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Constantine and Doruntina, Albanian legend of Europeans By: Dr.

Enriko Ceko Albanian legends are part of the ancient strata of pan-European culture and perhaps the most important part of it. Legends of our ancestors have at least one characteristic in common with stories, fairy tales, old logs and events of other peoples and nations, but also a very special thing that is different from them. What is common is the phenomenon of resurrection, which is mainly found in the scriptures, and what distinguishes us and sets us apart Albanians with others is the concept of faith as our institution. These two features, phenomena and / or concepts commonly found in the ballads of our ancestors, which prevails among the Constantine and Doruntina ballad, or, stated differently Besa (faith) of Constantine, which is typically a myth created by our ancestors and the legacy of them, in which besa (faith) and resurrection treated as a phenomenon or characteristic of people who have direct connection with nature and spirit. Briefly, Constantine had given their word that his mother would bring her daughter (his sister) when the mother would like next, so she (the sister of Constantine) was able to marry a foreign prince, whom she loved. This was the condition that the mother and eleven other brothers Constantine accepted the marriage. In this history as ancient, and modern brand, emerges the true spirit of our ancestors, that it had strong family institution, as it had great desire for space and connection with others, taking on the basis of respect to a significant extent the feelings of family members, in the case of the girl. It is well known and scientifically accepted that our ancestors lived in the family long before the wild tribes of the Northman and the South Slavs in the Balkans came to conquests and settlements. This is corroborated in terms of state-forming ability of the Illyrians, who established the first city states in Europe when the ancestors of today's European nations were savages cave. The fact that our ancestors were city states is a strong support for the existence of a family phenomenon, because the state is stable in a certain area where members of society have the chance to create family life, in contrast to the nomadic tribes, who move to find valuable natural resources when these resources were fulfilled in a given territory and, in these treks, Disposing of the members of nomadic tribes as a phenomenon occurs in a very high level, which prevents a large extent in creating the family. Following the ballads, of all the brothers were killed in battle along with Constantine. Their mother, the elder, who was her only living daughter, goes to the graves of boys, sparked by a candle on each, while the tomb of two such Constantine sparks and shed tears, and, this, not without reason. The cause is the faith of Constantine, faith that our fathers were holy, divine, the spiritual and remain so for us, and obviously is very ancient ballad, almost at the time of the early inhabitants of the Balkan basin see the body and soul as a unit and saw two such elements as the basis of creation and existence of the individual in the family and society. This is the reason that Constantine rises from the grave, his soul once he heard the wailing of the mother felt the tear, because "the soul was not separated from the body." Because of the given word, Constantine goes to the sister (Doruntina), which did not know that the brothers had fallen in the war and says that it must return home soon and take it with you on horseback. Doruntina, when touch the hand of his brother, Constantine realizes that he was tired, muddy and cold. Nearby, but with signs of death on it. He was as far as they close. The remote because it was close because the world and should keep their word. When they arrive home, Constantine let Doruntina at the door and disappear. This is precisely the moment when Constantine did his duty. In existentialist terms, he conquered death. It can besa (faith) that fight the death. This is what Constantine made. He rose from the grave only through faith institution. It comes to death because the “the first was the word” (the word given to the mother of Doruntina) , as the religious books tell. In fact, at the whole world written history only three people have been raised from the grave. These are: Jesus Christ, Lazar and Constantine. All three of these names are explained only by the ancient Albanian, the language of our ancestors, Pelasgians. Jesus Christ in Albanian means "You're our voice, he has comb hairs" and in fact, several times in the Bible stated that he spoke on behalf of all people who believe in God and that the comb his hair and maintained them with olive oil. Dying hair with this oil is well known as a phenomenon and as a practice used by our ancestors, as is the fact that the Albanian areas of middle and south of the olive oil used in ancient times and

this is corroborated in descriptions of those who have visited areas of our ancestors in ancient times and up. Lazar, the old Albanian means "left sound", "the voice went" and the story really comes down to our day with the fact that he missed his voice and could not speak in the moments before was death. Further, in the world after spending four days, came back to life and the first words said in the moments of return were: "give me two or three sips some water to moisten the mouth free to tell what I have seen at the other world ", and further on his return he became another man, better, more compassionate, more loving to others, with those before he dying, mocked and violated. Constantine, as per the old Albanian language means "kush t’a ndijë”, (who will listen wont believe) which comes from the words of the old Albanian language "co - un - s't'a - ndi - in", and this is explained by the fact that when people raising the event showed the tomb of this character, they tell him that "not to tell the story of man who you would not believe the story". Often using "who will listen won’t believe” this phrase has been gradually taking the form of a name, the name of Constantine, therefore, the name of the person "who to listen" that was raised from the grave would not believe the indicator of event. From the known historical "Constantine" is a name inherited from our ancestors, the name that kept many prominent people who have made the history of their time and widely known to be born in the territories or regions which are inhabited by our ancestors. Here it suffices to mention the emperor Constantine. A useful variant of this name is "Constantine" with a letter "n" in the middle of the name, the element that actually reinforces even more the view of the origin of this name by grouping the words "co - un - s' t’a - ndi - in ". In connection with Doruntina name, this name is formed directly from the basic words of the old Albanian "hand", "I", "you", "on", which are substantially related to the fatal moment when Constantine the extended hand to his sister to take her above the horse, the moment when Doruntina ask themselves "Why did Constantine's hand is cold?" This is a poignant moment, the maximum charter of legend. The walking dead, with the living sister. It's just given word that makes that happen. This is the culmination of the soul and body leaving together in time and space. In development terms, is precisely this legend, along with events and other reasons, became the conceptual foundation of the European Renaissance deep - deep in the whole subconscious creators of that period, who were already over by the Europeans of that time period before and in the Middle Ages and beyond. Deep depth, as explained by the science of psychoanalysis, in the minds of these masterminds of the European Renaissance, it was Constantine who rose from the grave with the sword and horse to win over death, was it that served as a symbol of victory over the old. He was the first rider's vision that the Crusaders were in their mind and spirit. It is this event in subconscious of the Albanian Renaissance, along with the symbolism of George Castriota Scanderbeg and other symbolic heroes of our people, filed a dozen years and prepared for the independence of Albania and that today goes under the current conditions Europe can and should constitute as an inspiration for a revival even greater and more powerful of the old continent, which expects a new flare to an era where the descendants of the ancestral continent, the Albanians, descendants of the Pelasgians and Illyrians, to sit as equal among equals in a modern and developing area because we offer the symbolism of the early and current and current developments and future of the European continent. Even today, the legend of Constantine and Doruntine sung during weddings by Kosovars, Cham Albanians south of the north, Albanians living in Turkey, arberesh of Italy, Egypt Albanians, descendants of Albanians in different Balkan countries, etc. This phenomenon confirms the geographical perspective of the view that the legend of Constantine and Doruntina is quite early, certainly so early, that when our ancestors possessed large spaces and the wider Balkans. Perfectly natural question that can be done by each of us is: How can a young Albanian girl to marry with a foreign prince, the scope of our ancestors was vast and the chances of foreign income in these areas by remote chances were scarce and made to achieve this marriage were almost zero? This is quite simple if the unreal aspect, either in real terms. In the unreal, the legend joins the point where the real mystic, accessible with high achievers, with closed remote, so the legend point where everything is possible, while in real terms, taking into account the view of the shaped sustained by native and foreign scholars on this issue regarding the whereabouts of the family of Constantine and Doruntina, localization seems to be the area where today is situated in Berat town, or somewhere nearby in middle of Albania. It is precisely

Tomorri Mountain, where it is scientifically proven that kings and princes of prominent families of the Mediterranean region and beyond, even from very remote areas came to see the fate of the oracle who sat there, on Mount Tomori. One of them pleased with Doruntina and led it in its territories "captured nine mountains". According to some sources more accurate and scientifically verified, applicant Robert Elsie has translated this saga from Albanian into English by a version of the legend - the villagers song Margelliç and according to him "are all likely that this myth is obviously original pre – Christ era with a pre Albanian strata, as the motive of raising from the grave ", considering the fact that the burden here is without any doubt the Albanian element of pre Christ period. Village Margelliç or Igoumenitsa today, is a village inhabited by the Albanian population, which was occupied by Greek forces were attached to Greek territory with the Treaty of London in February 1913. It's exactly the version of Constantine and Doruntina legend, collected by Albanians from this village, which has more information and details of the approximate location of these characters with the surrounding areas Mount Tomori near by Berat town. The next question might be: Why do residents of Berat not have very strong song tradition today this legend? The answer is given by Albanian famous poet, Lasgush Poradeci. Summing up what he has written, having-read archive different on this issue, we can say that "the middle parts of Albania were taken captive more than 150,000 people who were brought as slaves by romans and the nurse of the legend fled with them, together with songs, dances, dress and culture of that area. " So it comes to Century II - I BC when the Romans managed to conquer Illyria. The area was taken after by a different population, who came from other areas of the country, which had no tradition of this legend, and part of the local population to escape conquest and slavery, was to go on south, especially in areas where today is located Igoumenitsa and surrounding area exactly where the legend of Constantine and Doruntina song toad full and with more detail compared to what can be traced to the legend in other areas inhabited by Albanians . The fact that part of the inhabitants of Berat that time was forced to flee to the south (Margelliç - Igoumenitsa) and southeast (Korca today) mentioned in the archives of ancient Rome too. Margelliç is also the name of an old village between Fier town and Berat town in middle Albania, and apparently those who fled the area where they put that name went (Margëlliçi today at the border with Greece) and on the other hand, the legend of Constantine and Doruntine today is present with very similar features with the old version of Igumenica and in the area of ancient villages throughout the area of Korce and Devoll, where it is proved that at the time was coming from the rural population of Berat early to be saved from the Roman occupation. In terms of religious symbolic setting a very important fact is the moment when the event occurs. The Great Easter is the day of pray in old writings and God day when Christ raised from the dead. And is the day when mother of Doruntina went to cry at the Constantine tomb. Also, it coincides with the spring season, where everything reborn, so the soul. In terms of chronology of the order of making the works, not only under the old times, but today, the Friday is the day when people prepare for the week end Saturday, the day of rest. Saturday at Old Albanian language is the "Sabbath", just as the Jews still say to this day. This word is explained and only with the old language of northern Albanian, which is "what are you doing?" - “ç’far’ ban ti?” It is known not only by scholars, but also by simple readers of scripture that no one works on Saturday and if anyone see the work this day, others say: "what are you doing (?)", "Why is working yet (?)" and hence came the word "Sabbath" that we say today is Saturday, coming from Albanian too "what I can do, as it is day off, I do not what to do. " If we go in deep in a very interesting issue given the legend: "nine mountain pass" to go to foreign lands (to take the sister), it appears that the event has occurred long before our ancestors were forced to shrink their territories due to attacks of barbarian tribes, and even at that time our ancestors were free people (Illyrians), who had the right to decide their fates and their descendants (marriage to foreigners), and, that, had a population which does not pay taxes to anyone (as if this phenomenon existed, then it would be mentioned in the legend, once constituted an important economic phenomenon). So we are dealing with a period before the Illyrian – Roman Wars, which is consistent with the view that the Roman conquest and enslavement of the inhabitants of the area of Berat has happened after the event in question. Is a very well know fact that the name of Constantine is in use in many parts of Albania in the middle and down south. If we continue narrate

further about the time, then the early nucleus of the legend seems obvious that it is entirely mythical, perhaps at the time of matriarch, because in fact the main characters of the legend are not Constantine and his brothers, not even their father, who is never mentioned in the legend. The really characters of the legend are mother and Doruntina. This element is very important to assess in an objective manner ancientness of this legend because it is an element that indicates the time when our ancestors crossed the stage of primitive community social organization in a form that leads to nationality. So, specifically for this legend I think it was a period somewhere between the ninth century - IV BC and not, as some scholars think that it was centuries V - VI of our era. The oldness of the legend prevails at the beginning of the story. Its first sentence in the southern version is: "Once upon a time", while in the northern variant is "So I was told it happened long time ago”. If the legend would be after our era, then the text would have to approach phenomena and facts and data that would be very easy to define, because it should have had comparisons with names, places, situations and events that occurred afterwards. If we analyze the core story, four are the main phenomena that leave a mark. They are: Resurrection (1), faith given (2) strength to pass nine mountains (3) and weak point - sister (4) of our character, Constantine. All four of these phenomena are typical Pelasgian-Illyrian. The resurrection of the soul, faith, mental and physical strength and weak points of the hero are perceptions rather large and quite powerful culture. This perception leads us to "keep the promise", "word of honor" perception of divine power and human power is not in any pan-European culture. And this perception is very important part of the individual situation of the Albanian family and makes us descendants of Pelasgians and Illyrians unique in the universe. This is what unites us in our ancestors and God, Spirit and Nature. None of the world population has identified these four phenomena in such form and in that unity of thought and action formulation as our fathers, not to go further, arguing that others are trying to get these features, to understand and to sell as their own, especially now in times of globalization and integration. For this reason there is an attempt from Slavs and Greeks to make theirs the legend of Constantine and Doruntina and attach it to their culture, but they have no chance to achieve this because they (1) does not have trust because they (2) do not have the element of faith in their culture, because they (3) does not recognize the institution of faith, so ballad of Constantine and Doruntina definitely remains ours. It is Albanian. Features of this legend are in fact those required in modern times, the ability of renewing the mind, soul and nation, the word given and held in all aspects of cooperation, where he remains the primary economic, strength to overcome difficulties and point poor, protection of the family to death because the family is the foundation of the future of modern European society, without which all the inhabitants of the modern world we are conscious that they will not be able to take any step towards the future. It is precisely the institution of the family that Albanians could and should offer in the way of European integration in the region and beyond, knowing full well that the old continent has numerous problems with the institution of the family in time of reduce of moral values. It is this element, the family, which requires the mother to seek Doruntina, because she lost all the boys to war. Here at this moment with great pomp legend appears unique spirit of our ancestors, who were not at all compared with barbarian tribes who knew the only legacy of generations of blood flow (father), our ancestors respected woman, as a mother, sister and daughter, and, in this regard they also recognize the generational flow of breast milk (mother). This is a specific which comes from ancient times and that only two nations, two nations with the earliest ancestors in the world, Albanians and Jews, have been since ancient times. This is the weak point of the real hero. In no ancient culture women are respected as a mother, sister and daughter, just as our ancestors does. Early African, Latin American, Asian, Northman, etc. cultures have always seen women as victims, prey, poor competitiveness, and have achieved so far as to have used it as a spare, working animals and sacrifice, and these phenomena substantially and dramatically desperately looks to be as an Shakespearian character, which is not mentioned in any case as a phenomenon in the legends of our ancestors even though they are many times more powerful than artistic and psychological of all together dramas of Shakespeare. Lack of shakespearism is what distinguishes the legends of our ancestors, and makes these legends so mature, or perhaps even better figured as full and maybe even more complete by comparing spiritual with the most prominent dramatic global culture, and

that the fact that in our legends not just characters, but because in them is our own soul, our life, the reality of our distant ancestors, who in fact are so nearby us. We ourselves, who are not yet well understand that the descendants of whom we are and what we have donated and are able to donate to our future as Albanians and what values and virtues can offer to European continent. If we analyze the mother of Constantine's complaint, as some scholars have defined this legend "it is typical, although somewhat resembling Mother Mary mourning that made when Christ was tortured", but it should be noted that Constantine is not the same as Jesus Christ. Christ is worldwide. Christ became divine. It is faith in the truth, the life, of God. He is alive because in fact it is life itself, while Constantine is a man who does everything to fulfill their promises, he is human strength, the unity of the human spirit but lacked the Father (who Christ has), is the hope for human survival (that Christ have had not as a target). Constantine was and remained one. The mortal, but still strong enough to make us brave, to make us to keep our word given and promise to make us mortal, not afraid of it. He prepares us to move in the right direction until late in life and, if there is life after death, to look him in the eye. Even though Christ is divine and Constantine human, both raised to meet the prophecy, and to keep the promise and that because Constantine (who to listen) as Jesus Christ (You are our voice, he has comb hairs), spoke Albanian too.