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Definition. A function f is a rule that associates a unique output with each input. If the input is denoted by x, then the output is denoted by f(x) [ read f of x] Consider f ( x ) ! 3x 2 4 x 2 , the output of f are obtained by substituting numerical values for x. For example, f (0 ) ! 2 f (1) ! 3(1) 2 4(1) 2 ! 1 f ( 2) ! 3( 2) 2 4( 2) 2 ! 6 If we use t or x+h as input, the output will be, f ( t ) ! 3t 2 4 t 2 f ( x h) ! 3( x h) 2 4( x h) 2 ! _____________ f ( x h) f ( x ) ! _______________ (3 x 2 4 x 2) !

Chapter 1

k= c. f(x2 ) = d. f(1-x) =

1 2

= = 7 8x

1.1.1

Graph of functions

y x=y

y y=x2

y y=x3

y y=1/x

Chapter 1

y

y! x

2

y!3 x

1.1.2

If y=f(x), then the set of all possible inputs (x-values) is called the domain of f, and the set of outputs (y-values) that result when x varies over the domain is called the range of f. X Y f Range

Domain

Codomain

The domain and range of a function can be obtained by sketching the graph or using algebraic approach. If f and g are two fuctions with Df and Dg respectively, then a. b. d. D f g ! D f D g D f g ! D f D g D f ! D f D g { x : g( x ) ! 0}

g

c. D fg ! D f D g

1.1.2.1 Domain and range of polynomial function Example 2 Find the domain and range of the following functions a. b. c. f ( x ) ! 2x 5 f ( x) ! x 2 2 f ( x ) ! x 2 2x 1

x -5/2

It is clear that D f ! ( g, g) R f ! ( g, g)

Algebraic approach y = 2x+5. y is defined for all values of x, thus D f ! ( g, g) y ! 2x 5 2x ! y 5 y 5 x! 2 x is defined for all values of y. Thus

R f ! ( g, g)

y x 0 1

1.1.2.2 Domain and range of radical function Example 3 Find the domain and range of the following functions a. b. c. d. f ( x) ! x 2 f ( x) ! 2 x f ( x) ! 2 x 1 f ( x) ! 9 x 2

Solution a. f ( x) ! x 2

Graphical method

y

D f ! (2, g ) R f ! (0, g )

x

0 2

Algebraic approach y ! x2 y is only defined if x-2 > 0, that is x > 2. Thus D f ! (2, g) y ! x2 y2 ! x 2 x ! y2 2 x is defined for all values of y. Since y ! x 2 u 0, b. thus R f ! [0, g)

Chapter 1 c.

d.

y=ax y=x

y=logax x

The domain of f(x) = ax is ( g, g) The range of f(x) = ax is (0, g) The domain of f(x) = log a x is (0, g) The range of f(x) = log a x is ( g, g)

x -1 D f ! ( g, g) R f ! (0, g) 3 f( x) ! x 1

b.

Graphical Method

x 0

D f ! ( g,1) (1 g ) ,

1

R f ! ( g,0) (0, g)

y( x 1) ! 3 yx y ! 3 yx ! 3 y x! 3y y

Definition Given functions f and g, the composition of f with g, denoted by f Q , is the function g defined by ( f Q )(x) = f(g(x)) g The domain of fog is defined to consist of all x in the domain of g for which g(x) is in the domain of f. Example 5 Let f ( x ) ! x 2 3 and g( x ) ! x , Find a. b. fQ g gQ f

3/2

if

f ( x ) ! x , g( x ) ! 1/ x, h( x ) ! x 3

The absolute value function f(x) = |x| is an example of a function that is defined piecewise in the sense that the formula of f changes depending on the value of x. Example 7 Sketch the graph x if x u 0 x ! x if x 0 Solution

y=|x|

0 f(x) ! 1 x 2 x x e 1 1 x x u1 1

Solution y

Chapter 1

f(0) = 1

f(1) = 0

y

f(2) = 4

y = x2 y =1-x 1

x

1

Exercise 1.1 1. If f(x) = 3- 5x, find a) b) c) d) 2. a) b) c) d) e) f) f(-2) f(x3) f(2x + 1) the value of p so as f(p) = 1

2

g) h) i) j) k) l)

f(x) ! x 4x 3

2

10

Chapter 1

1.2

If the values of f(x) can be made as close as we like to L by taking values of x sufficiently close to a (but not equal to a), then we write lim f ( x ) ! L which is read the limit of f(x) as x

x pa

a) x 11 sin x lim xp0 x

x p0

lim

b)

Solution a) x f(x) -0.01 1.994987 -0.001 1.999500 -0.0001 1.999950 -0.00001 1.999995 0 0.00001 2.000005 0.0001 2.00005 0.001 2.000500

2 o

11

Chapter 1

x x 1 1

lim

x p0

!2

b) x(radians) 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.01

sin x x 0.84147 0.87036 0.89670 0.92031 0.94107 0.95885 0.97355 0.98507 0.99335 0.99833 0.99998

lim sin x !1 x

x p0

1.2.2

Computing Limits

Properties a. b. lim c ! c

x pa x pa x pa xp2

lim x n ! a n

12

Chapter 1

x p3 2 x p3

c.

x pa

x pa x pa

x p3

x p1 x p1 2 x p1

d.

x pa

x pa x pa

2 x p2

!4 lim 2 x

e.

f ( x ) x pa ! , x pa g( x ) lim g( x ) lim

x pa

lim f ( x )

x pa

lim g( x ) { 0

f.

lim[cf ( x )] ! c lim f ( x )

x pa x pa

x p3

4 7 lim 2( x 4 ) ! 2 lim( x 4) !

x p3

! 2(7) ! 14

lim 4 2x 3 7 x 51 ! 4 lim (2 x 3 7 x 51)

x p2

g.

x pa

x pa x pa

x p2

lim f ( x ) u 0

! 81

4

!3

f(x ) 0 ! , then the function f(x) and g(x)need to be simplified by factorization or by x pa g( x ) 0 multiplying with their conjugates. If lim Example 11 Determine lim Solution Simplify and factorize, we obtain lim x2 x 2 ( x 2)( x 1) ! lim x p1 3 x 3 x p1 3( x 1) ( x 2) ! lim x p1 3 1 2 ! 3 !1 x2 x 2 x p1 3 x 3

13

Chapter 1

x p9

Solution Simplify by multiplying the numerator and denominator by the conjugate of lim x 3 ! x 9 ! ! ! 1 6

x 3

x p9

1.2.3

The two sided limits of a function f(x) exists at a if and only if both of the one-sided limits exist at a and have the same value; that is, lim f ( x ) ! L if and only if lim f ( x ) ! L ! lim f ( x )

x pa

x pa x pa

Example 13

lim( 2x 3) ! 5 exist because lim ( 2x 3) ! lim ( 2x 3) ! 5

x p1

x p1 x p1

1.2.4 1.

Infinite limits If the function f increases without limit when x approaches a, then lim f ( x ) ! g x pa y

x

0 a

14

Chapter 1 2.

x pa

x 0 a

3.

x pa x pa x pa x pa x pa

lim f ( x ) ! g

4.

If a>0, 1 ! g xa 1 b. lim ! g x pa x a If the function f approaches L when x increases without limit, then lim f ( x ) ! L a.

x pa

lim

5. 6. 7.

x p g

x p g

For n>0

a.

x p g x n

lim

1 !0

b.

x p g x n

lim

1 !0

8.

f (x) g If lim ! g , then we need to simplify the function by dividing the numerator x pg g( x ) and the denominator by the highest power of x

Example 13

x 3 x3 lim ! lim x x xpg x 4 x pg x 4 x x 3 1 x ! lim x pg 4 1 x !1

a.

15

Chapter 1

x2 3 2 2 x 3 x lim ! lim x x pg x 4 x pg x 4 2 2 x x 3 1 2 x ! lim xpg 1 4 2 x x 1 ! 0 !g

2

b.

!1

9. 10.

x pa x pa

x p g x p g

Example 14 f( x) ! 3 x 1

x p1

2 ! g x 1 2 lim f ( x ) ! ! g x p1 x 1 lim f ( x ) !

x 0 1

16

Given f ( x ) ! 8 x 3 x 2 10 and g( x ) ! x 3 2 x 4 , determine f(x) lim lim g( x ) x pg g( x ) x p2 (MAT 183, March 2004) Ans: 16 a. Let h( x ) ! x 3 9x , find x 3 3x 2

3x 2 x7

2

2.

x p3

lim h( x ) lim h( x )

x p g

x pg

lim

b.

3.

a. b. x2 4 x p 2 x 2 4 x 12 5x 7 4 x 5 lim x pg 2 x 4 3 x 7 lim

Find the equations of the horizontal and vertical asymptotes of the curve 2x 2 3 x y! x2 1 (MAT 149, March 2002) Ans: x ! s1 y ! 2 , 2 , x e 0 x Given g( x ) ! 2x , 0 x x, x " 3 8 a. b.

5.

Give the domain of g(x) in the interval form. Find the following limits; i) lim g( x )

xp0

ii) iii) iv )

lim g( x )

xp2

lim g( x )

xp3 x pg

17

Chapter 1

Ans: a. ( g,3 ) (3, g ) b. 0,4, does not exist, g 1.3 CONTINUITY Definition A function f is said to be continuous at x = c if the following conditions are satisfied: 1. f(c) is defined 2. lim f ( x ) exists.

xpc x pc

3.

lim f ( x ) ! f (c )

Example 15 Determine whether the following functions are continuous at x = 2. x2 4 f(x ) ! x2 Solution The function f is undefined at x = 2 so f(x) is not continuous The function g is defined at x = 2 , that is g(2) = 3

xp2

2 4 x g( x ) ! x 2 , x { 2 3 x!2

2 4 x h( x ) ! x 2 , x { 2 4 x!2

lim

g( x ) ! lim

xp2

!4

lim

xp2

xp2

lim

h( x ) ! lim

xp2

!4

x p2

lim

18

Chapter 1

Intermediate-Value theorem

If f is continuous on a closed interval [a,b] and k is any number between f(a) and f(b), inclusive, then there is at least one number x in the interval [a,b] such that f(x)=k. The following consequences of Intermediate-Value theorem can be use in approximating roots

Theorem

If f is continuous on [a,b], and if f(a) and f(b) are nonzero and have opposite signs, then there is at least one solution of the equation f(x)=0 in the interval (a,b).

Find the value of k if g(x) is continuous at x=3, hence, determine whether the function is continuous at x=4 (MAT 183, Marc 2004) Ans: k = 2, g(x) is not continuous at x = 3 x x 0 1 2 Let f ( x ) ! x 2 0ex 2 2x c xu2 Determine whether f(x) is continuous at x=0 Find the value of c such that f(x) is continuous at x=2 (MAT 183, Oct 2004) Ans: not continous, c = 8 x e 2 x x 1 2 e x 1 Consider the function f ( x ) ! x 3 1e x e 6 3 x"6 Test the continuity at x = -2 and x = 6 (MAT 149, Sept 2001) Ans: not continuous at x = -2 , continuous at x = 6

2.

i) ii)

3.

19

Chapter 1 4.

Find the value of m so that the function g is continuous 2 x6 x g( x ) ! x 3 m Ans: -5 x { -3 x ! -3 (MAT 121, Oct 2000)

1.4 LIMITS and CONTINUITY for TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS Theorem If c is any number in the natural domain of the stated trigonometric function, then

lim sin x ! sin c

x pc x pc

x pc

x pc x pc

x pc

Theorem (The squeezing theorem). Let f, g and h be functions satisfying g( x ) e f ( x ) e h( x ) for all x in some open interval containing the number c, with the possible exception that the inequalities need not hold at c. If g and h have the same limit as x approaches c, say lim g( x ) ! lim h( x ) ! L then f also has this limit as x approaches c, that is,

x pc x pc

x pc

lim f ( x ) ! L

Note: In the method of squeezing, the function f has a limit L at a number c by trapping the function between two other functions g and h

20

x p0

x p0

x p0

x p0

x p0

Solution a) tan x sin x 1 ! lim( . ) x p0 x p0 x x cos x ! (1)(1) lim !1 sin 2 x sin 2 x ! 2 lim( lim ) x p0 x p0 x 2x ! ( 2)(1) !2 c) sin 3 x sin 3 x 3x ) lim ! lim( x p0 sin 5 x x p0 sin 5 x 5 5x 3(1) ! 5(1) 5 ! 1 3

b)

Example 17 x 2 1 Find the limit lim cos x 1 x p1 Solution Since cosine function is continuous everywhere x 2 1 ( x 1)( x 1) lim cos x 1 ! lim cos x p1 x 1 x p1 : ! cos lim x 1

x p1

! cos 2

21

Chapter 1 Exercise 1.4 Find the limits of the following functions 1. 3. 5. 7. 9. 11. 1 lim cos( ) x Tx lim sin x p g 2 3x sin3U lim x p0 U sinx lim x p0 x

x p0

x p g

2.

lim

sinx

2 lim sin( ) x sinh 4. lim h p0 2h sin U 6. lim 2 x p0 U sin 2 x 8. lim x p0 3 x 2 sin 6 x 10. lim x p0 sin 8 x h 12. lim h p0 tanh

x p g

Answer: 1. 1 3. 5. 7. 9. 11. 3 1 0 7 3 3 2 2. 4. 0

1 2 6. g 1 8. 3 3 10. 4 12. 1

22

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