogi, Photo.

APOLLONIA.

(See page 130.)

Plate 31.

Schetter]

[Mansell, Photo.

S.

AUGUSTINE AND

S.

MONICA.

(Seepages ii6and 133.)

H^omen Saints and Martyrs

133

But gether with them, utter blasphemy. a little while, as though she she, lingering would take deliberation, suddenly leaped into the fire and was consumed to ashes." I am following the order in which these names of holy women come in the English or Roman Calendar, and not in chronological order ; so you must be prepared to leap from the records of early Christian martyrs to those of later days. S. Frances, The a holy Roman lady, died A.D. 1440. wife of Lorenzo de Ponzani loved to commune with GOD. Her children, Evanand Agnes, were called away from The former appeared to her accompanied by an angel. Her husband released her from her marriage vows, and she entered a convent. She was one of
gelista earth.

Rome. Her symbol, used to be carried to her tomb, violets, and a public banquet given on her festival. Miguard painted Madame de Maintenon habUlee en Sainte Francois e Romaine. S. Monica, the holy mother of S. Augusthe patron saints of

134
tine,

Symbolism of the Saints

endured many sorrows on account of

the errors and youthful follies of her son. You can well remember the pious words

of comfort breathed into her ear by S. Ambrose. Pietro Perugino painted her standing behind her son, who is represented
Sheffer represents them sitting together holding each other's hands, with an enwrapt look upon their faces. Her

kneeling.

symbol is a handkerchief, a sign perhaps of the tears she shed, also an open book
or a crucifix.

Catherine, Virgin and Martyr (A.D. 290) of Alexandria, has been a favourite subject for artists, and her well-known
S.

When
able

symbol, a wheel, is easily recognized. only eighteen years of age she was
so learned in the liberal arts that she was
to vanquish

the

sophistries

of the

She was doomed to death, philosophers. and her murderers wished to torture her by means of a wheel studded with swordpoints, but by her prayers the wheel was
broken, though
finally she suffered

death

Plate 32.

Plate 33.

Francesco Vanni]
S.

[Brogi, Photo.

CATHERINE OF SIENA.
(Seepage 137.)

Women
by the
axe.

Saints

and Martyrs

137
is

Her

usual

emblem

the

instrument of her martyrdom, a wheel set A sword, a palm, and a book with spikes. are sometimes conjoined with the wheel. Bernardino Luini painted her crowned with white flowers, with the broken wheel and a palm held by an angel. The broken wheel signifies her triumph over the malice of her enemies. Perugino painted her

espoused by the Saviour, and


at

in a fresco

Milan she
Sinai.

is

Mount
palm.
a

lery, gives as

by angels to Guido, in the Turin Galher emblems a lamb and a

shown

carried

Another S. Catherine lived more than thousand years later, S. Catherine of Siena (A.D. 1380). Artists have loved to bestow upon this fourteenth-century saint their best skill and highest veneration. She was the daughter of a dyer of Siena, refused to marry, and in order to make herself undesirable in the eyes of young men, cut off her long hair and hid her sweet face behind a veil. Persecuted

138
at first

Symbolism of the Saints

by her parents, she was at length permitted to join the Sisters of the Third Order of S. Dominic, who did not live in nunneries, but worked for their LORD in the world. She was a holy mystic, and had strange visions. The Saviour appeared to her and dispelled the shades of doubt and evil that at one time beset her.

There

is

painting in the

Academy

at

Florence of the Saviour giving His sacred heart in exchange for her heart, and an angel holding a cross and a crown of thorns. She is often represented as crowned with thorns with a cross or her hand. A cross with crucifix in a heart with a cross upon it, an flowers, inflamed heart, a cross and a book, a
lily and palm, a flaming heart with the sacred monogram, a dove upon her head, stigmas, a lily and a book, as in the fresco by Razzi in the Church of S. Dominic at Siena these are some of the symbols of the saint. C. Veronese and Fra Bartolommeo painted her as

crucifix,

Plate 34.

Veronese]
S.

[Mansell, Photo.

HELENA.

(See page 140.)

140
being

Symbolism of the Saints


to
in

espoused pictures being


Florence.

the
the

Saviour,
Pitti

both

Gallery at In the latter the Saviour ap-

Few saints have pears as an infant. such a wealth of attributes. S. Helena, the mother of Constantine
the Great,
to Jerusalem, A.D. 326.

warned by a vision, journeyed and there on the site of the


She built
discovered the Cross in a noble church called
for
its

Holy Sepulchre
the

New

Jerusalem

reception.

Half of the Cross she enclosed in a silver chest, and the other half she took to the
She often appears in art bearemperor. or embracing a large cross, and as an ing empress wearing a crown. Domenichino painted her holding a nail over a chalice, a hammer lying below. As the founder of the church at Jerusalem, she is sometimes represented holding a model of a Caliari's painting of church in her hand. the saint's vision of the Holy Cross borne to her by angels is one of the most beautiful conceptions of S. Helena.

Women

Saints

and Martyrs

141

The life of S. Mary Magdalen of Pazzi has been told in Holland by her confessor, Virgilio Caparis, Soc. Jes., and reveals a
wondrous depth of spirituality and Communion with her LORD. From her
earliest

years she felt the fervour of devotion, and this increased with years. Pazzi was her family name a noble Florentine house -- and Catarina her Christian name, which was abandoned when she became a Carmelite nun, and she was henceforth known as Sister Maria

her

Maddalena. Many stories are told of She loved to piety and devotion.
the
Soliloquies
is

of S. Augustine, represented in the Die Attribute with that saint appearing to her and inscribing on her heart the words Verbum caro factum est. In other artistic she appears receiving the representations Blessed Sacrament from our Saviour or a white veil from the Blessed Virgin. A crown of thorns is another symbol of the saint, alluding to her early desire to suffer

study hence

she

142

Symbolism of the Saints

something for our LORD, which caused her to wear a crown of prickly orangesprays, binding it so tightly about her head that she could not sleep. An inflamed heart and a crown of thorns are
given as her symbols in the Ikonographie, in an engraving we see her crowned with thorns, embracing a cross, while rays dart on her from a monstrance. Luca Giordana represents her as being presented to the Saviour by an angel.

and

S.

Margaret, queen and widow (A.D.

It 1093), is the patron saint of Scotland. was a storm, friendly to the northern land, that bore her and her brother Edgar

Malcolm Canmore Atheling thither. married the saintly princess, who was a rare impersonation of feminine grace, and a true memorial of the highest Christian
sanctity.

All that
living

is

best in

womanhood

found

expression in her life. court was pure her husband a Her devoted king through her influence, and Her the Church reformed by her zeal.
a
;

Women

Saints

and Martyrs

143

She served almsgiving was universal. CHRIST daily with food in the person of Personal austerity 300 poor people. marked her life, and when her husband was slain in battle, and her son tried to keep back from her the fatal news, she appealed to him by the black rood which she was clasping in her hands, to tell her the truth, and even thanked GOD that He had sent her pain even at the last. That black rood is the emblem of the saintly In Bonn Cathedral she is Margaret.

and in Callot's shows her visiting portrait, the sick. A sceptre and book are the symbols assigned to her on the seal of the Prior of Pluscardine. The Church and Monastery of Dumfermline were founded by her. S. Juliana Falconieri (A.D. 1340) was the daughter of one of the seven noble Florentines who abandoned the world for contemplation and prayer, and were known
represented

holding
also

it,

which

as

"

The

servants of Mary."

They

retired

144
for

Symbolism of the Saints


solitude

to Monte Sanario, not far of Florence, and the faithful city saint built the beautiful church of AnIn the church is a series of nunziata. of the life and miracles of S. paintings Fillippo Benizzi, the head of the Order of "The servants of Mary," who assigned to her care the Brethren and Sisters of the In the Florence Academy there Order. is a painting of S. Juliana with the Sacred

from the

Host on her heart, and she is also represented in an old engraving as praying before the Blessed Sacrament. S. Clare (A.D. 1253) was a saintly lady who laid aside her wealth and became a lowly follower of S. Francis, seeking

Communion poverty, spirituality, and with GOD. She was appointed Abbess She fasted Sister of the poor at Assisi.
very
strictly and wore simple clothing, a tunic and cloth cloak, and walked bareOne day the Saracens besieged foot.

Assisi,

when

the

saint

held

before

the

sacrilegious hosts a monstrance, beholding

Women

Saints

and Martyrs
fled

145

which the heathens


incident

abashed.
to

This
be
a

caused

her

emblem

monstrance, as in Perugino's painting in


the
in

Church of S. Cosimato at Rome, and Lucio Massari's painting in the Bologna

places the Blessed is somehand, lily times given as her symbol, and in a French engraving she appears trampling

Gallery.

Molanus
at her

Sacrament

on

and holding a tall fixed turban in the ground, in memory of her victory over the Saracens. S. Rosa of Lima (A.D. 1617) was of the Spanish race, and was the firstfruits of She the canonized saints of America. was born at Lima, in Peru, and grew up
a

scimitar
in

cross

and woman. She took S. Catherine of Siena as her model, and loved to practise the most rigid
a very beautiful child

asceticism

and self-denial. One day her mother placed a garland of roses on her
head
;

the saint

into the wreath

secretly inserted a pin in order to give herself


L

pain

and cure herself of any feeling of

146

Symbolism of the Saints

This incident artists have loved vanity. In a painting in the Pitti to depict.
Gallery, by Carlo Dolci, she has this rose garland on her head, and Murillo painted her crowned with thorns and holding a rose, on which is a figure of the Saviour. The infant Saviour in a nosegay of flowers, a crown of thorns, and a rose in her hand, are her most appropriate

symbols. SS. Justina and Cyprian were martyrs in The English the year A.D. 304. Calendar seems to have confused this S. Cyprian with the Archbishop of Carthage, whose feast day occurs on the i6th of

This saint was surnamed September. " The Magician," a native of Antioch, a small town between Syria and Arabia. He practised magical arts, and hesitated at no crime, committing secret murders and attempting to assail the chastity of S. Justina was a beautiful maid virgins.
beloved

by

pagan

nobleman,

who
order

summoned

the aid of Cyprian in

Women
to

Saints

and Martyrs

147

overcome her chastity. His arts were of no avail against the virgin, who repelled the attempts by the sign of the Holy Cross. This led to the conversion of Cyprian, and they shared together the pain of martyrdom during the Diocletian Persecution. She was scourged and he was torn with iron hooks and subsequently beheaded. Artists have, however,
depicted a different
S.

Cyprian's emblems

death, and give as a gridiron and a

sword, and an old engraving shows him being burned in a pan with S. Justina. Callot depicts him burning his books of
magic.
S.

Justina usually bears a palm.

Bondicino places a unicorn at her feet, and B. Montagna depicts a sword in her breast. She is also shown vanquishing the devil by a cross, and a lily, the token of purity, is sometimes given as her

emblem.
martyr of the fourth This holy woman was very century. beautiful, and was martyred under DaS.

Faith was a

148

Symbolism of the Saints

of Gaul. She was questioned by the Prefect, who strove to turn her from her Faith, and she was condemned, like S. Laurence, to suffer on a brazen A gridiron, and then to be beheaded. sword and gridiron are her emblems, as on a brass at Newton, Northamptonshire. A window at Winchester Cathedral shows her resting one hand on an iron bed. At
clan. Prefect

Laurence's Church, Norwich, she appears seated and crowned, with her iron bed and book, and sometimes she has a
S.

bundle of rods
S.

in

her hand.

Bridget (A.D. 1373) belonged to the At an early Royal Family of Sweden. age she saw in a vision CHRIST crucified, and the remembrance of this always caused her to weep. She married, and after her husband's death went on a pilgrimage to Compostella. She lived a very severe and ascetic life. Every Friday she would drop burning wax on her naked arm, as depicted by Callot. She entered a nunnery, and then visited Rome and Jerusalem, dying

Plate 35.

Fra Bartolommeoj
S.

[Alinari, Photo.

BRIDGET.

(See page 148.)

150
at the

Symbolism

oj

the

Saints

former

city in

1373.

pilgrim's

equipment are her usual emblems, staff, On an English roodwallet, and bottle.
is represented crowned, with book, and chain in her hand. Sometimes she holds a heart marked with a cross, and the Saviour appears to her bearing the instruments of His Passion.

screen

she

crosier,

You may
fix,

see her kneeling before a cruciit

or holding Satan.
S.

in her hand, driving

away
and

Theresa (A.D. 1582), Virgin Abbess, was born at Avila, in Spain. life was one of extreme spirituality communion with GOD. She joined a

Her
and
Car-

melite nunnery at her native place, and


there she saw heavenly visions, the Saviour She restored the even appearing to her.
spirituality of the rule of her Order. pen and a book are her usual symbols

in

addition to these an angel stands by her with an arrow and a heart, alluding to the

legend of an angel appearing to her and piercing her heart with a fiery dart, as is

Women

Saints

and Martyrs

151

depicted in a painting in the Louvre. dove is sometimes seen flying to her, or Rubens painted her hovering over her. for the souls in Purgatory, and pleading in the Louvre there is a picture of her crowned with thorns, and having near the instruments of the Passion. flamecrowned heart impressed with the sacred

monogram,
emblems.

a crucifix, with a lily, are other

S. Hedwiges (A.D. 1242), the Patroness of Poland, was the daughter of Count Berchthold of the Tyrol, and the aunt of S. Elizabeth of Hungary. After the death of her husband she entered the Cistercian nunnery at Trebnicz, which she had She practised most severe disfounded. and was very devout. She used cipline, to wash and kiss the feet of lepers, and never wearied in her devotion. Her piety and self-denial have inspired several artists. She is shown washing the feet of the poor, walking barefoot her shoes in her hand, and carrying the image of the Virgin and
;

152

Symbolism of the Saints


In the T)ie Attribute she
laid aside the

infant Saviour.
is

shown having

crown and
in a

mantle of a princess, and attired


robe.

nun's

S. Etheldreda (A.D. 679) is one of the most prominent of our English saints. She married an Earldorman of the South Girvii or Penmen, and received the Isle of Ely as

her dowry. She married her second husband, Egfrid, afterwards King of Northumbria, and following the call to the religious life, she left her court and retired to the lonely isle, and there founded a monastery, of which she was abbess. S. Wilfrid aided her in her plans. The saintly queen died in 679. Some years later her body, placed

marble sarcophagus, was translated to church. Part of her shrine remains in the beautiful cathedral. She in one of the bosses of the roof appears of the choir. She is usually represented crowned, carrying a crozier and a book, and frequently appears with these emblems
in a

the Saxon

on several English rood-screens.

A saucer

Women

Saints

and Martyrs

153

with a crown of flowers or a budded staff


are also her symbols. She is represented at Ely asleep, with a tree blossoming over
her, and in the Benedictional of S. Ethelwold she has a book in her right hand and
a lily in her left. S. Ursula, a British maiden, with her companions, have been honoured for many

She ages with extraordinary devotion. and her company left Britain when the

pagan Saxons came, intending to settle in Driven by storms across the Brittany. northern sea, their vessel was sailing up the Rhine, when it was attacked by the Huns, and all were slain. The number of maidens was said to be 11,000 but this was doubtless an error for xi. M.V. (eleven martyrs and virgins). The martyrdom of S. Ursula has been a favourite subject for
;

artists.

On some English rood-screens she appears with an arrow or arrows in her hand, and her attendant virgins beneath her mantle. choir window at Winchester Cathedral has a similar representation. An

154

Symbolism of the Saints

is her usual emblem. white banner with a red cross also sometimes appears. On the seal of the Drapers' Company, London, S. Ursula appears with a triple crown, sceptre, and palm, her mantle The vessel protecting her companions. on which she embarked is also sometimes shown, and in Das Passional she appears in a ship with a pope, bishop, and other ecclesiastics, and is shot at by an archer from the shore. S. Winifred is a Welsh saint of the seventh century. She was the daughter

arrow

of a soldier named Teuyth. A pathetic One day her father story is told of her. was worshipping with S. Beuno in a little church, when Winifred stayed at home in order to prepare something that was necesThen a powerful sary for the Mass.
prince came to the house, requesting drink, and was smitten by her charms. She repulsed him and fled towards the

church, but the prince rode after her and cut off her head. spring of water

Plate 36.

V. Carpaccio]

Brogi, Photo.

MARTYRDOM OF
(See page

S.
1

URSULA.

53.)

56

Symbolism of the Saints

sprang up where the ground was stained with blood, and the water of S. Winifred's

Well
ties.

is

still

Some

said to possess healing qualiaccounts state that she was


life,

restored to
S.

and the

Beuno, died.
is

On

prince, cursed by Ringwood brass

she

represented carrying her head severed

in 1292. This holy entered the Benedictine Abbey of Virgin Rodersdorff, Halberstadt, in her fifth year. All through her life she showed the For greatest devotion and spirituality. she was abbess. She wrote a forty years book on the Insinuations of Divine Piety, and records her conversion to GOD in her As the end of her life twenty-sixth year. her visions of GOD increased. approached, She beheld the loving Heart of GOD smiling on her in the guise of a garden full of spiritual delight. As the Litany of the Saints was being said S. John and other Apostles graced her fingers with rings. In art she is represented with these seven

from her body. S. Gertrude died

Women

Saints

and Martyrs

157

rings on the fingers of her right hand, and a heart with the figure of the Saviour in

her
S.

left.

Elizabeth (A.D. 1231) has been the subject of many poems, and frequently is The daughter of Anrepresented in art. of Hungary, and wife of the drew, King Landgrave, Lewis of Hesse, S. Elizabeth was a model of charity and patience. Her

almsgiving was unbounded. Her husband ordered her not to bestow so much charity on the poor. Meeting her one day carrying in her apron some loaves, he asked She said that her what she was bearing. her apron contained flowers, and when he demanded to see them she unfolded her apron, and the loaves had been changed to
roses.

often

Her charity and good works are Holbein painted commemorated.

and other

her giving clothing to a crippled child, artists have loved to depict Sometimes she wears a her benevolence. double or triple crown or three crowns.
is

There

a statue of the saint at

Marbourg

158

Symbolism of the Saints

Cathedral representing her crowned and basket of bread and holding a church. a flagon of wine are also emblems of her Fra Angelico painted her with charity. roses in her robe, and she sometimes appears holding a basket of the same flowers. S. Cecilia (A.D. 220), Patron of Musicians, was of noble Roman birth, and was On her wedding betrothed to Valerian. she told him that she had a guardian night angel who would protect her virginity. Valerian respected her confession, but, demanding to see the angel, he was directed to Pope Urban, who, on account of the persecution, was hiding in the CataUrban bade him return to his combs. and there he heard divine music, house,

and saw a radiant angel beside his wife, Torture bearing two garlands of roses. and death awaited the devout lovers. Valerian was beheaded, and Cecilia scalded in her bath. She survived this torture, and suffered little hurt, but was subsequently beheaded. She has been a favourite

Women

Saints

and Martyrs

159

Her love of music subject with artists. has supplied her usual emblem, organpipes in her hand, as in Raphael's painting in the Bologna Gallery, or a harp or

She has many other symbols, which may be mentioned a crown, amongst a wreath of roses in her hand or on her head, a palm, a sword, a sprig of almondleaves, white roses and lilies, three wounds In the church dedicated to in her neck.
violin.

Rome she is seen reposing in her tomb, and Cimabue painted her seated with a palm and a book. In the catalogue of saints she appears being boiled in a cauldron, and Gueffier depicts her showthe saint at

ing an angel to Valerian. S. Bibiana (A.D. 363) was born at Rome during the great persecution instigated by church is dedithe Emperor Julian. cated to her at Rome, and a dagger and a palm are assigned her as emblems, though it was said that she was beaten to death Sometimes she with plummets of lead. has a branch of a tree in her hand.

160

Symbolism of the Saints

S. Lucy (A.D. 304) was a native of Syracuse, of which she is the patron saint. She accompanied her mother to the tomb of S. Agatha in Catania, in order that her mother might be cured through the virtue of that saint. S. Agatha appeared to her

and prophesied that she should be a virgin devoted to GOD, her mother healed, and that Lucy should bestow
in a vision,

honour on Syracuse, and

attain

to

her

own

saintliness.

On

returning to Syra-

cuse her betrothed, discovering her resolve to maintain her virginity, accused her of
a

being a Christian. She was imprisoned in house of ill-fame, and was subsequently blinded, and finally slain by the thrust of a sword in her throat. She is represented with her eyes in a dish or on a book, or as presenting them to the Blessed Virgin A sword through her neck, or Mary. held in both hands, a dagger or poignard, a pair of pincers, are also her symbols.

The Seven Champions of Christendom

161

CHAPTER

XIII

Seven @fiampions of Qftristendom


prosperity of nations in the ages of faith seemed to be permanently secured if they were placed under the immediate tutelary protection of a patron To him prayers were addressed saint. for the weal of the nation. He was the invisible guardian of its army. His name, invoked in the national battle-cry, " S. " George of England," S. Denis of France," infused courage and ardour into the
-L

soldiers

who fought under

their banners.

there have By been seven chosen champions of Christendom who have guided and guarded the destinies of the nations of which These are they were the patron saints.

the consent of tradition

62

Symbolism of the Saints


S.

S.
S.

Denis of France,

Anthony of
S.

Italy,

James of Spain,

S.

George of England,
Patrick

S.

Andrew of

Scotland,

of

and S. David of Wales. The stories and legends of the lives of some of these have already been given. Some
Ireland,

record of the other champions are here

appended.

The memory of
France, venerated
sent
S.

the Patron

Saint of

Denis
in

(A.D.

that

272), country.
to

is

He

greatly

was

by Pope Clement, and founded the sees of Paris, His companions Chartres, and others. were SS. Eleutherius and Rusticus. Such
progress did they make in converting the people of Gaul that the anger of the Roman Emperor was aroused. Roman

on

mission

Gaul

Consul was sent to Paris, and the three saints were ordered to be beheaded. Our Saviour appeared to S. Denis on the eve of his martyrdom and gave to him the

Holy

Eucharist.

His martyrdom

is

the

subject of most of the representations of

Plate 37.

Pisanello]

[Mansell, Photo.
S.

S.

ANTHONY AND

GEORGE.

(See pages 76 and 164.)

64

Symbolism of the Saints


is

the saint, and he

usually depicted carry-

head in his hands. In the Church of S. Denis at Paris there is a representation of the saint wearing a mitre and bound to a cruciform tree, two mallets He is believed to lying on the ground. have carried his head to Montmartre, where a church was erected in the seventh His relics were conveyed to the century. where now stands the beautiful abbey, church of S. Denisj the burial-place of the Throughout France kings of France.
ing his
there are very numerous representations of the saint with his usual emblem, a sword or an axe.

The Patron Saint of England George, who was martyred in A.D.


In the
the

is

S.

303.

Diocletian

Christian soldier

young of Nicomedia 1 tore down


persecution

imperial edicts which ordered the torture of Christians and the destruction of churches, and for his act was roasted
at a
1

slow

fire,

the stern composure with


at

S.

George was born

Lydda about 270

A.D.

The Seven Champions of Christendom

165

which he bore and mortifying

his

his

suffering astonishing executioners. This

holy martyr must not be confounded with George of Cappadocia, the Arian Bishop of Alexandria, the successor of S. Athanasius in A.D. 356, a persecutor of the

orthodox Christians who raged against Catholics of every class, and by his exactions became no less odious to the pagans than he was to the orthodox. He was massacred by the populace on Christ-

mas Eve, A.D. 361. However, legends have confused the two, and some of the events in the life of the heretical bishop were attributed to the brave soldier1 Bede states that the martyr was martyr.
" We have had two S. Georges in history, and, our shame, we have made them one ; and the while we have borne his banner, the red cross, into every corner of the globe, have placed his badge on
1

to

feast,

the noblest breasts, have kept his day as our special have given his name to the most regal chapel

in our land, have dedicated to him one hundred and sixty-two churches ; and while we have been doing all these things in his honour, we have been indolently

66

Symbolism of the Saints

beheaded under Dacian, King of Persia. The story of his slaying the dragon came later. The popularity of the saint in at England dates from the Crusades the Council of Oxford in 1222, his feast was ordered to be kept as a national festival, and when Edward III founded the Order of the Garter, S. George became the patron saint of the kingdom. He is also the protector of Genoa and Venice, and his name is revered in all the Oriental Churches. No saint is more famous in art. We see him in every
;

guise

standing in armour piercing a dragon with a spear which has a cross and banner at its top, riding on horseHis white back tilting at the dragon.

banner with a red cross is his frequent symbol, and a sword instead of a spear
content
to

allow

our

greatest
as

historical

writer
this

(Gibbon) to describe him scamps and darkest villains earth with crime."

one of the lowest


ever stained

that

( Hepworth Dixon.

The Seven Champions of Christendom


is

167

Before him weapon. of Apollo in one representation. Giorgione's finest work of the storm at sea shows S. Mark with S. George and S. Nicholas going in a vessel
his
falls

sometimes
the

idol

appears in of SS. Michael Andrea[M^itegna]s picture

to

aid Venice.

The

saint

and George now

in the

Louvre, and

in

countless other paintings, being ever associated with the Archangel in slaying the dragon, the emblem of sin and Satan. ' O

On

coins too he
is

is

often represented, and

his figure a suit in

engraved on armour, as on Tower of London, given the Emperor Maximilian to Henry by


the

VIII.
S.

Andrew of
the
is

Scotland

and

also

Russia,

first-called

Apostle

of of our

LORD,

The

often mentioned in the Gospels. scenes of his missionary labours were

Some Scythia, Cappadocia, and Bithynia. account of his life and martyrdom has already been given (p. 37). S. David of Wales was of noble descent.

68

Symbolism of the Saints

His father, Prince Sandda, dreamed that he would receive three gifts a stag, a fish, and a swarm of bees. The honey denoted
the
son's

future

abstinence, and the stag

sanctity, the fish his his power over

the old serpent, as stags were believed to devour snakes. S. David founded twelve monasteries and lived a holy austere life,
tribes to the the banks of the hence crystal Honthy he fed on leeks Welshmen wear leeks on his festival; S.

converting the wild


Christian
Faith.

Welsh

On

David's Cathedral and Diocese preserve his name. Scenes from his life appear in the mosaics at the east end of the church. The brass of his shrine remains, though the feretrum has been destroyed. S. Patrick of Ireland, Bishop and Confessor, drave out snakes from the Emerald

and has for his symbol a snake. His has been often written, the two earliest being recorded in the famous Book of He Armagh, of the seventh century. founded the Cathedral Church of Armagh
Isle,
life

The Seven Champions of Christendom


in

169
;

A.D.

445, and

many
cleric

other churches

and, as

Angus
The

the Culdee sings


fifty

" Seven times

bishops

saint ordained,

With

Upon whom

three hundred pure priests, he conferred orders."

We
of
S.

saint

have already given some account James the Greater, the champion of Spain, and his connection with

which has also for its patron Bishop of Seville (died A.D. 636), whose emblem is an angel holding a plough while the saint prays. S. Anthony of Padua is the champion and patron saint of Italy. Some account of his life and of his numerous emblems which artists have loved to bestow upon him has already been given (p. 76).
that country,
S.

Isidore,

170

Symbolism of the Saints

CHAPTER XIV
Saints wfto fiave inspired Jlrt

NO
He

saint

has

been more frequently

citizen of Narbonne, and a favourite of Diocletian, he was made commander of the Praetorian Guards. Under the cloak he proved himself a true military of CHRIST, and consoled the soldier

represented in art than S. Sebastian. was martyred in the year A.D. 287.

stand firm. He was at length betrayed to the Emperor, who ordered him to be led to an open plain and shot at by
soldiers as a target. His wounded body was discovered by Irene, the widow of Castulus, who had also been martyred. Again he bore witness to the truth, and denied that the Christians were enemies

martyrs in their

trials,

urging

them

to

Plate 38.

Pollaiolo]

[Anderson, Photo.

S.

SEBASTIAN.

(See page 170.)

172

Symbolism of the Saints

of the Emperor or the State. Diocletian ordered him to be flogged to death, and his body cast into the Cloaca Maxima. The corpse of the brave martyr was, however, rescued and buried in the Catacombs. Artists have loved to depict the tragedy, and have bestowed upon it
all

their

skill.

The

saint

is

usually

represented naked, bound


pierced
picture

to a tree

and

by
of

arrows.

him

and Charity.

painted a accompanied by Faith Giovanni Benvenuto, or


Belluci

Dell' Ortolano, depicts him together with SS. Roch and Demetrius. Antonio Pol-

painted a noble picture of the martyrdom with figures of his execuIn the tioners discharging their arrows. Vatican there is a painting on this subject by Pinturicchio, and in the Uffizi Gallery, II Giovanni Bazzi, styled Florence, and the martyrdom Sodoma, depicts shows an angel descending to crown the saint. He appears also in the " San " Sebastiano of Titian, and in the " Malaiuolo

Saints

who have
Saints,"

inspired

Art

173

donna and

by Giovanni

Bellini.

other examples might be given. S. Valentine, whose feast-day occurs on February I4th, has somehow come to be regarded as the patron saint of lovers.

Many

He

was

a faithful priest,

and

for his zeal

restored the persecution. sight of the young daughter of his stern judge, whose eyes by this miracle were
to the sacred light of the Gospel. the sun sometimes appears as his was beheaded outside the symbol.

suffered

He

opened

Hence

He

Porta
is

del

Populo,

at

Rome, formerly
;

called the Porta Valentini


his usual symbol.

hence a sword

Very numerous
of
S.

are the representations

Nicholas of Myra (A.D. 342), the Some poor patron saint of mariners.
bodies hosts, The saint concast into a tub. being victed the murderers and restored the dead to life. The legends of S. Nicholas
their

scholars came murdered by

to

Athens,

and

were

their

have provided many subjects for

artists,

74

Symbolism of the Saints

and appear

in glass and painting and The font at Winchester carved in stone. Cathedral shows some scenes from his life. The three youths whom he rescued are often shown emerging from a tub or Three chest or kneeling before him.

golden balls upon a book are often his emblems, as in the paintings of Botticelli, Gaetano Bianchi, and others at Rome.

Andrea
his

hand.

del Sarto places the three balls in His charity to the three poor

maidens
ill-fame

whom
is

he rescued from a

life

of

in the painting of Fra in which the saint is depicted Angelico, handing money through a window.

shown

He

episcopal robes, and an appears anchor, a ship, and a model of a church are other of his emblems.
in

his

The

charitable

act

of

S.

Martin of

dividing his cloak with a poor man has been seized upon by many artists, and The appears in numerous paintings. incident occurred outside the gate of Amiens, where stood an old man bare of

Plate 39.

Capanna Puccio]
S.

[Anderson, Photo.

MARTIN.

(See page 174.)

J6

Symbolism of the Saints

clothing,

begging.

Martin,

who was

young

so, nothing drawing his sword, he cut it in twain, and gave one half to the beggar. He is usually shown on horseback, dressed in

not yet baptized, soldier, to give save his cloak ;

had

Van Dyck's painting at white cloak. Winchester Cathedral depicts the scene, also Molanus, Caxton's Golden Legend, some old tapestry of the Vintner's Company, London, and numerous other works of art in Western Europe show this CHRIST appeared to him charitable act. clad in the portion of the cloak, saying, " Martin, yet a catechumen, has covered Me with this garment." He was elected Bishop of Tours, and founded a monasa

opposing the conduct of the Spanish bishops in their treatment of


tery.

His

courage

in

Emperor Maximus and


heretic
Priscellian,

the
is

the

remarkable.

The

devil oft tried to tempt him, but he resisted with the same brave spirit.
S.

Christopher was very popular

among

Saints

who have

inspired

Art

-177

the painters of our English mural decorations, as the sight of him was deemed to

preserve a man from danger during the He is always depicted as a giant, day. and the legends attached to him are well known. He set out on his pilgrimage to find the most powerful prince on earth. need not follow his adventures until at length he was baptized by a hermit, and set to carry travellers over a river. The Infant CHRIST appeared to him, convinced him that he was bearing the Creator of the world on his shoulders, and caused his staff, planted in the ground, to flower like

We

a palm-tree.

He is

ultimately martyred. usually represented as a giant wading

He was

through a river with a growing tree in his hand, and carrying the Infant Saviour on
his shoulders.

On

the river-bank

you can

usually see his lonely hermit's


S.

cell.

Leonard often appears

in art.

He He

lived in France in the time of the Visigoths, is and is the patron saint of Limoges.
also the patron saint of prisoners,

and loved N

78

Symbolism of the Saints

to release

them from
of his

their fetters, accord-

ing to the Old English


" But Leonard
asunder pull,

rhyme

prisoners

do:h the bandes

And

breakes the prison doores and chaincs wherhis

with

church

is

full."

The

Prince of Antioch, Bohemond, son of Robert Guiscard, when he came to France in 1 1 06, visited Limoges, and offered silver
his escape often represented captivity. in art releasing prisoners from the stocks.
fetters to the saint's altar for

from

He

is

On our English rood-screens he appears with chains or manacles with a lock, someBroken times with chains and a crozier. fetters, an ox lying with him, holding a
youth by
are del
a chain who is mounting a ladder, some emblems of the saint. Andrea Sarto (Viennese Gallery) painted him
in

with fetters in his hand, and


ing in Camden's holding a vane.

Britannica

an engravhe appears

There

are

many

other saints whose lives

Saints

who have

inspired Art

179

and attributes we should like to recall to the memory of our readers. But these must suffice. Many lessons can be drawn from their constancy, their courage, their

The storms of persecution simple faith. may again rage to try our strength. By
lesser trials

and more insidious ways

is

the

Christian's faith

Whether proved. all the legends recorded be true or not it is needless to they proclaim the inquire ideals of Christian fortitude, perseverance, and courage, and teach lessons which are not unprofitable to the followers of CHRIST in every age.
:

now

" Justorum animae


non
illos

in

manu Dei
illi

stint,
:

et

tanget sunt oculis insipientium mori, in pace, Alleluia."

tormentum

malitiae

visi

autem sunt

LAUS DEO.

INDEXES

Saints wit6 tdeir Symbols


Aaron.
Censer or rod,
Knife,
5.

6.

Abraham. Adrian and

Natalia, SS. Lion's head at feet, 70.

Aldhelm, S. Harp, Si. Alphege, S. 87. Ambrose, S. Scourge and crown tower beehive,
;
;

Agapetus, S.- 73. Breasts Agatha, S.


dish
129,
;

on
128,

Amos. Shepherd
sheep,
6.

115, 116.

with

pincers
1

veil,

60.

Amphibalus,

S.

79.

3yn\bob

Agnes,

S. Lamb dove bearing ring, 126, 128. Aidan, S. Stag ; lighted


;

Andrew,
cross
;

S.

X or

V-shaped

torch, 74, 87.

Alban,S.
cross, 79, 80.

Sword and
181

fish-hook, 22, 24, 37, 162, 167. Anicetus, S. Wheel, 94. Anne, S. Triple crown

and book,

15, 18, 19.

182

Index

A nan as
t

us.

Pallium;

heretics beneath feet, 120, 121, 165. Augustine of Hippo, S.

Inflamed heart with arrow 115-117, eagle,


;

133-

Barnabas, S. flames and


65.

Stone
stake,

or

62,

Bartholomew,
of*

S.

5T ANTHONY.
(Hermit).

Flaying
22,

knife
24,
84.

knife

and book,

Anthony,
Book

S.

3.
Pitcher,

Hog, or goat, 75, 121. Anthony of Padua, S.


;

Bede, Ven.

lily,

76, 161, 169.

A
Ptfvoers

ra\7eiz

fe

a broken

Benedict, S. Raven and broken sieve, 97, 98. Bernard, S. Three mitres
S.

Apollonia,

Pincers

at

feet

beehive

white

holding tooth, 130.

dog, 98, 100-103.

Index
Bibiana, S. palm, 159.

183

Dagger

and

Blessed Virgin Branch of palm


lilies

Mary.
;

roses

and
;

of the the

valley

girdle, 15, 16.

Boniface, S. Book pierced by sword sword on book,


;

87, 88.

Bridget,

S.

Staff,

wallet,

and

bottle,

148-150.

S'

Bruno

Catherine of Alexandria,S.

Wheel
lamb

set

and

with spikes ; 134, palm,

A Crucifix
Bruno,
io\.

Catherine of Siena, S. Stigmata lily and book dove on head, 137, 138.
;

S.

Crucifix,

103,

Cdlltxtus

4 mill stone

it Cecilia

&tv

Cecilia, S.

Organ, harp, or
82.

Calixtus, S.
96.

Millstone,

violin, 77, 158.

Chad,

S.

Index
Christopher, S.
staff,

Tree
;

as

Dominic,
cross,
1

S.

Lily

book,
1

176.

and
la

rosary,

06,

Clare, S.

scimitar ; Lily cross in turban, 144, 145.

08, 109.

Dominic de -8.
Dorothy,
S.

Calzada, S.

Rose; apples, Harp, 83.

129, 130. Dunstan, S.

Edmund,
arrow

S.

Arrow;
sceptre,

or or

and

3T CLEM&NT

globe, 84.

Edward

the Confessor, S.
;

Clement,
67.

S.
94. S.

Anchor,
Sunbeams,

Sceptre and ring, 84. Chariot sword in Elijah.

Cletus, S.

Columba,
88, 89.

hand, Elisha.

6.

Two-headed eagle

Constantine the Great.


95> 96.

on shoulder, 6. Elizabeth of Hungary, S. Double or triple crown


basket of bread or flowers,
I5 T > 157-

Cornelius, S. Horn, 96. Cuthbert, S. 87. Cyprian of Antioch, S. Gridiron and sword, 146,
147.

Etheldreda,
;

S.

Crozier

and book saucer and crown of flowers budded


;

staff,

152.

Daniel.

Lion

or

ram with

four horns, 6.

Eusebius. 95. Eustace, S. Stag, 73, 74. Ezekiel. Gate with towers
in

David, S
1

Leek, 162, 167,

hand,

6, 46.

68.

Denis, S.

Head
;

two

mallets

in hands sword or
;

Fabianus, S.
sword, 96.

Dove, and

axe, 162, 164.

Index
Gertrude, S.
figure

Heart with
the

of

Saviour

fingers graced with rings,

156, 157.

Gridiron Faith, S. sword, 147, 148.


S.

and
S' dies the wounded

Frances, Violets, 133. Francis de Sales, S. Heart in hand, no. Francis of Assisi, S.
Stigmata;
lily;

hind
Giles, S.

lamb, 104S. of

Wounded

hind
S.

106, 108, 144.

arrow, 122, 125.

Francis

of

Paula,
in

Gregory Nazianzen,
68.

Word

caritas

rays

light, 109.

Frideswide, S.
sceptre, 81.

Crown and

George, S.

Dragon; white
cross, 8,

banner with red

161-167. George of Cappadocia.


165.

S Gregory The Holy Dnvt on shoulder


1

Gerasimus, S.
ing
70.

Lion carryof

Gregory the Great, Dove whispering in


92, 115.

S.

ear

bucket

water,

iron ring round body, 91,

[86
Hedwiges,
S. 151.

Index
Ignatius of Antioch, S. Lion sacred monogram and harp, 73.
;

Helena,
cross
;

S.

Embracing

holding nail over

chalice, 140.

Hermas. 94. Holy Innocents.

30.

The tiol^ Spirih

Symbol
of
Isaiah.
lj>ai\l\

Holy

Spirit.
4.

The Holy

Dove,

Saw,

6,

James
8.

of Compostella, S.

Symbol of

55. HUBERT EUSTACE Hubert and Eustache (or


it

of

3
c-

Jevmvs
S.
;

Staff.

Waller

f^&lbp 5\cil

Eustace), SS.
74-

Stag, 73,
;

James
Staff,

the

Greater,

shell,

and wallet

Hugh,

S.

Swan

lantern

angel holding plough, 8,


22, 28, 162, 169.

vision of seven stars, 84.

James

the

Less,

S.

Ignatius Loyola, Sacred monogram on


breast or in hand, 109.

S.

Fuller's club, 22, 24,


36.

32-

Jeremiah.

rush, 6.

Index
Jerome,
scroll
;

S.

Lion, inkhorn;
;

Joseph, S

Rod and

lilies

cross

staff,

68,

"5Joachim,
Joel.
S.
6.

15.

carpenter's plane, saw and hatchet, 15, 16, 18. Joseph of Arimathaea, S.

Lion,

of Beverley, Shrine at side, 84. John the Baptist,

John

S. S.
;

Sangrael and staff, 62. Judas. Money-bag, 24. Knotted club; Jude, S.

boat; boathook
penter's 36, 69.

car24^

Lamb, and
staff

scroll

long

square,

22,

with small crosspiece,

12, 14.

Juliana Falconieri, S. Sacred Host on her heart,

H3.

144-

Justina of Antioch, S. sword Unicorn palm


; ;

in breast

lily,

75,

Justina of Padua, Unicorn, 75.

147. S.

Laurence,
cup
ts

S.

Gridiron,
Bier
;

^
S.

John the Evangelist,


;

Cup, from which issues snake eagle, 22, 24, 29,


32, 45, 49, 56,

65, 66, 148. Lazarus, S. 57, 58, 61. Leo, S. 93.

boat,

S' Leonard

Fetters

Jor\&h (from (ataco

Leonard,
Cers
;

S.

Broken

fet-

chains with lock, or

Jonah.

Large

fish, 6.

with crozier, 178.

i88
Lucy,
cers,

Index
S.
1

Eyes
;

in dish or
;

Matthew,

S.
;

Angel with
hatchet, 22,
;

on book
60.

dagger

pin-

man's face

24, 45, 49-52.

Luke, S.

Ox, 49,

54.

Matthias, S. Battle-axe sword or hatchet cross,


;

Magi.

19.

Malachi. An angel, 6. Marcellinus, Pope. 94. Margaret of Scotland, S. Holding black rood ; sceptre and book, 142.

spear, 42.

or

club,

22,

24,

Maximian, S. 58. Monica, S. Handkerchief, "6, 133Moses. Tables of the Law,


6.

Mark,

S.

Lion,

45,
;

49,

Martha,

52, 68, 92, 167. S. Dragon

box
Natalia, S.
70.

of ointment, 57, 58, 60. Martin, S. Divided cloak,

174-176.

Mary Magdalen
S.

of Pazzi,
thorns
;

Crown

of

embracing

cross, 141.

Anchor and Ship Symbols of S r Nicholas

of

MARY MAGDALENE

Mary
57-

Magdalene,
of Bethany, S.

S.

Nicholas of Myra, S. Three golden balls on book or in hand anchor


;

Mary
58.

57,

Noah.

ship, 167, 173, 174. Ark ; or dove


5.

and

olive-branch,

Indei
S! Norbert

189

Chal.ce
;

Norbert, S.

Monstrance chalice with spider, 110-

Raven t Palm Symbols of S' Paul the

first

hermit

Paul

the Hermit, S. Dress of palm-leaves, and


ravens, 121, 122. Felicitas,

Osmund,

S.
in

Book
hand, 89.

of

Sarum Use Oswald, S.

Perpetua and SS. Cow, 75.

87.

Patrick,
169.

Snake,

168,

rr\5

of ExeJer

Peter, S. Key or keys, 22, 24-28, 53, '93-95. 109.


128.

Paul, S.

Sword book and serpent; phoenix and


;

palm-tree, 24, 26, 62, 67, 70, 93, 95. I0 9-

Peter Martyr, S.

Sword

190
and three crowns
in
;

Index
knife

Simon,
fuller's

hand,
S.
;

1 1

8.

Peter Nolasco, S.
Philip,
pillar

no.
staff

a fish in hand ; two fishes or an oar, 22,


;

S. bat

Large

saw

or basket with bread ;

Long

24, 36.

Sixtus, S.

Sword, 96.

T-shaped

cross

crown

and book, 22, 24, 32-34. Pius (or Pituouse), S. Oval with sacred monogram, 94. Polycarp, S.
77-

White dove,
;

ST STEPHEN
Stephen,
S.

Stones
S.

and

Lion Prisca, S. sword, 69, 70.

eagle

clubs, 29, 65.

Stephen (Pope),

Sword

in breast, 94, 95.

Sylvester, S.
Richard, S.
Chalice, 83. Rose of Lima, S. Crown of thorns ; rose in hand,
145, 146.

Tiara;
scroll
;
;

double cross and


cross

and

olive-branch

ox, 95.

Theckla, S.
at feet, 70.

Lion's head

Theresa,
;

S. Pen and book angel with arrow and heart, 150.


S.

Thomas,
lance
42.
Tilt
.

Spear

or

girdle, 22, 24,

40-

Arrow

Thomas Aquinas,
Silver

S.

of S

Sebastian

net

with precious
1 1

stones, 117,

8.

Sebastian,

Body bound
by arrows,

Thomas
in
in

to tree, pierced

of Canterbury, S. Crozier with battle-axe

I70-I73Silvanus, S.

head

sword

in

hand or

73.

head, 85.

Index
Timothy,
clubs, 65.

191
Veil or hand-

S.

Stones and

Veronica, S.
kerchief, 61.

Urban

II,

Pope.

103.

Wilfrid, S.

Winifred, S.

Baptizing pagans, 84, 152. Carries her severed head, 156. Wulstan, S. 85, 87.

Zechariah.
building, 6.

Temple

in

Ursula, S. Arrow triple crown, sceptre, and pnlm,


;

153, 154.

Sun &nd Sword Symbols of S' Valentine Sun and Valentine, S.

monstrance

Zephyrinus,
strance, 96.

S.

Mon-

Sword, 173.

II

Symbols of t6e Saints


Anchor.
,,

S.

Clement, 67. S. Nicholas, 174.


Malachi,
6.

Basket of bread, or
flowers,

and flagon of
S.

Angel.
S.

wine.
169.

Elizabeth

of
S.

Angel holding plough.


Angel with
heart.

James the Great, arrow

Hungary, 158. Basket with bread.


Philip, 33.

and

S. Theresa, 150.

Battle-axe
52-

S.
S.

Matthew,
Matthias,
1

Angel with man's

face.

S. Matthew, 49. Apples. S. Dorothy, 130. Ark. Noah, 5.

Battle-axe.
24, 42.

Beehive.
Bier.

S.

Ambrose,!

6.

Arrow.

Arrow
joined
globe).

S. Giles, 122, 125.

(sometimes
with
S.

conor
85.

S. Bernard, 102. S. Lazarus, 61.


S. Jude, 37.
S. Lazarus, 61. S. Martha, 60.

sceptre

Boat.
,,

Edmund,

Arrow, body pierced by.

Arrows

S. Sebastian, 172. in hand. S.

Ur-

Boathook. S. Jude, 37. Book. S. Bartholomew, 38.


S. Paul, 26.

sula, 153.

Axe or sword.
164.

S. Denis,

Book and arrow.


125.

S. Giles,

Book and lily.


Balls,

S.

Anthony

three
in

golden,

on
S.

book or

hand.

of Padua, 77. Book, cross, and rosary.


S.

Nicholas, 174.

Dominic, 108.
of

Banner, white,
cross.

and red
192

Book

Sarum Use
S.

in

S. George, 166.

hand.

Osmund,

89.

Index
Book
pierced by sword on book. S.
Cross.
S.
;

'93
SS.

Cow.

sword

Perpetua

and

Felicitas, 75.

Boniface, 87, 88.

Cross and book.


AnCross and book.
34-

S. Cath-

Bowl and

erine of Siena, 138.

thony of Padua, 77. Box of ointment in hand.


Martha, 60. Broken fetters S.
S.

S.Philip,

Cross and crown of thorns.


LeoEthelS.

Catherine of Siena,
,

nard, 178.

138.
S.

Budded

staff.

Cross and olive branch.


S. Sylvester, 95. Cross and staff. S.

dreda, 153.

Jer-

ome, 69.

"Caritas" in rays of light.


S.

Cross (embracing).
S. Helena, 140.
S.

Francis

of

Paula,

109.

Mary

Magdalen

of

Carpenter's

plane, saw, hatchet. S. Joseph, 16. S. Carpenter's square. Jude, 37.

Pazzi, 142.

Cross (inverted).
37-

S. Jude,
S.

Cross

saltire (X).

AnS.

Carpenter's square S. Matthew, 52.


S.

(T).

drew, 37.

Cross, T-shaped.
Philip, 33.

Thomas,

40.

Chalice S. Richard, 83. Chalice and nail. S. Helena, 140.

Crown.

S. Cecilia, 159.

Crown and

Chalice with

S. spider. Norbert, in. Chariot. Elijah, 6. Cloak. S. Martin, 176.

S. sceptre. Frideswide, 82. Crown of thorns. Catherine of Siena, S.

138.
S.

Club
,, ,,
,,

S.

James the Less,

S. S.

Francis of Assisi, 106. Mary Magdalen of


Pazzi, 141. Rose of Lima, 146.

24. S. Jude, 24. S. Matthias, 42. S. Stephen, 29.


S.

S. Theresa, 151.

Crozier

and

book.

S.

Timothy, 65.

Etheldreda, 153.

194

Index
Eagle.
S.

Crozier and chains S. Leonard, 178. Crozier with battle - axe head. S.Thomas of Canterbury, 85. Crucifix. S. Bruno, 104.
,,

John the Evan-

gelist, 30, 32, 49. Eagle. S. Prisca, 70.

Eagle on shoulder, two-

Eyes

headed. Elisha, 6. in dish or on book.


S.

S.

Theresa, 151.

Lucy,

60.
S.

Cup from which issues snake. S. John the


Evangelist, 24.

Fish-hook.
37-

Andrew,
6.

Dagger and
Bibiana, 159.

palm.

S.
S.

Fish, large.

Jonah,

Dagger or poignard
Lucy; 160.

Fish on hand, or on leaves of a book S. Simon, 36.

Flames

and

stake.

S.

Dog

(white). 102.

S.

Bernard,
S.

Barnabas, 65. Fuller's bat. S. Jude, 36.


,, ,,

Dog
,, ,,

firing a globe. Dominic, 108.


S.

Dove.

Fabianus, 96.
5.

Fuller's club. S. the Less, 24, 36.

S.Simon, 37. James

Noah,

Gate and towers


Ezekiel, 6.

in

hand.
42.

Dove

S. Polycarp, 77. and sword. S. FabiS.

Girdle.

S.

Thomas,
S.

anus, 96.

Dove bearing
Agnes, 128. Dove on head.

Gridiron.
ring.
S.

Cyprian

of

Cathein ear.

rine of Siena, 138.

Antioch, 147. Gridiron. S. Faiih, 147. S. Laurence, 66. ,,

Dove whispering
S.

Halbert.
,,

S.

S.

Dunstan, 84. Gregory the Great,


92.
S.

Jude, 37.

Matthew, 52. Handkerchief. S. Monica,


S.

Dragon.
,,

S.
S.
1

Martha, 58. George, 166.

134-

Handkerchief.
ica, 61.

S.

Veron81.

Eagle. Hippo,

Augustine
17.

of

Harp.
,,

S.

Aldhelm,

S. Cecilia, 159.

Index
Harp. S. Dunstan, 83. S.WiniHead, a severed
fred, 156.

9S

Knife in hand, sword in


heart.
118.

S. Peter Martyr,
S. Jude, 24.

Head
164.

in

hands.
dish.

S. Denis,
S.

Knotted club.

Head on
de Sales,

John

Ladder guarded by the


dragon.
S.

Baptist, 14. Heart in hand.


1

Perpetua,
S.

S. Francis

75-

10.

Ladle and keys.


tha, 58. Lamb. S.
, ,

Mar-

Heart in hand, fingers graced with seven rings.


S. Gertrude,

Agnes, 126.
106.

Heart with cross.

157.

S. Francis of Assisi, S. Cath-

S.
S.

Hind and arrow.


Giles, 122, 125.

Catherine of Siena, 138.

Lamb and palm.

Lamb and
Lance
Leek.
Lily
,, ,,

eiine of Alexandria, 137.

scroll, or
;

Hog, or goat.
Hermit, 75.

S.

Anthony,

lamb on book lamb and locusts. S. John


Baptist, 12, 14.

Horn.

S. Cornelius, 96.

Inflamed heart
S.

or spear. Thomas, 24, 40.


S. David, 168.
S. Clare, 145. S. Dominic, 108.

S.

Augustine of Hippo,
117.

S. Catherine of Siena, 138.


S.

Mary

Magdalen

of

S. Francis of Assisi,

Pazzi, 142. Inkhorn. S. Jude, 69. S. Mark, 53. ,,

105.
,,

S.

JustinaofAntioch,
147.

Iron ring round body. S. Gregory the Great, 92.

,,

S. Theresa, 151.

Lily and book.


S.

Anthony
138.

Key

or

keys.

S.

Peter,

S.

Catherine
Daniel,

of Padua, 77. of Siena,


6.

24, 25.

Knife.

Abraham,

5.

Lion
Bar,,

Knife (flaying). S. tholomew, 24, 38.

,,

S. Ignatius, 73. S. Jerome, 68.

196
Lion
,,

Index
Joel, 6.
S.

Palm.

S.

Justina

of

AnS.

Mark, 49, 53, 68.

S. Prisca, 69.

Palm Palm

tioch, 147. and crucifix.

Lion carrying bucket of


water.
70.
S.

Alban, 80.
in

Gerasimus,

hand.
J

S.

Peter
;

Lion's head at feet. S. Theckla, 70. SS. Adrian and Natalia,


70.

Martyr, I 8. Palm - leaves, and ravens.

dress of S. Paul the


54.

Pen.
fish.

Hermit, 122. S. Luke,


S.

Loaves and
37-

S.

Jude,
ISO-

Mark,

53.
S.

Pen and book.


S.

Theresa,

Mallets (two).
164.

Denis,

Phoenix and palm-tree.


Pincers.
,,

Millstone.

S. Calixtus, 95.

S. Paul, 26. S. Agatha, 128.

Money-bag.
Magdalen of Monstrance.
ii
i.

Monstrance.

Judas, 24.
S.

S.

Lucy,

60.

Mary

Pincers holding tooth.


S. Apollonia, 1 30. Pitcher. Yen. Bede, 84.

Pazzi, 142. S. Norbert,


S.

Monstrance.
inus, 95.

Zephyr-

Ram

with four horns.


6.

Daniel,

Oar. S. Simon, 36. Olive-branch. Noah,

Raven and broken


5.

sieve.

S. Benedict, 97, 98.

Organ

S. Cecilia, 159.

Ravens and dress


leaves.
S.

Oval with sacred Monogram. S. Pius (or Pituouse), 94. Ox. S. Luke, 49, 54.
,,

of palmPaul the

Rod and

Hermit, 122. censer in hand. Aaron, 6.


lilies.

S. Sylvester, 95.
S.

Rod and
1

S. Joseph, S.

6.

Pallium.
1

Athanasius,

Rood

in

hand.

Mar-

20.

Palm.

S. Cecilia, 159.

garet of Scotland, 143. Rose. S. Dorothy, 130.

Index
Rose
in hand. of Lima, 146.
lilies

197
S. Anselm, 83. S. Nicholas, 174. with sails. S. Jude,

S.

Rose

Ship.
,,

Roses and
Blessed
15-

of valley. Virgin Mary,

Ship
37-

Shrine at
Jeremiah,
6.

side.

S.

John of

S. Cecilia, 159.

Rush.

Beverley, 84. Silver net with precious

stones.
Sacred Host on heart
.

S.

Thomas

Aquinas, 118.

S. Juliana Falconieri, 144.

Snake.
S.

S. Patrick, 168.

Sacred

Monogram
heart.

and
S.

Snake issuing from cup.


John the Evangelist,
S. Matthias, 42. S. Thomas, 40.

flaming
Sacred
harp.

Catherine of Siena, 138.

24.

Monogram

and

Spear.
,,

S. Ignatius, 73.

Sacred

Monogram on
S.

Staff or pillar.

breast or in hand.
Ignatius Loyola,

no.
S.

Sangreal and

staff.

Joseph of Arimathrea, 62. Saucer and crown of flowers.


S. Etheldreda, 153.

S. Philip, 24. Staff, shell, and wallet. S. James the Great, 28. Staff, wallet, and bottle.

S. Bridget, 150. Staff with crosspiece.

S.

Saw.
,,

Isaiah, 6. S. Simon, 24, 36.


1

John
Stag.
,,

Baptist, 12. S. Aidan, 74.

Saw, plane, and hatchet.


S. Joseph,
6.

SS. Hubert and Eustache (or Eustace),


73S.

S. Sceptre and book. Margaret of Scotland, 143. Sceptre and ring. S. Edward the Confessor, 84. Scimitar, trampling on.
S. Clare, 145.

Stigmata. Stigmata.

Catherine of
Francis ot

Siena, 138.
S.
Assisi, 104. Stone S. Barnabas, 65.

Scourge

and
1 1

cross.
6.

S.

Stones and clubs.


S.

Ambrose,

Stephen, 65.

Shepherd with Amos, 6.

sheep.

S.

Timothy, 65.

198
Sunbeams.
88, 89.
S.

Index
Columba,
84.

Temple

Swan. Sword.
,,

S.

Hugh,

in building. Zechariah, 6. Tiara, double cross, and


scroll.
S. Sylvester, 95.

S. Cecilia, 159. S. Cyprian of An-

Torch
Tower. Tree as

(lighted).
S.

S.

tioch, 147. S. Denis, 164.


S.

Aidan, 74.

Ambrose, 116.
S.

Matthias, 42.

staff.

Chris-

S.

Paul, 24. S. Prisca, 70. S. Sixtus, 96.

topher, 177.

Sword

and

S. Valentine, 173. cross. S.

Alban, 80.

Sword and

gridiron.

S.

Triple-crown and book. S. Anne, 19. Triple- crown, sceptre, and palm. S. Ursula, 154. Triple (or double) crown. S. Elizabeth of Hungary, 157, 158.

Faith, 148. Sword in breast.


S.

Stephen,
95-

Pope,
of

94,

Unicorn.
Veil.

S. Justina, 75.

S.

Justina

Antioch,

147Sword in
S.

S. Agatha, 128. Veil or handkerchief.

S.

hand or in head. Thomas of Canterneck.


S.

bury, 85.

Veronica, 61. Violets. S. Frances, 133. Violin. S. Cecilia, 159.'

Sword through
Lucy,
1

60.

Wheel.

S. Anicetus, 94.

Wheel
Moses,
S.

set

with spikes.
of

Tables of the law.


6.

Catherine

Alex-

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Ditchfield, Peter Hampson Symbolism of the saints.

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