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UNIT 1: Internet Basic Introduction to HTML List Creating Table Linking document Frames - Graphics to HTML Doc Style sheet style sheet basic Add style to document Creating style sheet rules Style sheet properties Font Text List Color and Background color Box Display properties. UNIT 2: Introduction to JavaScript Advantage of JavaScript JavaScript syntax Data type Variable Array Operator and Expression Looping Constructor Function Dialog box. UNIT 3: JavaScript document object model Introduction object in HTML Event Handling Window object Document object Browser Object Form Object Navigator object Screen object Build in object User defined object Cookies. UNIT 4: ASP.NET Languages structure Page event, Properties & Compiler Directives. HTML server controls Anchor, Tables, Forms, Forms, Files. Basic web server Controls Label, Textbox, Button, Image, Links, Check & Radio button, Hyperlink. Data list Web server controls Check box list, Radio button list, Drop down list, List box, and Data grid, Repeater. UNIT 5: Request and Response Objects, Cookies, Working with Data OLEDB connection class, Command class transaction class, data adaptor class, data set class. Advanced Issues Email, Application Security Authentication, IP Address, Secure by SSL & Client Certificates. BOOKS FOR STUDY AND REFERENCES: 1. Bayross, Web Enable Commercial Application Development Using HTML, DHTML, JavaScript, Perl CGI, BPB Publications. 2. Jaworski, Mastering JavaScript, BPB Publications, 1999 3. T. A Powell, complete Reference HTML (Third Edition), TMH, 2002. 4. G. Buczek, ASP.NET Developers Guide, TMH, 2002.

Internet Basic:
Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 1

The internet begin 1969, as an four computer network called ARPAnet which was designed by the U.S. Defense Department so that research scientists could communicate .In approximate two year, ARPAnet grew to about two-dozen sites and by 1981,consisted of more then two hundred sites in 1990, ARPAnet was officially disbanded and the network, which now consisted of hundred sits, came to be know as the feature . ARPANET : Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (1969) A network of networks, joining many government, university and private computers together and providing an infrastructure for the use of E-mail, bulletin boards, search for information over Internet, enjoy Internet surfing , file archives, hypertext documents, databases and other computational resources Internet service provider (ISP), also sometimes referred to as an Internet access provider (IAP), is a company that offers its customers access to the Internet. The ISP connects to its customers using a data transmission technology appropriate for delivering Internet Protocol datagrams, such as dial-up, DSL, cable modem, wireless or dedicated high-speed interconnects WWW : World Wide Web Created 1989 This information is almost always retrieved using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). In fact HTTP has been in use by the World Wide Web since 1989, and its use has increased steadily over the years. Today there are millions of Web sites on the World Wide Web, all of them using HTTP The internet consists of two types of computer SERVER and CLIENT
Computer which offer information of be read are called Server Computer that read the information offered are called client

Client-server computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or work loads between service providers (servers) and service requesters, called clients

Current Servers Google-

Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 2

Info seek- Alta Vista Lycos Yahoo! Domain A domain is logical grouping of computers on a network. It may include multiple networks. It may also just be a subset of a network of computers.
" "

c o m

d u

o v



e t

r g


um m e

t a

i nb f e o r k e

l en y w

a t o

r m

u u

e s t

s t

k o

t t ao

r n a

d o

The top level domains

com ... for commercial entities edu ... for four-year educational institutions gov ... for non-military, United States federal government instititutions mil ... for United States military organizations net ... for network operations and Internet Service Providers (ISP) org ... for non-profit organizations

Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

Consists of 4 parts: Protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Domain Name or Internet Protocol (IP) address Directory Filename Specific document filename
Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 3

index. (s) htm(l) or default.(s)htm(l) Example:

TCP/IP is an abbreviation for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. TCP is a lossless protocol, requiring a handshake to insure that data is not lost during transmission. Internet Protocol (IP) uses addresses which are a series of four "octet" (byte) numbers in a dotted decimal notation. For example: Application (process-to-process) Layer: This is the scope within which applications create user data and communicate this data to other processes or applications on another or the same host. The communications partners are often called peers. This is where the "higher level" protocols such as SMTP, FTP, SSH, HTTP, etc. operate. Transport (host-to-host) Layer: The Transport Layer constitutes the networking regime between two network hosts, either on the local network or on remote networks separated by routers. The Transport Layer provides a uniform networking interface that hides the actual topology (layout) of the underlying network connections. Internet (internetworking) Layer: The Internet Layer has the task of exchanging datagram across network boundaries. It is therefore also referred to as the layer that establishes internetworking; indeed, it defines and establishes the Internet Link Layer: This layer defines the networking methods with the scope of the local network link on which hosts communicate without intervening routers. This layer describes the protocols used to describe the local network topology and the interfaces needed to affect transmission of Internet Layer datagrams to next-neighbor hosts. Internet Use: Internet used in business, education, Marketing, sales , research, online reservation , online trade , software development , job searching, video conference, Email ,File Transfer, chatting, etc.,

Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 4

To make a long story short, HTML was invented in 1990 by a scientist called Tim Berners-Lee. The purpose was to make it easier for scientists at different universities to gain access to each other's research documents HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language HTML is not a programming language, it is a markup language A markup language is a set of markup tags HTML uses markup tags to describe web pages

HTML markup tags are usually called HTML tags HTML tags are keywords surrounded by angle brackets like <html> HTML tags normally come in pairs like <b> and </b> The first tag in a pair is the start tag, the second tag is the end tag Start and end tags are also called opening tags and closing tags

HTML Documents = Web Pages

HTML documents describe web pages HTML documents contain HTML tags and plain text HTML documents are also called web pages

The purpose of a web browser (like Internet Explorer or Firebox) is to read HTML documents and display them as web pages. The browser does not display the HTML tags, but uses the tags to interpret the content of the page <html> <body> <h1>My First Heading</h1> <p>My first paragraph</p> </body> </html>

Example Explained

The The The The

text text text text

between between between between

<html> and </html> describes the web page <body> and </body> is the visible page content <h1> and </h1> is displayed as a heading <p> and </p> is displayed as a paragraph

HTML Element Syntax

An HTML element starts with a start tag / opening tag An HTML element ends with an end tag / closing tag The element content is everything between the start and the end tag

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Some HTML elements have empty content Empty elements are closed in the start tag Most HTML elements can have attributes


<!DOCTYPE> <html> <body> <h1> to <h6> <p> <br /> <hr /> <!--...--> Formatting <acronym> <abbr> <address> <b> <bdo> <big> <blockquote> <center> <cite> <code> <del> <dfn> <em>

Defines the document type Defines an HTML document Defines the document's body Defines HTML headings Defines a paragraph Inserts a single line break Defines a horizontal line Defines a comment

Defines an acronym Defines an abbreviation Defines contact information for the author/owner of a document Defines bold text Defines the text direction Defines big text Defines a long quotation Deprecated. Defines centered text Defines a citation Defines computer code text Defines deleted text Defines a definition term Defines emphasized text

Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117

<font> <i> <ins> <kbd> <pre> <q> <s> <samp> <small> <strike> <strong> <sub> <sup> <tt> <u> <var> <xmp> Forms <form> <input /> <textarea> <button> <select> <optgroup> <option>

Deprecated. Defines font, color, and size for text Defines italic text Defines inserted text Defines keyboard text Defines preformatted text Defines a short quotation Deprecated. Defines strikethrough text Defines sample computer code Defines small text Deprecated. Defines strikethrough text Defines strong text Defines subscripted text Defines superscripted text Defines teletype text Deprecated. Defines underlined text Defines a variable part of a text Deprecated. Defines preformatted text

Defines an HTML form for user input Defines an input control Defines a multi-line text input control Defines a push button Defines a select list (drop-down list) Defines a group of related options in a select list Defines an option in a select list

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<label> <fieldset> <legend> <isindex> Frames <frame /> <frameset> <noframes> <iframe> Images <img /> <map> <area /> Links <a> <link /> Lists <ul> <ol> <li> <dir> <dl> <dt> <dd> <menu>

Defines a label for an input element Defines a border around elements in a form Defines a caption for a fieldset element Deprecated. Defines a searchable index related to a document

Defines a window (a frame) in a frameset Defines a set of frames Defines an alternate content for users that do not support frames Defines an inline frame

Defines an image Defines an image-map Defines an area inside an image-map

Defines an anchor Defines the relationship between a document and an external resource

Defines an unordered list Defines an ordered list Defines a list item Deprecated. Defines a directory list Defines a definition list Defines a term (an item) in a definition list Defines a description of a term in a definition list Deprecated. Defines a menu list

Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117

Tables <table> <caption> <th> <tr> <td> <thead> <tbody> <tfoot> <col /> <colgroup> Styles <style> <div> <span> Meta Info <head> <title> <meta> <base /> <basefont /> Programming <script> <noscript> <applet> Defines a client-side script Defines an alternate content for users that do not support client-side scripts Deprecated. Defines an embedded applet Defines information about the document Defines the document title Defines metadata about an HTML document Defines a default address or a default target for all links on a page Deprecated. Defines a default font, color, or size for the text in a page Defines style information for a document Defines a section in a document Defines a section in a document Defines a table Defines a table caption Defines a header cell in a table Defines a row in a table Defines a cell in a table Groups the header content in a table Groups the body content in a table Groups the footer content in a table Defines attribute values for one or more columns in a table Defines a group of columns in a table for formatting

Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117

<object> <param />

Defines an embedded object Defines a parameter for an object

Text property This page deals with html tags for formatting a webpage with text and will show how to create a headline, how to make paragraphs, how to pick fonts and change their color and size .Use the H tag to create a headline, the h tag comes in six flavors

HTML Headings Property

<h1>Heading 1</h1> <h6>Heading 6</h6>

Text align Syntax: align= [left | center | right | justify]

Example <H5 align=left>Hello World</H5>

The FONT tag

Fonts are one of the most important visual elements of your page and if you're like most web designers you'll want to set a few fonts in every page. Probably the most versatile text formatting tag is the <FONT></FONT> tag the font tag not only allows the color and size of text to be selected but also allows specific fonts to be selected
Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 10

Example of the font tag <FONT face="arial">this is the arial font face</FONT> <FONT <FONT <FONT <FONT size=4>size 4</FONT> size=3>size 3</FONT> size=2>size 2</FONT> size=1>size 1</FONT

The font tag gives enough flexibility to allow html authors to specify a 'back up' font
<FONT face="georgic, times new roman, aerial">alternative fonts</FONT> Font styles use the <B></B> tags to make text <B>bold</B> use the <EM></EM> tags to <EM>emphasise text</EM> use the <U></U> tags to <U>underline text</U> use the <I></I> tags to make<I>italic text</I> use the <BIG></BIG> tags to <BIG>increase
the maximum font size is 7

the font size by +1</BIG>

use the <SMALL></SMALL> tags to <SMALL>decrease the font size by -1</SMALL>

the minimum font size is 1

Horizontal Rule
Here's a horizontal rule... <hr /> ...that was a horizontal rule :)

Text Formatting Tags

Tag <b> <big> <em> <i> <small> Defines bold text Defines big text Defines emphasized text Defines italic text Defines small text Description

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<strong> <sub> <sup> <ins> <del> <s> <strike> <u>

Defines strong text Defines subscripted text Defines superscripted text Defines inserted text Defines deleted text Deprecated. Use <del> instead Deprecated. Use <del> instead Deprecated. Use styles instead

Example Program
<html><body> <center><p><b>This text is bold</b></p> <p><big>This text is big</big></p> <p><i>This text is italic</i></p> <p><code>This is computer output</code></p> <p>This is<sub> subscript</sub> and <sup>superscript</sup></p> </center> </body></html>

Listing Property There are 3 different types of lists. A <ol> tag starts an ordered list, <ul> for unordered lists, and <dl> for definition lists. Use the type and start attributes to fine tune your lists accordingly. Unordered lists
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HTML-CODE <ul> <li>text</li> <li>text</li> </ul> <ul type="disc"> <ul type="circle"> <ul type="square">

EXPLANATION / EXAMPLE Makes a bulleted list using the default bullet type:
o o

text text This is another line And this is the final line This is another line And this is the final line This is another line And this is the final line

NUMBERED LISTS Plain numbers Capital Letters Small Letters Capital Roman Numbers Small Roman Numbers EXPLANATION/ EXAMPLE 1. text 2. text Starts a numbered list, first # being 5. 5. This is one line 6. This is another line A. This is one line B. This is another line
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HTML-CODEEXP <ol><li>text</li> <li>text</li></ol> <ol start="5">

<ol type="A">

<ol type="a"> <ol type="I"> <ol type="1">

a. This is one line b. This is another line I. This is one line II. i. ii. VII. This is another line This is one line This is another line This is one line This is another line

<ol type="I" start="7">


Hyperlinks, Anchors, and Links

Links -- they're what made the web The Web. The ability to link from one document to another is one of the most central features of HTML Links, otherwise known as hyperlinks, are defined using the <a> tag otherwise known as the anchor element. To create a hyperlink, you use the tag in conjunction with the href attribute (href stands for Hypertext Reference). The value of the href attribute is the URL, or, location of where the link is pointing to. Hyper Link syntax: <a href="url">Link text</a> The element content doesn't have to be text. You can link from an image or any other HTML element. Example: <a href="">Visit yahoo!</a> Image Link In HTML, images are defined with the <img> tag. The <img> tag is empty, which means that it contains attributes only and it has no closing tag. To display an image on a page, you need to use the src attribute. Src stands for "source". The value of the src attribute is the URL of the image you want to display on your page.. To embed an image into a web page, the image first needs to exist in either .jpg, .gif, or .png format.
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Image Link syntax: <img src="url" /> Example: <img src="smile.gif" width="100" height="100" alt="Smile" /> Src: This is the path to the image. It can be either an absolute path, or a relative path Width: This specifies the width to display the image. If the actual image is wider, it will shrink to the dimensions you specify here. Likewise, if the actual image is smaller it will expand to your dimensions. I don't recommend specifying a different size for the image, as it will lose quality. It's better to make sure the image is the correct size to start with. Height: This specifies the height to display the image. This attribute works similar to the width Alt: Alternate text. This specifies text to be used in case the browser/user agent can't render the image. E-mail Link <a href=""> Send Mail</a> Example Program <html><body><p> This is a mail link: <a href=""> Send Mail</a></p> <img src="Blue hills.jpg" width="100" height="100" alt="Smile" > </body></html>

HTML Colors
Colors are displayed combining RED, GREEN, and BLUE light.

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HTML colors are defined using a hexadecimal (hex) notation for the combination of Red, Green, and Blue color values (RGB). The lowest value that can be given to one of the light sources is 0 (hex 00). The highest value is 255 (hex FF). Hex values are written as 3 double digit numbers, starting with a # sign.
Font color

Set the color of your font with color Example: <font color="#990000">This text is hexcolor #990000</font><br /> <font color="red">This text is red</font>

Background Color : The background color used for web page background color. Example: Border color: Its used for Image,table ., border color HTML Tables A table is a two dimensional matrix ,consiter od rows and coloms .Table are intended for displaying data in coloumns on web page.Tables are defined with the <table> tag. A table is divided into rows (with the <tr> tag), and each row is divided into data cells (with the <td> tag). The letters td stands for "table data," which is the content of a data cell. A data cell can contain text, images, lists, paragraphs, forms, horizontal rules, tables, etc. Table property
Tag Description

<body bgColor=Navy>

<table> <th>

Defines a table Defines a table header

Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117


<tr> <td> <caption> <colgroup> <col> <thead> <tbody> <tfoot>

Defines a table row Defines a table cell Defines a table caption Defines groups of table columns Defines the attribute values for one or more columns in a table Defines a table head Defines a table body Defines a table footer

Example 1:
<table border="1"> <tr> <td>row 1, cell 1</td> <td>row 1, cell 2</td> </tr> <tr> <td>row 2, cell 1</td> <td>row 2, cell 2</td> </tr> </table> Output: row 1, cell 1 row 1, cell 2 row 2, cell 1 row 2, cell 2

Headings in a Table
<table border="1"> <tr> <th>Heading</th> <th>Another Heading</th> </tr> <tr> <td>row 1, cell 1</td> <td>row 1, cell 2</td> Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 17

</tr> <tr> <td>row 2, cell 1</td> <td>row 2, cell 2</td> </tr> </table> Output: Heading Another Heading

row 1, cell 1 row 1, cell 2 row 2, cell 1 row 2, cell 2

Use rowspan to span multiple rows and colspan to span multiple columns.
<table border="1"> <tr> <th>Column 1</th> <th>Column 2</th> <th>Column 3</th> </tr> <tr><td rowspan="2">Row 1 Cell 1</td> <td>Row 1 Cell 2</td><td>Row 1 Cell 3</td></tr> <tr><td>Row 2 Cell 2</td><td>Row 2 Cell 3</td></tr> <tr><td colspan="3">Row 3 Cell 1</td></tr> </table>

Column 1 Row 1 Cell 1 Row 3 Cell 1

Table with color

Column 2

Column 3

Row 1 Cell 2 Row 1 Cell 3 Row 2 Cell 2 Row 2 Cell 3

<table border="1" cellpadding="10" bgcolor="rgb(0,255,0)"> <tr> Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 18

<th>Column 1</th> <th>Column 2</th> </tr> <tr><td>Row 1 Cell 1</td><td>Row 1 Cell 2</td></tr> <tr><td>Row 2 Cell 1</td><td>Row 2 Cell 2</td></tr> </table>

Column 1 Row 1 Cell 1 Row 2 Cell 1

Column 2 Row 1 Cell 2 Row 2 Cell 2

HTML Frames
With frames, you can display more than one HTML document in the same browser window. Each HTML document is called a frame, and each frame is independent of the others. The disadvantages of using frames are: The web developer must keep track of more HTML documents It is difficult to print the entire page The Frameset Tag The <frameset> tag defines how to divide the window into frames Each frameset defines a set of rows or columns The values of the rows/columns indicate the amount of screen area each row/column will occupy
Attribute Description


Specifies the number of rows and their height in either pixels, percentages, or relative lengths. Default is 100%

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Specifies the number of columns and their width in either pixels, percentages, or relative lengths. Default is 100%


Assigns a name to a frame. This is useful for loading contents into one frame from another.


A long description - this can elaborate on a shorter description specified with the title attribute.


Location of the frame contents (for example, the HTML page to be loaded into the frame).


Specifies whether the frame is resizable or not (i.e. whether the user can resize the frame or not).


Whether the frame should be scrollable or not (i.e. should scrollbars appear). Possible values:

auto yes no

frameborder Whether the frame should have a border or not. Possible values:

1 (border) 0 (no border)

marginwidth Specifies the margin, in pixels, between the frame's contents and it's left and right margins. marginheight Specifies the margin, in pixels, between the frame's contents and it's top and bottom margins.

Example 1 <frameset cols="25%,75%"> <frame src="frame_a.htm"> <frame src="frame_b.htm"> </frameset>

Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 20

Mixed frame set:

<html> <frameset rows="50%,50%"> <frame src="frame_a.htm"> <frameset cols="25%,75%"> <frame src="frame_b.htm"> <frame src="frame_c.htm"></frameset></frameset> </html>

Style sheet
cascading style sheets are now the standard way to define the presentation of your HTML pages, from fonts and colours to the complete layout of a page. They are much more efficient than using HTML on every page to define the look of your site. CSS is becoming a more important language to know every day, so the sooner you have a grip on this most elegant of presentational languages, the better.

CSS Syntax
A CSS rule has two main parts: a selector, and one or more declarations:

The selector is normally the HTML element you want to style. Each declaration consists of a property and a value. The property is the style attribute you want to change. Each property has a value.

CSS Example
Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 21

CSS declarations always ends with a semicolon, and declaration groups are surrounded by curly brackets: <html> <head> <style type="text/css"> P{ color:red; text-align:center; } </style> </head> <body> <p>Hello World!</p> <p>This paragraph is styled with CSS.</p> </body> </html> CSS Background CSS background properties are used to define the background effects of an element. CSS properties used for background effects: background-color background-image background-repeat background-attachment background-position

Background Color
The background-color property specifies the background color of an element.
Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 22

body {background-color:#b0c4de;}

Background Image
The background-image property specifies an image to use as the background of an element.By default, the image is repeated so it covers the entire element.
body {background-image:url('paper.gif');

Background Image - Repeat Horizontally or Vertically

By default, the background-image property repeats an image both horizontally and vertically.Some images should be repeated only horizontally or vertically, or they will look strange, like this: body { background-image:url('gradient2.png'); }

All CSS Background Properties

Property Description Values


Sets all the background properties in one declaration

background-color background-image background-repeat background-attachment background-position inherit scroll fixed inherit color-rgb color-hex color-name transparent inherit url(URL) none inherit


Sets whether a background image is fixed or scrolls with the rest of the page Sets the background color of an element



Sets the background image for an element

Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117



Sets the starting position of a background image

top left top center top right center left center center center right bottom left bottom center bottom right x% y% xpos ypos inherit


Sets if/how a background image will be repeat repeated repeat-x repeat-y no-repeat inherit

Text Color
The color property is used to set the color of the text. The color can be specified by: name - a color name, like "red" RGB - an RGB value, like "rgb(255,0,0)" Hex - a hex value, like "#ff0000" Example
body {color:blue;} h1 {color:#00ff00;} h2 {color:rgb(255,0,0);

property color direction

Description Sets the color of a text Sets the text direction

Values color ltr rtl normal number length normal


Sets the distance between lines


Increase or decrease the space between

Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117


characters text-align Aligns the text in an element

length left right center justify none underline overline line-through blink length % none color length


Adds decoration to text


Indents the first line of text in an element



Controls the letters in an element

none capitalize uppercase lowercase normal embed bidi-override



Sets the vertical alignment of an element

baseline sub super top,text-top middle bottom text-bottom length % normal pre,nowrap normal length


Sets how white space inside an element is handled Increase or decrease the space between words


Font Families

Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117


In CSS, there are two types of font family names:generic family - a group of font families with a similar look (like "Serif" or "Monospace") font family - a specific font family (like "Times New Roman" or "Arial") Example
Property Description Values


Specifies the font family for text

family-name generic-family inherit xx-small x-small small medium large x-large xx-large smaller larger length % inherit normal italic oblique inherit normal small-caps inherit normal bold


Specifies the font size of text


Specifies the font style for text


Specifies whether or not a text should be displayed in a small-caps font


Specifies the weight of a font

Example Program
<html> <head> <style type="text/css"> Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 26

p.normal {font-weight:normal;} p.light {font-weight:lighter;} p.thick {font-weight:bold;} p.thicker {font-weight:900;} </style></head> <body> <p class="normal">This is a paragraph.</p> <p class="light">This is a paragraph.</p> <p class="thick">This is a paragraph.</p> <p class="thicker">This is a paragraph.</p> </body></html>

List In HTML, there are two types of lists: unordered lists - the list items are marked with bullets ordered lists - the list items are marked with numbers or letters Example
ul.a {list-style-type: circle;} ul.b {list-style-type: square;} ol.c {list-style-type: upper-roman;} ol.d {list-style-type: lower-alpha;}

Values for Unordered Lists

Value none disc circle square Values for Ordered Lists Value Description 27 Description No marker Default. The marker is a filled circle The marker is a circle The marker is a square

Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117

armenian decimal decimal-leading-zero georgian lower-alpha lower-greek lower-latin lower-roman upper-alpha upper-latin upper-roman CSS Colors

The marker is traditional Armenian numbering The marker is a number The marker is a number padded by initial zeros (01, 02, 03, etc.) The marker is traditional Georgian numbering (an, ban, gan, etc.) The marker is lower-alpha (a, b, c, d, e, etc.) The marker is lower-greek (alpha, beta, gamma, etc.) The marker is lower-latin (a, b, c, d, e, etc.) The marker is lower-roman (i, ii, iii, iv, v, etc.) The marker is upper-alpha (A, B, C, D, E, etc.) The marker is upper-latin (A, B, C, D, E, etc.) The marker is upper-roman (I, II, III, IV, V, etc.)

CSS has several options for defining colors of both text and background areas on your pages. These options can entirely replace the color attributes in plain HTML. In addition, you get new options that you just didn't have in plain HTML.
Value Description

color background-color background-image

<color> transparent <color> none url(<URL>) repeat repeat-x repeat-y no-repeat scroll fixed <percentage> <length> top center bottom left right <background-color> <background-image> <background-repeat> <background-attachment> <background-position> 28





Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117

color background-color background-image

<color> transparent <color> none url(<URL>) repeat repeat-x repeat-y no-repeat


Example Program
<html><head> <style type="text/css"> body{ background-color:#d0e4fe;} h1 { color:orange; text-align:center; } p { font-family:"Times New Roman"; font-size:20px; }</style></head> <body> <h1>CSS example!</h1> <p>This is a paragraph.</p> </body></html>

CSS Box Model

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All HTML elements can be considered as boxes. In CSS, the term "box model" is used when talking about design and layout. The CSS box model is essentially a box that wraps around HTML elements, and it consists of: margins, borders, padding, and the actual content. The box model allows us to place a border around elements and space elements in relation to other elements Explanation of the different parts: Margin - Clears an area around the border. The margin does not have a background color, and it is completely transparent Border - A border that lies around the padding and content. The border is affected by the background color of the box Padding - Clears an area around the content. The padding is affected by the background color of the box Content - The content of the box, where text and images appear Example: <html><head> <style type="text/css"> div.ex { width:220px; padding:10px; border:5px solid gray; margin:0px; } </style></head> <body> <img src="250px.gif" width="250" height="1" /><br /><br />
Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 30

<div class="ex">The line above is 250px wide.<br /> The total width of this element is also 250px.</div> </body> </html>

CSS Display Property The display property specifies if/how an element is displayed, and the visibility property specifies if an element should be visible or hidden. Hiding an Element - display:none or visibility:hidden Hiding an element can be done by setting the display property to "none" or the visibility property to "hidden". However, notice that these two methods produce different results: Example h1.hidden {visibility:hidden;}

Changing How an Element is Displayed

Changing an inline element to a block element, or vice versa, can be useful for making the page look a specific way, and still follow web standards.
li {display:inline;}

Example <html><head> <style type="text/css"> Span { display:block; } </style> </head> <body> <h2>Nirvana</h2>
Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 31

<span>Record: MTV Unplugged in New York</span> <h2>Radiohead</h2> <span>Record: OK Computer</span> <span>Year: 1997</span></body></html>

UNIT 2: JavaScript
JavaScript was designed to add interactivity to HTML pages JavaScript is a scripting language A scripting language is a lightweight programming language JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary compilation) Everyone can use JavaScript without purchasing a license JavaScript is case sensitive JavaScript object-oriented Programming Language Originally called Live Script when introduced in Netscape Navigator Programming, HTML, and JavaScript Created in 1989 European Laboratory for Particle Physics (Geneva Switzerland). Developed by Netscape for use in Navigator Web Browsers Purpose Provide an easy way to access cross-referenced documents that exist on the internet .Purpose make web pages (documents) more dynamic and interactive Change contents of document, provide forms and controls, animation, control web browser window, etc. JavaScript Two formats: Client-side Program runs on client (browser) Server-side Program runs on server Proprietary to web server platform JavaScript use JavaScript can be used to validate data - A JavaScript can be used to validate form data before it is submitted to a server. This saves the server from extra processing JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser - A JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser, and - depending on the browser - load another page specifically designed for that browser JavaScript can be used to create cookies - A JavaScript can be used to store and retrieve information on the visitor's computer JavaScript can react to events - A JavaScript can be set to execute when something happens, like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks
Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 32

on an HTML element An interpreted language which no compilation steps this provides easy development process. Performance- the HTML files are fairly compact and quit small. Syntax <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> //your script goes here </script> </body> </html> And <script type="text/javascript" src=path.js> </script> Mostly in the head section of HTML file, use script tags and then enclose in comments Example: <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> document.write("Hello World!"); </script> </body> </html> Elements of JavaScript Typical programming elements: variables, operators, expressions, statements, definition of functions Connection to Web built-in functions (e.g., Date()) Document Object Model = names of things, properties, methods (e.g., document.write) events (e.g., onSubmit, onMouseOver) Comments o JavaScript supports two types of comments. Double-slashes (//) tell JavaScript to ignore everything to the end of the line. //document. write(alert); o Block quotes begin a comment block with a slash-asterisk (/*) and JavaScript will ignore everything from the start of the comment block until it encounters an asterisk-slash (*/). Block quotes are useful for temporally disabling large areas of code, or describing the purpose of a function, or detailing the purpose
Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 33

and providing credits for the script itself. Variables JavaScript is not a strongly typed language which means you rarely have to concern yourself with the type of data a variable is storing, only what the variable is storing and in JavaScript, variables can store anything, even functions. Syntax : var <variable Name> =value

Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117


Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117


Sample program for data type:

<html><body> <script type="text/javascript"> x=5+5; document.write(x); document.write("<br />"); var a=5,b=10,c; c=a+b; document.write(c); document.write("<br />"); var oct=0377,x=10,res; res=oct+x; document.write(res); x=5+"5"; document.write(x); document.write("<br />"); x="5"+5; document.write(x); document.write("<br />"); </script></body> </html>

Array Arrays are simply an ordered stack of data items with the same data type. Using arrays, you can store multiple values under a single name. Instead of using a separate variable for each item, you can use one array to hold all of them. Syntax var arrayname = new Array(numberofelements)

Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117


Example : Array with sort Char

<html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var fruits = ["Banana", "Orange", "Apple", "Mango"]; document.write(fruits.sort()); </script></body> </html>

Example : Array with sort No

<html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> function sortNumber(a, b) { return b - a; } var n = ["10", "5", "40", "25", "100", "1"]; document.write(n.sort(sortNumber)); </script></body> </html>

Dynamic Arrays: In many a cases we will not want to create the array with a fixed size or length. In such cases we can create an array with out passing length. This array will dynamically set its value as and when a new variable or entry is added Looping Constructor A set of statements are executed as a loop until a condition is satisfied, the condition is based on an incremental or decremental counter. In other words "Looping statements in javascript are used to execute the same set of code a specified number of times"

If Statement
Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 37

Use the if statement to execute some code only if a specified condition is true. Syntax if (condition) { code to be executed if condition is true } If...else Statement Use the if....else statement to execute some code if a condition is true and another code if the condition is not true. Syntax if (condition) { code to be executed if condition is true } else { code to be executed if condition is not true } Example
<html><body> <script type="text/javascript"> var a=5,b=10; if(a>b) { document.write("A is big"); }else { document.write("B is big"); } </script> </body> </html>

Switch Statement: Use the switch statement to select one of many blocks of code to be executed.
Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 38

Syntax switch(n) { case 1: execute code block 1 break; case 2: execute code block 2 break; default: code to be executed if n is different from case 1 and 2 } Example

<script type="text/javascript"> var d = new Date() theDay=d.getDay() switch (theDay) { case 1: document.write("SUNDAY") break; case 2: document.write("Mon Day") break; case 3: document.write("Tues day") break; default: document.write("I'm really looking forward to this weekend!"); } </script> </body> </html> while Loop The while loop loops through a block of code while a specified condition is true. Syntax
Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 39

while (var<=endvalue) { code to be executed } Example <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> i=0 while (i <= 5) { document.write("The number is " + i) document.write("<br>") i++ } </script> </body> </html> do...while Loop The do...while loop is a variant of the while loop. This loop will execute the block of code ONCE, and then it will repeat the loop as long as the specified condition is true. Syntax do { code to be executed } while (var<=endvalue);

Example <script language="javascript"> var i=0;

Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 40

do { document.write("Testing DO-While loop"); } while(i!=0) </script> for Loop The for loop is used when you know in advance how many times the script should run. Syntax for(var=startvalue;var<=endvalue;var=var+increment) { code to be executed } Example <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> for (i = 0; i <= 5; i++) { document.write("The number is " + i) document.write("<br>") } </script> </body> </html>

Function A function contains code that will be executed by an event or by a call to the function.
Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 41

You may call a function from anywhere within a page (or even from other pages if the function is embedded in an external .js file). Functions can be defined both in the <head> and in the <body> section of a document. Syntax function functionname(var1,var2,...,varX) { some code } Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function myfunction(txt) { alert(txt) } </script> </head> <body> <form> <input type="button" onclick="myfunction('Hello')" value="Call function"> </form> </body> </html> Function with return Statement The return statement is used to specify the value that is returned from the function. So, functions that are going to return a value must use the return statement. Example
Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 42

<html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function total(numberA,numberB) { return numberA + numberB } </script> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> document.write(total(2,5)) </script> </body> </html> Dialog box JavaScript supports three important types of dialog boxes. These dialog boxes can be used to raise and alert, or to get confirmation on any input or to have a kind of input from the users. Alert Dialog Box The alert() method displays an alert box with a specified message and an OK button. Syntax alert(message)

<html> <head> Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 43

<script type="text/javascript"> function display() { alert("Hello! I am an alert box!!"); } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" onclick="display()" value="AlertBox" /> </body> </html>

Prompt Dialog Box The prompt dialog box is very useful when you want to pop-up a text box to get user input Syntax prompt(msg,defaultText) Msg -Required. The message to display in the dialog boxdefaultText-Optional. The default input value Example
<html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function dispprompt() { var fname=prompt("Please enter your name:","Your name") document.getElementById("msg").innerHTML="Greetings " + fname } </script> Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 44

</head> <body> <input type="button" onclick="dispprompt()" value="prompt box" /> <br /><br /> <div id="msg"></div> </body> </html>

Confirmation Dialog Box A confirmation dialog box is mostly used to take user's consent on any option. It displays a dialog box with two buttons: OK and Cancel. Syntax confirm(message) Example
<html><head> <script type="text/javascript"> function display() { confirm("Do you want to continue ?") } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" onclick="display()" value="confirm" /> </body> </html>

UNIT 3 JavaScript document object model

The DOM (Document Object Model) gives you generic access to most elements, their styles and attributes in a document.
Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 45

Each HTML document loaded into a browser window becomes a Document object. The Document object provides access to all HTML elements in a page, from within a script. The Document object is also part of the Window object, and can be accessed through the window.document property. Collection anchors[] forms[] images[] links[] Description Returns an array of all the anchors in the document Returns an array of all the forms in the document Returns an array of all the images in the document Returns an array of all the links in the document

Anchors The anchors collection returns an array of all the anchors in the current document. Syntax document.anchors[].property Example <html> <body> <a name=" java ">java</a><br /> <a name="c++">C++</a><br /> <script type="text/javascript"> document.write(document.anchors.length);</script></p> </body> </html> forms
Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 46

The forms collection returns an array of all the forms in the current document Syntax document.forms[].property Example

<html> <body> <form name="Form1"></form> <form name="Form2"></form> <p>Number of forms: <script type="text/javascript"> document.write(document.forms.length); </script></p> </body> </html>
images The images collection returns an array of all the images in the current document. Syntax document.images[].property

<html> <body> <img border="0" src="a.jpg" width="150" height="113" /> <img border="0" src="b.jpg" width="152" height="128" /> <p>Number of images: <script type="text/javascript"> document.write(document.images.length); </script></p></body> </html> Links The links collection returns an array of all the links in the current document. The links collection counts
Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 47

<a href=""> tags and <area> tags. Syntax document.links[].property Example <html> <body> <a href="images.html">Images</a> <p>Number of areas/links: <script type="text/javascript"> document.write(document.links.length); </script> </p> </body> </html>

Javascript is an Event Driven Language Javascript is an event driven language which means your scripts react to events you set up. Your code isn't running all the time, it simply waits until an event starts something up! Going into all the Javascript events is beyond the scope.

Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117


Window object The JavaScript Window Object is the highest level JavaScript object which corresponds to the web browser window. Using JavaScript, we can manipulate windows in a variety of ways, such as open one, close it, reload its page, change the attributes of the new window etc.
Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 49

Open method The open() method opens a new browser window. Syntax,name,specs) URL -pecifies the URL of the page to open name -Specifies the target attribute or the name of the window. specs -A comma-separated list of items. Reload window To reload a window, use this method: window.location.reload() Close Window The closed property returns a Boolean value indicating whether a window has been closed or not. Syntax window.close() Example Window object <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> function openWin() {"","","width=200,height=100"); myWindow.document.write("<p>This is 'myWindow'</p>"); } function closeWin() { myWindow.close(); } function Relo() { myWindow.location.reload() } </script> </head> <body> <input type="button" value="Open 'myWindow'" onclick="openWin()" /> <input type="button" value="Close 'myWindow'" onclick="closeWin()" /> <input type="button" value="Reload" onclick="Relo()" />
Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 50

</body> </html> setInterval() method The setInterval() method calls a function or evaluates an expression at specified intervals (in milliseconds). 1000 ms = 1 second. Syntax setInterval(windowname,millisec) Eg: setTimeout("alert('hi!');", 500); Other window objects print()Prints the content of the current window resizeBy()Resizes the window by the specified pixels moveBy()Moves a window relative to its current position moveTo()Moves a window to the specified position Navigator Object The navigator object contains information about the browser. Property appName appVersion Description Returns the name of the browser Returns the version information of the browser

appCodeName Returns the code name of the browser

cookieEnabled Determines whether cookies are enabled in the browser platform userAgent Returns for which platform the browser is compiled Returns the user-agent header sent by the browser to the server

The Navigator object is designed to contain information about the version of Netscape Navigator which is being used. However, it can also be used with Internet Explorer. All of its properties, which are read-only, contain information about different aspects of the browser

Navigator Syntax navigator.appCodeName

Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 51

navigator.appName navigator.appVersion navigator.cookieEnabled navigator.platform navigator.userAgent Example <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> document.write("Browser CodeName: " + navigator.appCodeName); document.write("<br /><br />"); document.write("Browser Name: " + navigator.appName); document.write("<br /><br />"); document.write("Browser Version: " + navigator.appVersion); document.write("<br /><br />"); document.write("Cookies Enabled: " + navigator.cookieEnabled); document.write("<br /><br />"); document.write("Platform: " + navigator.platform); document.write("<br /><br />"); document.write("User-agent header: " + navigator.userAgent); </script></body> </html> Screen object The screen object contains information about the visitor's screen. There is no public standard that applies to the screen object, but all major browsers support it. Property Description availHeight availWidth colorDepth height pixelDepth width Screen Syntax screen.availHeight
Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 52

Returns the height of the screen (excluding the Windows Taskbar) Returns the width of the screen (excluding the Windows Taskbar) Returns the bit depth of the color palette for displaying images Returns the total height of the screen Returns the color resolution (in bits per pixel) of the screen Returns the total width of the screen

screen.availWidth screen.colorDepth screen.height screen.pixelDepth screen.width Example <HTML> <BODY> <script type="text/javascript"> document.write("Available Height: " + screen.availHeight); document.write("</br>Available Width: " + screen.availWidth); document.write("</br>Color Depth: " + screen.colorDepth); document.write("</br>Total Height: " + screen.height); document.write("</br>Color resolution: " + screen.pixelDepth); document.write("</br>Total Width: " + screen.width); </script> </BODY> </HTML> Form Object form object is a Browser object of JavaScript used to access an HTML form. If a user wants to access all forms within a document then he can use the forms array. The form object is actually a property of document object that is uniquely created by the browser for each form present in a document. The properties and methods associated with form object are used to access the form fields, attributes and controls associated with forms. Properties of Form Object: action elements[] encoding length method name target button checkbox FileUpload

hidden password radio reset select submit text textarea

action: This property is a read or write property and its value is a string. elements[]:
Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 53

It contains all fields and controls present in the form. The user can access any element associated with the form by using the looping concept on the elements array. encoding: This property is a read or write property and its value is a string. This property helps determine the way of encoding the form data. length: This denotes the length of the elements array associated with the form. method: This property is a read or write property and its value is a string. This property helps determine the method by which the form is submitted. name: name property of form object denotes the form name. target: This property denotes the name of the target window to which form it is to be submitted into. button: The button property of form object denotes the button GUI control placed in the form. checkbox: checkbox property of form object denotes the checkbox field placed in the form. select: select property of form object denotes the selection list object placed in the form. submit: submit property of form object denotes the submit button field that is placed in the form. text: text property of form object denotes the text field placed in the form. textarea: textarea property of form object denotes the text area field placed in the form. Example of form objet <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE>Test Input</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> <FORM NAME="myform" ACTION="" METHOD="GET">Enter box: <BR> <INPUT TYPE="text" NAME="inputbox" VALUE=""><P> <INPUT TYPE="button" NAME="button" Value="Click" > <br> Genter <INPUT TYPE="radio" NAME="rad" VALUE="radio_button3" onClick=0> <INPUT TYPE="radio" NAME="rad" VALUE="radio_button4" onClick=0> <br>Language know<br> <INPUT TYPE="checkbox" NAME="check2" Value="Check2">Tamil<BR> <INPUT TYPE="checkbox" NAME="check3" Value="Check3">English<BR>
Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 54

</br> This is Text Area <TEXTAREA NAME="myarea" COLS="40" ROWS="5"> </TEXTAREA> </br> List Items <SELECT NAME="list" SIZE="1"> <OPTION>This is item 1 <OPTION>This is item 2 </SELECT> </br> <FORM> <INPUT TYPE="file" NAME="elementName"> </FORM> </FORM> </BODY> </HTML> Built-in objects These built-in objects are available through both the client-side JavaScript and through LiveWire (Netscape's server-side application). The three built-in objects are: the String object, the Math object, and the Date object. Each of these provides great functionality, and together they give JavaScript its power as a scripting language. The String Object The String object is used to manipulate a stored piece of text. String objects are created with new String(). Syntax var txt = new String(string);

String Object Methods

charAt() charCodeAt() concat() fromCharCode() indexOf() lastIndexOf() match()

Returns the character at the specified index Returns the Unicode of the character at the specified index Joins two or more strings, and returns a copy of the joined strings Converts Unicode values to characters Returns the position of the first found occurrence of a specified value in a string Returns the position of the last found occurrence of a specified value in a string Searches for a match between a regular expression and a string, and returns the matches 55

Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117

replace() search() slice() split() substr() substring() toLowerCase() toUpperCase() valueOf()

Searches for a match between a substring (or regular expression) and a string, and replaces the matched substring with a new substring Searches for a match between a regular expression and a string, and returns the position of the match Extracts a part of a string and returns a new string Splits a string into an array of substrings Extracts the characters from a string, beginning at a specified start position, and through the specified number of character Extracts the characters from a string, between two specified indices Converts a string to lowercase letters Converts a string to uppercase letters Returns the primitive value of a String object

Example <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var str="Hello world!"; document.write("First character: " + str.charAt(0) + "<br />"); document.write("Unicode of first character: " + str.charCodeAt(0) + "<br />"); document.write(str.indexOf("Hello") + "<br />"); document.write(str.toLowerCase()+"<br />"); document.write(str.toUpperCase()+"<br />"); document.write(str.valueOf()+"<br />") var str1="Hello "; var str2="Dharma!"; var str3=" Have a nice day!"; document.write(str1.concat(str2,str3)+ "<br />"); document.write(String.fromCharCode(72,69,76,76,79)+ "<br />"); document.write(str.lastIndexOf("Hello") + "<br />"); var str1="The rain in SPAIN stays mainly in the plain"; var patt1=/ain/gi; document.write(str1.match(patt1)+ "<br />"); document.write(str.replace("Microsoft", "W3Schools")); document.write("W3SCHOOLS")); document.write(str.substr(3)+"<br />"); document.write(str.substr(3,4)); </script> </body> </html> Date Object
Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 56

The Date object is used to work with dates and times. Date objects are created with new Date(). There are four ways of instantiating a date: var var var var d d d d = = = = new new new new Date(); Date(milliseconds); Date(dateString); Date(year, month, day, hours, minutes, seconds, milliseconds);
Description Returns the day of the month (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week (from 0-6) Returns the year (four digits) Returns the hour (from 0-23) Returns the milliseconds (from 0-999) Returns the minutes (from 0-59) Returns the month (from 0-11) Returns the seconds (from 0-59) Returns the number of milliseconds since midnight Jan 1, 1970 Returns the time difference between GMT and local time, in minutes Returns the day of the month, according to universal time (from 1-31) Returns the day of the week, according to universal time (from 0-6) Returns the year, according to universal time (four digits) Returns the hour, according to universal time (from 0-23)

Method getDate() getDay() getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours()

Example <html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> var d=new Date() document.write(d.getDate()) document.write(".") document.write(d.getMonth() +1) document.write(".") document.write(d.getFullYear()) document.write(".") document.write(d.getHours()) </script> </body> </html>
Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 57

Math Object The Math object allows you to perform mathematical tasks. Math is not a constructor. All properties/methods of Math can be called by using Math as an object, without creating it. Syntax var x = Math.PI; // Returns PI var y = Math.sqrt(16); // Returns the square root of 16
Property E LN2 LN10 LOG2E LOG10E PI SQRT1_2 SQRT2 abs(x) acos(x) asin(x) atan(x) atan2(y,x) ceil(x) cos(x) exp(x) floor(x) log(x) min(x,y,z,...,n) pow(x,y) random() round(x) sin(x) sqrt(x) tan(x) Description Returns Euler's number (approx. 2.718) Returns the natural logarithm of 2 (approx. 0.693) Returns the natural logarithm of 10 (approx. 2.302) Returns the base-2 logarithm of E (approx. 1.442) Returns the base-10 logarithm of E (approx. 0.434) Returns PI (approx. 3.14159) Returns the square root of 1/2 (approx. 0.707) Returns the square root of 2 (approx. 1.414) Returns the absolute value of x Returns the arccosine of x, in radians Returns the arcsine of x, in radians Returns the arctangent of x as a numeric value between -PI/2 and PI/2 radians Returns the arctangent of the quotient of its arguments Returns x, rounded upwards to the nearest integer Returns the cosine of x (x is in radians) Returns the value of Ex Returns x, rounded downwards to the nearest integer Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of x Returns the number with the lowest value Returns the value of x to the power of y Returns a random number between 0 and 1 Rounds x to the nearest integer Returns the sine of x (x is in radians) Returns the square root of x Returns the tangent of an angle 58

max(x,y,z,...,n) Returns the number with the highest value

Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117


<html> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> document.write("abs"+Math.abs(7.25) + "<br />"); document.write("acos"+Math.acos(0.64) + "<br />") document.write("asin"+Math.asin(0.64) + "<br />") document.write("atan2"+Math.atan2(8,4)+ "<br />"); document.write("ceil"+Math.ceil(0.60) + "<br />"); document.write("cos"+Math.cos(3) + "<br />"); document.write("floor"+Math.floor(0.60) + "<br />") document.write("log"+Math.log(1) + "<br />"); document.write("max"+Math.max(-5,10) + "<br />"); document.write("pow"+Math.pow(0,0) + "<br />"); document.write("rount"+Math.round(0.60) + "<br />"); document.write("random"+Math.random() + "<br />"); document.write("sin"+Math.sin(3) + "<br />"); document.write("sqrt"+Math.sqrt(9) + "<br />"); </script> </body> </html>
User Defined Object

All user-defined objects and built-in objects are descendants of an object called Object. . The new Operator: The new operator is used to create an instance of an object. To create an object, the new operator is followed by the constructor method.

<html> <head> <title>User-defined objects</title> <script type="text/javascript"> var book = new Object(); // Create the object book.subject = "C++"; // Assign properties to the object = "Balagurusami"; </script> </head> <body> <script type="text/javascript"> document.write("Book name is : " + book.subject + "<br>"); document.write("Book author is : " + + "<br>");
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</script> </body> </html> cookies Cookies are small amounts of data stored by the web browser. They allow you to store particular information about a user and retrieve it every time they visit your pages.Each user has their own unique set of cookies. syntax set.cookie = "name=value; expires=date; path=path; domain=domain; secure"; name=value This sets both the cookie's name and its value. Ex : username=AAAA expires=date This optional value sets the date that the cookie will expire on. The date should be in the format returned by the the toGMTString() method of the Date object Greenwith Mean Time(DD-MM-YY) expires=13/06/2003 00:00:00 domain=domain This optional value specifies a domain within which the cookie applies. Only websites in this domain will be able to retrieve the cookie Ex : secure : This optional flag indicates that the browser should use SSL when sending the cookie to the server. This flag is rarely used. JavaScript escape() function to encode the valuebefore storing it in the cookie. If you do this, you will also have to use the corresponding unescape() function when you read the cookie value. Example <html> <head> <script type="text/javascript"> <!-function WriteCookie() { if( document.myform.customer.value == "" ) { alert("Enter some value!"); return; } cookievalue= escape(document.myform.customer.value) + ";";
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document.cookie="name=" + cookievalue; alert("Setting Cookies : " + "name=" + cookievalue ); } //--> </script> </head> <body> <form name="myform" action=""> Enter name: <input type="text" name="customer"/> <input type="button" value="Set Cookie" onclick="WriteCookie();"/> </form> </body> </html>

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DotNet Framework Microsoft. NET The Microsoft. NET strategy was presented by Microsoft officials to the rest of the world in June 2000:


is Microsoft's new Internet and Web strategy is NOT a new operating system is a new Internet and Web based infrastructure delivers software as Web Services is a framework for universal services is a server centric computing model will run in any browser on any platform is based on the newest Web standards

NET Internet Standards


is built on the following Internet standards: HTTP, the communication protocol between Internet Applications XML, the format for exchanging data between Internet Applications SOAP, the standard format for requesting Web Services UDDI, the standard to search and discover Web Services

NET Framework The .NET Framework is the infrastructure for the new Microsoft .NET Platform. The .NET Framework is a common environment for building, deploying, and running Web Services and Web Applications. The .NET Framework contains common class libraries - like ADO.NET, ASP.NET and Windows Forms - to provide advanced standard services that can be integrated into a variety of computer systems. The .NET Framework is language neutral. Currently it supports C++, C#, Visual Basic, JScript (The Microsoft version of JavaScript) and COBOL. Third-party languages - like Eiffel, Perl, Python, Smalltalk, and others - will also be available for building future .NET Framework applications. The new Visual Studio.NET is a common development environment for the new .NET Framework. It provides a feature-rich application execution environment, simplified development and easy integration between a number of different development languages.
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Common Language Run Time ( CLR)

Compilers and tools expose the runtime's functionality and enable you to write code that benefits from this managed execution environment. Code that you develop with a language compiler that targets the runtime is called managed code; it benefits from features such as cross-language integration, cross-language exception handling, enhanced security, versioning and deployment support, a simplified model for component interaction, and debugging and profiling services. To enable the runtime to provide services to managed code, language compilers must emit metadata that describes the types, members, and references in your code. Metadata is stored with the code; every loadable common language runtime portable executable (PE) file contains metadata. The runtime uses metadata to locate and load classes, lay out instances in memory, resolve method invocations, generate native code, enforce security, and set run-time context boundaries. The runtime automatically handles object layout and manages references to objects, releasing them when they are no longer being used. Objects whose lifetimes are managed in this way are called managed data. Garbage collection eliminates memory leaks as well as some other common programming errors. If your code is managed, you can use managed data, unmanaged data, or both managed and unmanaged data in your .NET Framework application. Because language compilers supply their own types, such as primitive types, you might not always know (or need to know) whether your data is being managed. The common language runtime makes it easy to design components and applications whose objects interact across languages. Objects written in different languages can communicate with each other, and their behaviors can be tightly integrated. For example, you can define a class and then use a different language to derive a class from your original class or call a method on the original class. You can also pass an instance of a class to a method of a class written in a different language. This crosslanguage integration is possible because language compilers and tools that target the runtime use a common type system defined by the runtime, and they follow the runtime's rules for defining new types, as well as for creating, using, persisting, and binding to types. As part of their metadata, all managed components carry information about the components and resources they were built against. The runtime uses this information to ensure that your component or application has the specified versions of everything it needs, which makes your code less likely to break because of some unmet dependency. Registration information and state data are no longer stored in the registry where they can be difficult to establish and maintain. Rather, information about the types you define (and their dependencies) is stored with the code as
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metadata, making the tasks of component replication and removal much less complicated. Language compilers and tools expose the runtime's functionality in ways that are intended to be useful and intuitive to developers. This means that some features of the runtime might be more noticeable in one environment than in another. How you experience the runtime depends on which language compilers or tools you use. For example, if you are a Visual Basic developer, you might notice that with the common language runtime, the Visual Basic language has more object-oriented features than before. Following are some benefits of the runtime:

Performance improvements. The ability to easily use components developed in other languages. Extensible types provided by a class library.

New language features such as inheritance, interfaces, and overloading for object-oriented programming; support for explicit free threading that allows creation of multithreaded, scalable applications; support for structured exception handling and custom attributes. If you use Microsoft Visual C++.NET, you can write managed code using the Managed Extensions for C++, which provide the benefits of a managed execution environment as well as access to powerful capabilities and expressive data types that you are familiar with. Additional runtime features include:

Cross-language integration, especially cross-language inheritance.

Garbage collection, which manages object lifetime so that reference counting is unnecessary. Self-describing objects, which make using Interface Definition Language (IDL) unnecessary. The ability to compile once and run on any CPU and operating system that supports the runtime.
Common Type System (CTS)

Common Type System (CTS) describes how types are declared, used and managed in the runtime and facilitates cross-language integration, type safety, and high performance code execution.
Common Language Specification (CLS)

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The CLS is simply a specification that defines the rules to support language integration in such a way that programs written in any language, yet can interoperate with one another, taking full advantage of inheritance, polymorphism, exceptions, and other features. ASP.NET ASP.NET is the latest version of ASP. It includes Web Services to link applications, services and devices using HTTP, HTML, XML and SOAP. New in ASP.NET:

New Language Support Programmable Controls Event Driven Programming XML Based Components User Authentication User Accounts and Roles High Scalability Compiled Code Easy Configuration Easy Deployment Not ASP Compatible Includes ADO.NET

Asp.Net Introduction is the new offering for Web developers form the Microsoft. It is not simply the next generation of ASP. Because it has evolved from Asp, Asp.Net looks very similar to its predecessor. But concepts like web forms, Web Services, or server controls gives Asp.Net the power to build real Web application. What is ASP.NET?

ASP.NET provides services to allow the creation, deployment, and execution of Web Applications and Web Services Like ASP, ASP.NET is a server-side technology Web Applications are built using Web Forms. ASP.NET comes with built-in Web Forms controls, which are responsible for generating the user interface. They mirror typical HTML widgets like text boxes or buttons. If these controls do not fit your needs, you are free to create your own user controls. Web Forms are designed to make building web-based applications as easy as building Visual Basic applications

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Features of ASP.NET

Separation of Code from HTML To make a clean sweep, with ASP.NET you have the ability to completely separate layout and business logic. This makes it much easier for teams of programmers and designers to collaborate efficiently. This makes it much easier for teams of programmers and designers to collaborate efficiently. Support for compiled languages developer can use VB.NET and access features such as strong typing and object-oriented programming. Using compiled languages also means that ASP.NET pages do not suffer the performance penalties associated with interpreted code. ASP.NET pages are precompiled to byte-code and Just In Time (JIT) compiled when first requested. Subsequent requests are directed to the fully compiled code, which is cached until the source changes. Use services provided by the .NET Framework The .NET Framework provides class libraries that can be used by your application. Some of the key classes help you with input/output, access to operating system services, data access, or even debugging. We will go into more detail on some of them in this module. Graphical Development Environment Visual Studio .NET provides a very rich development environment for Web developers. You can drag and drop controls and set properties the way you do in Visual Basic 6. And you have full IntelliSense support, not only for your code, but also for HTML and XML. State management To refer to the problems mentioned before, ASP.NET provides solutions for session and application state management. State information can, for example, be kept in memory or stored in a database. It can be shared across Web farms, and state information can be recovered, even if the server fails or the connection breaks down Update files while the server is running Components of your application can be updated while the server is online and clients are connected. The Framework will use the new files as soon as they are copied to the application. Removed or old files that are still in use are kept in memory until the clients have finished. XML-Based Configuration Files Configuration settings in ASP.NET are stored in XML files that you can easily read and edit. You can also easily copy these to another server, along with the other files that comprise your application.

ASP.NET Page Life Cycle Overview

When an ASP.NET page runs, the page goes through a life cycle in which it performs a series of processing steps. These include initialization, instantiating controls, restoring and maintaining state, running event handler code, and rendering. It is important for you to Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 66

understand the page life cycle so that you can write code at the appropriate life-cycle stage for the effect you intend. Additionally, if you develop custom controls, you must be familiar with the page life cycle in order to correctly initialize controls, populate control properties with view-state data, and run any control behavior code. (The life cycle of a control is based on the page life cycle, but the page raises more events for a control than are available for an ASP.NET page alone.)
General Page Life-cycle Stages In general terms, the page goes through the stages outlined in the following table. In addition to the page life-cycle stages, there are application stages that occur before and after a request but are not specific to a page. Stage Page request Description The page request occurs before the page life cycle begins. When the page is requested by a user, ASP.NET determines whether the page needs to be parsed and compiled (therefore beginning the life of a page), or whether a cached version of the page can be sent in response without running the page. In the start step, page properties such as Request and Response are set. At this stage, the page also determines whether the request is a postback or a new request and sets the IsPostBack property. Additionally, during the start step, the page's UICulture property is set. During page initialization, controls on the page are available and each control's UniqueID property is set. Any themes are also applied to the page. If the current request is a postback, the postback data has not yet been loaded and control property values have not been restored to the values from view state. During load, if the current request is a postback, control properties are loaded with information recovered from view state and control state. During validation, the Validate method of all validator controls is called, which sets the IsValid property of individual validator controls and of the page.


Page initialization

Load Validation

Postback If the request is a postback, any event handlers are called. event handling Rendering Before rendering, view state is saved for the page and all controls. During the rendering phase, the page calls the Render method for each control, providing a text writer that writes its output to the OutputStream of the page's Response property. Unload is called after the page has been fully rendered, sent to the client, and is ready to be discarded. At this point, page properties such as Response and Request are unloaded and any cleanup is performed.


Life-cycle Events Within each stage of the life cycle of a page, the page raises events that you can handle to run your own code. For control events, you bind the event handler to the event, either declaratively using attributes such as onclick, or in code. Pages also support automatic event wire-up, meaning that ASP.NET looks for methods with particular names and automatically runs those methods when certain events are raised. If the

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AutoEventWireup attribute of the @ Page directive is set to true (or if it is not defined, since by default it is true), page events are automatically bound to methods that use the naming convention of Page_event, such as Page_Load and Page_Init The following table lists the page life-cycle events that you will use most frequently. There are more events than those listed; however, they are not used for most page processing scenarios. Instead, they are primarily used by server controls on the ASP.NET Web page to initialize and render themselves. If you want to write your own ASP.NET server controls, you need to understand more about these stages. Page Event PreInit Typical Use Use this event for the following: Check the IsPostBack property to determine whether this is the first time the page is being processed. Create or re-create dynamic controls. Set a master page dynamically. Set the Theme property dynamically. Read or set profile property values. Note If the request is a postback, the values of the controls have not yet been restored from view state. If you set a control property at this stage, its value might be overwritten in the next event. Init InitComplete PreLoad Raised after all controls have been initialized and any skin settings have been applied. Use this event to read or initialize control properties. Raised by the Page object. Use this event for processing tasks that require all initialization be complete. Use this event if you need to perform processing on your page or control before the Load event. After the Page raises this event, it loads view state for itself and all controls, and then processes any postback data included with the Request instance. The Page calls the OnLoad event method on the Page, then recursively does the same for each child control, which does the same for each of its child controls until the page and all controls are loaded. Use the OnLoad event method to set properties in controls and establish database connections. Use these events to handle specific control events, such as a Button control's Click event or a TextBox control's TextChanged event. Note In a postback request, if the page contains validator controls, check the IsValid property of the Page and of individual validation controls before performing any processing. LoadComplete PreRender Use this event for tasks that require that all other controls on the page be loaded. Before this event occurs: The Page object calls EnsureChildControls for each control and for the


Control events

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page. Each data bound control whose DataSourceID property is set calls its DataBind method. For more information, see Data Binding Events for DataBound Controls below. The PreRender event occurs for each control on the page. Use the event to make final changes to the contents of the page or its controls. SaveStateComplete Before this event occurs, ViewState has been saved for the page and for all controls. Any changes to the page or controls at this point will be ignored. Use this event perform tasks that require view state to be saved, but that do not make any changes to controls. Render This is not an event; instead, at this stage of processing, the Page object calls this method on each control. All ASP.NET Web server controls have a Render method that writes out the control's markup that is sent to the browser. If you create a custom control, you typically override this method to output the control's markup. However, if your custom control incorporates only standard ASP.NET Web server controls and no custom markup, you do not need to override the Render method. A user control (an .ascx file) automatically incorporates rendering, so you do not need to explicitly render the control in code. This event occurs for each control and then for the page. In controls, use this event to do final cleanup for specific controls, such as closing control-specific database connections. For the page itself, use this event to do final cleanup work, such as closing open files and database connections, or finishing up logging or other request-specific tasks. Note During the unload stage, the page and its controls have been rendered, so you cannot make further changes to the response stream. If you attempt to call a method such as the Response.Write method, the page will throw an exception.


Structure of Asp.Net

You can use directives to specify optional settings used by the page compiler when processing ASP.NET files. For each directive you can set different attributes. One example is the language directive at the beginning of a page defining the default programming language.

Code Declaration Blocks Code declaration blocks are lines of code enclosed in <script> tags. They contain the runat=server attribute, which tells ASP.NET that these controls can be accessed on the server and on the client.

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Optionally you can specify the language for the block. The code block itself consists of the definition of member variables and methods. Code Render Blocks Render blocks contain inline code or inline expressions enclosed by the character sequences shown here. The language used inside those blocks could be specified through a directive like the one shown before. HTML Control Syntax You can declare several standard HTML elements as HTML server controls. Use the element as you are familiar with in HTML and add the attribute runat=server. This causes the HTML element to be treated as a server control. It is now programmatically accessible by using a unique ID. HTML server controls must reside within a <form> section that also has the attribute runat=server. Custom Control Syntax There are two different kinds of custom controls. On the one hand there are the controls that ship with .NET, and on the other hand you can create your own custom controls. Using custom server controls is the best way to encapsulate common programmatic functionality.Just specify elements as you did with HTML elements, but add a tag prefix, which is an alias for the fully qualified namespace of the control. Again you must include the runat=server attribute. If you want to get programmatic access to the control, just add an Id attribute.You can include properties for each server control to characterize its behavior. For example, you can set the maximum length of a TextBox. Those properties might have sub properties; you know this principle from HTML. Now you have the ability to specify, for example, the size and type of the font you use .The last attribute is dedicated to event binding. This can be used to bind the control to a specific event Data Binding Expression You can create bindings between server controls and data sources. The data binding expression is enclosed by the character sequences <%# and %>. The data-binding model provided by ASP.NET is hierarchical. That means you can create bindings between server control properties and superior data sources. Server-side Object Tags If you need to create an instance of an object on the server, use server-side object tags. When the page is compiled, an instance of the specified object is created. To specify the object use the identifier attribute. You can declare .NET objects using class as the identifier, and COM objects using either progid or classid. Server-side Include Directives With server-side include directives you can include raw contents of a file anywhere in your ASP.NET file. Specify the type of the path to filename with the path type attribute. Use either File, when specifying a relative path, or Virtual, when using a full virtual path. Server-side Comments To prevent server code from executing, use these character sequences to comment it out. You can comment out full blocks - not just single lines.

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Asp.Net Framework
ASP.NET is based on the fundamental architecture of .NET Framework. Visual studio provides a uniform way to combine the various features of this Architecture. Architecture is explained form bottom to top in the following discussion.

At the bottom of the Architecture is Common Language Runtime. NET framework common language runtime resides on top of the operating system services. The common language runtime loads and executes code that targets the runtime. This code is therefore called managed code. The runtime gives you, for example, the ability for cross-language integration. 1..NET Framework provides a rich set of class libraries. These include base classes, like networking and input/output classes, a data class library for data access, and classes for use by programming tools, such as debugging services. All of them are brought together by the Services Framework, which sits on top of the common language runtime. 2. ADO.NET is Microsofts ActiveX Data Object (ADO) model for the .NET Framework. ADO.NET is not simply the migration of the popular ADO model to the managed environment but a completely new paradigm for data access and manipulation. ADO.NET is intended specifically for developing web applications. This is evident from its two major design principles: >>Disconnected DatasetsIn ADO.NET, almost all data manipulation is done outside the context of an open database connection. >>Effortless Data Exchange with XMLDatasets can converse in the universal data format of the Web, namely XML. 3. The 4th layer of the framework consists of the Windows application model and, in parallel, the Web application model. The Web application model-in the slide presented as ASP.NET-includes Web Forms and Web Services.

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ASP.NET comes with built-in Web Forms controls, which are responsible for generating the user interface. They mirror typical HTML widgets like text boxes or buttons. If these controls do not fit your needs, you are free to create your own user controls. Web Services brings you a model to bind different applications over the Internet. This model is based on existing infrastructure and applications and is therefore standard-based, simple, and adaptable. Web Services are software solutions delivered via Internet to any device. Today, that means Web browsers on computers, for the most part, but the device-agnostic design of .NET will eliminate this limitation. 4. One of the obvious themes of .NET is unification and interoperability between various programming languages. In order to achieve this; certain rules must be laid and all the languages must follow these rules. In other words we can not have languages running around creating their own extensions and their own fancy new data types. CLS is the collection of the rules and constraints that every language (that seeks to achieve .NET compatibility) must follow. 5.The CLR and the .NET Frameworks in general, however, are designed in such a way that code written in one language can not only seamlessly be used by another language. Hence ASP.NET can be programmed in any of the .NET compatible language whether it is VB.NET, C#, Managed C++ or JScript.NET.

Asp.Net Controls
Types of Controls:
1. Web Controls 2. Html Controls 3. Validation Controls 4. User Controls 1. Web Controls: Web Controls provide a more consistent object model and a higher level of abstraction than HtmlControls Most HTML elements can also be represented as Web Controls on the server Web Control versions typically have a more consistent interface (background color is always Back Color property whereas in HTML it may be a style attribute (span) or a property (table) ) Web Controls also provide higher-level controls with more functionality than primitive HTML elements (like the Calendar control) Web Controls may render themselves differently based on client browser capabilities Hierarchy of Web controls Web controls AdRotator Listbutton Image

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DataGrid DataList Button Calendar CheckBox RadioButton HyperLink Textbox

RadioButtonList CheckBoxList DropDownList ListBox Panel Table TableRow TableCell

ImageButton Label

A sample ASP.NET Page written with Webcontrols <%@ Page Language="C#" %> <html> <body> <form runat="Server"> <asp:RadioButton Text="Click me !" runat="server" ID="rb"/></br> <asp:CheckBox Text="Click me !" runat="server" ID="ck"/></br> <asp:Button Text="Click me !" runat="server" ID="btn"/></br> </form> </body> </html>

1.HTML Controls: HtmlControls are server-side representations of standard HTML elements

Any HTML element in an ASPX page marked with the runat=server attribute will become an HTML
control on the server

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All derive from HtmlControl class HTML elements with no distinguished server-side functionality (like div, span, etc.) are all represented as HtmlGenericControl instances Html Controls Html Image HtmlInputFile HtmlInputHidden HtmlInputRadioButton HtmlInputText HtmlInputButton HtmlInputCheckButton HtmlInputImage A sample Code for HtmlControls HtmlForm HtmlButton HtmlSelect HtmlTable HtmlTableCell HtmlTableRow HtmlTextArea HtmlAnchor


The Anchor control to programmatically control an <a> HTML element. The <a> HTML element allows you to create a hyperlink that allows you to move to another location on the page or to another Web page. The HtmlAnchor control must be well formed with an opening and closing tag. <a id="anchor1" runat="server"> Remember to embed the HtmlAnchor control inside the opening and closing tags of an HtmlForm control. HtmlButton Button control to program against the HTML <button> element. You can provide custom code for the ServerClick event of the HtmlButtoncontrol to specify the action performed when the control is clicked. The HtmlButton control renders JavaScript to the client browser. The client browser must have JavaScript enabled for this control to function properly Declare an HtmlButton control on your Web Forms pag <button runat="server"> </button> HtmlForm Form control to program against the HTML <form> element. To take advantage of the postback services, all Web Forms controls, whether HTML, Web, pagelet, or custom, must be nested between well-formed opening and closing tags of the HtmlForm control. If the tags are not closed properly, ASP.NET will not recognize the element. The element will either be ignored or a compilation error will occur, depending on how the element is formed.

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<form id="programmaticID" method=POST|GET action="srcpageURL" runat="server" > Other controls, input forms, and so on. </form>

HtmlTable Table control to program against the HTML <table> element. An HtmlTable control is made up of rows (represented by HtmlTableRowobjects) stored in the Rows collection of a table. Each row is made up of cells (represented by HtmlTableCell objects) stored in the Cells collection of a row. To create a table, first declare an HtmlTable control in the form on your page. Next, place HtmlTableRow objects between the opening and closing tags of the HtmlTable control, one for each row you want in your table. Once the rows of the table are defined, declare HtmlTableCell objects between the opening and closing tags of each HtmlTableRow object to create the cells of the row. <table id="programmaticID" align=left | center | right bgcolor="bgcolor" border="borderwidthinpixels" bordercolor="bordercolor" cellpadding="spacingwithincellsinpixels" cellspacing="spacingbetweencellsinpixels" height="tableheight" rows="collectionofrows" width="tablewidth" runat="server" > <tr> <td></td> </tr> </table> HtmlInputFile File control to program against the HTML <input type=file> element. You can use the HtmlInputFile control to easily design a page that allows users to upload binary or text files from a browser to a directory that you designate on your Web server. File upload is enabled in all HTML 3.2 and later Web browsers. <input type=file id="programmaticID" accept="MIMEencodings" size="widthoffilepathtextbox" postedfile="uploadedfile" runat="server" > maxlength="maxfilepathlength"

Web Server Controls

The following topics cover the ASP.NET syntax that you use when creating a Web server control in a text or HTML editor. These topics include the properties that are shared among all Web server controls, as well as specific properties for each control. Label control Used to display text in a set location on the page. Unlike static text, you can customize the displayed text by setting the Text property.

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<asp:Label id="Label1" Text="label" runat="server"/>

Button control
The Button control allows you to create a push button on the Web Forms page. There are two types of buttons that can be created. You can create either a submit button or a command button. <asp:Button id="SubmitButton" Text="Submit" OnClick="SubmitBtn_Click" runat="server"/>

CheckBox control The CheckBox control creates a check box on the Web Forms page that allows the user to switch between a true or false state. You can specify the caption to display in the control by setting the Text property. The caption can appear either on the right or left of the check box. Set the TextAlignproperty to specify the side that the caption appears on. <asp:CheckBox id=Check1 runat="server" Text="CheckBox 1" AutoPostBack="True"/>

HyperLink control
Use the HyperLink control to create a link that moves you to another page or location on the page. Specify the page or location to link to by using theNavigateUrl property. The link can either be displayed as text or an image. To display text, either set the Text property or simply place the text between the opening and closing tags of the HyperLink control. To display an image, set the ImageUrl property. <asp:HyperLink id="hyperLink1" ImageUrl="images\pict.jpg" NavigateUrl="" Text="Microsoft Official Site" Target="_new" runat="server"/>

_blank _parent _self _top

Displays Displays Displays Displays

the the the the

linked linked linked linked

page page page page

in in in in

a new window without frames. the immediate frameset parent. the frame with focus. a the full window without frames.

Image control

Use the Image control to display an image on the Web Forms page. Setting the ImageUrl property specifies the path to the displayed image. You can specify the text to display in place of the image when the image is not available by setting the AlternateText property. The ImageAlign property specifies the alignment of the image in relation to other elements on the Web Forms page. This control only displays an image. If you want the image to behave like a button or need to determine the coordinates where the mouse pointer is clicked on the image, use the ImageButton control. <asp:Image id="image1" runat="server" AlternateText="Image Description" ImageAlign="left" ImageUrl="pict.jpg"/>

RadioButton The RadioButton server control creates a radio button on the Web Forms page. Specify the text to display in the control by setting Text property. The text can appear either on the left or the right of the radio button. Set TextAlign property to control the side that the text appears on. You can group

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multiple radio buttons together if you specify the same GroupName for each RadioButton control. Grouping radio buttons together will only allow a mutually exclusive selection from the group. <asp:RadioButton id="RadioButton1" AutoPostBack="True|False" Checked="True|False" GroupName="GroupName" Text="label" TextAlign="Right|Left" OnCheckedChanged="OnCheckedChangedMethod" runat="server"/> TextBox server control The TextBox server control is an input control that lets the user enter text. By default, the TextMode property is set to SingleLine, which creates a text box with only one line. You can also set the property to MultiLine or Password. MultiLine creates a text box with more than one line. Password creates a single-line text box that masks the value entered by the user. The display width of the text box is determined by its Columns property. If the text box is a multiline text box, the display height is determined by theRows property.

<asp:TextBox ID="TextBox1" runat="server" TextMode="SingleLine | MultiLine | Password" ></asp:TextBox> CheckBoxList control The CheckBoxList control creates a multiselection check box group that can be dynamically generated using data binding. To specify items that you want to appear in the CheckBoxList control, place a ListItem element for each entry between the opening and closing tags of the CheckBoxList control. <asp:CheckBoxList id="Check1" RepeatLayout="flow" <asp:ListItem>Item 1</asp:ListItem> <asp:ListItem>Item 2</asp:ListItem> </asp:CheckBoxList> DropDownList control Use the DropDownList control to create a single selection drop-down list control. You can control the appearance of the DropDownList control by setting the BorderColor, BorderStyle, and BorderWidth properties. To specify the items that appear in the DropDownList control, place a ListItem element for each entry between the opening and closing tags of theDropDownList control. Example <asp:RadioButtonList ID="RadioButtonList1" runat="server"> <asp:ListItem Text="a" Value="1"></asp:ListItem> runat="server">

<asp:ListItem Text="b" Value="2"></asp:ListItem </asp:RadioButtonList>

ImageButton control

Use the ImageButton control to display an image that responds to mouse clicks. Specify the image to display in the control by setting the ImageUrlproperty. Both the Click and Command events are raised when the ImageButton control is clicked.

Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117


<asp:ImageButton id="ImageButton1" ImageUrl="string" Command="Command" CommandArgument="CommandArgument" CausesValidation="true | false" OnClick="OnClickMethod" runat="server"/> the ListBox control Use the ListBox control to create a list control that allows single or multiple item selection. Use the Rows property to specify the height of the control. To enable multiple item selection, set the SelectionMode property to ListSelectionMode.Multiple. To specify the items that you want to appear in the ListBox control, place a ListItem element for each entry between the opening and closing tags of theListBox control.

<asp:ListBox ID="ListBox1" runat="server"> <asp:ListItem Value="2">b</asp:ListItem> <asp:ListItem Value="1">a</asp:ListItem> </asp:ListBox>&nbsp;</div>

The DataGrid control

The DataGrid control renders a tabular, data-bound grid. This control allows you to define various types of columns to control the layout of the cell contents of the grid (bound columns, template columns) and add specific functionality (such as edit button columns, hyperlink columns, and so on). The control also supports a variety of options for paging through data. The DataGrid control displays the fields of a data source as columns in a table. Each row in the DataGrid control represents a record in the data source. The DataGrid control supports selection, editing, deleting, paging, and sorting. Syntex <asp:DataGrid ID="DataGrid1" runat="server"> </asp:DataGrid>

The order that the columns are displayed in the DataGrid control is controlled by the order that the columns appear in the Columnscollection. Although you can programmatically change the order of the columns by manipulating the Columns collection, it is easier to list the columns in the desired display order. Explicitly declared columns can be used in conjunction with automatically generated columns. When using both, explicitly declared columns will be rendered first, followed by the automatically generated columns. Automatically generated columns are not added to theColumns collection. Example <%@ Import Namespace="System.Data.SqlClient" %> <Script Runat="Server"> Sub Page_Load Dim conNorthwind As SqlConnection Dim cmdSelect As SqlCommand

Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117


conNorthwind=New SqlConnection( "Server=localhost;UID=sa;PWD=secret;Database=Northwind" ) cmdSelect = New SqlCommand( "Select * From Employees", conNorthwind ) conNorthwind.Open() dgrdEmployees.DataSource = cmdSelect.ExecuteReader() dgrdEmployees.DataBind() conNorthwind.Close() End Sub </Script> <html><head><title>ExpertDataGrid.aspx</title></head> <body><asp:DataGrid ID="dgrdEmployees" Runat="Server" /></body></html>

Repeater control Use the Repeater control to create a basic templated data-bound list. The Repeater control has no built-in layout or styles; you must explicitly declare all HTML layout, formatting, and style tags within the control's templates. The Repeater control is different from other data list controls in that it allows you to place HTML fragments in its templates. This allows you to create a complex HTML structure, such as a table. For example, to create a list within an HTML table, start the table by placing the <table> tag in theHeaderTemplate. Next, create the rows and columns of the table by placing <tr> tags, <td> tags, and data-bound items in the ItemTemplate. If you want a different appearance for alternating items in the table, create an AlternatingItemTemplate with the same contents as the ItemTemplate, except with a different style specified. Finally, complete the table by placing the </table> tag in the FooterTemplate. <asp:Repeater id="Repeater1" DataSource="<% databindingexpression %>" runat=server> <HeaderTemplate> Header template HTML </HeaderTemplate> <ItemTemplate> Item template HTML </ItemTemplate> <AlternatingItemTemplate> Alternating item template HTML
Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 79

</AlternatingItemTemplate> <SeparatorTemplate> Separator template HTML </SeparatorTemplate> <FooterTemplate> Footer template HTML </FooterTemplate> <asp:Repeater>


Cookies Overview
Cookies provide a means in Web applications to store user-specific information. For example, when a user visits your site, you can use cookies to store user preferences or other information. When the user visits your Web site another time, the application can retrieve the information it stored earlier.

What Are Cookies?

A cookie is a small bit of text that accompanies requests and pages as they go between the Web server and browser. The cookie contains information the Web application can read whenever the user visits the site.

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For example, if a user requests a page from your site and your application sends not just a page, but also a cookie containing the date and time, when the user's browser gets the page, the browser also gets the cookie, which it stores in a folder on the user's hard disk. Later, if user requests a page from your site again, when the user enters the URL the browser looks on the local hard disk for a cookie associated with the URL. If the cookie exists, the browser sends the cookie to your site along with the page request. Your application can then determine the date and time that the user last visited the site. You might use the information to display a message to the user or check an expiration date. Cookies are associated with a Web site, not with a specific page, so the browser and server will exchange cookie information no matter what page the user requests from your site. As the user visits different sites, each site might send a cookie to the user's browser as well; the browser stores all the cookies separately. Cookies help Web sites store information about visitors. More generally, cookies are one way of maintaining continuity in a Web applicationthat is, of performing state management. Except for the brief time when they are actually exchanging information, the browser and Web server are disconnected. Each request a user makes to a Web server is treated independently of any other request. Many times, however, it's useful for the Web server to recognize users when they request a page. For example, the Web server on a shopping site keeps track of individual shoppers so the site can manage shopping carts and other user-specific information. A cookie therefore acts as a kind of calling card, presenting pertinent identification that helps an application know how to proceed. Cookies are used for many purposes, all relating to helping the Web site remember users. For example, a site conducting a poll might use a cookie simply as a Boolean value to indicate whether a user's browser has already participated in voting so that the user cannot vote twice. A site that asks a user to log on might use a cookie to record that the user already logged on so that the user does not have to keep entering credentials. You can add cookies to the Cookies collection in a number of ways. The following example shows two methods to write cookies:

Visual Basic Response.Cookies("userName").Value = "patrick" Response.Cookies("userName").Expires = DateTime.Now.AddDays(1) Dim aCookie As New HttpCookie("lastVisit") aCookie.Value = DateTime.Now.ToString() aCookie.Expires = DateTime.Now.AddDays(1) Response.Cookies.Add(aCookie)

Most applications need data access at one point of time making it a crucial component when working with applications. Data access is making the application interact with a database, where all the data is stored. Different applications have different requirements for database access. ASP.NET uses ADO .NET (Active X Data Object) as it's data access and manipulation protocol which also enables us to work with data on the Internet.

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Advantages of ADO.Net
ADO.NET Does Not Depend On Continuously Live Connections Database Interactions Are Performed Using Data Commands Data Can Be Cached in Datasets Datasets Are Independent of Data Sources Data Is Persisted as XML Schemas Define Data Structures

OLEDB The dot net framework data provider for OLEDB provides connectivity with the OLEDB supported database management systems. It is the recommended middle tier for the SQL Server 6.5 or earlier and Microsoft Access Database. It is a general data provider. You can also use it to connect with the SQL Server or Oracle Database Management Systems. The classes for this provider are present in the System.Data.OleDBClient namespace.

ADO.NET - Data Architecture

Data Access in ADO.NET relies on two components: DataSet and Data Provider. Dataset The dataset is a disconnected, in-memory representation of data. It can be considered as a local copy of the relevant portions of the database. The DataSet is persisted in memory and the data in it can be manipulated and updated independent of the database. When the use of this DataSet is finished, changes can be made back to the central database for updating. The data in DataSet can be loaded from any valid data source like Microsoft SQL server database, an Oracle database or from a Microsoft Access database.

Data Provider The Data Provider is responsible for providing and maintaining the connection to the database. A DataProvider is a set of related components that work together to provide data in an efficient and performance driven manner. The .NET Framework currently comes with two DataProviders: the SQL Data Provider which is designed only to work with Microsoft's SQL Server 7.0 or later and the OleDb DataProvider which allows us to connect to other types of databases like Access and Oracle. Each DataProvider consists of the following component classes: The Connection object which provides a connection to the database The Command object which is used to execute a command The DataReader object which provides a forward-only, read only, connected recordset The DataAdapter object which populates a disconnected DataSet with data and performs update Data access with ADO.NET can be summarized as follows: A connection object establishes the connection for the application with the database. The command object provides direct execution of the command to the database. If the command returns more than a single value, the command object returns a DataReader to provide the data. Alternatively, the

Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117


DataAdapter can be used to fill the Dataset object. The database can be updated using the command object or the DataAdapter.

Component classes that make up the Data Providers The Connection Object The Connection object creates the connection to the database. Microsoft Visual Studio .NET provides two types of Connection classes: the SqlConnection object, which is designed specifically to connect to Microsoft SQL Server 7.0 or later, and the OleDbConnection object, which can provide connections to a wide range of database types like Microsoft Access and Oracle. The Connection object contains all of the information required to open a connection to the database. The Command Object The Command object is represented by two corresponding classes: SqlCommand and OleDbCommand. Command objects are used to execute commands to a database across a data connection. The Command objects can be used to execute stored procedures on the database, SQL commands, or return complete tables directly. Command objects provide three methods that are used to execute commands on the database: ExecuteNonQuery: Executes commands that have no return values such as INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE

Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117


ExecuteScalar: Returns a single value from ExecuteReader: Returns a result set by way of a DataReader object The DataReader Object



The DataReader object provides a forward-only, read-only, connected stream recordset from a database. Unlike other components of the Data Provider, DataReader objects cannot be directly instantiated. Rather, the DataReader is returned as the result of the Command object's ExecuteReader method. The SqlCommand.ExecuteReader method returns a SqlDataReader object, and the OleDbCommand.ExecuteReader method returns an OleDbDataReader object. The DataReader can provide rows of data directly to application logic when you do not need to keep the data cached in memory. Because only one row is in memory at a time, the DataReader provides the lowest overhead in terms of system performance but requires the exclusive use of an open Connection object for the lifetime of the DataReader. The DataAdapter Object The DataAdapter is the class at the core of ADO .NET's disconnected data access. It is essentially the middleman facilitating all communication between the database and a DataSet. The DataAdapter is used either to fill a DataTable or DataSet with data from the database with it's Fill method. After the memory-resident data has been manipulated, the DataAdapter can commit the changes to the database by calling the Update method. The DataAdapter provides four properties that represent database commands: SelectCommand InsertCommand DeleteCommand UpdateCommand When the Update method is called, changes in the DataSet are copied back to the database and the appropriate InsertCommand, DeleteCommand, or UpdateCommand is executed.

Internet Information Services (IIS)

- formerly called Internet Information Server - is a web server application and set of feature extension modules created by Microsoft for use with Microsoft Windows. It is the world's second most popular web server in terms of overall websites behind the industry leader Apache HTTP Server. Internet Information Services is used to make your computer a web server. If we want to have a web server for developing dynamic website or want to publish website on our own server then we install the IIS. IIS is used on windows plate form. IIS takes request from user and executes the required files and sends result back to the user. IIS server also provides the services of SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol). We can send emails using SMTP. FrontPage server extensions are also the part of IIS

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IIS Features IIS 7 is built on a modular architecture. Modules, also called extensions, can be added or removed individually so that only modules required for specific functionality have to be installed. IIS 7 includes native modules as part of the full installation. These modules are individual features that the server uses to process requests and include the following: HTTP modules - Used to perform tasks specific to HTTP in the request-processing pipeline, such as responding to information and inquiries sent in client headers, returning HTTP errors, and redirecting requests. Security modules - Used to perform tasks related to security in the request-processing pipeline, such as specifying authentication schemes, performing URL authorization, and filtering requests. Content modules - Used to perform tasks related to content in the request-processing pipeline, such as processing requests for static files, returning a default page when a client does not specify a resource in a request, and listing the contents of a directory. Compression modules - Used to perform tasks related to compression in the requestprocessing pipeline, such as compressing responses, applying Gzip compression transfer coding to responses, and performing pre-compression of static content. Caching modules - Used to perform tasks related to caching in the request-processing pipeline, such as storing processed information in memory on the server and using cached content in subsequent requests for the same resource. Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 85

Logging and Diagnostics modules - Used to perform tasks related to logging and diagnostics in the request-processing pipeline, such as passing information and processing status to HTTP.sys for logging, reporting events, and tracking requests currently executing in worker
E-mail [Electronic mail] E-mail is one of the most common and reliable methods of communication for both personal and business purposes. It also plays an important role in each and every Web site. This role will be in the type of automated e-mails from the server after posting information from a form. You may have noticed these types of e-mails while registering on a site. The .NET Framework makes the task of sending email from a Web page relatively simple. In order to send an email from an ASP.NET Web page you need to use the SmtpMail class found in the System.Web.Mail namespace, which contains a static method Send. We are using System.Web.Mail.SmtpMail to send email in dotnet 1.1 which is obsolete in 2.0. The System.Net.Mail.SmtpClient Class will provide us the same feature as that of its predecessor. This article explains how to use System.Net.Mail namespace to send emails.

Sending Email
The namespace that needs to be imported to send an email is the System.Web.Mail namespace. We use the SmtpMail and MailMessage classes of this namespace for this purpose. The MailMessage class provides properties and methods for constructing an email message

The following code shows how to add an attachment to an email. Using System.IO; Using System.Web.Mail; MailAttachment ma=new MailAttachment("c:\sample.txt"); MailMessage mm=new MailMessage(); mm.To =""; mm.From=""; mm.Body ="Attachment"; mm.Subject="Check out the attached text file"; mm.Attachments.Add(ma); SmtpMail.SmtpServer=""; Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 86

SmtpMail.Send(mm); Request / Response Objects Because of ASP.NETs improved object model, much of the functionality of the Request and Response objects has been deprecated. There remain other uses for these objects. You can work with cookies, redirect users, check browser capabilities and even send binary information down the output stream. QueryString The QueryString collection is used to retrieve the variable values in the HTTP query string. The HTTP query string is specified by the values following the question mark (?), like this: <a href= "test.asp?txt=this is a query string test">Link with a query string</a> The line above generates a variable named txt with the value "this is a query string test". Query strings are also generated by form submission, or by a user typing a query into the address bar of the browser. Request.QueryString(variable)[(index)|.Count] Form Collection The Form collection is used to retrieve the values of form elements from a form that uses the POST method.

Syntax Request.Form(element)[(index)|.Count] Example: Response.Write(Request.Form("color")(i) & "<br />") ServerVariables Collection The ServerVariables collection is used to retrieve the server variable values. Syntax Request.ServerVariables (server_variable) Example response.write(x & "<br />") Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 87

ASP.NET Security
First, lets establish what we mean by authentication, authorization, and impersonation. (Well introduce them here but talk about each in more detail later in this chapter.) These terms can be confusing, so lets define them in a more concrete way by using the metaphor of securing an office building. Authentication is simply establishing the identity of the user. In the secure office building, every person must have an ID badge. Each person who works in the building might be issued a cardkey or badge to display, and a visitor might be asked to wear a temporary ID. Authorization is a set of rights granted to particular users. Once the ID is established through authentication, security isnt improved beyond the ability to log an individuals actions unless we enforce that only certain users can access certain resources. In the secure office building, we might limit specified groups to accessing only certain parts of the building. For example, only those individuals working on a top-secret project would be authorized to enter the project lab. Impersonation is assuming the identity of someone else. In our example, impersonation would be using the cardkey issued for someone elses authentication. When impersonating, all actions appear to be carried out by the assumed identity. Windows Authentication Provider ASP.NET uses Windows authentication in conjunction with IIS authentication. Authentication is performed by IIS in one of three ways: basic, digest, or Integrated Windows Authentication. When IIS authentication is complete, ASP.NET uses the authenticated identity to authorize access.

Forms Authentication Provider A system by which unauthenticated requests are redirected to an HTML form using HTTP client-side redirection. The user provides credentials and submits the form. If the application authenticates the request, the system issues a form that contains the credentials or a key for reacquiring the identity. Subsequent requests are issued with the form in the request headers; they are authenticated and authorized by an ASP.NET handler using whatever validation method the application developer specifies. Passport Authentication Provider Centralized authentication service provided by Microsoft that offers a single logon and core profile services for member sites. Syntax <configuration> <system.web> <authentication mode = " [ Windows | Forms | Passport | None ] "> </authentication> </system.web> </configuration> Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117 88

SSL Secured
This can be a requirement because SSL increases the CPU load on the web server and can limit scalability. Often you need SSL only for a small subset of an application. On the other hand SSL is not the "CPU killer" as sometime stated. IIS6 also support SSL accelerators that allow to off-load the crypto operations to specialized CPUs. IMO - in many cases it is totally OK to enable SSL protection for the whole application which will save you from some headaches. But if you want a partitioned application, you have to take several things into account In the case of Forms authentication, the requireSSL attribute also checks if the user is logging in from an SSL connection before calling FormsAuthentication.SetAuthCookie (something you have to check yourself if you are issuing tickets manually).

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Created by K.Dharmarajan M.Sc, M.Phil., Lecturer ,Velss College, Chennai-117